Aspirants Times Magazine Vol7 [Www.Upscportal.Com]


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Aspirants Times Magazine Vol7 [Www.Upscportal.Com]

UPSC, Civil Services, ICS, UPSCPORTAL, IAS, PCS, IFS, UPPSC, MPPSC, HPPSC, UTPSC, RPSC, TNPSC, KPSC, Public Administration, Indian Administrative Services, Coaching, Brilliant, Chanakya,Chemistry, Mathematics,Medical Science, Anthropology,Chemistry, IAS Study Group, Mock Exam, Online Test

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Aspirants Times Magazine Vol7 [Www.Upscportal.Com]

  1. 1. Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 1
  2. 2. INDEX Editorial • Self Confidence Brings Success…............................................................................03 SECTION - 1: Articles • Moon Mission Chandrayaan-I ................................................................................04 • Doha Talks ...............................................................................................................19 • Hindi Article: ( ¤ÉÉ±É ¸É¨É =x¨ÉÚ±ÉxÉ )..................................................................................26 SECTION - 2: Hot Topics PSLV-C14 Successfully Launched Oceansat-2 ............................................................32 SECTION - 3: Current Relevant Facts.....................................................................36 SECTION -4: Sports ...............................................................................................50 SECTION -5: Awards...............................................................................................55 SECTION - 6: Mains Special • Science & Technology ..............................................................................................58 • Social Problems & Welfare Schemes........................................................................85 • Economy ...............................................................................................................103 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 2
  3. 3. Self Confidence Brings Success… Now that you may be sitting for the IAS mains examination this year, I am sure all of you must have read many books, notes, magazines etc; and must have made very good plan for your studies. But still many of you feel, a certain type of unprepared-ness, fear and memory-wash. You need self-confidence! Through self-confidence, you can keep all your studies with you and utilize all your potential in the examination. No doubt, during your long preparation, you have gained a lot, learnt a lot, But now you have to keep all your treasure intact and utilize them fully in the examinations. At this juncture self-confidence is vital. Forget all negative points and enhance only and only positive things. You need to choose optimism! You need to rectify your fears and surround yourself with positive people. It will provide you a positive state of mind, self-confidence and ultimately success. We are doing our best to provide you important materials for Mains Examinations. In the seventh volume, you will find Science & Technology, Social Problems & Welfare Schemes and Economy under the IAS (main) Special Column. If you read them care- fully, I am sure you will gain your confidence. There are articles on Moon Mission Chandrayaan-I, Doha Talks and ¤ÉÉ±É ¸É¨É =x¨ÉÚ±ÉxÉ (in Hindi). PSLV-C14 Successfully Launched Oceansat-2 is written as the hot topic of month. Besides all these, you will have usual columns like Current Affairs and Sports & Awards. I have full confidence in you and your ability and you will also keep it on. We are sure many of our members will emerge as a winner. Keep up the Hard Work... Editor: R. K. Pandey with UPSCPORTAL.COM Team Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 3
  4. 4. Section -1 (Article : Moon Mission Chandrayaan - I) Moon Mission Chandrayaan-I End of Task with Affirmative Approach By R. K. Pandey Radio contact with Chandrayaan-I spacecraft was space science mission the Indian agency had even abruptly lost at on August 29, 2009 while India’s done. space agency ended an $82 million mission to map the surface of the moon after failing to restore con- The Insat series of communications satellites and tact with its unmanned Chandrayaan I craft on the unique weather sensors that they carry are a Aug. 31,2009. It may be recalled that good example of ISRO’s traditional approach. Chandrayaan-I space- These satellites were at craft was launched from first launched mostly by Satish Dhawan Space Europe’s Ariane and are Centre Sriharikota on now being put into or- October 22, 2008 .The bit by India’s own Geo- Spacecraft has com- synchronous Space pleted 312 days in orbit Launch Vehicle making more than 3400 (GSLV). The technol- orbits around the Moon ogy for the spacecraft and providing large vol- themselves was almost ume of data from so- entirely homegrown. phisticated sensors like ISRO’s policy was to use Terrain Mapping Cam- as little foreign input as era, Hyper-spectral Im- possible, both in order ager, Moon Mineralogy to develop their own in- Mapper etc., meeting dustrial base and-so most of the scientific objectives of the mission. they claimed-to hold down costs. India’s space program has come a long way since Chandrayaan 1 represented a major break from it was established in 1962 as the Indian National that tradition. It incorporated instrument pack- Committee on Space Research (INCOSPAR). Its ages from Britain, Germany, Russia, Sweden, and successor, the Indian Space Research Organisation the US, as well as from India itself. This repre- (ISRO), was set up in 1969, and six years later their sented a major step forward in India-US coopera- first satellite, Aryabhata, was launched. Since then tion. Overcoming the bureaucratic and political ISRO has matured into one of the “Big Three” obstacles that have long stood in the way of such Asian space agencies, alongside China’s CNSA and bilateral programs was a major achievement for Japan’s JAXA. It is a significant partner in many all involved. On the US side breaking through the international space projects. International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) restrictions was only accomplished with a lot of The first ISRO Moon probe, Chandrayaan 1, was hard work on the part of both NASA and the State an important step away from ISRO’s previous fo- Department. It would never have been possible cus on practical space technology applications, without a commitment from the highest levels of such as remote sensing, communications, distance government: former President George W. Bush learning, telemedicine, and security. These efforts and former Prime Minister A.B. Vajpayee deserve were all aimed at supporting India’s national de- a lot of credit in this regard. velopment goals. For many years the feeling was that everything they did had to have a direct pay- Chandrayaan 2, scheduled for launch in 2011, is off for the people and particularly for the impov- a lander/rover mission that ISRO is developing erished masses. The mission was the first pure with some technological input from Russia. This Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 4
  5. 5. Section -1 (Article : Moon Mission Chandrayaan - I) summer they plan to ask the international scien- has revolved the Moon, compiling a 3-D atlas of tific community for proposals for sensors and ex- the lunar surface and mapping the distribution of periments to include on the rover. This may be a elements and minerals. difficult because the final configuration of the mis- sion has not yet been determined. The rover may The launch is regarded as a major step for India as weigh anywhere from 30 to 100 kilograms. Obvi- it seeks to keep pace with other space-faring na- ously there is quite a bit of “trade space” so the tions in Asia. proposals, or at least the early ones, will have to include more than a bit of guesswork. Competitive Mission To meet the anticipated launch date India and its An Indian-built launcher carrying the one-and- partners will have to work within some serious a-half-tonne satellite blasted off from Satish time constraints. By space mission standards 2011 Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota, an island off is right around the corner and system integration the coast of Andhra Pradesh. has got to start as soon as possible. The Indian government has approved funding for the mission One key objective was be to search for surface or and for the advanced version of the GLSV launcher sub-surface water-ice on the Moon, especially at needed to get the probe onto the lunar surface. the poles. Another was be to detect Helium 3, an isotope which is rare on Earth, but is sought to Along with their recently announced independent power nuclear fusion and could be a valuable manned space exploration program the source of energy in future. Chandrayaan series of science missions show that India is determined to be a space power in the full Powered by a single solar panel generating about sense of the term. This flows naturally from India’s 700 Watts, the Indian Space Research emergence as a global economic and political Organisation (ISRO) probe carried five Indian- power. Over many decades hundreds of thousands built instruments and six constructed in other of high-quality scientists and engineers have been countries, including the US, Britain and Germany. trained in Indian universities. These men and The mission is expected to cost 3.8bn rupees women have helped propel India to its new sta- (£45m; $78m), considerably less than Japanese and tus, and giving them challenging and fascinating Chinese probes sent to the Moon last year. new space projects is a way for the Indian gov- ernment to keep this talent at home and busy. The Indian experiments included a 30kg probe that will be released from the mothership to slam into It will be interesting to see how ISRO uses the the lunar surface. The Moon Impact Probe (MIP) Russian technology that they are getting for has record video footage on the way down and Chandrayaan 2. We should also keep an eye on measured the composition of the Moon's tenuous the laser imaging system that is being developed atmosphere. It was also dropped the Indian flag for the rover. Integrating these systems into the on the surface of the Moon. The country's tricolour mission is not going to be easy, but if India pulls it was painted on the side of the probe and, if suc- off it will be an even more impressive achieve- cessful, India has become the fourth country af- ment than Chandrayaan 1. ter the US, Russia and Japan to place its national flag on the lunar surface. Unmanned Chandrayaan 1 C1XS mapped the abundance of different elements The unmanned Chandrayaan 1 spacecraft blasted in the lunar crust to help answer key questions off smoothly from a launch pad in southern about the origin and evolution of Earth's only Andhra Pradesh to embark on a two-year mission natural satellite. of exploration on 22 oct 2008. The robotic probe Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 5
  6. 6. Section -1 (Article : Moon Mission Chandrayaan - I) The relative abundances of magnesium and iron scheduled to land a rover to retrieve soil and rock in lunar rocks could help confirm whether the samples in 2012 and, like the U.S., plans to send Moon was covered by a molten, magma ocean astronauts there by 2020. Russia aims to follow early on in its history. with a manned mission five years later. The instrument has to look for more unusual ele- South Korea intends to send a probe to orbit the ments on the Moon's surface, such as titanium. moon by 2020, according to the Korea Aerospace This metallic element has been found in lunar Research Institute. The nation carried out its first meteorites, but scientists know little about its dis- space rocket launch last week in an unsuccessful tribution in the lunar crust. attempt to put a satellite into orbit. The satellite probably burned up in the atmosphere after fall- Chandrayaan (the Sanskrit word for "moon craft") ing back to Earth, according to the government. also investigated the differences between the Moon's near side and its far side. The far side is Chandrayaan 2 both more heavily cratered and different in com- position to the one facing Earth. The Indian space program got another shot in the arm with the initial design phase of the The spacecraft took about eight days the reach Chandrayaan 2 being completed. While this is just the Moon. During its lunar encounter, the beginning of what is arguably India's most Chandrayaan fired its engine to slow its velocity - ambitious space project ever, the success of the allowing it to be captured by the Moon's gravity. design phase in itself is an achievement mainly Chandrayaan then slipped into a near-circular or- because of its inherent complexity. bit at an altitude of 1,000km. After a number of health checks, the probe has drop its altitude un- The Chandrayaan 2 mission will consist of a lunar til it is orbiting just 100km above the lunar sur- rover that will be dropped on to the lunar surface face. once the craft reaches the lunar orbit. The main duty of the rover would be to collect and analyze Next Step lunar soil and transmit the data back to the data centers on earth. Pertinent to note here is the fact The next step in the lunar mission, the that while the spacecraft would be indigenously Chandrayaan II, which aims to land an unmanned made, the lunar rover will be made by Russia. rover on the moon’s surface to prospect for chemi- cals, won’t be delayed. India will launch a mis- The Chandrayaan 2 is expected to be operational sion to Mars within four to six years. in the next two years. India had launched the Chandrayaan 1 in October 2008. Already a suc- The craft was designed to orbit the moon for two cessful mission, it had been recently hit by a tech- years at an altitude of 100 kilometers (62 miles). nical snag that jeopardized its operations. How- It will take 1,000 days to hit the lunar surface and ever, the Chandrayaan 1 has already accomplished is being tracked by the U.S. and Russia. 95 percent of the objectives assigned to it. An- other thing to note is that the Chandrayaan 1 will Moon Atlas augment the Lunar landing of the rover as the scientists are using data obtained from the India launched its first rocket in 1963 and first Chandrayaan 1 to decide on the perfect landing satellite in 1975. The country’s satellite program schedule for the lunar rover. is one of the largest communication systems in the world. Japan launched its first lunar explorer, Kaguya, in September 2007 and landed a probe on the moon’s surface in June this year. China is Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 6
  7. 7. Section -1 (Article : Moon Mission Chandrayaan - I) Mission to Mars After 2015 manned mission to Mars by 2030, using the In- ternational Space Station (ISS) as a launch-pad to India will embark on an unmanned mission to the red planet. Mars to explore the red planet in quest of its space ambitions but such a mission will be feasible only Indian space vision 2025 after 2015 as the space agency will be pre-occu- pied with its second lunar mission (Chandrayaan- 2) in 2013 and a manned mission to space by 2015. » Satellite based communication and navigation As the fourth planet from the sun in the solar sys- systems for rural connectivity, security needs and tem, the distance between earth and Mars varies mobile services from 36 million miles when nearest, to 250 mil- lion miles when farthest in its elliptical orbit » Enhanced imaging capability for natural re- around the sun. source management, weather and climate change studies Progress » Space science missions for better understanding Though the government Aug 13,2009 sanctioned of solar system and universe Rs.100 million (Rs.10 crore) as seed funding for the Mars mission, a lot of ground work has to be » Planetary exploration done for preparing the project report. The mis- » Development of Heavy lift launcher sion to Mars is being conceived as low-cost plan- » Reusable Launch Vehicles - Technology dem- etary missions. For instance, Chandrayaan-1 is the finest example of a low-cost mission, as at a cost onstrator missions leading to Two Stage To Orbit of $80 million (Rs.380 crore) while such missions (TSTO) by other space agencies are considered low-cost at $500 million. A Brief History of Indian To prepare a project report for government ap- Space Program proval, the space agency will elicit the opinion of the scientific community on the viability of such Space activities in the country started during early a mission and evolve a concept paper. 1960s with the scientific investigation of upper atmosphere and ionosphere over the magnetic The space agency plans to use the powerful geo- equator that passes over Thumba near synchronous satellite launch vehicle (GSLV) Thiruvananthapuram using small sounding rock- Mark-III for the Mars mission, as the spacecraft ets Realising the immense potential of space tech- had to be first put in the earth's orbit and raised nology for national development, Dr. Vikram up to Martian orbit, using ion thrusters and liquid Sarabhai, the visionary leader envisioned that this engines. powerful technology could play a meaningful role in national development and solving the problems Though the US and Russia had launched missions of common man. to Mars, other space-faring nations such as China and Japan are planning to join the Martian race as Thus, Indian Space programme born in the church part of their planetary expeditions. Even the Eu- beginning, space activities in the country, con- ropean Space Agency (ESA) is mulling a joint mis- centrated on achieving self reliance and develop- sion to Mars in the coming decade. The US space ing capability to build and launch communication agency National Aeronautics and Space Adminis- satellites for television broadcast, telecommuni- tration (NASA) Aug 29 proposed to Russia for a cations and meteorological applications; remote sensing satellites for management of natural re- sources. Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 7
  8. 8. Section -1 (Article : Moon Mission Chandrayaan - I) The objective of ISRO is to develop space tech- The Satellites are also of two different categories, nology and its application to various national tasks. communication satellites and remote sensing sat- ISRO has established two major space systems, ellites. INSAT for communication, television broadcast- ing and meteorological services, and Indian Re- The launcher program involves the design, fabri- mote Sensing Satellites (IRS) system for resources cation and launching of launch vehicles. India has monitoring and management. ISRO has developed also developed a series of launch vehicles, after a two satellite launch vehicles, PSLV and GSLV, to long research and development through the place INSAT and IRS satellites in the required painstacking ways of successes and failures. orbits. Satellites Program Accordingly, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has successfully operationalised two ma- For the past four decades, ISRO has launched more jor satellite systems namely Indian National Sat- than 50 satellites for various scientific and tech- ellites (INSAT) for communication services and nological applications like mobile communica- Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites for man- tions, Direct-to-Home services, meteorological ob- agement of natural resources; also, Polar Satellite servations, telemedicine, tele-education, disaster Launch Vehicle (PSLV) for launching IRS type of warning, radio networking, search and rescue satellites and Geostationary Satellite Launch Ve- operations, remote sensing and scientific studies hicle (GSLV) for launching INSAT type of satel- of the space. lites. ISRO has established two major space systems, the The Space Commission formulates the policies and Indian National Satellite System (INSAT) series oversees the implementation of the Indian space for communication, television broadcasting and programme to promote the development and ap- meteorological services which is Geo-Stationary plication of space science and technology for the Satellites, and Indian Remote Sensing Satellites socio-economic benefit of the country. DOS (IRS) system for resources monitoring and man- implements these programmes through, mainly agement which is Earth Observation Satellites. Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Na- ISRO has launched many Experimental Satellites tional Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Physical which are generally small comparing to INSAT Research Laboratory (PRL), National Atmospheric or IRS and Space Missions to explore the space. Research Laboratory (NARL), North Eastern- Space Applications Centre (NE-SAC) and Semi- Launch Vehicles Program Conductor Laboratory (SCL). The Antrix Corpo- ration, established in 1992 as a government owned Launch Vehicles are used to transport and put sat- company, markets the space products and services ellites or spacecrafts into space. In India, the sensing satellites for management of natural re- launch vehicles development programme began sources. in the early 1970s. The first experimental Satel- lite Launch Vehicle (SLV-3) was developed in The Indian Space Program may be divided in two 1980. An Augmented version of this, ASLV, was major categories. One is the Satellite Program and launched successfully in 1992. India has made tre- the another is the Launcher Program. mendous strides in launch vehicle technology to achieve self-reliance in satellite launch vehicle The Satellite program involves putting the satel- programme with the operationalisation of Polar lites in the space and managing the same. The sat- Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and Geosynchro- ellites may be lifted by Indian made launchers or nous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV). it may involve the commercial launch vehicles. Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 8
  9. 9. Section -1 (Article : Moon Mission Chandrayaan - I) PSLV represents ISRO's first attempt to design and Indian Remote Sensing Satellites develop an operational vehicle that can be used to System (IRS) orbit application satellites. While SLV-3 secured for India a place in the community of space-far- The Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellite system ing nations, the ASLV provided the rites of pas- is one of the largest constellations of remote sens- sage into launch vehicle technology for ISRO. And ing satellites in operation in the world today. The with PSLV, a new world-class vehicle has arrived. IRS programme commissioned with launch of IRS- PSLV has repeatedly proved its reliability and ver- 1A in 1988 and presently includes Nine satellites satility by launching 30 satellites / spacecrafts (14 that continue to provide imageries in variety of Indian and 16 for international customers) into a spatial resolutions from 1 metre to 180 metres. variety of orbits so far. 1. RISAT-2 ISRO also makes the Rohini series of sounding Launched on Apr 20, 2009 by PSLV-C12 rockets used by the Indian and international sci- entific community to launch payloads to various 2. CARTOSAT-2 A Launched on Apr 28, 2008 by PSLV-C9 altitudes for atmospheric research and other sci- entific investigations. These rockets are also used 3. IMS-1 to qualify some of the critical systems used for Launched on Apr 28, 2008 by PSLV-C9 advanced launch vehicles. 4. CARTOSAT - 2 Launched on Jan 10, 2007 by PSLV-C7 Indian National Satellite (INSAT) System 5. CARTOSAT-1 Launched on May 05, 2005 by PSLV-C6 The INSAT series, commissioned in 1983, has to- 6. RESOURCESAT-1 day become one of the largest domestic satellites Launched on Oct 17, 2003 by PSLV-C5 systems in the Asia, pacific region comprising Eleven satellites in service. 7. TES Launched on Oct 22, 2001 by PSLV-C3 1. INSAT-4CR Launched on Sep 02, 2007 8. OCEANSAT-1 Launched on May 26, 1999 by PSLV-C2 2. INSAT-4B Launched on Mar 12, 2007 9. IRS-1D 3. INSAT-4A Launched on Dec 22, 2005 Launched on Sep 29, 1997 by PSLV-C1 4. EDUSAT Launched on Sep 20, 2004 5. INSAT-3E Launched on Sep 28, 2003 Satellite Applications 6. GSAT-2 Launched on May 08, 2003 Space has become the mainstay of national infra- 7. INSAT-3A Launched on Apr 10, 2003 structure providing vital services. INSAT with 8. KALPANA-1 Launched on Sep 12, 2002 more than 210 transponders, is providing tele- communications, television broadcasting, weather 9. INSAT-3C Launched on Jan 24, 2002 forecasting and societal application services such 10. INSAT-3B Launched on Mar 22, 2000 as tele-medicine and tele-education IRS System with Nine satellites in operation is providing data for a variety of application programmes such as Groundwater Prospects Mapping, Crop Acreage and Production Estimation, Potential Fishing Zone Forecast, Biodiversity Characterisation etc., In order to reach space-based services directly to the Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 9
  10. 10. Section -1 (Article : Moon Mission Chandrayaan - I) rural population, nearly 500 Village Resource Cen- tres (VRCs) have been set up in association with IRS Applications NGOs, Institutes and Government Agencies. Imagery taken by Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) INSAT Applications Satellite System has found application in diverse fields ranging from agriculture to urban planning. The telephone circuit devices through INSAT con- Crop health monitoring, crop yield estimation and nect remote inaccessible areas to major cities in drought assessment are the significant areas of India. The launch of INSAT-4A during Decem- application in the agriculture and the allied fields. ber 2005, INSAT-4B in and INSAT- 4CR in 2007 Soil mapping at different scales with relative ease have ushered in Direct To Home (DTH) televi- has become a reality. sion services in the country. Television reaches 85 percent of India's population via INSAT. Over IRS data has also been used for Ground Water 200 AIR stations are linked via INSAT network. potential zone mapping and mineral targeting In the recent years, Very Small Aperture Termi- tasks. The ocean applications of IRS data include nals (VSAT) have revolutionised our telecommu- potential fishing zone identification and coastal nications sector. INSAT supports over 20,000 zone mapping. VSATs for e-commerce and e-governance. Na- tional Stock Exchange and Bombay Stock Ex- Forest cover mapping, biodiversity change use VSAT technology across the country characterisation and monitoring of forest fire is for instantaneous transactions. Today exclusive now carried out using IRS imagery. IRS spacecraft channels are provided for interactive training and provide timely inputs to Flood and earthquake Developmental communication including distance damage assessment thereby providing the neces- learning. sary supportive strength to disaster management. Even in the field of Archaeological survey, the India has an exclusive meteorological satellite utility of IRS imagery has been well established. Kalpana - 1. The imaging instruments (VHRR) & (CCD) collect meteorological data and provide The judicious combination of information derived timely warnings on impending cyclones. The data from space based imagery with the ground based relay transponder in the INSAT system is used for socio economic data is leading to a holistic ap- collect real time hydro meteorological data for proach for resource monitoring and its manage- river monitoring flow forces. ment. The launch of EDUSAT on September 20, 2004 Village Resource Centre (VRC) heralded new era in the field of distance educa- tion and today, about 35,000 class rooms are in the EDUSAT network providing services at pri- Combining the services offered by INSAT and IRS mary, secondary and university levels. satellites, a new concept namely Village Resource Centre (VRC) to provide information on natural The satellite based telemedicine network has ex- resources, land and water resources management, panded its network connecting 375 hospitals (305 tele-medicine, tele-education, adult education, remote and rural hospitals including those in vocational training, health and family welfare Jammu & Kashmir, North Eastern region and programmes has been established. Nearly 500 such Andaman and Nicobar Islands, 13 mobile units and VRCs have been established in the country. 57 super specialty hospitals in major cities). Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 10
  11. 11. Section -1 (Article : Moon Mission Chandrayaan - I) Remote Sensing Satellites and impact assessment The data from Indian Remote Sensing Satellites » Topographic Mapping of Indian Coast are used for a variety of applications towards natu- » Web enabled land use/land cover information ral resources monitoring and management. Re- system BHOOSAMPADA mote sensing applications in the country have graduated from demonstrative phase to opera- » National Urban Information System (NUIS) tional phase and expanding their scope to several » Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Program (AIBP) new areas. Vital applications such as identifying » Flood Management Information System zones which could yield ground water, suitable locations for recharging water, monitoring com- » Evaluation of Irrigation Tanks mand areas, estimating crop areas and yields, as- » Natural Resources Data Base (NRDB) sessing deforestation, mapping urban areas for planning purposes, delineating ocean areas with » Programme on Climate change Research In Ter- higher fish catch potential and monitoring of en- restrial environment (PRACRITI) vironment etc., are being pursued actively by us- » Precision Farming ers using space based data. » Forest inventory & management The remote sensing application projects at na- » Biodiversity characterization at landscape level tional, regional and local levels are being carried out through NRSC, Hyderabad, SAC, Ahmedabad, » National Agricultural Drought Assessment and five Regional Remote Sensing Service Centres Monitoring (NADAMS): The near real time in- (RRSSC) located at Bangalore, Dehradun, Jodh- formation on agricultural drought situation, from pur, Kharagpur, and Nagpur as well as North-East- ern Space Application Centre (NE-SAC), Shillong. June to November, covering national/state/district State and central government departments, state is an input to plan for effective drought manage- remote sensing centres and others are also associ- ment of the country ating in execution of the projects. » Potential Fishing Zones(PFZ) Major application activities using satellite re- » Irrigation management and command area de- mote sensing data in the country include: velopment » Natural Resources Census » Snow and Glacier Inventory, Snow pack Char- » Forecasting of Agriculture outputs through Sat- acterization and Mass balance modeling ellite, Agrometeorology and Land based observa- » Desertification status mapping tions (FASAL) Forthcoming Satellites » Groundwater Prospects Mapping National Wastelands Monitoring ( RISAT - 1) » National Database for Emergency Management Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT) is a microwave (NDEM) for emergency response management in remote sensing satellite carrying a Synthetic Ap- times of natural and man-made disasters erture Radar (SAR) » Watershed development for Watershed The satellite is planned to be launched on board prioritization, characterization, development plans PSLV in 2009-10. The new technology elements in RISAT include 160 x 4 Mbps bit rate data han- Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 11
  12. 12. Section -1 (Article : Moon Mission Chandrayaan - I) dling system, 0.3 Nm reaction wheels, SAR an- ( INSAT - 3D ) tenna deployment mechanism, 70 V power bus, thermal control of SAR antenna and phased array INSAT-3D is a meteorological satellite planned to antenna with dual polarization. be launched in the 2010. The satellite has many new technology elements like star sensor, micro ( RESOURCESAT-2 ) stepping Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) to reduce the spacecraft disturbances and Bus Man- Resourcesat-2 is a follow on mission to agement Unit (BMU) for control and telecomm Resourcesat-1 to provide continuity of data. Com- and/telemetry function. It also incorporates new pared to Resourcesat-1, LISS-4 multi-spectral features of bi-annual rotation and Image and Mir- swath has been enhanced from 23 km to 70 km ror motion compensations for improved perfor- based on user needs. Suitable changes including mance of the meteorological payloads. miniaturization in payload electronics have been incorporated in Resourcesat-2. Resourcesat-2 is ( SARAL ) slated for launch during 2009-10. The Satellite for ARGOS and ALTIKA (SARAL) ( Megha-Tropiques ) is a joint ISRO-CNES mission, being slated for launch on board PSLV for the third quarter of ISRO and French National Space Centre (CNES) 2009. The Ka band altimeter, ALTIKA, provided signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) by CNES payload consists of a Ka-band radar al- in 2004-05 for the development and implementa- timeter, operating at 35.75 GHz. A dual frequency tion of Megha-Tropiques (Megha meaning cloud total power type microwave radiometer (23.8 and in Sanskrit and Tropiques meaning tropics in 37 GHz) is embedded in the altimeter to correct French). The launch of Megha-Tropiques is tropospheric effects on the altimeter measure- planned by 2009-2010. ment. Doppler Orbitography and Radio-position- ing Integrated by Satellite (DORIS) on board en- Megha-Tropiques is aimed at understanding the ables precise determination of the orbit. A Laser life cycle of convective systems and to understand Retroreflector Array (LRA) helps to calibrate the their role in the associated energy and moisture precise orbit determination system and the altim- budget of the atmosphere in the tropical regions. eter system several times throughout the mission. The satellite will carry an Imaging Radiometer, a six channel Humidity Sounder and GPS Radio ( ASTROSAT ) Occultation System. ASTROSAT is a multi-wavelength space borne ( GSAT-4 ) astronomy satellite to be launched during 2009- 10. This will be the first dedicated Indian as- GSAT-4 is envisaged as a technology demonstra- tronomy mission. ASTROSAT has wide spectral tor. The communication payload consists of multi- coverage extending over visible, UV, soft X ray beam Ka-band bent pipe and regenerative tran- and hard X ray regions. This spacecraft would sponder and navigation payload in C-band, L1 and enable observations on the celestial bodies in both L5 bands. GSAT-4 will also carry TAUVEX-II, a X-ray and UV spectral bands simultaneously. The scientific payload comprising three Ultra-Violet scientific payloads cover the Visible (3500-6000 band telescopes developed by Tel Aviv Univer- Å), UV (1300-3000 Å), soft and hard X-ray re- sity and Israel space agency, ELOP, for surveying gimes (0.5-8 keV; 3-80 keV). a large part of the sky in the 1400-3200 Å wave- lengths. Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 12
  13. 13. Section -1 (Article : Moon Mission Chandrayaan - I) ( GSAT-5 / INSAT-4D ) Top Launch Vehicle/Forthcoming Launches It is a C-band and Extended C-band satellite, car- rying 18 transponders. Of these, 12 transponders will operate in the Normal C-band with wider ( PSLV-C14 ) coverage in uplink and downlink to cover Asia, Africa and Eastern Europe/Zonal coverage. 6 tran- Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-C14) sponders will operate in Extended C-band and carrying Oceansat- 2 satellite (OCEANSAT-2) is have India coverage. The option of incorporating scheduled to be launched during second quarter L-band is under consideration. It will be launched onboard GSLV during 2010 and positioned at 82 of 2009-10. deg E longitude. ( GSLV-D3 ) ( GSAT-6 / INSAT-4E ) Preparations for the next flight Geo-synchronous The primary goal of GSAT-6/INSAT-4E which is Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-D3) carrying a Multimedia mobile S-band satellite is to cater to GSAT-4 is in advanced stage. The GSLV-D3 is the consumer requirements of providing enter- expected to use indigenous cryogenic engine and tainment and information services to vehicles will place the GSAT-4 in geosynchronous trans- through Digital Multimedia consoles and to the fer orbit. GSLV-D3 is scheduled for launch dur- Multimedia Mobile Phones. The spacecraft will ing 2009. be positioned at 83 degree East longitude with a mission life of 12 years. The satellite is planned to ( GSLV-F06 ) be launched during 2010 by GSLV. Preparations for the next flight Geo-synchronous ( GSAT-7 / INSAT-4F ) Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-F06) carrying INSAT-3D is in advanced stage of realisation. The GSAT-7/INSAT-4F is proposed as a multi-band GSLV-F06 is expected be launched during 2009- satellite carrying payloads in UHF, S-band, C-band 10. and Ku-band ( GSLV-Mk III ) ( GSAT-8 / INSAT-4G ) GSLV-Mk III is envisaged to launch four tonne GSAT-8/INSAT-4G is proposed as a Ku-band sat- satellite into geosynchronous transfer orbit. GSLV- ellite carrying 24 transponders similar to that of Mk III is a three-stage vehicle with a 110 tonne INSAT-4A and INSAT-4B. It will also carry the core liquid propellant stage (L-110) and a strap- second GPS Aided Geo Augmented Navigation on stage with two solid propellant motors, each (GAGAN) payload. The satellite is expected to be with 200 tonne propellant (S-200). The upper stage launched during 2010 and positioned at 55 degree will be cryogenic with a propellant loading of 25 E longitude. tonne (C-25). GSLV Mk-III will have a lift-off weight of about 629 tonne and will be 42.4 m tall. The payload fairing will have a diameter of 5 metre and a payload volume of 100 cubic metre. Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 13
  14. 14. Section -1 (Article : Moon Mission Chandrayaan - I) Top Reusable Launch Vehicle Objectives: To study the Coronal Mass Ejection Technology Demonstrator (RLV-TD) (CME) and consequently the crucial physical pa- rameters for space weather such as the coronal As a first step towards realizing a Two Stage To magnetic field structures, evolution of the coro- Orbit (TSTO) fully re-usable launch vehicle, a se- nal magnetic field etc. ries of technology demonstration missions have been conceived. For this purpose a Winged Reus- Provide completely new information on the ve- able Launch Vehicle technology Demonstrator locity fields and their variability in the inner co- (RLV-TD) has been configured. The RLV-TD will rona having an important bearing on the unsolved act as a flying test bed to evaluate various tech- problem of heating of the corona would be ob- nologies viz., hypersonic flight, autonomous land- tained. ing, powered cruise flight and hypersonic flight using air breathing propulsion. First in the series ( YOUTHSAT ) of demonstration trials is the hypersonic flight experiment (HEX). A joint scientific mission between India and Rus- sia with participation of youth from both the coun- Human Space Flight Mission tries to celebrate the golden Jubilee of the satel- lite era. Programme The second satellite in the micro satellite series The department has carried out a detailed study proposed is YOUTHSAT which will carry pay- on the feasibility of undertaking indigenous hu- loads of scientific interest with participation of man space flight mission with an aim to build and youths from Universities at graduate, post gradu- demonstrate the capability for carrying humans ate and research scholar level. Youth from uni- to low earth orbit and their return to earth. The versities will participate from testing of the pay- programme envisages development of a fully au- loads in laboratory up to utilization of the data tonomous orbital vehicle carrying two or three from payloads. Participation of youth will incul- crew members to 275 km low earth orbit and their cate interest in space related activities and pro- safe return. It is planned to realise the programme vide opportunities for realization of future pay- in about seven years time frame. loads for scientific experiments. The micro satel- lite bus is planned and designed to carry different kinds of payloads like earth imaging, atmospheric Top Space Science Missions applications, weather monitoring, stellar observa- tions, scientific experiments etc. Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-II) YOUTHSAT is planned to be launched as auxil- iary satellite along with any remote sensing satel- The main objective of SRE II is to realize a fully lite planned for launch during 2009-10 in a polar recoverable capsule and provide a platform to con- sun-synchronous orbit of local time of around 0900 duct microgravity experiments on Micro-biology, to 1030 hrs. Agriculture, Powder Metallurgy, etc. ( Aditya-1 ) The First Indian space based Solar Coronagraph to study solar Corona in visible and near IR bands. Launch of the Aditya mission is planned during the next high solar activity period - 2012 Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 14
  15. 15. Section -1 (Article : Moon Mission Chandrayaan - I) Top Satellite Navigation » Successful launch of GSLV (GSLV-F04) with INSAT-4CR on board from SDSC SHAR (Septem- ( GAGAN ) ber 2, 2007). The Ministry of Civil Aviation has decided to » ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV- implement an indigenous Satellite-Based Regional C8, successfully launched Italian astronomical sat- GPS Augmentation System also known as Space- ellite, AGILE from Sriharikota (April 23, 2007). Based Augmentation System (SBAS) as part of the Satellite-Based Communications, Navigation and Surveillance (CNS)/Air Traffic Management » Successful launch of INSAT-4B by Ariane-5 (ATM) plan for civil aviation. The Indian SBAS from Kourou French Guyana, (March 12, 2007). system has been given an acronym GAGAN - GPS Aided GEO Augmented Navigation. A national » Successful recovery of SRE-1 after manoeuvring plan for satellite navigation including implemen- it to reenter the earth’s atmosphere and descend tation of Technology Demonstration System (TDS) over the Bay of Bengal about 140 km east of over the Indian air space as a proof of concept has Sriharikota (January 22, 2007). been prepared jointly by Airports Authority of India (AAI) and ISRO. TDS was successfully com- » ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV- pleted during 2007 by installing eight Indian Ref- C7 successfully launches four satellites - India’s erence Stations (INRESs) at eight Indian airports CARTOSAT-2 and Space Capsule Recovery Ex- and linked to the Master Control Center (MCC) periment (SRE-1) and Indonesia’s LAPAN- located near Bangalore. The first navigation pay- TUBSAT and Argentina’s PEHUENSAT-1 (Janu- load is being fabricated and it is proposed to be ary 10, 2007). flown on GSAT-4 which is expected to be launched in 2009. Two more payloads will be sub- sequently flown, one each on two geostationary » Second operational flight of GSLV (GSLV-F02) satellites GSAT-8 and GSAT-12. from SDSC SHAR with INSAT-4C on board. (July 10, 2006). Satellite could not be placed in orbit. A brief chronology of the events are presented below: » Successful launch of INSAT-4A by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana, (December 22, 2005). »PSLV-C12 successfully launches RISAT-2 and ANUSAT from Sriharikota (April 20, 2009). » ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV- C6, successfully launched CARTOSAT-1 and » PSLV-C11 successfully launches HAMSAT satellites from Sriharikota(May 5, 2005). CHANDRAYAAN-1 from Sriharikota (October 22, 2008). » The first operational flight of GSLV (GSLV-F01) successfully launched EDUSAT from SDSC SHAR, » PSLV-C9 successfully launches CARTOSAT-2A, Sriharikota (September 20, 2004) IMS-1 and 8 foreign nano satellites from Sriharikota (April 28,2008). » ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV- C5, successfully launched RESOURCESAT-1(IRS- » PSLV-C10 successfully launches TECSAR sat- P6) satellite from Sriharikota(October 17, 2003). ellite under a commercial contract with Antrix Corporation (January 21, 2008). » Successful launch of INSAT-3E by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana, (September 28, 2003). Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 15
  16. 16. Section -1 (Article : Moon Mission Chandrayaan - I) » The Second developmental launch of GSLV-D2 October 4, 1997. (An in-orbit satellite, ARABSAT- with GSAT-2on board from Sriharikota (May 8, 1C, since renamed INSAT-2DT, was acquired in 2003). November 1997 to partly augment the INSAT sys- tem). » Successful launch of INSAT-3A by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana, (April 10, 2003). » First operational launch of PSLV with IRS-1D on board (September 29, 1997). Satellite placed in orbit. » ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV- C4, successfully launched KALPANA-1 satellite from Sriharikota(September 12, 2002). » Third developmental launch of PSLV with IRS- P3, on board (March 21, 1996). Satellite placed in polar sunsynchronous orbit. » Successful launch of INSAT-3C by Ariane from Kourou French Guyana, (January 24, 2002). » Launch of third operational Indian Remote Sens- ing Satellite, IRS-1C (December 28, 1995). » ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, PSLV- C3,successfully launched three satellites -- Tech- nology Experiment Satellite (TES) of ISRO, BIRD » INSAT-2C, the third satellite in the INSAT-2 of Germany and PROBA of Belgium - into their series, launched (December 7, 1995). intended orbits (October 22, 2001). » Second developmental launch of PSLV with IRS- » The first developmental launch of GSLV-D1 P2, on board (October 15, 1994). Satellite success- with GSAT-1 on board from Sriharikota (April 18, fully placed in Polar Sunsynchronous Orbit. 2001). » Fourth developmental launch of ASLV with » INSAT-3B, the first satellite in the third gen- SROSS-C2, on board (May 4, 1994). Satellite placed eration INSAT-3 series, launched by Ariane from in orbit. Kourou French Guyana, (March 22, 2000). » First developmental launch of PSLV with IRS- » Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, IRS-P4 1E on board (September 20, 1993). Satellite could (OCEANSAT), launched by Polar Satellite Launch not be placed in orbit. Vehicle (PSLV-C2) along with Korean KITSAT-3 and German DLR-TUBSAT from Sriharikota (May » INSAT-2B, the second satellite in the INSAT-2 26, 1999). series, launched (July 23, 1993). » INSAT-2E, the last satellite in the multipur- » INSAT-2A, the first satellite of the indigenously- pose INSAT-2 series, launched by Ariane from built second-generation INSAT series, launched Kourou French Guyana, (April 3, 1999). (July 10, 1992). » INSAT system capacity augmented with the » Third developmental launch of ASLV with readiness of INSAT-2DT acquired from ARABSAT SROSS-Con board (May 20, 1992). Satellite placed (January 1998). in orbit. » INSAT-2D, fourth satellite in the INSAT series, » Second operational Remote Sensing satellite, launched (June 4, 1997). Becomes inoperable on IRS-1B, launched (August 29, 1991). Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 16
  17. 17. Section -1 (Article : Moon Mission Chandrayaan - I) » INSAT-1D launched (June 12, 1990). » First Experimental launch of SLV-3 with Rohini Technology Payload on board (August 10, 1979). » INSAT-1C launched (July 21,1988). Abandoned Satellite could not be placed in orbit. in November 1989. » Bhaskara-I, an experimental satellite for earth » Second developmental launch of ASLV with observations, launched (June 7, 1979). SROSS-2 on board (July 13, 1988). Satellite could not be placed in orbit. » Satellite Telecommunication Experiments Project (STEP) carried out. » Launch of first operational Indian Remote Sens- ing Satellite, IRS-1A (March 17, 1988). » Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) conducted. » First developmental launch of ASLV with SROSS-1 satellite on board (March 24, 1987). Sat- » ISRO First Indian Satellite, Aryabhata, launched ellite could not be placed in orbit. (April 19, 1975). » Indo-Soviet manned space mission (April 1984). » Becomes Government Organisation (April 1, INSAT-1B, launched (August 30, 1983). 1975). » Second developmental launch of SLV-3. RS-D2 » Air-borne remote sensing experiments. placed in orbit (April 17, 1983). » Space Commission and Department of Space set » INSAT-1A launched (April 10, 1982). up (June 1, 1972). ISRO brought under DOS. » Deactivated on September 6, 1982. » Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) formed under Department of Atomic Energy (Au- » Bhaskara-II launched (November 20, 1981). gust 15, 1969). » APPLE, an experimental geo-stationary com- » TERLS dedicated to the United Nations (Febru- munication satellite successfully launched (June ary 2, 1968). 19, 1981). » Satellite Telecommunication Earth Station set » RS-D1 placed in orbit (May 31, 1981) up at Ahmedabad. » First developmental launch of SLV-3. » Space Science & Technology Centre (SSTC) es- tablished in Thumba. » Second Experimental launch of SLV-3, Rohini » First sounding rocket launched from TERLS (No- vember 21, 1963). » satellite successfully placed in orbit. (July 18, 1980). Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 17
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  19. 19. Section -1 (Article : Doha Talks) Doha Talks Aiming to Unlock Global Trade Barriers By- Avadhesh Pandey Author is an Expert of Economic and political Issues and working as a Freelance Editor Negotiators from key trading nations agreed on sept 15, 2009 a new work plan aimed at concluding the long-stalled Doha Round of WTO global trade negotia- tions in Geneva. Everybody had a calendar and now our calendar is full until the end of the year, said Swiss WTO ambassador Luzius Wasescha, who also chairs the negotiating group on industrial goods. Senior officials will also come to Geneva for a week every month to advance negotiations, with the first such session to take place around October 19, said Indian ambassador Ujal Singh Bhatia following a meeting with his counterparts at the World Trade Organisation. Since an aborted attempt to organise a small ministerial meeting in December last year, the Doha Round of negotiations that began in 2001 has been restricted to low-level contacts in Geneva. However, during a ministerial meeting in New Delhi early September, ministers pledged to re- sume high-level talks. As a result, discussions have been scheduled at the WTO, while the European Union also hosted a separate session with some ambassadors. Ambassadors said however that it was still too early to tell if the latest talks will yield concrete results. The Doha round of WTO negotiations began in 2001 with the aim of creating a new free-trade pact that would boost global commerce to help developing countries. Deadlock between the major trading blocs has dashed repeated attempts to forge a new pact. The last push in July last year in Geneva ended in failure but with a new government installed in Washing- ton since then, there is renewed hope for another drive for success sometime next year. What is the Doha Round? The WTO launched this round of negotiations at its November 2001 ministerial conference in Doha, Qatar. The aim is to unlock global trade in areas where many barriers still exist, in sectors such as agricul- ture, services and manufacturing. The Doha declaration placed particular emphasis on correcting distor- tions that have effectively barred poor, rural nations from a share in world agricultural markets. Many developing countries have a comparative advantage in delivering farm goods to market, and seek a sharp reduction in rich-country trade barriers on agricultural goods, as well as textile and apparel tariffs. As part of a grand bargain, rich countries want to increase their access to non-agricultural manufacturing and service sectors in robust developing countries like China, India, and Brazil. They are especially eager to capitalize on their strong financial, transportation, and telecommunications services. A much-cited world bank study says the abolition of agricultural tariffs and subsidies would increase global exports by nearly $300 billion per year by 2015. These kinds of targeted trade liberalizations could help lift many states out of poverty. Why is Doha in trouble? Agriculture is the main stumbling block. Despite some initiatives in the past year—including a U.S. offer to make modest cuts in farm subsidies there has been little substantive progress. The United States and a negotiating bloc of developing states called the Group of Twenty (G-20)—including China, India and Brazil—have criticized proposed European Union (EU) tariff cuts as insufficient; at the same time, some countries are skeptical of the sincerity of the U.S. offer. The EU wants pledges from Brazil and India to cut tariffs on industrial goods before it risks justifying trade concessions to the entrenched EU farm lobby. Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 19
  20. 20. Section -1 (Article : Doha Talks) Particularly in Europe, many farmers would be pressure by states such as France to stick more uncompetitive without high government subsi- closely to a mandate set by EU governments. He dies. says he cannot offer increased concessions unless he sees a more attractive offer from Brazil, India Leading U.S. congressional figures have said pros- and other developing countries on non-agricul- pects are slim for completing the Doha round be- tural goods. But United States and Europe are fail- fore presidential trade-promotion authority ex- ing to provide a proper example to developing pires in July 2007. This authority allows the presi- nations considering a drop in barriers. These coun- dent to negotiate trade deals without the need for tries are very worried about an influx of cheap congressional review. Given the rise of protection- manufactured goods from China if they open up ist sentiment in general, and particularly since the their markets, and are watching U.S.-EU policy Democrats retook both houses of Congress in No- toward China with interest. Both the United States vember 2006, some experts say fast track author- and Europe are actively considering or pursuing ity is highly unlikely to be renewed. Without it, trade restraints against China on one product to controversial farm subsidy reforms would need to the next. be passed by both houses of Congress tall order. This has always been an issue of U.S. and Euro- What are the most divisive issues? pean leadership on lowering barriers to world The dispute over agriculture hinges on the active trade, and now you need some push from other role the United States and the EU take to support places. their agricultural sectors with subsidies and tar- iffs. Last fall, the United States offered to cut its G-20, now a major actor in the trade talks, needs agricultural subsidies by an average of more than to provide more leadership. China should be more 50 percent, but conditioned the offer on major engaged in the talks rather than contenting itself market-access proposals from the EU and G-20 to benefit from what the EU and United States states. The EU has offered to cut its tariffs by an gain through negotiations. China is particularly average of 40 percent, but it also wants to identify reluctant to open up its highly protected services up to 160 of its agricultural products as “sensitive” markets, such as telecoms and banking. and preserve tariff protections for them. The Economist says 17 and 54 are the two “magic num- Which issues have been agreed on in the round? bers” to meet if renewed talks this spring are to The WTO's Hong Kong ministerial meeting in De- succeed: the U.S. will need to limit its farm subsi- cember 2005 produced an agreement by wealthy dies to $17 billion (its lowest offer thus far is $22 nations to end export subsidies in agriculture by billion), and EU countries must make cuts in their 2013. That date is conditioned on agreements be- agricultural tariffs in the vicinity of 54 percent. ing reached to avoid hidden export subsidies in The EU and United States are calling on develop- credit, food aid, and the sales of exporting state ing nations like India and Brazil to improve their enterprises. There are also agreements calling for offer to open up their markets to industrial goods. developed countries to eliminate all forms of ex- But an open embrace from the developing world port subsidies for cotton as early as the end of 2006. is highly unlikely if the United States refuses to Another important commitment made during the give up its significant farm subsidies. round is the introduction of duty and quota-free access for most exports from the thirty-two least- After decades of trade negotiations, most of the developed countries by 2008. rich countries have liberalized a great deal, with tariffs on many goods in the single digits. What happens if Doha fails? The Doha talks are seen as a major test for the Which countries are the stumbling blocks? 149-member WTO. Elliott worries countries like Experts say blame can be widely distributed. EU the United States will turn their back on WTO Trade Commissioner Peter Mandelson is under Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 20
  21. 21. Section -1 (Article : Doha Talks) multilateral trade talks and focus instead on bilat- about liberalizing trade, and in some circumstances eral agreements with stronger developing states. its rules support maintaining trade barriers — for This poses problems to businesses worried about example to protect consumers or prevent the a “spaghetti bowl” [when multiple bilateral agree- spread of disease. ments overlap, causing complex and un-integrated regulatory requirements], but it has even more WTO Agreements serious implications for poor nations. The round's failure would be a setback to global poverty-re- WTO agreements negotiated and signed by the duction efforts such as the UN millennium devel- bulk of the world’s trading nations. These docu- opment goals, the World Bank's move to cancel ments provide the legal ground-rules for interna- debt for very poor countries, and increasing ef- tional commerce. They are essentially contracts, forts to improve foreign aid. binding governments to keep their trade policies within agreed limits. Although negotiated and But trade experts often point out that previous signed by governments, the goal is to help pro- trade rounds in the post-World War II period have ducers of goods and services, exporters, and im- often gone down to the wire, emerging nonethe- porters conduct their business, while allowing less with agreements that have steadily liberal- governments to meet social and environmental ized world trade. objectives. What is the World Trade Organization? The system’s overriding purpose is to help trade The World Trade Organization (WTO) deals with flow as freely as possible — so long as there are no the rules of trade between nations at a global or undesirable side-effects — because this is impor- near-global level. But there is more to it than that. tant for economic development and well-being. There are a number of ways of looking at the That partly means removing obstacles. It also WTO. It’s an organization for liberalizing trade. means ensuring that individuals, companies and It’s a forum for governments to negotiate trade governments know what the trade rules are agreements. It’s a place for them to settle trade around the world, and giving them the confidence disputes. It operates a system of trade rules. (But that there will be no sudden changes of policy. In it’s not Superman, just in case anyone thought it other words, the rules have to be “transparent” could solve — or cause — all the world’s prob- and predictable. lems!) Trade relations often involve conflicting interests. Essentially, the WTO is a place where member Agreements, including those painstakingly nego- governments go, to try to sort out the trade prob- tiated in the WTO system, often need interpret- lems they face with each other. The first step is to ing. The most harmonious way to settle these dif- talk. The WTO was born out of negotiations, and ferences is through some neutral procedure based everything the WTO does is the result of nego- on an agreed legal foundation. That is the pur- tiations. The bulk of the WTO's current work pose behind the dispute settlement process writ- comes from the 1986-94 negotiations called the ten into the WTO agreements. Uruguay Round and earlier negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT). The WTO began life on 1 January 1995, but its The WTO is currently the host to new negotia- trading system is half a century older. Since 1948, tions, under the “Doha Development Agenda” the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade launched in 2001. (GATT) had provided the rules for the system. (The second WTO ministerial meeting, held in Where countries have faced trade barriers and Geneva in May 1998, included a celebration of the wanted them lowered, the negotiations have 50th anniversary of the system.) helped to liberalize trade. But the WTO is not just Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 21
  22. 22. Section -1 (Article : Doha Talks) It did not take long for the General Agreement to countries are allowed, in limited circumstances, give birth to an unofficial, de facto international to discriminate. But the agreements only permit organization, also known informally as GATT. these exceptions under strict conditions. In gen- Over the years GATT evolved through several eral, MFN means that every time a country low- rounds of negotiations. ers a trade barrier or opens up a market, it has to do so for the same goods or services from all its The last and largest GATT round, was the Uru- trading partners — whether rich or poor, weak guay Round which lasted from 1986 to 1994 and or strong. led to the WTO’s creation. Whereas GATT had mainly dealt with trade in goods, the WTO and National treatment its agreements now cover trade in services, and in (Treating foreigners and locals Equally ) traded inventions, creations and designs (intellec- tual property). Imported and locally-produced goods should be treated equally — at least after the foreign goods Trade Without Discrimination have entered the market. The same should apply to foreign and domestic services, and to foreign Most-Favoured-Nation (MFN) and local trademarks, copyrights and patents. This ( Treating Other People Equally ) principle of “national treatment” (giving others the same treatment as one’s own nationals) is also Under the WTO agreements, countries cannot found in all the three main WTO agreements (Ar- normally discriminate between their trading part- ticle 3 of GATT, Article 17 of GATS and Article 3 ners. Grant someone a special of TRIPS), although once again the principle is favour (such as a lower customs handled slightly differently in each of these. duty rate for one of their prod- ucts) and you have to do the same National treatment only applies once a product, for all other WTO members. service or item of intellectual property has entered the market. Therefore, charging customs duty on This principle is known as most- an import is not a violation of national treatment favoured-nation (MFN) treatment. It is so impor- even if locally-produced products are not charged tant that it is the first article of the General Agree- an equivalent tax. ment on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), which gov- erns trade in goods. MFN is also a priority in the Lowering trade barriers General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) (Article 2) and the Agreement on Trade-Related Lowering trade barriers is one of the most obvi- Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) ous means of encouraging trade. The barriers con- (Article 4), although in each agreement the prin- cerned include customs duties (or tariffs) and mea- ciple is handled slightly differently. Together, sures such as import bans or quotas that restrict those three agreements cover all three main areas quantities selectively. From time to time other of trade handled by the WTO. issues such as red tape and exchange rate policies have also been discussed. Some exceptions are allowed. For example, coun- tries can set up a free trade agreement that ap- Since GATT’s creation in 1947-48 there have been plies only to goods traded within the group — eight rounds of trade negotiations. A ninth round, discriminating against goods from outside. Or they under the Doha Development Agenda, is now un- can give developing countries special access to derway. At first these focused on lowering tariffs their markets. Or a country can raise barriers (customs duties) on imported goods. As a result of against products that are considered to be traded the negotiations, by the mid-1990s industrial unfairly from specific countries. And in services, countries’ tariff rates on industrial goods had fallen Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 22
  23. 23. Section -1 (Article : Doha Talks) steadily to less than 4%. The Result Of All This (A Substantially Higher Degree Of Market But by the 1980s, the negotiations had expanded Security For Traders And Investors) to cover non-tariff barriers on goods, and to the new areas such as services and intellectual prop- The system tries to improve predictability and sta- erty. bility in other ways as well. One way is to dis- courage the use of quotas and other measures used Opening markets can be beneficial, but it also re- to set limits on quantities of imports — adminis- quires adjustment. The WTO agreements allow tering quotas can lead to more red-tape and accu- countries to introduce changes gradually, through sations of unfair play. Another is to make coun- “progressive liberalization”. Developing countries tries’ trade rules as clear and public (“transparent”) are usually given longer to fulfil their obligations. as possible. Many WTO agreements require gov- ernments to disclose their policies and practices Predictability publicly within the country or by notifying the (Through Binding And Transparency) WTO. The regular surveillance of national trade policies through the Trade Policy Review Mecha- Sometimes, promising not to raise a trade barrier nism provides a further means of encouraging can be as important as lowering one, because the transparency both domestically and at the multi- promise gives businesses a clearer view of their lateral level. future opportunities. With stability and predict- ability, investment is encouraged, jobs are created Promoting Fair Competition and consumers can fully enjoy the benefits of com- petition — choice and lower prices. The multilat- The WTO is sometimes described as a “free trade” eral trading system is an attempt by governments institution, but that is not entirely accurate. The to make the business environment stable and pre- system does allow tariffs and, in limited circum- dictable. stances, other forms of protection. More accu- rately, it is a system of rules dedicated to open, In the WTO, when countries agree to open their fair and undistorted competition. markets for goods or services, they “bind” their commitments. For goods, these bindings amount The rules on non-discrimination MFN and na- to ceilings on customs tariff rates. Sometimes coun- tional treatment are designed to secure fair con- tries tax imports at rates that are lower than the ditions of trade. So too are those on dumping (ex- bound rates. Frequently this is the case in devel- porting at below cost to gain market share) and oping countries. In developed countries the rates subsidies. The issues are complex, and the rules actually charged and the bound rates tend to be try to establish what is fair or unfair, and how the same. governments can respond, in particular by charg- ing additional import duties calculated to compen- A country can change its bindings, but only after sate for damage caused by unfair trade. negotiating with its trading partners, which could mean compensating them for loss of trade. One of Many of the other WTO agreements aim to sup- the achievements of the Uruguay Round of mul- port fair competition: in agriculture, intellectual tilateral trade talks was to increase the amount of property, services, for example. The agreement on trade under binding commitments. In agriculture, government procurement (a “plurilateral” agree- 100% of products now have bound tariffs. ment because it is signed by only a few WTO members) extends competition rules to purchases by thousands of government entities in many countries. And so on. Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 23
  24. 24. Section -1 (Article : Doha Talks) Encouraging development and economic reform The WTO system contributes to development. On the other hand, developing countries need flex- ibility in the time they take to implement the system’s agreements. And the agreements them- selves inherit the earlier provisions of GATT that allow for special assistance and trade concessions for developing countries. Over three quarters of WTO members are devel- oping countries and countries in transition to (IMP) Get UPSCPORTAL, IAS, Jobs, market economies. During the seven and a half Results, Notification ALERTS in Email. years of the Uruguay Round, over 60 of these countries implemented trade liberalization Step-1: Fill Your Email address in form below. you will get programmes autonomously. At the same time, a confirmation email within 10 min. developing countries and transition economies were much more active and influential in the Uru- Step-2: Varify your email by clicking on the link in the email. guay Round negotiations than in any previous IMP: (check Inbox and Spam folders) round, and they are even more so in the current Doha Development Agenda. Step-3: Done! Now you will regular Alerts on your email. At the end of the Uruguay Round, developing countries were prepared to take on most of the obligations that are required of developed coun- tries. But the agreements did give them transition Click Below Link to get Free Newsletter: periods to adjust to the more unfamiliar and, per- haps, difficult WTO provisions — particularly so for the poorest, “least-developed” countries. A ministerial decision adopted at the end of the round says better-off countries should accelerate implementing market access commitments on goods exported by the least-developed countries, and it seeks increased technical assistance for them. More recently, developed countries have started to allow duty-free and quota-free imports for almost all products from least-developed coun- tries. On all of this, the WTO and its members are still going through a learning process. The cur- rent Doha Development Agenda includes devel- oping countries’ concerns about the difficulties they face in implementing the Uruguay Round agreements. Copyright © 2009 | WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 24
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  26. 26. Section -1 (Article : Child Labour) ¤ÉÉ±É ¸É¨É =x¨ÉÚ±ÉxÉ (¤ÉSSÉÉå E É E ±ªÉÉhÉ +Éè® {ÉÖxÉ´ÉÉǺÉ) By Dr. Divya Author is Currently Working as Assistant Professor for Home Science ¦ÉÉ® iÉ ¨Éå ¨É‡½ ±ÉÉ+ÉäÆ Eä SɱÉiÉÉ ½ è ‡E ¤ÉSSÉÉå E Éä ºEÚ ±É ¦ÉäVÉE ® +lÉÇ´ªÉ´ÉºlÉÉ E Éä n Éä½ ® É ±ÉÉ¦É ºÉÉlÉ-ºÉÉlÉ ¤ÉSSÉä ¦ÉÒ ºÉ¨ÉÉVÉ {ɽ ÖÆSÉɪÉÉ VÉÉ ºÉE iÉÉ ½ è * ½ É±É ½ Ò ¨Éå +ÆiÉ®Éǹ] ÅÒªÉ ¸É¨É ºÉÆMÉ`xÉ (+É<ÇB±É+Éä) E É ºÉ¤ÉºÉä E ¨ÉVÉÉä® ´ÉMÉÇ xÉä ‡® {ÉÉä] Ç ¨Éå JÉÖ±ÉɺÉÉ ‡E ªÉÉ ½ è ‡E ¤ÉÉ±É ¨ÉVÉn Ú® Ò {É® ½ ÉäxÉä ´ÉɱÉÉ JÉSÉÇ ½ é * n ä„É ¨Éå ±ÉMɦÉMÉ 44 +Éè® +ɨÉn xÉÒ E É +xÉÖ{ÉÉiÉ ºÉÉiÉ MÉÖxÉÉ ½ è * ªÉ‡n E Éä<Ç n ä„É ¤ÉÉ±É ¸É¨É E ®Éäc, ªÉÉxÉÒ EÖ ±É +ɤÉÉnÒ =x¨ÉÚ±ÉxÉ ¨Éå BE ¯ {ɪÉÉ JÉSÉÇ E ® iÉÉ ½ è iÉÉä E ɱÉÉÆiÉ® ¨Éå =ºÉä ºÉÉiÉ ¯ {ɪÉä E Ò BE ‡iɽÉ<Ç VÉxɺÉÆJªÉÉ E É ¡ ɪÉn É ½ ÉäMÉÉ CªÉÉå‡E <xÉ ¤ÉSSÉÉå E Éä ‡„ɇIÉiÉ E ® IɨÉiÉÉ E É {ÉÚhÉÇ 18 ´É¹ÉÇ ºÉä E ¨É +ɪÉÖ Eä ‡´ÉE ÉºÉ ½ ÉäxÉä ºÉä n ä„É E Ò +ɇlÉÇE ºÉ¨{ÉzÉiÉÉ ¤Éf äÃMÉÒ * ºÉƪÉÖH ® ɹ] Å ºÉÆPÉ ±ÉÉäMÉÉå E Ò ½ è +Éè® ¤ÉSSÉÉå E Ò ºÉ¤ÉEä ‡±ÉB ‡„ÉIÉÉ {É® +ɪÉÉä‡VÉiÉ ¤Éè` E ¨Éå º´ÉÒE É® ‡E ªÉÉ MɪÉÉ ‡E E Ò ºÉÆJªÉÉ ½ ¨ÉÉ®Ò +ɤÉÉn Ò ¤ÉÉ±É ¨ÉVÉn Ú® Ò JÉi¨É ‡E B ‡¤ÉxÉÉ ºÉ¤ÉEä ‡±ÉB ‡„ÉIÉÉ E É ±ÉIªÉ ½ ɇºÉ±É xɽ Ó E É ±ÉMɦÉMÉ 19 |ɇiÉ„ÉiÉ ‡E ªÉÉ VÉÉ ºÉE iÉÉ ½ è * ½è * 1991 E Ò VÉxÉMÉhÉxÉÉ E ä +xÉÖºÉÉ® nä„É ¨Éå ¤ÉÉ±É ¸É‡¨ÉE Éå E Ò ºÉÆJªÉÉ 1 E ®Éäc 12 ±ÉÉJÉ 80 ½VÉÉ® lÉÒ* ®É¹]ÅÒªÉ xɨÉÚxÉÉ ºÉ´ÉæIÉhÉ ºÉÆMÉ`xÉ E ä 55´Éå nÉè® E ä ºÉ´ÉæIÉhÉ E ä ¤ÉÉ±É¸É¨É Eä ‡´É‡´ÉvÉ ° {É ¤ÉÉn ªÉ½ ºÉÆJªÉÉ PÉ]E ® BE E ®Éäc 4 ±ÉÉJÉ ®½ MÉ<Ç ½è* ¤ÉÉ±É¸É¨É ‡E ºÉÒ ¤ÉɱÉE u É® É ‡E ªÉÉ MɪÉÉ E Éä<Ç ¦ÉÒ BäºÉÉ E ɪÉÇ, ‡VɺÉä ºÉÒvÉä ±ÉÉJÉÉå ¤ÉSSÉä ½ ® ® ÉäVÉ +{ÉxÉä ¨Éɇ±ÉE Éå, {ɇ® ´ÉÉ® Eä ºÉn ºªÉÉå, ªÉ½ ÉÆ iÉE ‡E iÉÉè® {É® º´ÉªÉÆ ¤ÉɱÉE E Éä ªÉÉ ‡¡ ® =xÉEä {ɇ® ´ÉÉ® VÉxÉÉå E Éä +ɇlÉÇE ±ÉÉ¦É +xÉVÉÉxÉ ±ÉÉäMÉÉå E Ò Ë½ ºÉÉ E É ‡„ÉE É® ½ ÉäiÉä ½ é * +ɇlÉÇE E É® hÉÉå E Ò {ɽ ÖÆSÉÉxÉä Eä |ɪÉÉäVÉxÉ ºÉä ‡E ªÉÉ VÉɪÉä +Éè® ‡VɺɺÉä =ºÉEä º´ÉªÉÆ Eä ´ÉVɽ ºÉä ´Éä ºEÚ ±É ¦ÉÒ xɽ Ó VÉÉiÉä ½ é* ¤É‡±E JÉäiÉÉå, E É® JÉÉxÉÉå +Éè® PÉ® Éå „ÉÉ® Ò‡® E , ¨ÉÉxɇºÉE ªÉÉ ºÉɨÉɇVÉE ‡´ÉE ÉºÉ ¨Éå ¤ÉÉvÉÉ {ɽ ÖÆSÉä * ¦ÉÉ® iÉ ¨Éå U Éä] ä-U Éä] ä E ɨÉÉå Eä ‡±ÉB =x½ å ¤ÉÉ±É ¨ÉVÉn Ú® Eä ° {É ¨Éå ® JÉÉ VÉÉiÉÉ ºÉ® E É® u É® É ‡xɪÉÖH ¤ÉÉ±É¸É¨É {É® ºÉ‡¨É‡iÉ Eä +xÉÖºÉÉ® ¤ÉÉ±É¸É¨É ¨Éå ½ è Vɽ ÉÆ =x½ å n Ön Ç„ÉÉ, n Ö¯ {ɪÉÉäMÉ +Éè® +{ɨÉÉxÉVÉxÉE ‡ºlɇiÉ ºÉä MÉÖVÉ® xÉÉ ¤ÉɱÉE Éå E Ò VÉxɺÉÆJªÉÉ E É ´É½ ¦ÉÉMÉ +ÉiÉÉ ½ è, VÉÉä ªÉÉ iÉÉä ´ÉèiɇxÉE ªÉÉ {ÉciÉÉ ½ è* iÉ{ÉiÉ{ÉÉiÉÒ MɨÉÔ ¨Éå {ɺÉÒxÉä ºÉä iÉ® -¤ÉiÉ® ½ ÉäE ® =x½ å SÉÖ{ÉSÉÉ{É +´ÉèiɇxÉE E ɪÉÉç {É® ‡xɪÉÖH ½ Éä * ¤ÉÉ±É ¨ÉVÉn Ú® ‡xɨxÉ IÉäjÉÉå ¨Éå +‡vÉE ºÉ® ZÉÖE ÉB E É¨É E ® xÉÉ {ÉciÉÉ ½ è +Éè® ´Éä BäºÉÒ VÉMɽ Éå {É® ½ ® ® ÉäVÉ E <Ç- ° {É ºÉä {ÉÉB VÉÉiÉä ½ é: E . +ºÉÆMɇ` iÉ IÉäjÉ-- ½ Éä] ±É, f ɤÉÉ, ¡è C] ® Ò ´É E <Ç PÉÆ] ä E É¨É E ® iÉä ½ é, Vɽ ÉÆ +ÆvÉä®É +Éè® =¨ÉºÉ ½ ÉäiÉÒ ½ è +Éè® ® Éä„ÉxÉn ÉxÉ n ÚE ÉxÉ, +É] Éä ´ÉEÇ „ÉÉ{É, +JɤÉÉ® ¤ÉäSÉxÉÉ, E ÉäªÉ±ÉÉ, +§ÉE SÉÖxÉxÉÉ, E SÉ® É xɽ Ó ½ ÉäiÉä, ‡VɺɺÉä =xÉE Ò VÉÉxÉ E Éä JÉiÉ® É ® ½ iÉÉ ½ è * ±ÉÉJÉÉå ¤ÉSSÉä <ºÉ SÉÖxÉxÉÉ, JÉäiÉÒ-¤ÉÉcÒ, PÉ® ¨Éå xÉÉèE ® E É E É¨É +ɇn * JÉ. ºÉÆMɇ` iÉ IÉäjÉ- ºÉ¨ÉªÉ JÉäiÉÒ, =tÉäMÉ, ½ lÉE ® PÉÉ IÉäjÉ +Éè® <È] Éå Eä ¦É_ Éå ¨Éå ¨ÉɨÉÚ±ÉÒ - E ɱÉÒxÉ ¤ÉÖxÉÉ<Ç, ‡n ªÉɺɱÉÉ<Ç, +ɇiɄɤÉÉVÉÒ, ½ lÉE ® PÉÉ, SɨÉcÉ, E ÉÆSÉ, ¨ÉVÉn Ú® Eä ° {É ¨Éä E É¨É E ® iÉä ½ é +Éè® +{ÉxÉä PÉ® Éå iÉE ¨ÉÉiÉÉ-‡{ÉiÉÉ E Ò ¦É´ÉxÉ ‡xɨÉÉÇhÉ, {ÉilÉ® JÉn ÉxÉ, ® ixÉ =tÉäMÉ, iÉɱÉÉ =tÉäMÉ +ɇn * n äJɦÉÉ±É ºÉä n Ú® ® ½ iÉä ½ é * CªÉÉ ¦ÉÉ® iÉ E Ò ¤Éf iÉÃÒ ‡´ÉE ÉºÉ n ® ºÉä, ‡VɺÉE Ò n Ö‡xɪÉɦɮ ¨Éå iÉÉ® Ò¡ ½ Éä ® ½ Ò ½ è, E ¦ÉÒ n ä„É Eä n Ú® -n ® ÉVÉ Eä ¤ÉÉ±É ¸É¨É Eä n Ö¹{ɇ® hÉÉ¨É <±ÉÉEä ¨Éå U Éä] ä-ºÉä ¤ÉSSÉä Eä SÉä½ ® ä {É® ¨ÉÖºE ÉxÉ +É ºÉEä MÉÒ * ‡xÉE ] ¦É‡´É¹ªÉ ¨Éå <ºÉ ºÉ´ÉɱÀ