Topic 9 racial discrimination Industrial Era

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Industrial Era

Industrial Era

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  • 1. WRITE:  Analyze the postReconstruction political and social developments that led to institutionalized racism in the United States. Describe institutionalized racist practices in postReconstruction America.  Institution: Establishment devoted to the promotion of a particular cause or program
  • 2. Post-reconstruction (soon after the Civil War) READ Racial discrimination was institutionalized with the passage of Jim Crow laws. These state laws and local ordinances included provisions to require racial segregation, prohibit miscegenation (intermarriage between the races), limit ballot access and generally deprive African Americans of civil rights.
  • 3. Segregation and Discrimination ---Legalized discrimination READ Some white southerners were determined to prevent African Americans from using the right to vote. Tactics included making voters pay a poll tax and pass a literacy test.  Most African Americans were too poor to pay the tax and had been denied the education to pass a literacy test.  Southern state legislatures also passed laws—known as Jim Crow laws—to create and enforce segregation in public places. (The name Jim Crow came from a character in a minstrel song.)  The first, passed in Tennessee in 1881, required separate railway cars for African Americans and whites.  By the 1890s southern states had segregated many public places, including schools. 
  • 4. DEFINE: Jim Crow laws Laws that created and enforced segregation in public places
  • 5. Who was Homer Plessy? Write: The “separate but equal” doctrine was applied to the 14th Amendment. 14th amendment provides a broad definition of citizenship Homer Plessy, an African American man, sat in a whites-only train compartment to test the segregation law. He was arrested, and his case finally went to the U.S. Supreme Court
  • 6. Explain the Supreme Court ruling, Plessy v. Ferguson The “separate but equal” doctrine was applied to the 14th Amendment. 14th amendment provides a broad definition of citizenship In the case of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896), the Court upheld segregation. It ruled that “separate but equal ” facilities did not violate the Fourteenth Amendment. The Plessy decision allowed legalized segregation in the south for nearly 60 years.
  • 7. Define 14th Amendment Write: 14th amendment provides a broad definition of citizenship (post-civil war amendment)
  • 8. How would Plessy v. Ferguson affect future attempts to end racial discrimination? The “separate but equal” doctrine was applied to the 14th Amendment. 14th amendment provides a broad definition of citizenship Write: The supreme court case set strong precedent (model) for segregation. It would take decades and other Supreme Court cases to end segregation in the South.
  • 9. The “separate but equal” doctrine was applied to the 14th Amendment. 14th amendment provides a broad definition of citizenship Write: It takes almost 60 years for the supreme court to reverse its decision in Plessy v Ferguson!!!!!! In 1954, the Supreme Court case Brown vs. Board of Education , the court called for an end to segregation in U.S. institutions of learning.
  • 10. How was lynching used to intimidate African Americans in the South? Lynching of African Americans was used to terrorize blacks so as not ask for Constitutional freedoms.
  • 11. How was the KKK used to intimidate African Americans in the South? Write: The rise of the Ku Klux Klan and other nativist organizations brought increased violence against African Americans. Violence was used to prevent African Americans from asking for their civil rights.
  • 12. What types of segregation and discrimination did African Americans encounter? Write: separate public facilities and schools; denied the right to vote; strict rules of behavior toward whites; lynching An all Black School An all White School
  • 13. What was the intent of the southern legislators toward African American voters? Write: Southern legislators wanted to prevent African Americans from voting. They did not want them gaining any political power.
  • 14. What are the different philosophies of Du Bois and Washington concerning African Americans acquiring Civil Liberties? W.E.B. Du Bois— an African American who believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately. Booker T Washington—an African American who believed that African Americans had to accept segregation for the moment. He believed they could improve their situation best through acquiring farming and vocational skills.
  • 15. Define: NAACP (The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) Write: Founded in 1909 (NAACP) desired to end legalized discrimination based on race W.E.B. Du Bois believed that African Americans should strive for full rights immediately.
  • 16. Hispanic Americans Asian Americans Native Americans African Americans encountered strong anti-Mexican feelings lived in segregated neighborhoods had to endure the government’s Americanization policy encountered Jim Crow laws in South and de facto laws in North Most Mexicans were farmers, but there were not enough farm jobs to go around. Many landlords would not rent to Asian tenants Living on reservations gave them few economic opportunities lived in segregated neighborhoods often had to take menial jobs for little pay-could not leave a job until they paid debts they owed their employer laws limited or prevented Asian immigration Many Indians did not have American citizenship until the passage of the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 often had to take menial jobs for little pay trapped in their jobs by a system brought from Mexico called debt peonage early 1900s, California legislators passed laws prohibiting marriages between whites and Asian
  • 17. Credible means believable
  • 18. Credible (credibility)--credible evidence to support an idea takes more than one source of information— to be credible. It has at least two sources of information that are very similar in their findings   Ex.  Journal of Medicine states that it is 4-5 times more likely that one gets into an accident while driving and using a cell phone .  State Highway Patrol study finds that accidents are more severe when using the cell phone while driving.
  • 19.  Characteristics that affect the credibility of sources  Bias: being one sided and Bias is prejudice toward or unfair characterization of the members of a particular group  Consistency of arguments: Do all the supports of the main idea agree?
  • 20.  Credibility  primary sources are most always viewed are more credible than secondary source documents  Primary sources: pictures taken of the event; letters, newspapers, diaries written at the time of the event  Secondary sources: text books written about the event, newspapers articles, books, etc. written about the event at a later time
  • 21.  Reliability  Is it true—factual?  Can you back it up with facts?