Topic 8 urbanazation Industrial Revolution

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Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution

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  • 1. Write: Urbanization transformed American life.
  • 2. Write: It means growth of cities. The root word is urban meaning “city.” Cities grew rapidly during the 2nd Industrial Revolution.
  • 3. Write: Since factories were built in or near cities; they drew people who were looking for employment.
  • 4. Pittsburgh—steel Chicago—meat packing Detroit—car manufacturing New York—clothing factories
  • 5. Urban Life in America How did the look of cities change? Write: Buildings got much taller and could house (hold) more people.
  • 6. Write:  Increases in immigration  Widespread industrialization  Improvements in agricultural technology  advancements in networks of railroad and streetcar lines
  • 7. As immigration into the United States increased, many immigrants arrived in major ports on the East Coast and settled close to these places of entry. In addition to this increase in population, people were moving towards urban areas in search of work because of new farming technology that required fewer farm workers. Industrialization resulted in large numbers of factories being built in urban areas. All of these changes resulted in cities developing, or the geographic process of urbanization.
  • 8. What was the purpose of Central Park in New York? Write: To preserve open green space within a growing, crowded city.
  • 9. How did cities change in the late 1800s? Write:  buildings grew taller;  cities more crowded;  new city parks;  settlement house movement began
  • 10. What was urban life like at the turn of century? Wealthy Class Wealthy: flaunted wealth;  Middle class: had time and money for leisure activities  Working class: lived in tenements, paid low wages, extremely poor. Middle Class  Working Poor Class
  • 11. The wealthy The middle class The poor working class Most made their money in industry and business. urban middle class was made up of corporate employees such as accountants and managers, and professionals Most people in the cities lived in poverty. showed off their wealth in many ways, especially in their homes such as teachers, engineers, Wages were low, and lawyers, and doctors housing shortages meant that many people lived in crowded tenements built houses resembling medieval castles and Italian Renaissance palaces 1870s and 1880s, professional organizations began to set standards for certain occupations such as medicine, education, and the law. Had time and money for leisure activities Tenement life was unhealthy. Buildings did not have sufficient light or ventilation--few windows overlooked streets and alleys filled with trash and sewage. No indoor plumbing
  • 12. Define settlement house Who was Jane Addams? Write: Settlement house: neighborhood center staffed by professionals and volunteers for education, recreation, and social activities in poor areas Jane Addams: American social worker and activist; she was the cofounder of Hull House, an organization that focused on the needs of immigrants. Christian Association: Russian class learning to speak English: "My Country 'Tis of Thee"
  • 13. How did the social gospel idea influence the rise of settlement houses? Write: The social gospel taught that faith without good works was useless, and that Christians had a duty to help the less fortunate in solving social problems such as poverty. Christian Association: Russian class learning to speak English: "My Country 'Tis of Thee"
  • 14. What did the crowding of cities lead to? Write: Crowding of cities led to increased crime with the development of gangs.
  • 15. Societal Changes Impact on Society Positive Growth of the Middle Class Increased availability of consumer goods Improved transportation systems Increased levels of immigration Unsanitary, overcrowded urban housing conditions Growth of corporations: created monopolies/trustseliminated competition Longer working hours—unsafe working conditions— child labor Increased labor union activity Negative
  • 16. Political Scandal and Reform READ: By the late 1800s many American cities had problems such as crime, bad housing, and poor sanitation. In some cities, control of local government passed to a political machine, which was an organization of professional politicians. Political machines made cities run better, but they were often corrupt. Source: http://my.hrw.com
  • 17. Political Scandal and Reform Define: Political Machines Write: They were organized groups of dishonest politicians who had two main goals:  Get the group’s own candidates elected to all the top jobs in the city government.  Once in control of the city government, use that power to make the leaders of the organization rich. Source: http://www.fasttrackteaching.com/burns/Unit_4_Cities/U4_Tammany_Hall_NYC.html
  • 18. Political Scandal and Reform This cartoon from the era depicts Tweed leaning on the ballot box with a sign that reads "In counting there is strength," referring to the questionable counting procedures that plagued New York politics at this time. 
  • 19. How did political machine bosses gain support from voters? Bosses won support giving people jobs or helping their families. In return, they expected votes, won elections by fraud and used their positions to gain money, demanding bribes in exchange for city contracts. 
  • 20. How did the gangs of New York serve the machine bosses? Write: They used force during elections to get people to vote for the politician that they supported.
  • 21. Explain the significance of Tammany Hall. Write: It was a notorious New York City machine. Its political boss, William Marcy Tweed, was eventually convicted of fraud and sent to prison. "Tammany Hall, located on West 14th Street in New York City, ca. 1914. Tammany Hall was the meeting place for, and popular name of, the Democratic Party political machine that dominated much of New York City's political life until 1933." [Library of Congress]