Toward Congestion-Free Metropolis~ Effective countermeasures and their implementation ~ Kiichiro HATOYAMA Senior Assistant Professor Department of Civil Engineering the University of Tokyo
Who am I?Kiichiro HATOYAMA, Ph.D- Professional Experience 2008-2011 Visiting Lecturer, Graduate School of Business Administration, Moscow State University 2011- Senior Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, the University of Tokyo- Research Field: - Transport Planning - Urban Planning - Environmental Psychology- Research Achievement in Russia Proposal to improve traffic congestion problems in Moscow City
Essence of Transport Planning Each city has its individual characteristics. There is no universal measure that can immediately applicable to any cities’ problem. ◦ climates, history, culture, law system, etc. We should arrange it considering each city’s context. Experience, knowledge, insight and foresight are essential to solve problems. Transport planning is similar to doctor’s work.
Comparison - Moscow and TokyoCity Moscow TokyoArea 1,081 km2 2,190 km2 Central area 622km2Population 10,562,000 13,049,000 Central area 8,503,000Car ownership 3,008,000 4,519,000Road area ratio 8.3% 8.3% Density of vehicle in Moscow is 1.5 times larger than that in Tokyo.
Moscow City and Moscow Oblast
Road Network Concept of TokyoMetropolitan Area- “3 Rinds and 9 Radials” In 2005 In the Future Source: Ministry of Land, Transportation, Infrastructure and Tourism (MLIT)
Metro in Tokyo and MoscowIndex Tokyo MoscowNumber of lines 13 12Number of stations(a) 285 182Operating distance (km) (b) 304.1 301.2Average number of passenger 8,650 6,650(1,000 person a day)Car ownership 3751 4512Average distances between 1.12 1.77stations* * Calculated from (a) and (b)
What are the Problems in Moscow?A) Problems in the Transport System 1. Inadequate infrastructure 2. Too-complicated signal phasing
What are the Problems in Moscow?A) Problems in the Transport System 1. Inadequate infrastructure 2. Too-complicated signal phasing 3. Heavy use of weaving sections
What are the Problems in Moscow?A) Problems in the Transport System 1. Inadequate infrastructure 2. Too-complicated signal phasing 3. Heavy use of weaving sections 4. Difficulty in left turning
What are the Problems in Moscow?A) Problems in the Transport System 1. Inadequate infrastructure 2. Too-complicated signal phasing 3. Heavy use of weaving sections 4. Difficulty in left turning 5. Rapidly narrowing road width 100m 8 lanes 4 lanes 3 lanes
More Problems?B) Problems on the Drivers’ Behavior 1. Surging into intersections 2. Cutting into line 3. Running into narrow streets 4. Parking on roads C) Problems in Social System 1. Time-consuming registration process of traffic accidents 2. Unexpected roadblocks 3. Disabled vehicles on roads
Short-Term Possible Measures 1A) Traffic Regulation Improvement 1. To review signal phase design and split allocation 2. To change the policy of left turning 3. To reduce the road width graduallyB) Infrastructure Improvement 1. To make parking places 2. To equip left turn pocket 3. To improve weaving sections 4. To keep additional routes for emergencies
Short-Term Possible Measures 2C) Control and User Education 1. To prohibit parking within 30m from intersections 2. To clarify places where parking is prohibited
Short-Term Possible Measures 2C) Control and User Education 1. To prohibit parking within 30m from intersections 2. To clarify places where parking is prohibited 3. To establish a “Traffic Jam Reduction Team” 4. To provide information to drivers 5. To speed up the registration process of traffic accidents 6. To practice a campaign of “Smart Drive”
Mottoes for Long-Term Measures1. To share the future “vision” of this city among the Administration and citizens Private vehicle vs. public transport? Convenience vs. environmental friendliness?2. To think realistically and practically Planning must have responsibility to the future. It is NOT practically desirable to impose strict regulation without any infrastructure construction.3. To understand the merits and demerits of each measure No “perfect” measure Performance management based on PDCA cycle
PDCA-cycle Management Plan a change or a test, aimed at Continuous Improvement improvement Do Carry out the change or test (preferably on a small scale) Check the results. What was learned? What went wrong? Act Adopt the change, abandon it, Or run through the cycle again 21
Key points for Long-Term Measures 11. To conduct a comprehensive survey and analysis To understand present situation and to forecast future demand How do citizens move around in the city? Place, time and reason of traffic jam? How about traffic accidents? Person-trip survey* in Japan once in 10 years We should cooperate with the survey. * Person-trip survey: A survey, asking detailed movement of each person in one particular day to understand “when and what kind of transportation is used by whom for what purpose”
Key points for Long-Term Measures 22. To clarify the position of public transport Many people already use metro, like Tokyo. Public transport (incl. trolley bus) should keep a certain level of load factor. Why do less people use buses and trams? Is proposed interval of 5 min. sufficient? There are several ways of utilizing public transport: Bas rapid transit, transit mall, etc. Application of “Bus location system”
Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) in Curitiba (Brazil)
Transit Mall in Strasbourg (France)
Real-time Information Provisionabout Bus Locations Major reason of not-using public transport is “we cannot know when it comes” if we can know it, the bus system may become convenient and number of users may be increase. “Bus Location System” (Panasonic, NEC etc.) ◦ To equip GPS on each bus ◦ Location and waiting time for next buses are shown at each bus stops, on mobile phones, or through the internet.
Key points for Long-Term Measures 33. To reallocate “origin” and “destination” pattern Ring-and-radial road structure is not bad in itself. Grid road structure is basically car-oriented. It is convenient to make terminals for public transport. Decentralizing the location of “origin (home)” and “destination (work place)” may help us solve our transport problem. It might be useful to relocate capital function to suburb.
Key points for Long-Term Measures 44. To realize Intelligent Transport System (ITS) To manage each company’s self-motivated product development will enable future system integration. Utilizing GLONASS There has been “Real-time signal controlling system” and other recent technologies in Japan.
Real-time Signal Controlling System There are technologies to control signals in accordance with real traffic demand. ◦ Controlling by using vehicle detectors or pedestrian detectors ◦ Controlling by using “Public transport priority system (PTPS)” Type of vehicle detectors installed in Japan
Usual Detailed- High-density trafficinformation bycollecting speed datafrom manyvehicle(Nissan, etc.) Be careful! Traffic jam- Real-time ahead. information of safe driving assistance- Crime prevention- Electronic Toll Collection System (ETC)
Key points for Long-Term Measures 55. To modify drivers’ behavior Drivers’ behavior may interfere the 100% per- formance of new infrastructures and systems. Some behavior actually reduces road capacity. How to make car users select public transport? It is necessary to make them understand the effect of the behavior. “Mobility Management” “Smart Drive (Умное Вождение)”
Mobility Management Communication-based transport policy to promote people’s voluntary change of their mobility to the publicly and individually desirable way. Utilizing psychological methods to promote people’s voluntary behavior change ◦ Questionnaire, evaluation, advising, feed-back