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# Logical reasoning-and-analytical-ability-cause-and-effect

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Logical reasoning and analytical ability, cause and effect

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### Logical reasoning-and-analytical-ability-cause-and-effect

1. 1. Click Here to Join Online Coaching Click Here www.upscportal.com Logical Reasoning & Analytical Ability
2. 2. www.upscportal.com Click Here to Join Online Coaching Click Here When we examine things then we seek to explain why the things happened the way they did. We categorize these questions as cause and effect reasoning. The strong points behind any reason are known as ‘cause’ and the impact of the cause is known as ‘effect’. Usually in such questions the candidates are asked to determine whether a given event is the cause or the effect of some other event. Clearly, the cause must occur before the effect and the effect happens at same point of time after the cause. This test is step to test candidates’ ability to analyse a pair of given statements and to correlate them of cause and effect. There may be several necessary conditions for the occurrence of an event and that they must all be included in the sufficient condition. Further going on practice first we should learn some rules. These are Rule 1: The cause will always occur before the effect. Hence, if two events are given then the effect that is chronologically antecedent to the other can only be regarded as a possible cause. Cause and Effect
3. 3. www.upscportal.com Click Here to Join Online Coaching Click Here Rule 2: A necessary condition for the occurrence of a specified event is a circumstance in whose absence the event cannot occur. Rule 3: A sufficient condition for the occurrence of an event is a circumstance in whose presence the event must occur. Rule 4: Both the events express generalized results that may not be backed by any specific cause but may influence certain other factors. Rule 5: The effects in both the given statements may be caused or triggered by a third unmentioned event which may thus be called the common cause of the given events. Basic Question Format: In such questions, two statements numbered I and II are given. There may be the cause and effect relationship between the two statements. These two statements may be the effect of the same cause or independent causes. These statements may be independent causes without having any relationship. Read both the statements in each question and mark your answer accordingly. Give answer
4. 4. www.upscportal.com Click Here to Join Online Coaching Click Here (a) If statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect (b) If statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect (c) If both the statements I and II are independent causes (d) If both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes ‘Smart’ Facts Let us learn how we can easily solve these problems using ‘smart’ facts (a) If first event I is in present perfect tense and II is in future tense. Eliminate choice (a) and (c). As event II cannot be a cause or event I. (b) If event I is in present perfect and event II is in present continuous, so event I occurs before II. Thus eliminate choice (a) and (c). (c) Event I is in present perfect tense and event II is in present continuous, so event I occurs before event II. Hence, event II cannot be a cause. Thus eliminate choices (a) and (c).
5. 5. www.upscportal.com Click Here to Join Online Coaching Click Here Example: In each of the following questions two statements numbered I and II are given. These may be cause and effect relationship between the two statements. These two statements may be the effect of the same cause or independent causes. These statements may be independent causes without having any relationship. Read both the statements in each question and mark your answer as. (a) If statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect (b) If statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect (c) If both the statements I and II are independent causes (d) If both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes Example 1 I. The local co-operative credit society has decided to stop giving loans to farmers with immediate effect II. A large number of credit society members have withdrawn major part of their deposits from the credit society
6. 6. www.upscportal.com Click Here to Join Online Coaching Click Here Solution. Clearly, withdrawn of funds by society members is bound to reduce the lending power of the society. So, option (b) is our answer. Example 2 I. The police authority has recently caught a group of house breakers II. The citizens group in the locality have started playing cricket in the area Solution. Clearly both the statements are independent causes and have no casual relation between them. So, option (c) is our answer. Example 3 I. A peace accord was signed between the government and the ultras and a popular government was democratically established in Mizoram. II. Mizoram is peaceful now.
7. 7. www.upscportal.com Click Here to Join Online Coaching Click Here Solution. Event I is past tense and event II is in present tense. So, event II must be an effect. Obviously II is caused by an agreement of Peace (Peace accord) and the democratic execution of the agreement. So, option (a) is our answer. Example 4 I. The government has decided to make all the information related to primary education available to the general public. II. In the past, the general public did not have access to all these information related to primary education. Solution. The government must have seen the unawareness of the people as a strong factor in the primary education programme being not successful. The steps indicated in I must, thus have been sought for as a remedy for the same. So, option (b) is our answer.