Guide to weightloss


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This simple guide gives a detailed explanation into principles behind how you should lose weight.

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Guide to weightloss

  1. 1. Take - shapeThe Weight LossGuide
  2. 2. An IntroductionWhy Exercise?Principles of TrainingTraining TipsYou are what you eatNutrition GuidelinesFoods to buyFoods to avoidWhat to eat? “The key to success is a little hard work andCarbohydrates determination”. Jack (Trainer)ProteinFatVitaminsYour qs answered Copyright All Rights Reserved. Copyright © Jack Braniff Personal Trainer 2012 All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means now known or hereafter invented, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of Jack Braniff.
  3. 3. An IntroductionWhy Exercise?Principles of Training An IntroductionTraining Tips This guide has been to designed to help you get in shape and stay in shape.You are what you eat By giving you advice on the two most important factors when controlling weight; exercise and nutrition, we hope we can help you achieve all your health andNutrition Guidelines fitness goals as effectively as possible.Foods to buyFoods to avoid Before you StartWhat to eat? Doing regular exercise is fun and healthy, and is very safe for most people. However, you should check with your doctor if you have any health problems,Carbohydrates if you are taking medication, if you are recovering from an illness or injury orProtein you haven’t done any exercise for over a year. This guide gives advice which is believed to be accurate.Fat If you experience any of these symp-Vitamins toms whilst exercising, stop immedi-Your qs answered ately. Consult a doctor before exercising again. Vice-like central chest pain. Sudden faintness or dizziness. Ashen skin, or blue lips. Extreme gasping for air. Sudden severe headache. Loss or power of movement in the limbs.
  4. 4. An IntroductionWhy Exercise?Principles of Training Why Exercise?Training Tips Participating in physical activity has numerous benefits. It is essential when trying to lose weight, achieve a stronger and fitter body or even just to stayYou are what you eat healthy. The common misconception is that ‘hitting the weights’ and exercising is just about building muscle and trying to achieve a good body. But the ben-Nutrition Guidelines efits far reward this view.Foods to buy Optimum body weight - By Live longer - Exercising reduces theFoods to avoid performing regular physical exercise risk of developing a range of condi-What to eat? you can reduce your body fat and tions. Exercise reduces cholesterol increase muscle which leads to an and the risk of developing high bloodCarbohydrates increase in your BMR (Basal Meta- pressure. Both high cholesterol and bolic Rate; the amount of calories high blood pressure lead to heartProtein burnt doing nothing). This means the conditions and the risk of a heartFat more lean tissue you have the more attack. calories you burn. This all leads to aVitamins reduction in body fat and a better Maintain healthy muscle, bones body. and joints - Exercising reduces theYour qs answered risk of injury and benefits the body in Feel great - Exercising promotes a many ways including the following: reduction in stress and helps make you happy. Chemicals called endor- ‡ $Q LQFUHDVHV LQ ERQH GHQVLW KHOSV phins are released into the body after prevent osteoporosis. exercising which help your mood. ‡ 6WUHQJWKHQLQJ RI WKH FRQQHFWLYH Studies have also shown exercising tissue around joints improves joint increases self confidence and stability and flexibility. improve sleep. ‡ 0XVFOHV EHFRPH VWURQJHU ZKLFK help posture and helps to combat everyday stresses.
  5. 5. An IntroductionWhy Exercise? Principles of TrainingPrinciples of TrainingTraining Tips Physical Activity Guidelines for Weight LossYou are what you eat It is important you understand the two main types of training to include in your workouts: cardiovascular exercise and resistance training.Nutrition GuidelinesFoods to buy Cardiovascular exercise (Cardio) is exercise which raises the heart rate and helps condition the lungs, which is often known as aerobic training. ThisFoods to avoid type of exercise is most often performed at medium intensity for long periods ofWhat to eat? time. Examples include walking, running, rowing swimming and cycling.Carbohydrates Resistance Training is exercise where types of weights are used to help tone and strengthen parts of the body.ProteinFat Both cardio and resistance training must be incorporated into any exercise programme to any noticeable and effective results.VitaminsYour qs answered Myths - Weights makes you big - Strength training improves shape and tone. It is impossible for women to gain the same amount of size as men without excessive training and training supplements. Crunches will give me a toned flat stomach - Crunches will help build your abs, but they won’t be visible unless you get rid of the fat above them. When it comes to a lean stomach, it is achieved through a combination of nutrition and proper exercise. Muscle turns to fat when you stop exercising - Muscle will not turn to fat, it will only waste away if you stop exercising.
  6. 6. An IntroductionWhy Exercise?Principles of Training Principles of TrainingTraining Tips The FITT principle guides you through how often, how intense, how long and what type of exercise you should be partaking in for weight loss. This FITT princi-You are what you eat ple is only a guide, as each individual will require a slightly different training regime depending on age, health, and fitness levels.Nutrition GuidelinesFoods to buy Cardiovascular Exercise Resistance TrainingFoods to avoid Frequency x 3 x per week for 30mins. Doing 4-5 x 3/4 x per week for 45mins.What to eat? sessions is optimal. x Rest each muscle group 48 hours betweenCarbohydrates x Alternate exercise types to help avoid workouts. overuse injuries and boredomProtein Intensity x The higher the intensity you work out at, x Perform 2-4 sets with 8-12 reps (Set is aFat the more calories you will burn. However, group of reps). your fitness level will dictate the intensity you should train at: x If you are able to perform 12 repetitionsVitamins easily, you should increase the resistance. x Heart rate you should train at: If you struggle to perform 8 repetitions youYour qs answered should decrease the resistance. o Low fitness level: Stay within 50- 60% of your MHR o Moderate fitness levels: 60-70% of your MHR o High fitness levels: 75-85% of your MHR x To calculate your Maximum Heart Rate (MHR), use the formula: MHR = 220 – age Time x Try and maintain your heart rate within x Keep you resistance training session the target heart rate zone for a minimum within 45-60 minutes. However, high of 20-30 minutes. This can increase to as intensity training sessions may last as little much as 45-60 minutes as fitness levels as 20 - 30 minutes. increase. Type x Most forms of cardio will burn a similar x A combination of weights, resistance amount of calories, providing the intensity bands and circuit training can be used. is similar. Choose your cardio based on what is comfortable for you. Top tip - You often see on cardio machines that there is a ‘fat burn- ing heart rate zone’. But what does this mean? The fat burning zone is called this because a higher ‘percentage’ of calories is burned from fat at this heart rate. Exercising at a higher intensity means a higher ‘percentage’ of calories will be made up of carbohydrates. However, you’ll burn more calories overall if you exercise in the ‘cardio’ zone resulting in more fat being lost. So the trick is to train as hard as you can. Remember, beginners are often unable to train for long periods in the cardio zone so adjust your intensity so you can keep going for at least 20 mins.
  7. 7. An IntroductionWhy Exercise?Principles of Training Training TipsTraining Tips Improve the effectiveness and efficiency of your exercise programme with these tips.You are what you eatNutrition Guidelines Introduce exercise gradually - Make sure you eat - If you do not If you try and do too much too soon, consume enough calories, your bodyFoods to buy your body will simply say ‘no’. You’ll wont be able to exercise efficiently, lose motivation and you will become and muscle wastage will occur. SeeFoods to avoid increasingly tired and sore. By intro- our nutrition action plan to under-What to eat? ducing exercise gradually it becomes stand how much you should be habitual and will actually increase eating.Carbohydrates energy levels. Set yourself targets - TargetsProtein Drink lots of water - Try and drink give you something to achieve.Fat approximately 100ml of water for When you reach your targets a every 15 minutes of exercise. When sense of satisfaction is experiencedVitamins hydration levels drop, exercise and it gives you the motivation to becomes harder and performance achieve more. Your targets shouldYour qs answered levels will also decrease. be specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and time based. Have rest days - Do not try and exercise every day, your body needs Reward yourself when you time to recover. Try and exercise 3 reach a target - By reaching your times per week and as fitness levels targets you deserve to treat yourself. improve increase to 5 times a week. Buy yourself something nice or go out for the night. Buy yourself good kit - Having good exercise clothing and equip- ment makes you more inclined to Don’t stop once you reach your exercise, and can make exercising a goals - You can’t get fit and stay fit. lot more comfortable. Training is a constant process and has to continue for your body to retain any improvements. The gains which are made from training are lost more quickly if exercising stops.
  8. 8. An IntroductionWhy Exercise? You are what you eatPrinciples of TrainingTraining Tips “Weight management starts in the kitchen”. JamesYou are what you eat (Trainer)Nutrition Guidelines When it comes to weight loss, you cannot underestimate how important nutritionFoods to buy is. You cannot effectively manage your weight through exercise alone, nutritionFoods to avoid also plays a vital part.What to eat? No matter where you look, books, magazines, newspaper articles or television programmes, you are sure to find new ways, methods and diets to ‘effectively’Carbohydrates manage your weight. However, there is no magic fix, only one simple rule:Protein If you burn more calories than you digest, you lose weight. If you burnFat less calories than digest, you gain weight, and if your calories in match your calores out, your weight stays the same. Simple!VitaminsYour qs answered Once you understand this principle, you must begin to understand what you should eat. The following section will give you an insight into the kinds of foods you should buy, and what foods you should try and avoid completely.
  9. 9. An IntroductionWhy Exercise? Nutrition guidelinesPrinciples of Training Let’s start with the basics. The following guidelines give a good indication onTraining Tips how you should approach your diet. Abiding by these simple guidelines willYou are what you eat provide you with the perfect start for your new nutrition plan.Nutrition Guidelines 1. Enjoy what you eat - As well 5. Watch your calories - FoodFoods to buy as providing all the necessary nutri- provides energy (calories) which is ents, food should be enjoyabe. used to keep the body functioning.Foods to avoid Obviously, certain food groups Each person needs a differentWhat to eat? should be kept to a minimum and amount of energy and therefore a others should be avoided all together difference in the amount of food theyCarbohydrates but still try and combine taste, smell, require. colour and texture to help make yourProtein food more exciting. A healthy weight is best achieved byFat exercising regulary and ensuring 2. Variety is key - A mixture of you do not consume more caloriesVitamins than your body requires. foods is required to be healthy. NoYour qs answered one food group can provide all the nutrients needed in your diet so mix 6. Eat smaller portion sizes - it up. Most of us are guilty of feeding ourselves far too much in one sitting. 3. Reduce your intake of foods A simple but effective trick is to use a high in fat - This does not mean smaller plate as this will give you the cut out all fat. Fats are a necessity in impression you are eating more. keeping your body functioning. However, a diet high in fat, especially 7. Keep your carbs low GI - 45% saturated fat, can increase the likeli- of your food should come from hood of obesity and risk of heart carbohydrates like sweet potatoes, disease. brown rice and wholemeal bread. These carbohydrates are low GI (see 4. Eat s l o w l y - This will give later) which help you control your your body the opportunity to realise appetite and sustain your energy it is full and stop you eating. levels for longer. Fibre is vital for your health as it aids Top tip - Try and con- your digestive system and helps reduce cholestrol. Fibre can also be sume at least 2 litres of water per found in beans, fruits, nuts and day or 6 medium size glasses. vegetables. Consume an extra 2 glasses during exercise.
  10. 10. An IntroductionWhy Exercise? Nutrition guidelinesPrinciples of Training 8. Hunger Vs. Appetite - There is 10.Salt, know your limits - TheTraining Tips a difference. Hunger is the true physi- body only needs 6g of salt per dayYou are what you eat ological need for nutrition whereas which can easiy be found in foods appetite is a desire to eat. Most natrually. Eating too much salt canNutrition Guidelines people consume food based upon lead to high blood pressure, heart feelings and desires brought about by disease, kidney disease and evenFoods to buy learned behaviour. After a meal many strokes.Foods to avoid peope tell themselves they need something sweet, but are they really 11. Plan when you are going toWhat to eat? hungry? The rule,only eat when you’re actually hungry. eat - If you know that you will beCarbohydrates eating every few hours, stick to that plan. Do not eat before or after, thenProtein 9. At least 5 a day - A person you can ensure you eat the right should consume at least 5 portionsFat amount. of fruit and vegetables per day. Try and incorporate fruit and vegetablesVitamins into every meal of the day and make 12. Reduce your sugar intake - fruit your first choice snack. Diets Simple sugars are full of calories andYour qs answered high in fruit and vegetables are and provide no other nutritional believed to reduce the risk of devel- value. Lose weight by reducing your oping diseases, such as heart sugar intake by cutting out sugary disease and some cancers, in later foods and drinks. life. Top tip - Eat 5 or 6 small meals per day. Eating regulary speeds up your metabo- lism reducing hunger pains and the chance of overeating. If your body goes more than 3 hrs without eating it thinks it is entering a stage of starvation, a storage mechanism kicks in so when you do eat, food will be stored as fat for future use.
  11. 11. An IntroductionWhy Exercise? 20 Foods to add to your basket...Principles of TrainingTraining Tips 1. Mackerel 2. Apples Mackerel is packed ‘An apple a day,You are what you eat full of omega 3 oils, keeps the doctor helping prevent heart away”. It’s true, high inNutrition Guidelines disease, high choles- fibre, water, antioxi- terol and arthritis. dants and vitamin C.Foods to buyFoods to avoidWhat to eat?Carbohydrates 3. Spinach 4. Sweet Pota- toesProtein Spinach is full of iron and contains potas- A fantastic alternativeFat sium, helping to keep to regular potatoes. As the bones strong. well as being high in Spinach also helps both vitamin A and C,Vitamins with building muscle. sweet potatoes helps to control bloodYour qs answered pressure. 5. Oats 6. Milk Oats are a low GI Milk is one of nature carbohydrate meaning superfoods full of they release energy protein, calcium and B slowly keeping you vitamins. A high dairy active and fuller for diet is also linked to longer. weight loss. (Try and stick to semi-skimmed or skimmed milk). 7. Seeds 8. Pineapple Seeds provide a good Pineapple is loaded source of protein and with nutrients includ- unsaturated fats, ing calcium, potas- helping to prevent sium, fiber, and heart problems and vitamin C and B, all cardiovascular making it a fantastic disease. fruit to add to yor diet. 9. Almonds 10. Eggs A snack which Eggs are full of high contains more protein quality protein and than any other nut or amino acids. They seed. They also help have a lot of bad suppress the appetite press for raising and aid weight loss. cholestrol but recent studies have shown eggs actually help to reduce cholestrol levels.
  12. 12. An IntroductionWhy Exercise? 20 Foods to add to your basket...Principles of Training 11. Kidney 12. Red Pep-Training Tips Beans persYou are what you eat These beans are full Red peppers contain of fibre, protein and more vitamin C thanNutrition Guidelines are also low GI, which most vegetables, an means they provide essential vitamin forFoods to buy energy for sustained protecting the periods of time. connective tissues inFoods to avoid the body.What to eat?Carbohydrates 13. Turkey 14. BrocolliProtein A good alternative to Full of vitamins and chicken, turkey is high fibre, brocolli is also in protein and vitamin linked to the preven-Fat B making a fantastic tion of cancer. post workout meal.VitaminsYour qs answered 15. Blueberries 16. Salmon Contain more antioxi- The main benefit of dants than any other salmon is that it is full fruit helping to combat of omega 3 oils which cancer causing free helps reduce choles- radicals in the body. terol. It is also high in They also have a high protein and vitamin A. vitamin C content. 17. Tomatoes 18. Tuna Full of antioxidants, Tuna is a low fat, vitamin B and good source of potassium tomatoes protein, which also are a must in your provides a great diet. Researc also source for essential shows they improve fatty acids. your skin. 19. Natrual 20. Wholemeal yoghurt bread Yoghurt is full of ‘good’ Wholemeal bread is a bacteria which helps far better alternative to prevent the growth of white bread. It is full of ‘bad’ bacteria, helpful fibre and rated as low in preventing GI keeping you more infections and full for longer. It also diseases. acts as a long lasting energy source.
  13. 13. An IntroductionWhy Exercise? Foods to avoid...Principles of TrainingTraining Tips 1. Pies and 2. CrispsYou are what you eat Pasties High calorie and full ofNutrition Guidelines Pies and pasties are fat. A must put down full of saturated fat, to aid fat loss.Foods to buy often processed meat and high calories. Save your heart andFoods to avoid stomach by avoiding these savoury snacks.What to eat?Carbohydrates 3. Processed 4. Fizzy drinksProtein meat Leave a penny in Processed meats are glass of fizzy drink forFat a night and note the often high in salt and saturated fats, which results. This is what itVitamins can lead to high is doing to your teeth cholesterol, heart and insides. AndYour qs answered disease and gain there’s the equivalent weight. of about 10 teaspoons of sugar in one can! 5. Fish and 6. Sugar on Chips cereals Fish are a great Sugar in the morning source of vitamin B gives you an immedi- and essential fatty ate sugar rush but this acids but deep frying it doesn’t last and in batter completely makes you feel tired cancels out any very quickly. Swap it goodness. for honey. 7. White bread 8. Ready meals Made from refined Ready meals are flour, white bread has often full of preserva- all its goodness tives, processed removed during this meats and extra salt., refining process. It avoid these at all also raises your blood costs. pressure and fails to keep you full.
  14. 14. An IntroductionWhy Exercise?Principles of Training But what should you eat? Calories are what give us energy. It is important to measure and consume theTraining Tips right amount of calories as a deficiency can cause muscle breakdown andYou are what you eat cause your body serious harm, whereas consuming too many can lead to obesity and other health issues. That is why it is important to know and under-Nutrition Guidelines stand how many calories you should be consuming throughout the day. Your daily calorie needs depends on your genetic makeup, age, weight, body com-Foods to buy position and activity levels.Foods to avoid We can base your calorific requirements from three main food groups:What to eat? ‡ &DUERKGUDWHVCarbohydrates ‡ 3URWHLQProtein ‡ )DWFat The following section will detail these three food groups and outline how they should fit into your diet.VitaminsYour qs answered Top tip - Avoid celeb- rity and FAD diets at all costs. Most involve eliminating one or more macronutrients from your diet. You may lose weight initially from following one of these diets, but it will only be short term. They are difficult, and almost impossible to con- tinue for long periods. After a few weeks, most people give up and regain the weight they lost. Furthermore you a likely to put on more weight as these diets wreak havoc with your metabolism.
  15. 15. An IntroductionWhy Exercise?Principles of Training CarbohydratesTraining Tips A common misconception is that carbohydrates make you fat, but this food group should be the staple of any diet. 45% of your diet should come fromYou are what you eat carbohydrates. This is because its main function is to provide you with energyNutrition Guidelines which is vital for survival. A defficiency in carbohydrates will not only reduce your energy levels, but increase muscle wastage resulting in an increase in fatFoods to buy percentage.Foods to avoid Carbohydrates can be split into two different categories: simple or complex. AnWhat to eat? accurate way to determine the different forms is using the glycaemic index. This index can help you decide which type of carbohydrate is best to eat.CarbohydratesProtein Glycaemic Index (GI) - The What type should you eat? - For Glycaemic Index is a ranking health and diet, the World HealthFat system measuring the effects of Organisation (WHO 1999) states different carbohydrates on blood that diets should be based on lowVitamins sugar levels. Carbohydrates which GI as they can help prevent mostYour qs answered cause blood sugar levels to rise common diseases such as CHD, quickly after ingestion are known as obesity and diabetes. There are high GI. Carbohydrates which break many benefits of eating low GI down more slowly, and gradually which include the control of appe- release glucose into the blood tite and sustaining energy levels for stream are known as low GI. Each long periods of time. You should try carbohydrate is given a ranking of and avoid high GI foods if you are 0-100 and are classified as high GI trying to lose weight. But remem- (70-100), med GI (56-69) and low GI ber, high GI foods are beneficial (0-55). when a quick supply of energy is needed before and after exercise. GI Table - Below is a table which gives an idea in to what types of foods fall under each GI category. Remember, try and base your diet around low GI foods. Classification GI range Some Examples Low GI 0-55 Almost all vegetables, whole meal pasta, nuts, oats, barley, high fibre cereal, pulses, brown rice Medium GI 56-69 Basmati rice, pasta, pitta bread, ice cream, boiled potatoes, whole meal bread, shredded wheat, honey, couscous High GI 70-100 Mashed potato, baked potato, white bread baguette, white rice, French fries, watermelon, cornflakes, pure glucose, croissants. Top tip - Try reducing your carbs to a minimum 2 days a week when you’re not training. Carbohydrates are stored by your body as glycogen and used as the primary source for energy. By reducing carbo- hydrates in your diet, your body depletes its glycogen stores, increasing its ability to burn calories from fat stores. However, if you fail to replenish your glycogen stores, your metabolism will slow down and muscle will be broken down to use as energy, so you can’t do this all week!
  16. 16. An IntroductionWhy Exercise? ProteinPrinciples of Training 30% of your diet should consist of protein. Protein is essential for growth,Training Tips maintenance and repair of body tissues. It can be also used as a fuel for energy production. Depending on your exercise levels your body will haveYou are what you eat different protein requirements. If you are looking to build muscle and size, aNutrition Guidelines high protein diet is essential.Foods to buy The table below indicates some good sources of protein:Foods to avoid Food Portion size Protein (g) KcalWhat to eat? Meat and fish Beef fillet steak 2 slices 105g 31 197Carbohydrates Grilled chicken breast 1 breast 130g 39 191 Turkey light meat 2 slices 140g 47 214Protein Cod, poached 1 fillet 120g 25 113 Mackerel, grilled 1 fillet 150g 31 359 Canned tuna 1 small tin 100g 24 99Fat Dairy products and eggs 1 thick slice 10 165Vitamins Cheese, cheddar 1 small carton 112g 15 110 Cottage cheese 1 glass 200ml 7 66Your qs answered Skimmed milk 1 carton 150g 8 84 Low-fat yoghurt 1 8 90 Eggs Nuts and seeds Peanuts 1 handful 50g 12 301 Peanut butter On 1 slice of bread (50g) 5 125 Cashew nuts 1 handful 50g 10 306 Walnuts 1 handful 50g 7 344 Sunflower seeds 2 tbsp 32g 6 186 Sesame seeds 2 tbsp 24g 4 144 Pulses Baked beans 1 small tin 205g 10 166 Red lentils, boiled 3tbsp 120g 9 120 Red kidney beans 3tbsp 120g 10 124 Chick peas, boiled 3tbsp 140g 12 169 Soya products Soya milk 1 glass 200ml 6 64 Soya mince 2tbsp dry weight 30g 13 79 Tofu Half a pack 100g 8 73 Tofu burger 1 burger 60g 5 71 Quorn products Quorn mince 4 tbsp 100g 12 86 Quorn chili 1 bowl 200g 9 163 Grains and cereals Whole meal bread 2 slices 76g 6 164 White bread 2 slices 72g 6 156 Pasta 1 bowl 230g 7 198 Brown rice 1 bowl 180g 5 254 White rice 1 bowl 180g 5 248
  17. 17. An IntroductionWhy Exercise? FatPrinciples of Training Not all fat is bad, it is another essential part of your diet. 25% of your dietTraining Tips should be obtained from fats. Fat is essential for protection internal organs, temperature control and energy. They also ensure a good supply of essentialYou are what you eat fatty acids such as omega 3 and omega 6 which help our immune system.Nutrition Guidelines Fat is often associated with obesity and chronic diseases but it is still crucial inFoods to buy maintaining bodily functions. This is why it is imprtant to understand the differ- ent types of fats and which ones need to be controlled more than others.Foods to avoidWhat to eat? We can classify fats into different categories:Carbohydrates Saturated fats - These mainly Unsaturated fats - These includeProtein come from animal sources and are monosaturated and polysaturated solid at room temperature. These fats which are liquid at room tem-Fat include foods such as butter, lard, fat perature. Often known as ‘good’ fats,Vitamins in meat and cream. You should aim examples include sunflower oil, fish to keep the intake of these ‘bad’ fats oil and olive oil .These fats help withYour qs answered to a minimum as they have a direct the removal of cholesterol. This correlation to cholesterol production group of fats is were the majority of which can lead to hardening of the your calories should be obtained arteries and heart disease. from. Trans Fats - These are fats produced from solidifying oil in a process called hydrogenation. This turns good fats into the saturated sort. These can be found in marga- rine, cakes and many other manu- factured products. Try to avoid these fats as best as possible as these are the other ‘bad’ fats.
  18. 18. Fat Protein Vitamins What to eat? Training Tips Foods to buy Carbohydrates Foods to avoid Why Exercise? An Introduction Your qs answered Nutrition Guidelines You are what you eat Principles of Training Vitamin Source Role Deficiency RDA B group Meat, Fish, Controls CNS. Nervous disorders, anaemia, Various (Thiamin, B1, Pulses, grains, Release of energy food. Berberi, fatigue, loss of muscle recommendations. riboflavin B2, cereals, dairy, Maintenance of nerve cells. tone. Niacin, B6, B12, Dark Green Healthy Skin. Vitamins and folate) Veg(DGV) C Citrus fruits, DGV, Normal structure of connective Scurvy. 45 mg Ascorbic acid offal, potatoes. tissue. Prevents scurvy. Anti-oxidant. A Dairy products, Aids vision in dim light. Growth and Night blindness. Stunted growth. 10 000 IU Retinol DGV, orange repair of body tissue. Essential to coloured fruit and normal structure and function of cell vet, fish oils, liver. membranes. Anti-oxidant. average amount needed to stay healthy. D Fish oils, dairy Healthy bones and teeth. Absorption Rickets. Osteomalacia. 5-10 mcg Cholecalciferol products. of calcium. E Dairy products, Anti-oxidant. Protects fat soluble Anaemia. 13-30 IU Tocopherols DGV, nuts. vitamins and red blood cells. K DGV, fish, liver, Aids blood clotting. Haemorrhages. No RDA toxic overpanel on dietary Reference values of the committee of Medical Aspects of Food Policy. Phylloquinone fruit. 500 mcgSource: Dietary reference Values for food Energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom. Report of the and there benefits. The RDA (Recommended Daily Intake) represents the Be careful though, excess vitamins can actually do more harm than good. vital functions. It is unlikely you will have a deficiency if you eat a balanced As well as your main three food groups, it is important you ensure your diet The table below indicates the type of vitamins you should include in your diet diet, but you should be aware of the types of vitamins needed to stay healthy. includes enough vitamins and minerals. Vitamins help your body perform all its
  19. 19. An IntroductionWhy Exercise?Principles of Training Your questions answeredTraining Tips 1. I’ve been told I shouldn’t eat 5. Will planning my meals help carbohydrates before bed, is me eat better?You are what you eat this true?Nutrition Guidelines Yes, it’s a very good habit to get into. Don’t worry too much about eating Planning your meals stops picking atFoods to buy foods between meals. It will also before bed. Most carbohydrates won’t make it into your circulation un ensure you get the right balance of aFoods to avoid till the following morning, especially healthy diet.What to eat? low GI carbs. 6. Is it true that if I don’t eatCarbohydrates 2. Are cheat meals/days breakfast, I can burn more fat?Protein acceptable? Absolutely not, your body hasFat already gone a long period of time Cheat days and cheat meals are times when you throw your eating without consuming any food. If youVitamins habits out the window and eat what do not eat anything your body willYour qs answered you want! If you are looking to lose enter a catabolic state where you weight you should eat healthily 100% may lose muscle and lead to more fat of the time however, sometimes a being stored when you do eat. Break- cheat meal is sometimes acceptable fast also speeds up your metabolism as long as you ‘don’t go overboard’. getting you ready for your day. An extra 100 calories won’t make a huge difference to your weekly input. 7. I’ve been told eggs increase Cheat days on the other hand are not my cholesterol, is this true? acceptable as they could add up to 2500-3000 calories to your calorie New studies have shown eggs to intake potentially causing you to gain actually reduce cholesterol. Although weight! they contain high dietary cholesterol, there is no proven link between 3. Is GI really that important? eating 1-2 eggs a day and blood cholesterol. High saturated fat levels Yes, eating low GI will help you in your diet are far worse. control your appetite and keep you Top tip - Be realistic full for longer. It will also help control your insulin levels facilitating more fat loss. about fat loss: A lot of people do too much too soon and get 4. If I add protein to my diet, will disheartened by a lack of results. Realistically you should it make me big? be losing 2lbs per week for sustained weight loss. Crash No, protein is an essential macronu- dieting will only slow your trient in the diet and shouldn’t be metabolism, and make you avoided. By adding foods high in fatter when you resume normal protein or protein shakes will help eating again. you feel full for longer which can actually aid weight loss.
  20. 20. An IntroductionWhy Exercise? Your questions answeredPrinciples of TrainingTraining Tips 8. My friend has started using 11. How quickly can I expect the Atkins diet and lost 8lbs, results?You are what you eat should I start it too? Changes don’t happen overnight, itNutrition Guidelines No! FAD and celebrity diets often takes a long time to see any notice-Foods to buy have terrible consequences. They able results. Imagine it being like often involve removing one or more watching a plant grow; if you stare atFoods to avoid your body every day you are unlikely macronutrients from what you eat. You may lose weight initially from to see any obvious results. However,What to eat? following one of these diets, but it will if you go away for a month and thenCarbohydrates only be short term. They are difficult, have a look, you should see some and almost impossible to follow long changes.Protein term. After a few weeks, most people give up and regain the weight they You don’t want to lose too much tooFat lost. soon as this is unlikely to be sustain-Vitamins able and lead to eventual weight 9. I’ve overheard someone say, gain! It is recommended you shouldYour qs answered aim to lose 2lbs per week. milk can help you lose weight, is this true? 12. Is it better to do cardio first Believe it not, yes. Not only is milk thing in the morning or later in full of B vitamins, calcium and the day? protein, research suggests that high calcium diets help weight loss. How- It is better to wait a while before ever, try and either drink only exercising in the morning as it takes skimmed or 1% fat milk. up to 3 hours for your body to wake up, which could lead to your work- 10. What type of cardio training outs being less effective. When you wake up, you also have low levels of will help me improve my bum? carbohydrates so there is a danger of muscle wastage if you exercise too Unfortunately you can’t spot reduce early. fat. All cardio training is equal when it comes to working your thighs, bum or any other part. You cannot reduce fat 13. Do weights help you lose from one area of your body but just weight? burn fat from your whole body. Yes, resistance training is a great way to burn fat. Increasing muscle mass increases your metabolic activity because muscle requires energy. This will help you burn fat faster as you will end up burning more calories doing nothing!
  21. 21. An IntroductionWhy Exercise? Your questions answeredPrinciples of TrainingTraining Tips 14. I’m worried that by doing 18. I’m worried about muscle weights that I’ll get bigger? turning to fat if I stop training?You are what you eat Women have to work very, very hard This is a myth that never seems toNutrition Guidelines to build muscle so it is very unlikely die. You cannot turn muscle into fatFoods to buy you will gain noticeable size when as they are two completely different training. Women do not have the tissues. People get fat when theyFoods to avoid hormone levels to reach the same stop training because they consume size as men so don’t worry. Some of the same amount of calories as ifWhat to eat? the bodybuilders you see on televi- they were still exercising.Carbohydrates sion take supplements and anabolic steroids to get in the shape they do. 19. Will doing sit ups give me aProtein 6 pack?Fat 15. How often should I change my routine exercise? No! Sit-ups are a great exercise forVitamins strengthening and toning the abdomi- You should aim to change your nals, however, they are useless forYour qs answered workout every 4-6 weeks. This time reducing your waistline. 15-20 min- frame tends to be the most effective. utes cardio will be more effective However, it will also depend on how than 100 sit-ups! You need to remove well you adapt to the programme. the fat around your waistline before you can see your abs. 16. What are the best exercises for toning my hips and thighs? 20. I don’t want big legs! The most effective exercises for your Training your legs is one of the best legs are squats, one leg squats, wide ways to induce fat loss. Being the leg squats, lunges and lateral lunges. biggest muscle group in your body, All of these exercises are compound they burn the most calories when exercises (they involve more than they are exercised. one joint), which stimulate most of the muscles in your lower body, helping you to boost your metabolism and burn fat. FACT - Toning isn’t reducing size but defining and shaping your muscles. This in 17. How long should I rest turn reduces your fat percent- between training days? age and improves your figure. You need to let your muscles rest for at least 48 hours after a workout before retraining the same muscle group. Your stomach muscles are the only exception which only need about 24hrs.
  22. 22. An IntroductionWhy Exercise? Your questions answeredPrinciples of TrainingTraining Tips 21. Should I eat before and after exercising?You are what you eat Eating before and after exercise is very important. Eating too much and too soon before your workout can lead to sluggishness, cramps and nausea.Nutrition Guidelines Likewise, not eating enough can cause low blood sugar levels causing you toFoods to buy feel weak and light-headed.Foods to avoid Good pre-exercise food could include:What to eat? 1. A large meal, three hours before your exercise session:Carbohydrates ‡ $ VPDOO EDNHG SRWDWR DQG EDNHG EHDQV RU FRWWDJH FKHHVH ‡ 6L[ FUDFNHUV DQG FRWWDJH FKHHVH IROORZHG E D SLHFH RI IUXLWProtein ‡ 5LFH ZLWK YHJHWDEOHV DQG OHDQ PHDW ‡ 7ZR VOLFHV RI WRDVW SHDQXW EXWWHU DQG D EDQDQDFat ‡ 7ZR :HHWDEL[ DQG D VPDOO JODVV RI SXUH IUXLW MXLFHVitamins 2. A light meal, one-two hours before exercise:Your qs answered ‡ 2QH VOLFH RI WRDVW DQG MDP ‡ 2QH VPDOO IODSMDFN RDW EDU
  23. 23. ‡ 2QH VOLFH RI IUXLW FDNH ‡ $ SLHFH RI IUXLW ‡ $ IUXLW RJXUW ‡ $ FHUHDO EDU ‡ $ VPDOO ERZO RI FHUHDO Eating after exercise is just as important. You need to replenish your body with all the nutrients it needs for growth and repair. A light meal within an hr of working out is perfect. ‡ /HDQ WXUNH VDQGZLFK RQ ZKROH JUDLQ EUHDG ‡ 3URWHLQ VKDNH ZLWK IUXLW ‡ 7XQD DQG VDODG ‡ *ULOOHG RU EDNHG FKLFNHQ EUHDVW ZLWK EURZQ ULFH RU SDVWD DQG VRPH steamed vegetables ‡ $ EDNHG SRWDWR WRSSHG ZLWK VDOVD DQG ORZIDW FKHHVH DQG D VLGH RI IUXLW ‡ $ EDJHO ZLWK SHDQXW EXWWHU
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