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outline of start of indian journalism
outline of start of indian journalism
outline of start of indian journalism
outline of start of indian journalism
outline of start of indian journalism
outline of start of indian journalism
outline of start of indian journalism
outline of start of indian journalism
outline of start of indian journalism
outline of start of indian journalism
outline of start of indian journalism
outline of start of indian journalism
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outline of start of indian journalism


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  • 1. Pre-Independence Press in India
  • 2. News Reporting Not New in India
    It is interesting to note that
    before the advent of Europeans, India
    had a system of news gathering & reporting
    Ancient & Medieval kings and emperors
    had spies who also acted as informers
    about political activities within and outside the State
  • 3. Special Political Reporters
    These special people were appointed by the royal courts
    They had their own network spread across regions
    They were highly respected in royal courts
    A Venetian traveller during Emperor Aurangzeb’s era has recorded about this system
  • 4. Timeless Need For Political Information
    The kings and emperors would always need political information within their kingdom and from other kingdoms
    The British Crown could manage to consolidate its power only during the middle of the 19th Century
    The East India Company ruled parts of India before that
  • 5. Portuguese Pioneers
    However, the first Europeans to start a printing press in India were not the British
    The Portuguese had already established printing in India as early as the 16th Century
    However, the main aim of the Portuguese was conversion
    The main aim of the British was trade, commerce, business and profits
  • 6. British Supremacy & Suspicions
    In the ensuing power struggle, the British managed to establish their supremacy over the Indian subcontinent over a period of time
    India of that period had very poor rail and road infrastructure
    The British were highly suspicious and felt threatened by the reach of the Indian language press over the Indian masses and their influence on Indian public opinion
  • 7. British Press Policies
    Their fears were not unfounded
    Many local Indian language publications were critical of British policies
    The British established a complex code of administrative rules to exercise control over the Non – English press
    The English press more or less was read by the British, the Anglo – Indians and the English-educated Indian elite
  • 8. Anglicized Indians and Coming of The Mahatma
    Thanks to Macaulay’s policies, many educated Indians started to speak English, act and behave like English “ladies and gentlemen” and frowned upon Indian dressing, eating habits and general “native” behaviour
    Mahatma Gandhi was one of the prominent personalities who urged Indians to take pride in their own culture and heritage
  • 9. Role of Indian Language Press in 18th Century
    The Indian nationalist press was the backbone of Indian Freedom Struggle from the latter part of the 19th Century
    These Indian publications spread awareness among Indians against the foreign rulers
    They touched the patriotic nerve of the country
    They built up Indian Public Opinion against the British
  • 10. India – A Vast Nation
    However, the new administrative rules and regulations that were time and again introduced by the alarmed British made this difficult
    One has to remember that India is a vast and complex country with a multitude of languages and cultures
  • 11. India v/s Bharat
    The Public at large was informed about political developments in local Indian languages
    There was a content divide between what the English press reported and what the Indian press reported
    This linguistic divide between English and Indian language press continues even today
    This divides India into two different countries from the point of view of media (India v/s Bharat divide)
  • 12. Thank You
    ~ SaurabhDeshpande