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Introduction to Periodontics

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Introduction Lecture explain the basic terms in Periodontology and the classification of periodontal disease

Introduction Lecture explain the basic terms in Periodontology and the classification of periodontal disease

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  • 1.                  
    Introduction to Periodontics 
    Prof Dr .EmanAbd El SattarTella
    Umm Al-Qura University
    Faculty of Dentistry
  • 2. Periodontics
    Difinition: That branch of dentistry that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disease and conditions of supporting and surrounding tissues of the teeth.
  • 3. Periodontology: The scientific study of the periodontium in health and disease
    Periodontist: Dental practitioner who
    by virtue of special knowledge and
    training in the field limits his practice or
    activities to periodontics.
    Periodontitis: Inflammation of the
    supporting tissue of the teeth
    ientificstudyof
  • 4. peri ………..around
    odous ……….. tooth
    logous ………. Study
    itis …… inflammation
  • 5. Periodontium
    The tissues that invest and support the teeth including the:
    Gingiva / Alveolar Mucosa
    Periodontal Ligament
    Alveolar Bone
    Cementum.
  • 6. PERIODONTIUM
    Pulpcavity
    Enamel
    Cementum
    Dentin
    Gingiva
    PDL
    Alveolarbone
    Cementum
    Sharpey'sfibers
    Periodontal
    ligament
    Attachment
    organ
    Rootcanal
    Alveolarbone
    Apicalforamen
    Alveolarvessels
    &nerves
  • 7.
  • 8. Gingiva:keratinized epithelium, which immediately surrounds a tooth and is contiguous with a periodontal ligament and with the mucosal tissues of the mouth
  • 9. Gingiva
    Marginal / Free Gingiva
    Attached Gingiva
    InterdentalGingiva
  • 10. Gingiva
    • Contour (marginal gingiva)
    Follows a scalloped outline on facial and lingual surfaces
  • 11. Normal Periodontium
    Width of Keratinized gingiva
    (distance from gingival margin to
    mucogingival junction) Varies
    Individually
  • 12. Gingiva
    Interdental areas
    occupies interproximal space
    Beneath tooth contact areas.
    shape depends on contact points between adjoining teeth. may take a pyramidal (tip of one papilla is located immediately beneath the contact point) shape; or “col”
    shape( a vally like depression that connect
    the facial and lingual papilla)
  • 13. Gingival sulcus (crevice): Shallow fissure (space) between the marginal gingiva and the enamel or cementum. The clinical normal gingival sulcus in human is 2 to 3 mm, can be determined clinically with a periodontal probe (probing depth).
  • 14. Periodontal ligament (PDL): The CT that surrounds and attaches roots of teeth to the alveolar bone.
    It consists of bundles of collagen fibers arranged into a network referred as principle fibers.
  • 15. Roles of PDL:
    • Mechanical functions
    • 16. Formative function
    • 17. Nutritive function
    • 18. Sensory function
  • Cementum
    Cementum:
    The calcified avascular
    mesenchymal tissue that form the outer covering of the anatomic root.
  • 19. Two main Types:
    • acellualr (primary).
    • cellular (secondary
  • 20. Alveolar bone:are the parts of the maxilla and mandible providing the housing for the roots of the teeth.
  • 21. Alveolar bone:
    1-alveolar bone proper
    (lamina dura in radiographs)
    2-trabecular bone
    3-compact bone
  • 22. Functions of Periodontium
    • Attach tooth the bony housing an d to another tooth
    • 23. Resist and resolve the forces generated by mastication, speech and deglutition
    • 24. Adjust for structural changes associated with wear and aging through continuous remodeling and regeneration
    • 25. Defined against the noxious external environment that are present in the oral cavity
  • Classification of Periodontal Disease
  • 26. Classification of Periodontal Diseases
    I. Gingival Diseases.
    II. Chronic Periodontitis.
    III. Aggressive Periodontitis.
    IV. Periodontitis as a Manifestation of Systemic Diseases.
    V. Necrotizing Periodontal Diseases.
    VI. Abscesses of Periodontium.
    VII. Periodontitis Associated with Endodontic lesions.
    VIII. Development or Acquired deformities and Conditions
  • 27. Classification of Periodontal Diseases.
    I. Gingivitis
    II. Chronic Periodontitis
  • 28. Dental Plaque-Induced Gingival Diseases
    Plaque-Induced gingivitis:
    An inflammation of the gingiva resulting
    from dental plaque
  • 29. Gingival DiseasesDental Plaque-Induced Gingival Diseases
    Marginal gingivitis:
    Involves the gingival margin and may
    include a portion of the contiguous
    attached gingiva.
  • 30. Diffuse gingivitis:
    Affects the gingival margin, the attached
    gingiva and the interdental papillae
  • 31. Clinical Features of gingivitis
    Erythema (redness)
    Edema(swelling)
    Absence of stippling
    Bleeding on probing or spontaneous.
  • 32. Etiology of Periodontal Diseases
    • Bacterial Plaque (Primary Factor)
    • 33. Secondary/Predisposing Factors
  • Bacterial Plaque
    Bacterial aggregation on the teeth or other solid oral structures It consists of: Bacteria
    Organic : protein, polysaccharide …..
    Inorganic: calcium, phosphorus …
  • 34. Secondary/Predisposing Factors
    Dental Calculus: Mineralized dental plaque attached and covering the enamel and/or root surface.
  • 35. CHRONIC PERIODONTITIS
  • 36. Chronic Periodontitis
    Definition: An infectious disease resulting in inflammation within the supporting tissues of the teeth, progressive attachment and bone loss.
  • 37. Chronic Periodontitis
    Characteristics:
    • Most prevalent in Adults, but can occur in children and adolescents.
    • Amount of destruction is consistent with the presence of local factors.
  • 38. Chronic Periodontitis
    General Clinical Features:
    • supra & sub gingival plaque accumulation that is frequently associated with calculus formation.
    • gingival inflammation
  • 39. General Clinical Features:
    • Periodontal pocket formation with variable depth.
    • Horizontal and/or vertical bone loss detected radiographically.
  • 40.
  • 41. Eliminate gingival inflammation
    -Oral hygiene(plaque control)
    -Scaling and root planing
    -Local or systemic antimicrobials
    Aim of Periodontal Therapy
  • 42. Plaque control
    1.Tooth brush methods
    Roll method or modified Stillman technique.
    Charter and Bass technique.
    2.Interdental cleaning aids
    Dental floss
    Interproximal brush
    Single tufted brush