The Progressives, 1898–1920
Topic 4 Theodore Roosevelt—
Progressive Presidents
Write 1. LESSON OBJECTIVE : I C A N
E X P L...
Read

What was Theodore Roosevelt’s view
of the role of the president?
How did Roosevelt attempt to regulate
big business?...
•At 42, the
Read youngest
President ever.
•A man of
privilege –
supports the
common man.

•The first
―modern
president.‖
ROOSEVELT’S VIEW OF
THE PRESIDENCY
What was Theodore Roosevelt’s view of
the role of the president?

Taking Office
Bully pulpit

Read

 He saw the White

Ho...
Do Presidents Still Use the Bully Pulpit?
Read
The Washington Post

The news today that
President Obama will hold
a prime-...
What was the reason for the 1902 coal strike?
The coal strike of 1902

Miners
wanted
higher
wages,
shorter
hours, &
recogn...
2. Discuss Roosevelt’s strategy to settle the
coal strike.
Write
The coal strike of 1902
 He urged arbitration (two



...
Write

3. Define: Square Deal

Theodore Roosevelt's 1904 campaign slogan;
expressed his belief that the needs of workers,
...
4. In what way did the coal strike agreement
represent a ―Square Deal‖?
Taking office
The coal strike of 1902

Write

 Bo...
How is the ―Square Deal‖ fair to everyone?
Read
It is the belief that needs of
workers, business, &
consumers should be
ba...
REGULATING BIG
BUSINESS
Trust-busting

5. What is trustbusting?

breaking up
monopolies &
trusts—big
monopoly
companies
must now be
broken into
mu...
What does the political cartoon imply that trusts
can do to the United States (Lady Liberty)?

Read
Monopolies can endange...
Roosevelt’s policy:

Read
Bust trusts that do not
serve the public interest.
6. Explain President Roosevelt’s view of
trusts.
Write

Trusts are not
necessarily bad.
Good trusts, those
that serve the
...
How does this political portray Teddy Roosevelt?
How does this political portray Teddy Roosevelt?
Regulating the railroads
a. Elkins Act
b. Hepburn Act

7. Name and explain the two acts
that regulated shipping rates with...
What caused improvements within meatpacking and drug industries?
Protecting consumers
Upton Sinclair

Read

 Muckraker’s
...
Record major legislation regulating business
during Roosevelt’s presidency.
Read
LAW

PURPOSE

Elkins Act

prohibited rail...
Record major legislation regulating business
during Roosevelt’s presidency.
LAW

PURPOSE

Elkins Act

prohibited railroads...
How did Roosevelt attempt to regulate big
business?
Read
 He regulated big

business through:
 legislation,
 trust-bust...
ENVIRONMENTAL
CONSERVATION
OBJECTIVE: I WILL EXPLAIN
HOW PERCEPTIONS OF
WILDERNESS IN THE UNITED
STATES HAVE CHANGED OVER
...
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION
8. What did the 1890 U.S.
Census lead some people to
conclude ?
That there was no longer
a fron...
ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION
 Roosevelt

Read

 Early in the 20th

century, advocated the
conservation of the
nation’s nat...
9. Define: Newlands Reclamation Act of 1902
 Allowed the Fed. Govt.

to create irrigation
projects to make dry
lands prod...
10. What was Roosevelt’s
philosophy about
conserving the
environment?
 Before Roosevelt’s

presidency, Business
needs had...
11. How did Roosevelt carry out his philosophy?

Roosevelt established U.S.
Forest Service. The Forest
Service created nat...
What were John Muir’s ideas about conservation of
Yosemite?
Read
 Muir wanted all of

Yosemite preserved
and protected in...
12. Describe the environmental problems
facing the nation in the late 1800s.
Write
Some of the problems
included
deforesta...
Gifford Pinchot
 Roosevelt established

Forest Service with
Pinchot as its chief.
 Added nearly 150 million
acres to the...
FEDERAL CONSERVATION LANDS IN THE
WEST, 1908
First President to take actions
toward conservation of the
environment
Progressivism under Taft
Write 13. Define: Sixteenth Amendment
(1913) law that allowed
Congress to levy taxes
based on an individual's
income

The ...
Wilson’s New Freedom
THE NEW FREEDOM PLATFORM CALLED FOR
TARIFF REDUCTIONS, BANKING REFORM,
AND STRONGER ANTITRUST LEGISLA...
Tariff reduction
This law reduced tariffs to
their lowest levels in more
than 50 years.
Tariff reduction meant
that the go...
Tariff reduction
The answer was an income
tax. The Underwood
Tariff Act also
introduced a graduated
income tax, which woul...
14. Define: Federal Reserve Act
(1913) law that created a
central fund from which
banks could borrow to
prevent collapse d...
Stronger antitrust laws:
15. Define: Clayton Antitrust Act
(1914) law that prohibited
companies from buying the
stock of c...
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Topic 4-roosevelt-and-Progressive-Presidents

  1. 1. The Progressives, 1898–1920 Topic 4 Theodore Roosevelt— Progressive Presidents Write 1. LESSON OBJECTIVE : I C A N E X P L A I N T H E G OA L S A N D O U TCO M ES O F T H E P RO G R ES S I V E P R ES I D E N T T H EO D O R E RO O S E V E LT CO N C E R N I N G B U S I N ES S R EG U L AT I O N A N D A N T I T R U ST L EG I S L AT I O N .
  2. 2. Read What was Theodore Roosevelt’s view of the role of the president? How did Roosevelt attempt to regulate big business? What was Roosevelt’s philosophy about conserving the environment, and how did he carry out his philosophy?
  3. 3. •At 42, the Read youngest President ever. •A man of privilege – supports the common man. •The first ―modern president.‖
  4. 4. ROOSEVELT’S VIEW OF THE PRESIDENCY
  5. 5. What was Theodore Roosevelt’s view of the role of the president? Taking Office Bully pulpit Read  He saw the White House as a bully pulpit a powerful platform  Presidents publicize important issues and seek support for his policies.
  6. 6. Do Presidents Still Use the Bully Pulpit? Read The Washington Post The news today that President Obama will hold a prime-time press conference Wednesday came just minutes after he finished an impromptu address on health care -- the two latest pieces of evidence that the White House will lean heavily on the chief executive's personal popularity and magnetism to get a health care bill to his desk.
  7. 7. What was the reason for the 1902 coal strike? The coal strike of 1902 Miners wanted higher wages, shorter hours, & recognition of union. Read
  8. 8. 2. Discuss Roosevelt’s strategy to settle the coal strike. Write The coal strike of 1902  He urged arbitration (two     opposing sides agree to allow a third party to settle a dispute); workers agreed to accept arbitration, mine owners refused. As winter drew nearer, Roosevelt threatened to take over the mines. threat finally convinced the mine owners to agree to his arbitration plan.
  9. 9. Write 3. Define: Square Deal Theodore Roosevelt's 1904 campaign slogan; expressed his belief that the needs of workers, business, and consumers should be balanced, and called for limiting the power of trusts, promoting public health and safety, and improving working conditions
  10. 10. 4. In what way did the coal strike agreement represent a ―Square Deal‖? Taking office The coal strike of 1902 Write  Both labor and business gained some and lost some of the things they wanted, but consumers benefited.  They gave the workers a shorter workday and higher pay  but did not require the mining companies to recognize the union.
  11. 11. How is the ―Square Deal‖ fair to everyone? Read It is the belief that needs of workers, business, & consumers should be balanced.
  12. 12. REGULATING BIG BUSINESS
  13. 13. Trust-busting 5. What is trustbusting? breaking up monopolies & trusts—big monopoly companies must now be broken into multiple smaller companies. Write
  14. 14. What does the political cartoon imply that trusts can do to the United States (Lady Liberty)? Read Monopolies can endanger democracy.
  15. 15. Roosevelt’s policy: Read Bust trusts that do not serve the public interest.
  16. 16. 6. Explain President Roosevelt’s view of trusts. Write Trusts are not necessarily bad. Good trusts, those that serve the public interest, should be allowed to exist.
  17. 17. How does this political portray Teddy Roosevelt?
  18. 18. How does this political portray Teddy Roosevelt?
  19. 19. Regulating the railroads a. Elkins Act b. Hepburn Act 7. Name and explain the two acts that regulated shipping rates within the railroad industry?  The Elkins Act and the Write Hepburn Act  Elkins Act prohibited railroads from accepting rebates--ensured that all customers paid the same rates  Hepburn Act strengthened (ICC), giving it the power to set maximum railroad rates. --also gave the ICC the power to regulate other companies that were engaged in interstate commerce.
  20. 20. What caused improvements within meatpacking and drug industries? Protecting consumers Upton Sinclair Read  Muckraker’s exposure of abuses.  Example: The novel, The Jungle, led to reports from Secretary of Agriculture helped cause improvements.
  21. 21. Record major legislation regulating business during Roosevelt’s presidency. Read LAW PURPOSE Elkins Act prohibited railroads from accepting rebates Hepburn Act authorized ICC to set maximum railroad rates Meat Inspection Act required federal inspection of meat shipped across state line Pure Food and Drug Act forbade manufacture, sale, or transportation of food and patent medicine containing harmful ingredients  Some food producers resorted to clever tricks to pass off tainted foods:  Poultry sellers added formaldehyde, a chemical used in embalming dead bodies, to old eggs to hide their foul odor.  Unwary consumers bought the tainted food and were tricked into thinking it was healthy.
  22. 22. Record major legislation regulating business during Roosevelt’s presidency. LAW PURPOSE Elkins Act prohibited railroads from accepting rebates Hepburn Act authorized ICC to set maximum railroad rates Meat Inspection Act forbade manufacture, sale, or transportation of food and patent medicine containing harmful ingredients  Ink required federal inspection of meat shipped across state line Pure Food and Drug Act  Think  share
  23. 23. How did Roosevelt attempt to regulate big business? Read  He regulated big business through:  legislation,  trust-busting,  railroad regulations,  Meat Inspection  Pure Food and Drug Acts.
  24. 24. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION OBJECTIVE: I WILL EXPLAIN HOW PERCEPTIONS OF WILDERNESS IN THE UNITED STATES HAVE CHANGED OVER TIME.
  25. 25. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION 8. What did the 1890 U.S. Census lead some people to conclude ? That there was no longer a frontier line in the West.
  26. 26. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION  Roosevelt Read  Early in the 20th century, advocated the conservation of the nation’s natural resources.
  27. 27. 9. Define: Newlands Reclamation Act of 1902  Allowed the Fed. Govt. to create irrigation projects to make dry lands productive.  This Act aims to provide financial backing to farmers who are unable to carry out their irrigation due to financial constraints.
  28. 28. 10. What was Roosevelt’s philosophy about conserving the environment?  Before Roosevelt’s presidency, Business needs had always taken priority over the environment. But Roosevelt recognized that natural resources were limited, and he believed their use needed to be controlled.
  29. 29. 11. How did Roosevelt carry out his philosophy? Roosevelt established U.S. Forest Service. The Forest Service created national monuments, and national parks. Teddy Roosevelt and John Muir in Yosemite in 1903
  30. 30. What were John Muir’s ideas about conservation of Yosemite? Read  Muir wanted all of Yosemite preserved and protected in its natural state.
  31. 31. 12. Describe the environmental problems facing the nation in the late 1800s. Write Some of the problems included deforestation (cutting of trees-destroying forests); over grazing of cattle, water pollution.
  32. 32. Gifford Pinchot  Roosevelt established Forest Service with Pinchot as its chief.  Added nearly 150 million acres to the national forests,  controlled their use, and regulated their harvest.  The Antiquities Act of 1906 led to the creation of 18 national monuments Read Gifford Pinchot Seated And Writing At A Desk
  33. 33. FEDERAL CONSERVATION LANDS IN THE WEST, 1908
  34. 34. First President to take actions toward conservation of the environment
  35. 35. Progressivism under Taft
  36. 36. Write 13. Define: Sixteenth Amendment (1913) law that allowed Congress to levy taxes based on an individual's income The Taft administration also is credited with passage of the Sixteenth Amendment. Introduced during the Taft years but ratified in 1913 after Taft left office
  37. 37. Wilson’s New Freedom THE NEW FREEDOM PLATFORM CALLED FOR TARIFF REDUCTIONS, BANKING REFORM, AND STRONGER ANTITRUST LEGISLATION— CAUSES DEAR TO THE HEARTS OF PROGRESSIVES.
  38. 38. Tariff reduction This law reduced tariffs to their lowest levels in more than 50 years. Tariff reduction meant that the government had less income, however. How would the nation make up the shortfall?
  39. 39. Tariff reduction The answer was an income tax. The Underwood Tariff Act also introduced a graduated income tax, which would assess people at different rates according to their income levels. Wealthier people would pay more; poorer people would pay less.
  40. 40. 14. Define: Federal Reserve Act (1913) law that created a central fund from which banks could borrow to prevent collapse during a financial panic. The Federal Reserve Act was passed to control the nation’s money supply and regulate the banking system.
  41. 41. Stronger antitrust laws: 15. Define: Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) law that prohibited companies from buying the stock of competing companies in order to form a monopoly, forbade companies from selling goods below cost with the goal of driving their competitors out of business and made strikes, boycotts, and peaceful picketing legal for the first time.
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