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Introduction to Qualitative and Mixed-methods Research
 

Introduction to Qualitative and Mixed-methods Research

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An introductory presentation on qualitative & mixed-methods research given in a quantiative research workshop!

An introductory presentation on qualitative & mixed-methods research given in a quantiative research workshop!

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  • Ethnography: study a group in a natural setting over a prolonged period of timePhenomenology: identify the essence of human experiences about a phenomenon as described by participants.studying a small number of participants through extensive & prolonged engagementCase studies: The researcher explores in depth a program, event, activity, process, or one or more individualsNarrative research:The researcher studies the lives of individuals and asks one or more individuals to provide stories about their lives

Introduction to Qualitative and Mixed-methods Research Introduction to Qualitative and Mixed-methods Research Presentation Transcript

  • Qualitative & Mixed-MethodsResearch
    SohailBajammal, MBChB, MSc, FRCS(C), PhD(c)
    Assistant Professor, Faculty of Medicine
    Vice Dean, Academic Development, Faculty of Dentistry
    Umm Al-Qura University
    ssbajammal@uqu.edu.sa
  • Quantitative
    Qualitative
    Mixed-Methods
    Numbers
    Words
    Actions
    Reactions
  • Not everything that can be counted counts,
    and
    not everythingthat counts can be counted.
    Albert Einstein
  • EBM
    Research Evidence
    Patients’ Preferences
    Clinical Expertise
    Clinical Context
    Haynes et al. BMJ 2002;324:1350
  • Everyday
    New Patient
    QUALITATIVE  quantitative
    Follow-up Patient
    QUANTITATIVE  qualitative
  • Questions
    How do trauma patients with quadriplegia in the Western region – Saudi Arabia rehabilitate?
    What are the important aspects of quality of life for Saudi patients?
    What are the barriers to conduct RCTs in Saudi Arabia?
  • Learning Outcomes
    By the end of the lecture, you will be able to:
    Identify:
    What is qualitative research? characteristics?
    When to use it?
    Identify:
    What is mixed-methods research? types?
    When to use it?
  • Qualitative Research
  • Types of Research Questions
    Quantitative: (cause, determine, relate, influence)
    Does A cause/correlate with B?
    Which is better A or B in terms of diagnosis, treatment, or prognosis?
    Qualitative: (discover, understand, explore, describe)
    What?
    How?
    Why?
  • Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
  • Characteristics of Qualitative
    Natural settings
    Researcher as key instrument
    Multiple sources of data: interviews, observations, documents
    Inductive data analysis
    Participants’ meanings
    Emergent design
    Theoretical lens: sampling, saturation, integrating
    Interpretive
    Holistic account
    Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
  • When to use qualitative?
    Investigate complex phenomena that are difficult to measure quantitatively
    Generate data necessary for a comprehensive understanding of a problem
    Gain insights into potential causal mechanisms
    Develop quantitative measurement instruments
    Study special populations (those traditionally underrepresented in research, low literacy)
    Curry et al, Circulation 2009
  • Investigate complex phenomena that are difficult to measure quantitatively
  • Generate data necessary for a comprehensive understanding of a problem
  • Common Strategies (Approaches) of Qualitative Research
    Culture-sharing behavior of groups
    Ethnography
    Phenomenology
    Narrative research
    Case studies
    Grounded theory
    Individuals
    Explore processes, activities, events
  • Data Collection Methods
    Observation  field notes
    Interviews  transcripts
    One-on-one: in-depth, open-ended
    Focus group
    Documents content analysis
    Audio-visual materials  analysis
  • Qualitative Data Analysis
    Data Collection
    Data Analysis
  • Qualitative Data Analysis
    Raw Data (transcripts, field notes, images)
    Organizing data for analysis
    Reading through all data
    Coding the data  Themes
    Integrating themes, diagramming  Interpreting
  • Data
  • Computer-Aided Qualitative Analysis
    ATLAS.ti
    NVivo
    MAXqda
  • NVivo
  • NVivo
  • www.researchsupport.com.au
  • “Validity” Strategies
    Rationale for choosing an approach
    Triangulation of methods
    Interviewers training
    Member checking
    Rich, thick description
    Reflectivity
    Peer debriefing  Cross-coding
    Documentation External auditor
  • Mixed-Methods
  • What is mixed-methods research?
    Combining
    qualitative & quantitative research
    1960s
  • Aspects in Mixed-Methods
    Timing: sequentially or concurrently
    Emphasis:qualitative, quantitative, or both
    Mixing:integrating, connecting, or embedding
  • 1. Sequential Explanatory
    QUAN
    qual
    Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
  • 2. Sequential Exploratory
    QUAL
    quan
    Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
  • 3. Concurrent Triangulation
    QUAL
    QUAN
    QUAN
    Data Collection
    QUAL
    Data Collection
    QUAN
    Data Analysis
    QUAL
    Data Analysis
    Data Results Compared
    Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
  • 4. Concurrent Embedded
    QUAN
    qual
    Creswell J. Research Design. 2009
  • Lewin et al, BMJ 2009
  • Publishing
  • Resources
  • Books
    Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. John Creswell. 3rd Edition. 2009. SAGE Publications.
  • Articles
  • People
    Look around in your university:
    Nursing
    Medical Educationalist
    Psychology
    Sociology
    Medical Geography
  • Questions
    How do Saudi patients with quadriplegia in the Western region rehabilitate?
    What are the important aspects of quality of life for Saudi patients?
    What are the barriers to conduct RCTs in Saudi Arabia?
  • Summary
    Patients talk, act & react  not numbers
    Qualitative is helpful when nothing or little is known about a condition or environment
    GOOD qualitative research needs lots of work
    Be pragmatic
    ssbajammal@uqu.edu.sa