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Topic 5-unions-Industrial-Revolution
 

Topic 5-unions-Industrial-Revolution

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  • Check bell journal file (unions).
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Topic 5-unions-Industrial-Revolution Topic 5-unions-Industrial-Revolution Presentation Transcript

  • Write: Explain the major social and economic effects of industrialization and the influence of the growth of organized labor following Reconstruction in the United States. Read: The rise of industrialization led to a rapidly expanding workforce. Labor organizations grew amidst unregulated working conditions and violence toward supporters of organized labor.
  • Find the answer: The rise of industrialization in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries increased the demand (need) for workers. With this demand, immigrants came from other countries and Americans migrated from other parts of the United States to take jobs in industrial centers.
  • Write:  It is a part of capitalism/market economy  It calls for the complete non-involvement of government in the economy.  The approach is one of “hands-off”, in which prices, quality and competitive practices are solely determined by competition. Read:  This approach was advocated by the English economist Adam Smith in his work The Wealth of Nations and followed by the US government up until the late 1800’s, early 1900’s
  • Write: Some members of the working class formed labor organizations (e.g., American Railway Union, American Federation of Labor, Industrial Workers of the World, United Mine Workers of America) to protect their rights. Write: Workers sought to address issues such as working conditions, wages and terms of employment.
  •  Write: The government had little concern for workers. What was the laissez-faire climate concerning the government in the late 1800s? Note the sword is titled “legislation”
  • Write: Laissez-faire resulted in business being allowed to have unsafe, unsanitary, working conditions. Businesses could pay their workers as little as they wanted. This resulted in many abuses being committed against workers.
  • Write: Because the U.S. government allowed such conditions to develop, it later led to the growth of labor unions to correct abuses against workers The lack of government regulation affected the working conditions of the laborers.
  • Laissez-faire Climate Laissez-faire climate of the late 1800s, the government had little concern for welfare of workers Many industrial workers were scraping by on less than $500 per year. Because of corporations political influence on government, the government grew uneasy about the power of corporations. The rich were VERY rich!!!! 1890 an estimated 10% of the population held 75% of the nation’s wealth creating a HUGE inequality between the classes. 1890 Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act. It made it illegal to form trusts that interfered with free trade. The act wasn’t very powerful because the government only prosecuted a few companies, but it was a first move away from the government’s policy of laissez-faire.
  • Cartoon Explanation: Monopoly the ship on the right, blasts Competition the sinking ship. Uncle Sam, far left, readies to fire a tiny cannon from Fort Legislation. Write: The act was ineffective because the government prosecuted only a few companies.
  • Write: Workers had low wages; long hours; unsafe working conditions; no benefits
  • Write: During industrialization, the U.S. government took a laissez-faire approach to business; the government allowed the market to regulate itself without much government interference.  Many businesses allowed unsafe working practices in order to achieve higher profits. Write: As a result of unsafe working conditions, low wages and long working hours, labor unions formed to fight for federal regulation of working conditions
  • Write: Many industry owners felt threatened by the growth of unions in the late 1800’s. They rightly feared that union growth could force them into conceding higher wages, improved conditions and shorter work hours. In the late 1800’s they were successful in suppressing strong union growth.
  •  Unions kept on organizing.  In 1886 a group of workers led by Samuel Gompers formed the American Federation of Labor (AFL).  The AFL won wage increases and shorter workweeks.
  • Write: Industrialization changed the way people worked in United States: Workers organized unions to collectively bargain for various rights within the workplace, such as:  regulated pay and hours, and improved sanitary and safety conditions.
  • Write: eight hour work day; end of child labor; equal pay for equal work
  • Workers Organize: The American Workforce Many factory workers were European immigrants Others were rural Americans who left the farm because farm machines replaced them Workers often worked 12-16 hours a day, worked 6 days a week. African-Americans generally held lower paying jobs as laborers or household help The workplace was unhealthy, poor sanitation, unsafe working conditions, etc. No paid vacation, no paid holidays, no sick leave May industrial workers were children. By 1900 about 1 in 6 children ages 10-15 held a job outside the home. No compensation for work injuries, which were common
  • Workers Organize: Workers protest against cut in wages Workers from two railroad companies blocked the movement of trains The strike spread to other Railroad companies stopping most freight traffic for over a week Violent clashes between workers and militia led to numerous deaths Mob violence in Pittsburgh caused millions of dollars in damage The Army was dispatched to end the strike
  • Write: Unions grew because workers responded to the violence against supporters of organized labor (e.g., Great Railroad Strike, Haymarket Riot, Homestead Strike, Pullman Strike).
  • Write: Someone threw a bomb, and people panicked; 11 people dead; more than 100 injured. Write: People immediately blamed foreign-born unionists for the violence. 1. The American workforce e.) The Haymarket Riot
  • Based on this time line, what was one way workers responded to their working conditions between 1869 and 1902? Write: Based on this time line, what was one way workers responded to their working conditions between 1869 and 1902?