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Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009


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Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009 …

Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009

TAGS: UPSC, IAS, IPS, IES, Civil Services, ICS, UPSCPORTAL, PCS, IFS, UPPSC, MPPSC, HPPSC, UTPSC, RPSC, TNPSC, KPSC, Indian Administrative Services, Coaching, Brilliant, Govt Jobs, Babu jobs, Sarkari Naukri. - India's Largest IAS, Civil Services Aspirants Community.

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  • 1. India’s largest Online Community for IAS, Civil Services Aspirants. Vol.3 JUNE 2009 | Free presents Aspirants Times India’s First Digital Magazine for IAS Aspirants around IFS Exam Special All About Articles Indian Forest -15th Lok Sabha Election Services (IFS) - Impact of Terrorism - Liberation Tigers of Exam 2009 Tamil Eelam Discomfited - Wildlife Conservation HOT TOPICS in India - Law Commission Recommendation (Hindi) (Exclusive Interview) - Annual Performance - Mahila Arakshan UPSC Topper Assessment Report Mayank Pandey - Sports and Awards Special Study material of Current Affairs and General Studies for IAS Mains Exam Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 1
  • 2. “ Thank you for the overwhelming support for Aspirants Times Vol.1 & Vol.2 Digital Magazine. We are working hard to bring you the best possible... ” Founder, UPSCPORTAL.COM Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 2
  • 3. INDEX Editorial • Inspiration is the way to Success..................................................................03 SECTION - 1: Civil Service Exam Strategy • IFS Examination Strategy ............................................................................05 • 15th Lok Sabha Election...................................................................................11 • Impact of Terrorism.........................................................................................17 • LTTE Discomfited............................................................................................24 • Wildlife Conservation in India........................................................................31 • Hindi Article ( )...............................................................39 SECTION - 2: Hot Topics • Law Commission Recommendation............................................................47 • Assessment Report (Performance Index For Civil Servants).................... 50 SECTION - 3: Interview • An Exclusive Interview With Mayank Pandey............................................52 SECTION -4: Current Relevant Facts • Important Current Affairs ..................................................................55 SECTION - 5: SPORTS...............................................................................68 SECTION - 6: AWARDS ............................................................................74 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 3
  • 4. Editorial Inspiration is the way to success... Now third volume of Aspirants Times is with you. Through your continuous support and encouragement, we are in position to provide all important and useful materials for forthcoming examination of civil services, state level civil services and other high level exams held by UPSC and state PSC. In the very fi v u e o A pi rant T m s , w p ovi d y m t erial rel at ed to G ne ral rst ol m f s i e e r ed ou a e Studies 2009, strategy for Civil Services Prelims and covered many important topics for IAS main exam. Similarly in Second issue, we provided you strategy for Indian Engineering Services(IES) and articles, notes for UPSC mains exam. In this issue, we are providing you strategy and introduction for another coveted exam- Indian Forest Service(IFS). With this issue, you will also fi d suf fi t n cien material for Civil Services Main Exam 2009. As always we have presented Columns, National, International, Sports, Awards, Personalities and Important events, in very lucid manner. For UPSC Main Exam 2009, articles on Impact of Terrorism on Social, Economic and legal structure on the Countries, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam-Discomfi ted End of Te r ror , Wildlife Con- servation in India. Hindi article on Women Reservation and Women’s Empowerment is in- cluded. Under the Hot Topics, Law Commission recommendation, Three Regional Benches Need of Time, Annual Performance Assessment Report, New performance index for civil servants have been covered. Editor’s Talk to Readers: Inspiration always plays an important role in success. As MAYANK PANDEY(IAS Topper) told to UPSCPORTAL.COM that always believe in yourself and be confi ent , c mi tm nt a c is- d om e nd ons tency is the mantra of success. In this volume, you will fi d in ervi ew o M YANK P n t f A ANDE Y, w o g 1 h p itio in C v l h ot 70t os n i i Services Examination 2008. He also cleared JRF twice, Bihar PCS(J)-40thrank, UP PCS(J)-20th rank. I want to tell one and most important thing to our readers that providing every fact and every news is not useful for examination. Crucial is to decide useful topics for exam and then serve them in the way that your mind could grasps them easily and memorise it for long period. Here we are trying our best in this front. We wish to your success in forthcoming examinations. Meet you in july issue. Thanks. Editor: R.K.Pandey and UPSCPORTAL Team Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 4
  • 5. SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy) followed by specialised orientation for the Forest Indian Forest Services Service at the Indira Gandhi National Forest Acad- emy, Dehradun. After training candidates are Make a Good Strategy and Enjoy the posted as the assistant conservator, district con- Forest servator, chief conservator, principal conservator, and the inspector general of forests. The senior By R. K. Pandey most post is that of the Environment Secretary in Indian Forest Service (IFS) offers a highly chal- the Union Government. The number of vacancies lenging and rewarding career like IAS and IPS. It to be filled o th r ts o th 2 n e esul f e 009 e i n tioxam a n is also counted among prestigious and powerful is expected to be approximately 75. services where you can play larger role in the in- terest of people, environment and country. The Plan of the Examination maintenance of the natural resources of the coun- try is very essential for a balanced all round de- 1. The examination comprises: Written Exami- velopment of the country. Maintenance of forests nation in compulsory and optional subjects. Total is so important for maintaining the ecological marks of exam is 1400. balance that the Indian Forest Service has been set up for this very purpose. They play very cru- 2. Interview for Personality Test of such candi- cial role in the management and supervision of dates as may be called by the Commission. the country’s forest reserves and wild life. Compulsory: IFS is also an All India service like IAS and IPS. (1) General English and (2) General Knowledge The Indian Forest Service was created in 1966 for (300 marks each). protection, conservation and regeneration of for- est resources. Being an All India Service, the mem- Optional: bers are recruited by the union level but their ser- Any two of the following subjects: vices are put under the various State cadres, with (1) Agriculture, (2) Botany, (3) Chemistry, (4) Civil the privilege of serving both under the state gov- Engineering, (5) Geology, (6) Agricultural Engi- ernment and under the Central government. For neering, (7) Chemical Engineering, (8) Mathemat- the recruiting offi cers o In an F es t Servi ce, f di or ics, (9) Mechanical Engineering, (10) Physics (11) the UPSC conducts the Indian Forest Service Exam Zoology, (12) Statistics, (13) Forestry and (14) every year. The exam generally held in the month Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science (200 of July. The examination for 2009 is going to be marks each). held on July 11. The pattern of exam is similar to that of civil services but there are some differ- Provided that the candidates will not be allowed ences as there is no preliminary test, so selection to offer the following combination of subjects:- is done in two phases. Selected candidates are sent (a) Agriculture and Agricultural Engineering for foundation training at the Lal Bahadur Shastri (b) Agriculture and Animal Husbandry and Vet- National Academy of Administration, which is erinary Science. (c) Chemistry and Chemical Engg. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 5
  • 6. SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy) (d) Mathematics and Statistics. merit list. The objective of personality test is to (e) Of the Engineering subjects viz. Agricultural judge the suitability of candidates as offi cers of Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engi- Indian Forest Service. The candidates will be in- neering and Mechanical Engineering - not more terviewed by a Board of competent and unbiased than one subject. observers who will have before them a record of this career. The object of the interview is to as- There are conventional (Essay) type questions in sess the personal suitability of the candidate for all the subjects of the Examination. The standard the Service. The candidate will be expected to have of question papers in general English and general taken an intelligent interest not only in his/her is expected of a Science/Engineering graduate of subjects of academic study but also in events which an Indian University. The standard of papers in are happening around him both within and out- other subjects will be approximately that of side his own State or country, as well as in mod- Bachelor's degree of an Indian University. There ern currents of thoughts and in new discoveries will be no practical examination in any of the sub- which should rouse the curiosity of well-educated jects. All Question Papers must be answered in youth. The technique of the interview is not that English. Question Papers will be set in English of a strict cross examination, but of a natural, only. The duration of each of the papers referred though directed and purposive conversation, in- to above will be three hours. tended to reveal mental qualities of the candidate. The Board will pay special attention to assessing Number of Questions: Total number of questions the intellectual curiosity, critical powers of ob- in the optional papers of optional subjects is eight. servation and assimilation, balance of judgment All questions carry equal marks. Each paper will and alertness of mind, initiative, tact, capacity for be divided into two parts, viz. Part A and Part B, leadership; the ability for social cohesion, mental each part containing four questions. Out of eight and physical energy and powers of practical ap- questions, fie q tio a to b a tem t ed. O e v ues ns re e t p n plication; integrity of character; and other quali- question in each part will be compulsory. Candi- ties such as topographical sense, love for out-door dates will be required to answer three more ques- life and the desire to explore unknown and out of tions out of the remaining six questions, taking at way places. least one question from each Part. In this way, at least two questions will be attempted from each The candidates appearing in the interview may Part i.e. one compulsory question plus one more. expect some questions on current affairs, forest related issues, Indian Polity, Planning Process, Interview: Budgeting and Economic Geography. The person- The written examination is followed by a Person- ality test also aims at testing leadership qualities, ality Test in the form of personal interview. The mental alertness, initiative, balance of judgement, maximum marks for interview is 300. The inter- analytical capabilities etc. views are held by the UPSC soon after the result of written test is declared. The marks obtained in Number of Attempts: the interview are added to the marks obtained by Every candidate appearing at the Examination, a candidate in the written test to draw up the fial who is otherwise eligible, shall be permitted four n Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 6
  • 7. SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy) attempts at the examination. The restriction is ef- vided that a candidate belonging to categories (b), fective from the examination held in 1984. Pro- (c), (d) and (e) shall be a person in whose favour a vided that this restriction on the number of at- certifi e of el igi b lity h s been issued by th cat i a e tempts will not apply in the case of Scheduled Government of India. Caste and Scheduled Tribe candidates who are otherwise eligible. Provided further that the num- A candidate in whose case a certifi e o el igi - cat f ber of attempts permissible to candidates belong- bility is necessary, may be admitted to the exami- ing to Other Backward Classes, who are other- nation but the offer of appointment may be given wise eligible shall be seven. A candidate shall be only after the necessary eligibility certifi e h s cat a deemed to have made an attempt at the examina- been issued to him by the Government of India. tion if he actually appears in any one or more pa- pers. Notwithstanding the disqualifi n/ cancel - catio Age Limits: lation of candidature the fact of appearance of the (a) A candidate must have attained the age of 21 candidate at the examination will count as an at- years and must not have attained the age of 30 tempt. years on 1st July, 2009, i.e. he must have been born not earlier than 2nd July, 1979 and not later Training: than 1st July, 1988. Selected candidates are sent for foundation train- (b) The upper age limit prescribed above will be ing at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy, relaxable :– which is followed by specialised orientation in (i) upto a maximum of fi e y v ears if a candi d e at Forest Service at the Indira Gandhi National For- belongs to a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe. est Academy, Dehradun with inputs on wildlife (ii) upto a maximum of three years in the case of management, tribal welfare, soil conservation, candidates belonging to Other Backward Classes forest management, engineering survey, weapon who are eligible to avail of reservation applicable handling etc. to such candidates. Eligibility (iii) upto a maximum of fi e y v ears if a candi d e at Nationality: had ordinarily been domiciled in the State of A candidate must be either :- Jammu & Kashmir during the period from the 1st (a) A citizen of India, or January, 1980 to the 31st day of December, 1989. (b) a subject of Nepal, or (c) a subject of Bhutan, or (iv) upto a maximum of three years in the case of (d) a Tibetan refugee who came over to India be- Defence Services personnel disabled in operations fore 1st January, 1962 with the intention of per- during hostilities with any foreign country or in a manently settling in India. or (e) a person of In- disturbed area and released as a consequence dian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, thereof: Burma, Srilanka, East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zam- (v) upto a maximum of fi e y v ears in th case o e f bia, Malawi, Zaire, Ethiopia and Vietnam with ex-servicemen including Commissioned Offi c- the intention of permanently settling in India. Pro- ers and ECOs/SSCOs who have rendered at least Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 7
  • 8. SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy) fie y v ears M litary S i ervi ce a o 1 t Ju y 2 s n s l , 009 a h ve b nd a een rel eased (i) o com l et io o a n p n f ssign- ment (including those whose assignment is due to be completed within one year from 1st July, 2009) otherwise than by way of dismissal or discharge on account of misconduct or ineffi enc y, o (ii) o ci r n account of physical disability attributable to Military Service, or (iii) on invalidment. (vi) Upto a maximum of fi e y v ears in th c o E e ase f COs /SSCOs w o h ve c p l et ed a in tial p d h a om n i erio of assignment of fi e y v ears o M litary S f i ervi ce a o 1 t Ju y 2 s n s l , 009 a w os e a nd h ssignm nt h s b e a een extended beyond fie y v ears a in w os e c th M n stry o D f ence issu a c nd h ase e i i f e es ertifi t h th ca cate at ey n apply for civil employment and that they will be released on three month's notice on selection from the date of receipt of offer of appointment. (vii) upto a maximum of 10 years in the case of blind, deaf-mute and Orthopaedically handicapped persons. Minimum Educational Qualificat i ons : The candidate must hold a Bachelor’s degree with at least one of the subjects namely Animal Hus- bandry & Veterinary Science, Botany, Chemistry, Geology, Mathematics, Physics, Statistics and Zo- ology or a Bachelor’s degree in Agriculture, Forestry or in Engineering of any of Universities incor- porated by an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other educational institutions estab- lished by an Act of Parliament or declared to be deemed as a University Under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956, or possess an equivalent qualifi io cat n. Examination Centre AGARTALA BAREILLY DEHRADUN GANGTOK JAMMU LUCKNOW PANAJI (GOA) SAMBALPUR TIRUPATI AHMEDABAD BHOPAL DELHI HYDERABAD JORHAT MADURAI PATNA SHILLONG UDAIPUR AIZAWL CHANDIGARH DHARWAD IMPHAL KOCHI MUMBAI PORT BLAIR SHIMLA VISHAKHAPATNAM ALLAHABAD CHENNAI DISPUR ITANAGAR KOHIMA NAGPUR RAIPUR SRINAGAR BANGALORE CUTTACK JAIPUR KOLKATA RANCHI THIRUVANANTHAPURAM Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 8
  • 9. SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy) Jawaharlal • Nehru and Rabindranath Tagore How to Prepare Compulsory Papers • Statistics and General Mathematics Ability General English:- Candidates will be required to write an essay in It is essential to read one national newspaper, English. Other questions will be designed to test magazines like Frontline, Mainstream, EPW and their understanding of English and workmanlike any monthly competitive magazine to get mas- use of words. Passages will usually be set for sum- tery over General Studies. At the time of studying mary or precis. The standard of papers in General the round up of national and international affairs, English is such as may be expected of a Science or efforts should not be merely taking up the infor- Engineering graduate of an Indian University. mation but also to understand the issues involved. General Knowledge Go into the background of events. General Knowledge including knowledge of cur- rent events and of such matters of every day ob- For History: NCERT books of class XI and XII, servation and experience in their scientifi a c spects Wonder that was India by AL Basham, History of as may be expected of an educated person who has India Vol- 1 and 2, Freedom Struggle by Bipan not made a special study of any scientifi su ect . c bj Chandra The paper will also include questions on Indian Polity including the political system and the Con- For Geography: Class XII books of Geography stitution of India, History of India and Geography (NCERT), a good Atlas. of a nature which the candidate should be able to answer without special study. The standard of Indian Polity: Introduction to the Indian Con- papers in General Knowledge will be such as may stitution by DD Basu and Our Parliament by be expected of a Science or Engineering graduate Subhash Kashyap of an Indian University. Indian Economy: NCERT and other books on Evo- lution of the Indian Economy and Indian Economy Suggested Readings by Dutta Sunderam The following topics must be covered for General Science: NCERT books on science, a General Studies:- science magazine or newspaper supplements on science. • Current Affiars N t iona l and Int ernat iona l a Current Events: A national newspaper, A Com- • Indian Polity petitive Magazine. • Indian Economy General Mental Ability: Do the Quantitative • Geography of India Aptitude published in magazines, past years test • Science and Technology papers. A practice in writing is required to at- • History of India and Freedom Movement tempt the paper timely and perfectly. You should not be only informative but analysis the topic. You • Study of thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi, must carefully read the questions in order to make Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 9
  • 10. SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy) out what the examiner is asking. Having done that, it is important to organise your thoughts before writing and the sequence of the answer should be from the most important/potent aspect to less important aspects. Be Carefull » All Question Papers must be Answered in English. Question Papers will be set in English only. » The duration of each of the papers referred to above will be three hours. Candidates must write the papers in their own hand. In no circumstances, will they be allowed the help of a scribe to write the answers for them. » The Commission have discretion to fi q ifyi n m rks in any o al l the subj ect s o x ual g a r f the examination. » If a candidate’s handwriting is not easily legible, a deduction will be made on this account from the total marks otherwise accruing to him/her. » Marks will not be allotted for mere superfi al k l edge. ci now » Credit will be given for orderly, effective and exact expression combined with due economy of words in all subjects of the examination. » In the question papers, wherever required, SI units will be used. » Candidates should use only International form of Indian numerals (i.e. 1,2,3,4,5,6 etc.) while answering question papers. » Candidates will be allowed the use of Scientifi (N n- Pr ogram bl e type) C l cul a- c o ma a tors at the conventional (Essay) type examination of UPSC. Programmable type Calcula- tors will however not be allowed and the use of such calculators shall tantamount to resorting to unfair means by the candidates. Loaning or interchanging of calculators in the Examination Hall is not permitted. This Article is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 10
  • 11. SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election) 15th Loksabha Election Historic win : In recent past, no single party crossed the number 200, so winning 2006 seats Coalition Government Formed with by Congress on its own makes a historic victory. New Hope and Ambition When we observe situation immediate before voting, we fid th t th re w re m ny c l lenges n a e e a ha By R. K. Pandey before congress. Congress picked up an alliance The result of 15th Lok Sabha was declared on May on the eve of the election in West Bengal. But 17, 2009. Actual result was very different from two of the participating parties, the RJD and LJSP, all predictions and exit poll. It proved all survey parted on the issue of seat-shares in Bihar. The false and unrealistic. The UPA’s tally reached 262 Samajwadi Party in UP, which had joined the coa- seats, with the Congress itself accounting for 206 lition late on the crucial issue of the Indo-Ameri- of them. There is huge gap between it and its near- can nuclear power deal to save the coalition from est rival, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)-led Na- collapse, also separated on the same issue. Mem- tional Democratic Alliance (NDA). The NDA got bers of the Bihar party pleaded that they remained only 157 seats, with the BJP’s own score being committed to the UPA and continued to be in the 116. The non-Congress, non-BJP formation was Ministry. reduced to 72. The Fourth Front, which sought to develop a separate political identity in order to If Verdict 2009 were to be summed up in a short enhance its bargaining power with the Congress phrase, this is it. Large sections of the electorate and the UPA in a post-poll situation, was also across the country voted to bring back the regime brought down, to just 27 seats. Obviously, this of the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance result went contrary to the perceptions that held (UPA) and brought it within striking distance of sway among the political class and observers the simple-majority mark of 272. Though the num- throughout the election process. bers thrown up by the results would, technically, imply a hung Parliament, there is little doubt The main perception was about a hopelessly hung about the mandate given to the Manmohan Singh Parliament. Even the Congress, which now bask- led government to run its course for fi e y v ears, ing in the glory of a spectacular victory, had shared without too many pressures and problems from this view and gone about looking for new allies smaller parties and allies. The message was very for a post-poll scenario. That search had even taken clear, that role of regional and smaller parties in it to the Nitish Kumar-led Janata Dal (United), the 15th Lok Sabha, and through it in the forma- which has been a consistent partner in the NDA tion of the new government was minimised. The for the past decade and a half. Midway through verdict was such that the UPA had the opportu- the process, Sharad Pawar, UPA Minister and nity to form the government by choosing its al- president of the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), lies at its own will and convenience and, at a pinch, made bold to predict that the Congress would get even with the support of independents who do not 150 to 160 seats and that the UPA would have to have specifi p itical af fi on . c ol liati s take the support of the Left parties to form the government. Winning Factors: The primary factor was the Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 11
  • 12. SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election) view among large sections of the electorate that on Sonia Gandhi and Manmohan Singh by Modi only the Congress can provide a stable, secular and other leaders also boomeranged. government. The second factor relates to the track record of the Manmohan Singh government, par- As a result, the larger Congress win was on nega- ticularly its social sector initiatives such as the tive vote more than on positive vote. A reason National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme why the party is strongly focusing on the person- (NREGS) and the bank loan waiver. The third cru- ality of Rahul Gandhi is just that. Sonia Gandhi, cial factor was the shift of the Muslim vote to- Rahul Gandhi and even Priyanka Vadra have been wards the Congress in the Hindi heartland in gen- played up much by the national media as well. eral and in Uttar Pradesh in particular. That the There is heavy investment in propping up the dy- election issues highlighted by the NDA, such as nasty and strengthening the case for dynastic suc- internal security and the bringing back of black cession. It is diffi t to ju cul dge h m ch c ri- ow u ont money from Swiss banks, failed to generate popu- bution has really been made by these and other lar appeal was also a factor. The internal security personalities to the Congress victory. The image plank fell fl b at ecaus e th earlier N e DA regi m s e of the Congress party with very limited talent has had also witnessed several internal security chal- been strengthened by the outcome of this elec- lenges that were not countered properly, such as tion. There is no doubt that the BJP has proved the attack on the Parliament House and the incompetent in focusing on more real issues and Kandahar hijck. T leadersh p p d b S a a he i rovi ed y oni wasting much less energy in negative campaign- Gandhi to the Congress and the UPA as a whole ing. Its dividend from a socially divisive agenda was also a factor that raised the UPA’s prospects. cannot go up any further. And its loss from di- minishing return has given that bit of extra mile- The Rahul Gandhi effect supplemented this, espe- age to the Congress. It should not be ignored that cially in Uttar Pradesh. Finally, the presence of these two parties are pursuing a common agenda several regional spoilers, who took the form of of promoting a two-party system in which they new political parties and essentially weakened the should be the two poles. The negative campaign- adversaries of the UPA, also helped produce this ing of the BJP has served that objective well. verdict. The BJP campaign for the elections was particularly non-productive. The party sent mixed Facts on 15th Loksahba Election signals even on its leadership by projecting Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi as a potential Prime » The highest number of candidates that an EVM Minister midway through the elections. This can support is 64 and if the number exceeds this, caused great humiliation even to Lal Krishna the commission will have to use manual ballot Advani. The manner in which Advani condoned for elections. Varun Gandhi’s communal utterances in Pilibhit also did not go down well with the electorate. The » The EVMs are designed by Electronics Corpo- open tussle between party president Rajnath Singh ration of India Ltd. and Bharat Electronics Ltd. and general secretary Arun Jaitley over the EVMs were fi u ed in In a 1 rst s di 989- 90 in 1 a6 s- organisational preparations for the elections in sembly constituencies in three states. Kerala was Assam and some of the caustic comments made Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 12
  • 13. SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election) the fi stat e. rst Shashtra Seema Bal was deployed along the Indo- Nepal border in Uttar Pradesh during the Lok » The Government spends Rs. 10 crore approxi- Sabha elections. mately on conducting a Lok Sabha election. » Photo electoral roll was used in 522 Parlia- » Danseuse Mallika Sarabhai, who was contest- mentary seats in 2009 elections. ing as an Independent from the Gandhinagar Lok » The number of electorate in 2009 general elec- Sabha seat, had challenged her opponent tions was 71.377 crore with an increase of 4.3 L.K.Advani to a public debate on his achieve- crore from the 2004 general elections. ments. » Total number of candidates was 8070. General Elections in India The Constitution of India came into force on Janu- » 7514 was male candidates: while number of ary 26, 1950. The fi gene ral , el ect ions u rst nder female candidates was 556. the new Constitution were held during the year » Percentage of female candidates was 6.9 % of 1951-52 and the fi e ected P rliam nt c e in o rst l a e am t total candidates. being in April, 1952, the Second Lok Sabha in » The number of polling stations were 8,34,944 April,1957, the Third Lok Sabha in April,1962, in 2009. the Fourth Lok Sabha in March, 1967, the Fifth There were 2046 observers and 1.4 lakh micro- Lok Sabha in March, 1971, the Sixth Lok Sabha in observers in 2009. March, 1977, the Seventh Lok Sabha in Janu- ary,1980, the Eighth Lok Sabha in December, 1984, » The total number of polling staffs was 46.9 lakh. » Total number of Booth Level Offi (B cers LO) the Ninth Lok Sabha in December, 1989, the Tenth was 8.34 lakh. Lok Sabha in June, 1991, the Eleventh Lok Sabha in May, 1996, the Twelfth Lok Sabha in March, » Highest number of candidates was 43 in Chennai 1998, the Thirteenth Lok Sabha in October, 1999, the Fourteenth Lok Sabha in May, 2004 and the South, Tamil Nadu while lowest number of can- Fifteenth Lok Sabha in May, 2009. didates was 3 in Nagaland. » Highest polling station was AuleyPhu in Leh. New Government: Dr Manmohan Singh was It was setup at an altitude of 15,300ft. sworn in as the Prime Minister of India for the second consecutive term along with his 19 Cabi- » Number of seats in the Lok Sabha (lower house net colleagues at a simple and brief function at of Parliament): 545 (of which two are appointed the Rashtrapati Bhavan on May 22. Thus he be- by the President) Moni Kumar Subba, the Con- come the fi pr im m n ster sin e Jaw ha rlal rst e i i c a gress candidate for the Tezpur LS seat, was the Nehru in 1961 to be elected to another fi e y v ear richest candidate in the poll fray in Assam. He term after completing his fi Jaw ha rlal N hr u rst a e has declared assets worth Rs 60 crore. was re-elected in 1962. There were four new faces in the fi e tio o th U i o C bi n t . A l th rst di n f e n n a e l e » For the fi tim , a w m n bat tal ion of the rst e o e others were in the outgoing Cabinet. All but two Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 13
  • 14. SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election) were from the Congress party. Shri Sharad Pawar : Minister of Agriculture, Food & Civil Supplies and Consumer Affairs & Among the new entrants in the Cabinet were Public Distribution Mamata Banerjee, the Trinamool Congress leader who trounced the Communists in West Bengal, Shri A. K. Antony : Minister of Defence Rajasthan Congress unit president CP Joshi, Con- gress general secretary M Veerappa Moily, and Shri P. Chidambaram : Minister of Home Af- former Karnataka chief minister S M Krishna. The fairs new Cabinet of the Congress-led UPA Govern- ment is a mix of the old and the new, refl in ect g Kum. Mamata Banerjee : Minister of Rail- Manmohan Singh’s experience and the youthful- ways ness. Agatha Sangma, the daughter of former Lok Sabha Speaker P A Sangma, is the youngest min- Shri S. M. Krishna : Minister of External Af- ister in the Manmohan Singh cabinet at the age of fairs 28 years. Jitin Prasada of Congress, who was the minister of state for steel, was the youngest min- Shri Ghulam Nabi Azad : Minister of Health ister in the previous UPA government at 35 years and Family Welfare of age. Shri Sushil Kumar Shinde : Minister of Power Shri M. Veerappa Moily : Minister of Law and Justice Shri S. Jaipal Reddy : Minister of Urban De- velopment Shri Kamal Nath : Minister of Road Transport and Highways Shri Vayalar Ravi : Minister of Overseas In- dian Affairs Smt. Meira Kumar : Minister of Water Re- sources Council of Ministers Shri Murli Deora : Minister of Petroleum and Dr Manmohan Singh : Prime Minister Natural Gas Shri Pranab Mukherjee : Minister of Finance Shri Kapil Sibal : Minister of Human Resource Development Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 14
  • 15. SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election) Smt. Ambika Soni : Minister of Information tice and Empowerment and Broadcasting Shri Kantilal Bhuria : Minister of Tribal Af- Shri B. K. Handique : Minister of Mines : Min- fairs ister of Development of North Eastern Region Shri M. K. Alagiri : Minister of Chemicals Shri Anand Sharma : Minister of Commerce and Fertilizers and Industry Shri A Raja : Minister of Communications and Shri Virbhadra Singh : Minister of Steel Information Technology Shri Vilasrao Deshmukh : Minister of Heavy Lok Sabha Industries and Public Enterprises Lok Sabha is composed of representative of the Shri C. P. Joshi : Minister of Rural Develop- people chosen by direct election on the basis of ment : Minister of Panchayati Raj adult suffrage. The qualifying age for member- ship of Lok Sabha is 25 years. The Lok Sabha at Kum. Selja : Minister of Housing and Urban present consists of 545 members including the Poverty Alleviation & Minister of Tourism Speaker and two nominated members. Lok Sabha, unless sooner dissolved, continues for fi e y v ears Shri Subodh Kant Sahay : Minister of Food from the date appointed for its fi m et in a rst e g nd Processing Industries the expiration of the period of fie y v ears o perat es as dissolution of the House. Dr. M. S. Gill : Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports However, while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Par- Shri G. K. Vasan : Minister of Shipping liament by law for a period not exceeding one year at a time and not extending, in any case, beyond a Shri Dayanidhi Maran : Minister of Textiles period of six months after the proclamation has ceased to operate. The maximum strength of the Dr. Farooq Abdullah : Minister of New and House envisaged by the Constitution is 552, upto Renewable Energy 530 members to represent the States, up to 20 members to represent the Union Territories and Shri Mallikarjun Kharge : Minister of Labour not more than two members of the Anglo-Indian and Employment Community to be nominated by the President, if, in his opinion, that community is not adequately Shri Pawan K. Bansal : Minister of Parlia- represented in the House. mentary Affairs The total elective membership is distributed Shri Mukul Wasnik : Minister of Social Jus- among the States in such a way that the ratio be- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 15
  • 16. SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election) tween the number of seats allotted to each State and the population of the State is, so far as practicable, the same for all States. An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies' boundaries has been carried out by the Delimitation Commission based on the Indian census of 2001. The number is divided among the 28 States and the 7 Union Territories as follows:- Seats in States and Union Territories » Uttar Pradesh - 80 » Jammu & Kashmir - 6 » Maharashtra - 48 » Uttarakhand - 5 » Andhra Pradesh - 42 » Himachal Pradesh - 4 » West Bengal - 42 » Arunachal Pradesh - 2 » Bihar - 40 » Goa - 2 » Tamil Nadu –39 » Manipur - 2 » Madhya Pradesh - 29 » Meghalaya - 2 » Karnataka - 28 » Sikkim - 1 » Gujarat - 26 » Mizoram - 1 » Rajasthan - 25 » Nagaland - 1 » Orissa - 21 » Tripura - 2 » Kerala - 20 » Andaman & Nicobar Islands - 1 » Jharkhand - 14 » Chandigarh - 1 » Assam -14 » Dadra & Nagar Haveli - 1 » Punjab - 13 » Daman & Diu - 1 » Chhattisgarh - 11 » Lakshadweep - 1 » Haryana - 10 » Pondicherry -1 » Delhi - 7 Anglo-lndians (if nominated 2 by the President under Article 331 of the Constitution) This Article is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 16
  • 18. SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism) Impact of Terrorism On Social, Economic And Legal Structure of The Countries Obstacle to Global Peace It is vital tool for our law enforcement as a van- guard of terror act attempted by any individual or Dr. Arvind shukla group within our jurisdiction. So from law en- Sr. lecturer, Invertis Institute Of manage- forcement perspective the law is vital to stop a ment Studies, Bareilly. would-be criminal (s) from attempting to com- mit crime of terrorism which used to be absent in The term "terrorism" since the 1970s was directed Indonesia for several years. to various phenomenon, starting from fearsome threats Until today the world under UN has failed From a perspective of motives of terrorist acts to come to an agreement about what is an accept- are recognized as follows: publicizing a statement able defi i tio for terror ism It is still u n n . nder d e- through acts of ruthlessness. In that way they can bate despite attempts made by many experts. The make fast and massive publication; act of ven- effort to approach terrorism from a defi i tio l n na geance towards groups considered disadvanta- perspective has thus become a never-ending ef- geous to them; serving as a catalyst for militari- fort, let alone conform the defii tio itsel f. n n zation or mass mobilization; spreading hatred and inter-communal confl ; announc i n a certai n ict g So many defi i tio o terror ism h ve b n ns f a een at - group as the enemy and should be held respon- tempted, but I am not going to discuss the diver- sible; victims are not the goal but a means to cre- sities of terrorism defi i tio W a t I in end to n n. h t ate "neural war"; create mass panic, damage pub- discuss here is that for the purpose of enforcing lic trust towards the government including secu- the law against the act of terror, Indonesia has rity and law enforcement authorities. enacted a law on terror in its Act number 15 and 16, 2003 which goes as follows: Whereas the justifi io o terror ism taken o cat ns f n by terrorists including: justifying all means for "Every person deliberately uses violence or the accomplishment of transcendental goals; ex- threatens to use violence causing terror or treme violence considered to be therapeutic, full wide fear against person or causing massive of blessings and regenerative; the executor places victims, by taking others' freedom or the loss himself/herself as part of history, where the act is of life, property of others, or causing dam- a consequential element of history under the per- age and destruction against vital and/ or spective of moral balance (a deserved treatment); strategic installations or environment or pub- the act of terrorism perceived as a minor crime; lic facility or international facility, shall be many among them even take this act insignifi cant penalized with a death penalty or life im- in comparison to the enemy's posing threat that prisonment or at least four years imprison- suppresses them structurally; Let us now look at ment and maximum 20 years imprisonment. " how terrorism has developed and its trend these days. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 18
  • 19. SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism) Trends of Terrorism:- humanitarian. The iron fi appr oach a o w ll st l ne i Terrorism is a global crime. It has become the not succeed. Terrorist will often have the advan- predominant geopolitical theme. The affairs of the tage over the law enforcer in the sense that he/ world are infl enc ed in im or tant areas b th u p y e she is able to decide when and where he/she will terrorist agenda. The thinking of policy makers strike, and how hard he/ she will strike. Law en- and law enforcers is shaped increasingly by the forcement, on the other hand, has to maintain con- need to respond appropriately to the threat of ter- stant vigilance. That is not easy at a time when rorism. Terrorism represents a challenge not just commercial airlines can be used as fl i n b b s , y g om to the bases of civilized society, but also to the and when terrorist strategy is planned by internet, very foundations of the world order. Terrorism mobile phone, satellite and coded messages on activities threaten fundamental nations' law and websites. order, human rights and it is the enemy of man- kind. Terrorism, in one form or another, has been The threats we face from terrorism are constantly around for a long time, and there is no realistic changing in all sorts of ways. Just when progress prospect of its becoming extinct in the foresee- is being made against a terrorist group, splinter- able future. All of those concerned with the effec- ing often occurs, and hardliners break away and tive combat of terrorism must be prepared for the form splinter groups committed to the campaign long haul. There is no simple solution to terror- of violence. It is feared that weapons of mass de- ism. struction previously controlled by governments can now be purchased on the black market. It is Terrorism is fuelled by various factors. These in- said that not only the weapons but also the scien- clude the openness of free societies, the easy ac- tists with the knowledge of how to make them cess to technologies by means of violence and a are available if the price is right. And fianc e m y n a radical and global ideology of hatred. Confl s be the key. Terrorists, like more conventional ict in some countries particularly in the Middle East criminals, need access to adequate funds in order have inevitably formed a global issue and soli- to fi a nc e th i r act iv ties . W apons , com ni - n e i e mu darity among terrorists. This global issue has be- cation systems and transport all come at a price, come a unifying factor to share the sufferings and as does training. establish a sense of togetherness based on religious brotherhood among the believers to resist against Terrorism seeks power through violence, and the oppressor. money is a means to achieve that. Terrorism needs access to international payment systems in order Terrorism will remain a menace as long as there to fi a nc e and sus tai n its cam ai gns . T rror ists, n p e are people who are driven by fanaticism, para- like organized criminals, make active use of credit noia and extremism. So long as there exists in the card fraud and check fraud. This is why vigorous world poverty, strife, injustice and oppression, identifi n c cks r m m s t b e catio he egi e u e xerci sed on conditions will exist which terrorists can turn to potential customers by credit card companies. The their advantage. No doubt that the campaign loopholes are in the area of money laundering leg- against terrorism is one that must be mounted at islation that must be closed. various levels, including political, economic, and Terrorism as it was defi e d a sys tem t ic u e of n a s Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 19
  • 20. SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism) violence or the threat of violence to achieve po- or no by standards. Another form of global ter- litical, social or economic goals. Terrorism uses rorism is sponsored terrorism, which is operated extreme physical violence to shock the targeted from safe areas in another country, which are out audience. The psychological impact generated in of reach of the counter insurgency forces of the the mind of people as a natural corollary of that targeted country. matters more to the terrorists than the physical attack on the victims (Cline, Ray S, 1998). There cannot be any single cause of terrorism. Causes of terrorism may range from socio-eco- Terrorism is as old as the civilization of mankind nomic and political conditions to theories based itself and has existed in all ages in some form or on the personality and environment of the terror- other which might be known anarchists, revolu- ist. Terrorism is motivated by a variety of inner tionaries, fundamentalist or dissidents against the drives ranging from fi a nc i al gai n to revenge, n s established authority or even ruling tyrants hav- from fundamentalism to deprivation, political ing no tolerance or dissent. However, terrorism frustration, regional disparities, marginalization was not as widespread phenomenon as it is today of sub-national groups, extremism, despair, injus- in contemporary political system of the world. tice, discrimination, resentment against the ex- isting regime, feeling of insignifi e, in erven- canc t Terrorism has, in fact, become a global phenom- tion into personal freedom, weak government, enon with increasing and rather well identifi e abl separatism and oppression, inequality etc. links between different terrorist group and orga- nization. They use each other's areas for recruit- Terrorism produces harmful effects in several ment and training, exchange of illegal weapons, ways. The consequences of terrorism can be di- engage in joint planning and ventures and also sastrous for all countries, both rich and poor, and provide administrative and other logistic support. their people. The normal social life gets totally This type of terrorist activities show a new di- disturbed and a large number of innocent lives go mension due to circumstances characterized by in vein. Fear and terror haunt everybody and the the advancement of science, technology and di- productivity of people is miserably stalled. Ev- verse social, economic, political and historical erything may come to a halt and the dream of lead- reasons conditioning it. ing a life of happiness and peace is shattered. Eco- nomic and social development of the society cease The development of computer science, satellite to uncertainly. Almost all become paralyzed amid and mobile links have also affected the modern- terrorist incidents. ization of terrorist activities. This further facili- tated by support of states/ governments unfavor- Terrorism breaks down the social, economic po- able to each other. An element of international litical and legal structures of the affected coun- terrorism comes into the picture when specifi tries and the entire process of development stops. c persons of the nation are designed as targets by Socio-cultural mosaic goes to rack and ruin, and the members of another group outside that nation. the economy of the country suddenly becomes a It is, therefore, described as warfare without ter- shamble. The rule of law and human rights ritory. It is warfare without neutrals and with few crumble and people suffer terribly. For develop- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 20
  • 21. SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism) ing countries, terrorism is fatal to their develop- against their public order and institutions that ment planning because they can hardly withstand protect the liberty and security of their citizens the violent assaults of terrorism; their longing for but, also at the same time as a serious danger to a better and brighter future goes up in smoke. peaceful international relations and cooperation, Moreover, terrorism not only weakens the estab- which is clearly understood as encompassing hu- lished political authority but also brings about man rights and values as well as the principles of political instability. In that situation the mainte- equal rights and self determination of people. It nance of the rule of law and human rights become is, therefore, that the transnational character of almost impossible. contemporary terrorist events has prompted in- ternational efforts to suppress them at the global Terrorism idealizes violence, does away with mo- regional and bilateral levels. rality, distorts politics, promotes totalitarianism, subverts progress, destroys the apparatus of free- Suggestions for stemming the growth of dom in democratic societies. In fact, it destroys transnational crime the will of a civilized society to defend itself. It appears that everything the mankind strives for The answer seems to be intensifying law enforce- collapses like a house of cards. As a matter of ment, more vigilance along borders, depriving the fact, terrorism is war against civilization. criminals of their profi ats, ssistin p g oor c ount ries with their efforts at strict law enforcement by way Today, terrorism poses a great threat not just to of providing training to their law enforcement human life, human rights, dignity and democratic offi cers, p ovi d n n ces sary technol o h rm - r i g e gy, a o values but to very existence of a civilized life. If nizing laws, sharing information, concluding in- the present trend continues, human civilization ternational agreements to facilitate co-operation itself will be a casualty. That is why Jerusalem and co-ordination in law enforcement and more Conference on International Terrorism held in importantly, political will and commitment. 1979 declared that ‘terrorism is a serious and growing threat to the people of all states which Profi g rat ed b o gani zed c e far e ts ene y r rim xceed live under the rule of law, that it is no longer a those that legitimate business enterprises could national problem, but a global one; that it cannot make. The incentive for organized crime, whether be constrained, and eliminated, except by con- local or transnational, is profi If o t. rgani zed c e rim certed international action; and that the case for syndicates can be deprived of their profi th y ts, e such action is overwhelming and urgent’. will cease their activities – altogether. It will (Jonathan Institute, 1979) therefore be worthwhile to examine and explore the ways and means of depriving them of their Prevention and Control Strategies:- profi T m s t e fect iv w y to d th s is c ts. he o f e a o i on- In this age of increasing globalization and inter- fi io o th p oceeds o such illegal act iv ty scat n f e r f i dependence, the national and international dimen- by judicial means or with suffi ent saf eguards , ci sion of terrorism in fact, constitutes two facets of by administrative means. the same social phenomenon which infringes upon the interest of all states, not only as an assault A sine qua non in this direction is effective mu- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 21
  • 22. SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism) tual legal assistance in the investigation and pros- iii. Protocol against traffi n in F rearm a cki g i s nd ecution. iv. Protocol against Corruption It has been found that certainty of detection and effective and expeditious disposal of cases is a Combating terrorism at regional level is becom- deterrent to would be criminals. At present extra- ing effective and popular. The external support is dition procedures take a long time. Simplifi eed x- often found in every operation of terrorist acts in tradition procedures will go a long way in expe- any part of the world whether in the context of ditious disposal of cases. inter-connection between a group and its rival group, a group and its enemy state, or a state and The international community responded to the its unfriendly state. It is here that regional coop- phenomenal growth of transnational organized eration can be an effective instrument for the sup- crime by signing in the year 2000, the UN Con- pression to terrorism. In Europe, besides their vention against Transnational Organized Crime. individual national legal and institutional mea- By the end of 72 hours 124 countries have signed sures, a historic convention known as the “Euro- the Convention. This is an indication of the enor- pean Convention on the Suppression of Terror- mity of the problem transnational crime poses to ism, 1977” was signed and ratifi “Sout h A ia ed. s the world. Countries also recognized the importance of com- bating terrorism at regional level and conse- Success of the struggle against transnational or- quently, signed a Convention titled the “Conven- ganized crime lies in the answers to the six points tion on Suppression of Terrorism, 1987” and rati- set out above. fi it. ed The most signifi cant step in th d rect io o th e i n f e Similarly, in view of the complexity and prob- prevention of transnational organized crime is the lems of terrorism some bilateral and multilateral adoption of the UN Convention against agreements between groups of countries have also Transnational Organized Crime. It has obligated been concluded. And many countries have extra- states to act despite constraints of bank secrecy dition treaties between them. and also to extend co-operation in confi scatin a g nd seizing of assets obtained through corruption and At the international level, response and coopera- transferred to different jurisdictions. tion against international terrorism has been in- voked many a time, and a variety of measures and The following four protocols add muscle counter-measures have been designed for check- to the convention, namely, ing the menace of terrorism. Concerned by the increase of terrorist acts, the United Nations Gen- i. Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Traf- eral Assembly in 1972 established a 35-member fi n in P rsons , speci al ly W m n and C l- ad hoc Committee on International Terrorism, and cki g e o e hi dren. in 1977 asked it to study the underlying causes of terrorism and recommend ways to combat ter- ii. Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants rorism. In 1979, the Assembly stressed the im- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 22
  • 23. SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism) portance of International cooperation for dealing tions and Associated Personnel in 1994, and In- with the acts of international terrorism. Adopt- ternational Convention for the Suppression of ing the report of the Committee, it condemned all Terrorist Bombings in 1997.’ acts of international terrorism that endangered or took human lives or jeopardized fundamental free- Despite all these Conventions adopted and rati- doms. fi decl arat io m de, and res ol u io passed ed, ns a t ns against international terrorism within the UN In 1994, the General Assembly adopted a Decla- system outside, terrorism has become a ubiqui- ration on Measures to Eliminate international Ter- tous phenomenon in the contemporary interna- rorism, which condemned all acts and practices tional affairs, and continues to grow. Every state of terrorism as criminal and unjustifi e, w e r- abl h is supposed to refrain from organizing, instigat- ever and whomever they were committed. States ing assisting or participating in acts of civil strife were urged to take measures at the national and on terrorist acts in another state or involved in international levels to eliminate international ter- organized activities within its territory directed rorism. towards the commission of such acts as well as prosecuting and punishing the perpetrators of ter- Important international Conventions on terrorism rorist acts. A concerted action has to be initiated are the Convention on Offences and Certain Other and sustained by all States whether they are af- Acts Committed on Board Aircraft (Tokyo, 1963), fected or not in collaboration and co-operation the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful with each other with strong determination and Seizure of Aircraft (The Hague, 1970); the Con- will to root out terrorism altogether from the vention for the Suppression of Unlawful Act world. against the Safety of Civil Aviation (Montreal, 1971); the Convention on the Prevention and Pun- Of course, mutual agreement at the international, ishment of Crimes against Internationally Pro- and regional levels have consolidated and tected Persons, including diplomatic Agents (New strengthened co-operation between the countries York, 1973); the Convention on the Physical Pro- in the fi a n t terror ism H rd lin p ici es ght gai s . a e ol tection of Nuclear Material (Vienna, 1980); the against terrorism adopted by some countries have Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of achieved success in this regard. But, it seems that Violence at Airports Serving International Civil combating of terrorist activities in a signifi cant Aviation (Montreal, 1988); the Convention for the proportion will be possible only if terrorism is Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety condemned and fought universally, unequivocally of Fixed Platforms located on the Continental Shelf and effectively, by all the countries in the world. (Rome, 1988) and the Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection Conclusion:- (Montreal, 1991). Terrorism has no respect for national boundaries, and the problem-taking place in any part of the The UN General Assembly also adopted the Con- world today will sure enough to become the prob- vention against the Taking of Hostages in 1979 lem of all tomorrow. Terrorism is a monster like and the Convention on the Safety of United Na- Frankenstein’s creation that is too horrible and Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 23
  • 24. SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism) dangerous. It is even a threat to those countries that create or promote it. Therefore, terrorism is a phenomenon which must be condemned, fought, resisted, controlled and, eventually, eliminated at (IMP) Get UPSCPORTAL , all levels-national, regional and international. Jobs, Results, Notification Conditions necessary for wiping out terrorism Alerts on Email. must, accordingly, be cultivated and strengthened nationally, regionally and internationally, and uni- Step-1: Fill Your Email address laterally, bilaterally or multilaterally. in form below. you will get a confirmation email within 10 min. Terrorist acts confronted by a state cannot be eliminated by the affected States alone because of Step-2: Varify your email by the international linkage of the terrorist groups. clicking on the link in the It is, therefore, clear that all the nations must form email. (check Inbox and Spam a common front to fi terror ism If th m ch ght . e u folders) needed spirit of international cooperation in the required degree is not properly established, the Step-3: Done! you will recieve world would become a dangerous place to live. It is for this reason that one nation’s peace and secu- rity will be determined by the success of all na- tions’ response to any kind of terrorism particu- larly for international terrorism. This Article is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 24
  • 25. SECTION - 1 (Article: LTTE Discomfited) Liberation Tigers of Tamil Tiger rebels when President Mahinda Rajapaksa Eelam Discomfited told the country that the war is over. On the ground, the rebels have admitted that their 25- year struggle for a Tamil homeland has reached End of Terror But Political Steps To- "its bitter end". However, the victory has come at wards Effective Devolution Needed a high price in terms of civilian life and damage By Dr. Divya to Colombo's international reputation. According Author is an expert and analyst of social and to UN fi es , an es tim t ed 7, 0 gur a 00 et h c T m l ni a i political issues civilians were killed between 20 January, when a military offensive pushed back the rebels into a Founder and chief of Liberation Tigers of Tamil tiny enclave in the north-east, and 7 May. Al- Eelam(LTTE) Velupillai Prabakaran was shot though the military largely blocked the world's dead by the Sri Lanka Army on May 18,2009 at media from covering the carnage in the so-called Mullivaikkal in Mullaithivu district in northern no-fi z , som T im ges h ve c re one e V a a onveyed p art Sri Lanka. The 37-year-old quest of the LTTE has of the horror, showing civilians making a desper- ended with the death of its all in all Prabakaran. ate break across a lagoon to escape the last strip He was 54 years old. His elder son Charles of land controlled by the rebels. Antony, and also the entire top leadership of the LTTE, including the LTTE’s intelligence chief, Doctors have recounted the cries of the wounded Pottu Amman, and the Sea Tigers chief, Soosai, at a makeshift hospital that they had to abandon were killed after being encircled by the Sri Lankan because of continual artillery shelling – bombard- armed forces. ments denied by the Sri Lankan military. UN of- fi al s a h a n right s g ci nd um roups h ve b a een horri- Until the last, Prabakaran, a ruthless and dreaded fi at th d sregard for ci v lians o b h sid , ed e i i n ot es terrorist yet ironically remaining an inspirational particularly in the fi a l stages of th conflict. n e symbol to thousands of Sri Lankan Tamils, re- Despite pleas from the US president, Barack mained uncompromising on his goal of armed Obama, and the UN secretary-general, Ban Ki- struggle, a struggle that despite its lofty claims Moon, Colombo has zealously pursued its objec- had often manifested in ruthless violence even tive of wiping out the separatist Liberation Ti- directed at fellow Tamils. Yet in the early 1980s, gers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) once and for all. Prabakaran had indeed appeared eager to be seen as a revolutionary fi er, in th m ul d o h roi c For Rajapaksa, military victory is the climax of ght e o f e fiur es o legendary r g f evol u io . P abakaran, w o t ns r h his election campaign in November 2005, when had little patience for the sophistry of political he ruled out autonomy for Tamils – a harbinger negotiations, made a virtue out of his sole reli- of the military option. Rajapaksa has been able to ance on violence and armed struggle. dress up the offensive as part of the global fi ght against terrorism. There is little sympathy for the Crisis of Human Rights:- Tigers. A ruthless group, listed as a terrorist Thousands of Sri Lankans celebrated their organisation by both the US and the EU, the Ti- government's military victory over the Tamil gers pioneered suicide attacks, carried out assas- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 25
  • 26. SECTION - 1 (Article: LTTE Discomfited) sinations and stand accused of using civilians in the war zone as human shields and shooting those who tried to flee. However, such tactics provide no excuse for the Sri Lankan government's blatant disregard for the plight of civilians. While many Tamils are appalled by the Tigers' tactics, they also harbour deep grievances about their treatment by the Sinhalese majority. Analysts claim the government's conduct has hardened an already humiliated Tamil diaspora, storing trouble for the future. If the Tigers' leadership is removed or killed in a government assault, it's easy to imagine one of the newly energised generation stepping in to fi th v d T d eam o a in ll e oi . he r f n dependent T m l h e l and a i om in Sri Lanka resonates powerfully across the diaspora and will certainly live on even after the defeat of the LTTE as a conventional military force. The deaths of tens of thousands of innocent Tamil civilians – while their family members watch from afar – is a recipe for another, possibly more explosive, generation of terrorism. For now, the Sri Lankan government has prevailed, militarily. It has a huge humanitarian problem on its hands, with tens of thousands of displaced civilians to care for, and it will need international aid. For western leaders who have urged restraint, this is the time to call on Rajapaksa to address Tamil demands for devolution of power and language rights now that the military confl is o ict ver. India’s Opinion India told Colombo to tackle the grievances of the Tamil minority which gave rise to the ethnic confl . It sought p itical steps tow rds “ef fect iv d ict ol a e evol u io o p e r w th n th S L nkan C n- t n” f ow i i e ri a o stitution so that Sri Lankans of all communities, including the Tamils, could feel at home and lead lives of dignity of their own free will. India’s response came soon after Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa called up External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee to confi th t th a e d r rm a e rm esistance by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) had ended and its leader Velupillai Prabakaran was dead. India had promised to work with the people and the Government of Sri Lanka to provide relief to those affected by the tragic confl , a to rapi d y r bi litat e a l th e w o h d b ict nd l eha l os h a een d spl aced, i bringing their lives to normality as soon as possible. In several interactions at the top level, India had received assurances from the Sri Lankan government that after the LTTE was militarily defeated, it would ensure the political accommodation of its Tamil origin citizens through several measures. Concerned at the developing unease among parties commit- ted to a peaceful solution in eastern Sri Lanka, where the LTTE had already been routed, India wanted Colombo to take steps that guaranteed safety, a better quality of life and the genuine feeling of partici- pation by Tamils of Indian origin in both provinces. These included Sri Lanka adhering to its earlier promise of implementing its Constitution’s Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 26
  • 27. SECTION - 1 (Article: LTTE Discomfited) From TNT to LTTE Prabakaran was drawn into the Tamil struggle after the Sri Lankan government passed a series of legislations, first aimed at the plantation Tamils and then against the Sri Lankan Tamils themselves. Repeated violence against the Tamils in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s influenced Prabakaran to take to armed struggle. Prabakaran, still in his teens, first formed the Tamil New Tigers (TNT) in 1972. The tiger was chosen as the emblem because the tiger represented the Chola flag and stood for Tamil patriotism and a Tamil nation. Yet the TNT was a forerunner of the LTTE, just as ruthless and fascist in its tactics. Apart from the assas- sination of Alfred Duraiappa, the record of the TNT included raids on banks, lamp-posting killing of informants and murdering secret service police officers. Prabakaran had a child-like craving for the LTTE to be recognised “as the sole representa- tive of the Tamil race.” Unfortunately that craving turned into a deadly cannibalistic tendency to devour other Tamil militant groups, thus undermining the struggle for equal rights for Sri Lankan Tamils. The result was that most of his military energies were spent on the destructive task of liquidating other militant leaders and groups. An early chilling indication of Prabakaran’s fascistic side was his personal gunning down of the Mayor of Jaffna, Alfred Duraiappa, in July 1975. With the dastardly assassination of Rajiv Gandhi on May 21, 1991 by means of suicide belt-bomber Dhanu at Sriperumbudur, about 35 km from Chennai, Prabakaran was proclaimed an absconding offender. Prabakaran was the No. 1 accused in the Rajiv Gandhi assassination case. The assassination led to the LTTE being banned by India and further ostracism internationally with a number of countries including the U.S. and the U.K. follow- ing suit. ‘Thirteenth Amendment plus’ which should include moving some items from the concurrent to pro- vincial list and the setting up of a second chamber of federal representatives. As part of helping in providing humanitarian relief, India had already announced a Rs. 100-crore grant which included dispatching over one lakh family packs containing rations and shelter materials for a nuclear family that would last. India was also considering expanding of its 50-bed hospital, manned by a 62-member medical complement from the armed forces. It planned to increase the size of the de-mining team to ensure that civilians had access to more safe areas than was possible at present. India had received feelers from several countries for a joint effort to provide relief and to reconstruct the battered northern and eastern provinces. Some countries that kept a watch over the peace process or actively participated in it would like to be involved in the setting up of democratic institutions and associated infrastructure in the area. India had so far preferred to operate alone or through the International Committee of the Red Cross. It had earlier not favoured a joint civilian evacuation programme proposed by the U.S. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 27
  • 28. SECTION - 1 (Article: LTTE Discomfited) secession from Sri Lanka. In late 1977, in the af- Background of confl : - ict termath of a serious communal clash in August The root of modern confl g ict oes b ack to B itish r that year, Junius Richard Jayawardene's UNP gov- colonial rule when the country was known as ernment granted only the educational rights de- Ceylon. A nationalist political movement from manded by the Tamils. But to the Tamil leader- Sinhalese communities arose in the country in the ship that was losing the control it had on the Tamil early 20th century with the aim of obtaining po- militants after not being able to follow through litical independence, which was eventually with the election promise of seceding from Sri granted by the British after peaceful negotiations Lanka to form Tamil, it was too little too late. in 1948. Disagreements between the Sinhalese and Tamil ethnic communities fl ared u w e n d aw p h r - After nearly two decades of violence, a ceasefi re ing up the country's fi p t-in rst os dependence c on- was signed in 2002, but it broke down in January stitution. Prime Minister S.W.R.D. 2008, leading to renewed fi erce fi t i n . Te vio- gh g h Bandaranaike's declaration of the "Sinhala Only lence killed more than 60,000 people, damaged Act" language policy was the spark that led to the economy and harmed tourism in one of South confl . T c v l w r is a d rect res ul t o th e - ict he i i a i f e s Asia's potentially prosperous societies. A ceasefi re calation of the confrontational politics that fol- and a political agreement reached between the lowed. Communal uprisings in the 1950s, 1977, government and rebels in late 2002 raised hopes and the formation of the Tamil United Liberation for a lasting settlement. But Norwegian-brokered Front TULF with its Vaddukkodei (Vattukottai)) peace talks stalled and monitors reported open resolution of 1976 were key events. These led to a violations of the truce by the government and hardening of attitudes on both sides. Tamil Tiger rebels. Escalating violence between the two sides in 2006 killed hundreds of people The TULF supported the armed actions of young and raised fears of a return to all-out war. In Janu- militants who were dubbed "our boys." These ary 2008, the government said it was withdraw- "boys" were the product of the post-war popula- ing from the 2002 ceasefi agr eem nt . The re e tion explosion. Many partially educated, unem- ceasefi expi red a for tn ght lat er. Fol lo i n a re i w g ployed Sinhala and Tamil youth fell for simplis- renewal of fi in in January 2 ght g, 009 govern e nt m tic racist and violent revolutionary solutions to troops captured the northern town of Kilinochchi, their problems. The leftist parties had remained held for ten years by the Tigers as their adminis- "non-communal" for a long time, but the Federal trative headquarters. Party (as well as its off-shoot, the TULF), deeply conservative and dominated by Vellala casteism, Sri Lankan Civil War did not attempt to form a national alliance with The Sri Lankan Civil War is the name given to the leftists in their fi for language right s. ght the ongoing confl o th island- na t io o S ict n e n f ri Lanka. Since July 23, 1983, there has been on and Following the sweeping electoral victory of the off civil war, predominantly between the govern- UNP in July 1977, the TULF became the leading ment and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam opposition party, with around one sixth of the to- (LTTE, also known as the Tamil Tigers), a sepa- tal electoral vote winning on a party platform of ratist armed organization which fiht s fo th c g r e re- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 28
  • 29. SECTION - 1 (Article: LTTE Discomfited) ation of an independent state named Tamil Eelam Kilinochchi, main military base Mullaitivu and in the north and the east of the island. Over 70,000 the entire A9 highway. people have been offi al ly listed a k lled in th ci s i e war since 1983. As one of the world's deadliest As a result of the latest fi in e ght g, xperts p edi ct r ongoing armed confl s, it h s c ed sig fi ict a aus ni cant the long running confl c d soon c e to a ict oul om n adversity to the population, environment and the end, with the government taking over the fi a l n economy of the country. The tactics employed by bit of territory controlled by the Tamil Tigers. the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam have resulted However the rebels have vowed to fi o a ght n, nd in the organization being banned as a terrorist or- are expected to wage an underground guerrilla ganization in 32 countries, including the United campaign, launching hit and run attacks against States, Japan, Brazil, Australia, the nations of the the military and suicide bombings around the European Union, and Canada. country, if they were defeated as a conventional force. After two decades of fi in a th ee fai led a - ght g nd r t tempts at peace talks, including the unsuccessful The fate of civilians trapped in the 'no-fi z ' re one deployment of the Indian Army as a peacekeep- has become a major concern for the international ing force from 1987 to 1990, a lasting negotiated community at this stage of war. On April 22, 2009, settlement to the confl a ict ppeared p sib e w e n os l h the UN Security Council has called on Tamil Ti- a cease-fi w s d ared in D cem er 2 re a ecl e b 001, and ger rebels to lay down their arms and let the UN a ceasefi a re greem nt signe d w th in erna t io l e i t na help evacuate civilians from the war zone. mediation in 2002. However limited hostilities renewed in late 2005 and the confl b ict egan to Indian involvement:- escalate until the government launched a number Became involved in the confl in th 1 ict e 980s fo ar of major military offensives against the LTTE number of reasons, including its leaders' desire to beginning in July 2006, and drove the LTTE out project India as the regional power in the area and of the entire Eastern province of the island. The worries about India's own Tamils seeking inde- LTTE then declared they would "resume their free- pendence. The latter was particularly strong in dom struggle to achieve statehood". the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, where ethnic kin- ship led to strong support for independence for The government then shifted its offensive to the Sri Lankan Tamils. Throughout the confl , th ict e north of the country, and formally announced its Indian central and state governments have sup- withdrawal from the ceasefi are greem nt o Janu- e n ported both sides in different ways. ary 2, 2008, alleging that the LTTE violated the agreement over 10,000 times. Since then, aided Beginning in the 1980s, India, through its intelli- by the destruction of a number of large arms smug- gence agency RAW, provided arms, training and gling vessels that belonged to the LTTE, and an monetary support to a number of Sri Lankan Tamil international crackdown on the funding for the militant groups, including the LTTE and its rival Tamil Tigers, the government has taken control Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO). of 99.8% of the territory previously controlled by The LTTE's rise is widely attributed to the initial the Tamil Tigers, including their de-facto capital backing it received from RAW. It is believed that Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 29
  • 30. SECTION - 1 (Article: LTTE Discomfited) by supporting different militant groups, the Indian government hoped to keep the Tamil indepen- dence movement divided and be able to exert overt control over it. India became more actively involved in the late 1980s, and on June 5, 1987, the Indian Air Force airdropped food parcels to Jaffna while it was under siege by Sri Lankan forces. At a time when the Sri Lankan government stated they were close to defeating the LTTE, India dropped 25 tons of food and medicine by parachute into areas held by the LTTE in a direct move of support toward the rebels. Negotiations were held, and the Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed on July 29, 1987, by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Sri Lankan President Jayewardene. Under this accord, the Sri Lankan Government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, including a devolution of power to the provinces, a merger—subject to later referendum—of the Northern and the Eastern provinces into the single province, and offi al stat u for th T m l language (th s w s e ct ed a th 1 h A ndm nt ci s e a i i a na s e 3t me e to the Constitution of Sri Lanka). India agreed to establish order in the North and East through a peacekeeping force, and to cease assisting Tamil insurgents. Militant groups including the LTTE, although initially reluctant, agreed to surrender their arms to the IPKF. Signing of Permanent Ceasefi A r eem nt re g e Sri Lankan government and LTTE formalized a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on February 22, 2002, and signed a permanent ceasefi are greem nt (C A) . N r w y w s n e d e F o a a am mediator, and it was decided that they, together with the other Nordic countries, monitor the ceasefi th ough a c mi ttee o e re r om f xperts n m d th S L nka M ni tor in M ssio In a e e ri a o g i n. August, the government agreed to lift the ban on the LTTE and paved the way for the re- sumption of direct negotiations with the LTTE. Following the signing of the ceasefi a re greem nt , c me rci al a r fl t s toJ a n be e om i igh ff a gan an d the LTTE opened the key A9 highway, which linked government controlled area in the south with Jaffna and ran through LTTE territory, allowing civilian traffi th ough th V nni c r e a region for the fi tim in m ny y rst e a ears, b o y a ter p n a tax to th L ut nl f ayi g e TTE. Many foreign countries also offered substantial fi a nc i al suppor t if p n eace w s a eved a a chi nd optimism grew that an end to the decades long confl w s in sight . T m ch a ici p ed ict a he u nt at peace talks began in Phuket, Thailand further rounds followed in Phuket, Norway and Ber- lin, Germany. During the talks, both sides agreed to the principle of a federal solution and the Tigers dropped their long standing demand for separate state. This was a key compro- mise from the LTTE, which had always insisted on an independent Tamil state and it also represented a compromise from the government, which had seldom agreed to more than minimal devolution. Both sides also exchanged prisoners of war for fi tim . rst e Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 30
  • 31. SECTION - 1 (Article: LTTE Discomfited) At the time the Sri Lankan government, which was facing an unrelated Marxist youth uprising by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna in the south, called in the Indian military immediately after the agree- ment was signed. A force dubbed the Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) was formed, and it initially oversaw a cease-fi a a m des t d sarm m nt o th m litant g re nd o i a e f e i roups . T S L nkan g he ri a overnm nt e pulled its troops south and put down the JVP rebellion as the IPKF took over control of most areas in the North of the country. While most Tamil militant groups laid down their weapons and agreed to seek a peaceful solution to the confl , th L ict e TTE ref u ed to d sarm its fi t e rs . K n t o en ure t h s u s i gh ee s e ccess of th accord, th e e IPKF then tried to demobilize the LTTE by force and ended up in full-scale confl w th th m T ict i e . he three year long confl w s a so m rked b th IP ict a l a y e KF b n aei g ccus ed o c mi ttin v us a es o f om g ario bus f human rights by many human rights groups as well as some within the Indian media. The IPKF also soon met stiff opposition from the Tamils. Simultaneously, nationalist sentiment led many Sinhalese to oppose the continued Indian presence in Sri Lanka. These led to the Sri Lankan government's call for India to quit the island, and they allegedly entered into a secret deal with the LTTE that culmi- nated in a ceasefi re. The LTTE and IPKF continued to have frequent hostilities, and according to some reports, the Sri Lankan government even armed the rebels in order to see the back of the Indian forces. Although casualties among the IPKF mounted, and calls for the withdrawal of the IPKF from both sides of the Sri Lankan confl g , G ndhi ref u ed to rem ve th IP ict rew a s o e KF from S L nka. H w ver, fol lo i n ri a o e w g his defeat in Indian parliamentary elections in December 1989, the new prime Minister V. P. Singh ordered the withdrawal of the IPKF, and their last ship left Sri Lanka on March 24, 1990. The 32 month presence of the IPKF in Sri Lanka resulted in the deaths of 1100 Indian soldiers and over 5000 Sri Lankans. The cost for the Indian government was estimated at over 20 billion rupees. This Article is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 31
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  • 33. SECTION - 1 (Article: Wildlife Conservation in India) Wildlife Conservation all, 33% of Indian plant species are endemic. India's forest cover ranges from the tropical in India rainforest of the Andaman Islands, Western Ghats, and Northeast India to the coniferous forest of the Aiming to Sustainable Growth and Himalaya. Between these extremes lie the sal- Development dominated moist deciduous forest of eastern In- By Sangeeta Gupta dia; teak-dominated dry deciduous forest of cen- tral and southern India; and the babul-dominated Author is an expert of various competitive examination. thorn forest of the central Deccan and western Gangetic plain. Important Indian trees include the Wildlife includes all non-domesticated plants, medicinal neem, widely used in rural Indian animals, and other organisms. Domesticating wild herbal remedies. The pipal fi tree, sh n o th g ow n e plant and animal species for human benefi h s seals of Mohenjo-daro, shaded the Gautama Bud- t a occurred many times all over the planet, and has dha as he sought enlightenment. a major impact on the environment, both positive and negative. Wildlife can be found in all ecosys- Many Indian species are descendants of taxa origi- tems, Deserts, rain forests, plains, and other areas nating in Gondwana, to which India originally be- including the most developed urban sites all have longed. Peninsular India's subsequent movement distinct forms of wildlife. While the term in popu- towards, and collision with, the Laurasian land- lar culture usually refers to animals that are un- mass set off a mass exchange of species. However, touched by human factors, most scientists agree volcanism and climatic changes 20 million years that wildlife around the world is impacted by hu- ago caused the extinction of many endemic In- man activities. dian forms. Soon thereafter, mammals entered India from Asia through two zoogeographical Indian wildlife:- passes on either side of the emerging Himalaya. The wildlife of India is a mix of species of diverse As a result, among Indian species, only 12.6% of origins. The region's rich and diverse wildlife is mammals and 4.5% of birds are endemic, con- preserved in numerous national parks and wild- trasting with 45.8% of reptiles and 55.8% of am- life sanctuaries across the country. Since India is phibians. Notable endemics are the Nilgiri leaf home to a number of rare and threatened animal monkey and the brown and carmine Beddome's species, wildlife management in the country is toad of the Western Ghats. India contains 172, or essential to preserve these species. According to 2.9%, of IUCN-designated threatened species. one study, India is home to about 60-70% of the These include the Asiatic lion, the Bengal tiger, world's biodiversity. India, lying within the and the Indian white-rumped vulture, which suf- Indomalaya ecozone, is home to about 7.6% of all fered a near-extinction from ingesting the carrion mammalian, 12.6% of avian, 6.2% of reptilian, of diclofenac-treated cattle. and 6.0% of fl w rin p ant speci es . oe g l In recent decades, human encroachment has posed Many ecoregions, such as the shola forests, also a threat to India's wildlife; in response, the sys- exhibit extremely high rates of endemism; over- tem of national parks and protected areas, fi rst Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 33
  • 34. SECTION - 1 (Article: Wildlife Conservation in India) established in 1935, was substantially expanded. and Dachigam National Park is progressing rap- In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act idly to save Kashmiri Stag. and Project Tiger to safeguard crucial habitat; fur- ther federal protections were promulgated in the Wildlife Conservation in India occupies a total 1980s. Along with over 500 wildlife sanctuaries, area of about 3.29 million sq. km. that contains India now hosts 14 biosphere reserves, four of fl r al and fauna l speci es , m m l s, rept iles , in o a ma - which are part of the World Network of Biosphere sects and birds. The Wildlife Conservation in In- Reserves; 25 wetlands are registered under the dia has become the most popular holiday destina- Ramsar Convention. The varied and rich wildlife tions because of its diverseness. In India there are of India has had a profound impact on the region's 571 sanctuaries and reserve parks that are pro- popular culture. Common name for wilderness in tected by the Indian Government, mainly meant India is Jungle which was adopted by the British for the protection of the extinct species of ani- colonialists to the English language. The word has mals and birds. Predators, Carnivores and Herbi- been also made famous in The Jungle Book by vores, - all are equally important to maintain the Rudyard Kipling. India's wildlife has been the vital ecological processes as nutrient and water subject of numerous other tales and fables such as cycling. India has over 500 animal sanctuaries, the Panchatantra and the Jataka tales. referred to as Wildlife Sanctuaries (IUCN Cat- egory IV Protected Area). Among these, the 28 The gradual emergence of the human beings as Tiger Reserves are governed by Project Tiger, and the most dominant species among all other spe- are of special signifi e in th c ervat io o canc e ons n f cies of animals and the attempt of the human be- the tiger. Some wildlife sanctuaries are specifi - ings to set themselves apart from other species is cally named Bird Sanctuary, eg. Keoladeo Na- the main underlying cause of the contemporary tional Park before attained National Park status. environmental disaster. The main reason behind a threat to the wildlife and the ecosystem is the Many National Parks were initially Wildlife Sanc- constantly growing deforestation, poaching and tuaries. Wildlife sanctuaries of national impor- negligence towards animals and nature. The In- tance to conservation, usually due to some fl ag- dian Government has started nature projects like, ship faunal species, are named National Wildlife Project Tiger, Nature Camps, Jungle Lodges, etc. Sanctuary, like national chambal (gharial) Wild- to encourage wildlife awareness among the com- life Sanctuary for conserving the Gharial (1978). mon people. Besides preserving the natural heri- tage, these projects also promote eco-tourism. Some of the important wildlife sanctuaries in India are:- Various Projects:- • Bandhavgarh National Park in Madhya Pradesh Gir National Park in Gujarat is the only existent habitation for the nearly extinct Asiatic Lions in • Corbett National Park in Uttar Pradesh India. The Kaziranga Sanctuary in Assam is a • Gir National Park & Sanctuary in Gujarat major example of good effort to save the endan- • Kanha National Park in Madhya Pradesh gered Rhinoceros. Similarly, Periyar in Kerala is doing a great job to preserve the wild Elephants • Kaziranga National Park in Assam Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 34
  • 35. SECTION - 1 (Article: Wildlife Conservation in India) • Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary in Kerala • Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary in Rajasthan • Sunderbans National Park in West Bengal • Dachigam National Park in Jammu & Kashmir • Manas Tiger Reserve in Assam National Parks of India:- India's fi n t io l p rst a na ark (an IU CN cat egor y II p ot ect ed area) w s es tabl ish d in 1 r a e 935 as H i ley a National Park, now known as Jim Corbett National Park. By 1970, India only had fie n tio l p . v a na arks In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard the habitats of conservation reliant species. Further federal legislation strengthening protections for wildlife was introduced in the 1980s. As of April 2007, there are 96 national parks. All national park lands encom- pass a combined 38,029.18 km², 1.16% of India's total surface area. A total of 166 national parks have been authorized. Plans are underway to establish the remaining scheduled parks. Biosphere Reserves The term ‘Biosphere Reserve' should denote an area: • Which is, set aside for the conservation of the resources of the biosphere and for the improvement of the relationship between man and the environment; List of National Parks • Dibru-Saikhowa National Park-Assam • Desert National Park-Rajasthan • Bandipur National Park-Karnataka • Dachigam National Park-Jammu and Kash- • Bannerghatta National Park-Karnataka mir • Vansda National Park-Gujarat • Corbett National Park-Uttarakhand • Betla National Park-Jharkhand • Chandoli National Park-Maharashtra • Bhitarkanika National Park-Orissa • Campbell Bay National Park-Andaman and • Blackbuck National Park, Velavadar-Gujarat Nicobar • Buxa Tiger Reserve-West Bengal • Anshi National Park-Karnataka • Fossil National Park-Madhya Pradesh • Balphakram National Park-Meghalaya • Great Himalayan National Park-Himachal • Bandhavgarh National Park-Madhya Pradesh Pradesh Conti.. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 35
  • 36. SECTION - 1 (Article: Wildlife Conservation in India) • Indira Gandhi National Park (Annamalai • Khangchendzonga National Park-Sikkim National Park)- Tamil Nadu • Kishtwar National Park-Jammu and Kashmir • Dudhwa National Park-Uttar Pradesh • Van Vihar National Park-Madhya Pradesh • Intanki National Park-Nagaland • Kanha National Park-Madhya Pradesh • Guindy National Park-Tamil Nadu • Mollem National Park-Goa • Govind Pashu Vihar-Uttarakhand • Mount Harriet National Park-Andaman and • Kaziranga National Park-Assam Nicobar • Which is, to serve as sites for long term scientific res earch a w ll a e s e s ducat io a l o n l ver th w r ld e o . The programme of Biosphere Reserve was initiated under the 'Man & Biosphere' (MAB) programme by UNESCO in 1971. Biosphere Reserves are areas of terrestrial and coastal ecosystems promoting solutions to reconcile the conservation of biodiversity with its sustainable use. They are internation- ally recognized, nominated by National Governments and remain under sovereign jurisdiction of the states where they are located. Biosphere Reserves serve in some ways as 'living laboratories' for testing out and demonstrating integrated management of land, water and biodiversity (CES., UNESCO, 2005., IUCN, 1979). List of Biosphere Reserves • Achanakmar-Amarkanta- Madhya Pradesh & Chhattishgarh • Agasthyamalai- Kerala • Dehang-Debang- Arunachal Pradesh • Dibru-Saikhowa- Assam • Great Nicobar- Andaman and Nicobar • Gulf of Mannar - Tamil Nadu • Khangchenjunga – Sikkim • Manas- Assam • Nanda Devi-Uttaranchal Advertise your Business Here • Nilgiri -Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka • Nokrek-Meghalaya Contact Us Online: • Pachmarhi -Madhya Pradesh store/contact • Simlipal-Orissa • Sunderbans-West Bengal Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 36
  • 37. SECTION - 1 (Article: Wildlife Conservation in India) IUCN The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation.Founded in 1948, its headquarters is located in the Lake Geneva area in Gland, Switzerland. The IUCN brings together 83 states, 108 government agencies, 766 Non-govern- mental organizations and 81 international organizations and about 10,000 experts and scientists from countries around the world. IUCN's mission is to infl enc e, u encourage and assist societies throughout the world to conserve the integrity and diversity of nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable. Biosphere Reserve Objectives Each Biosphere Reserve is intended to fulfi th ee b ll r asic fu t io , w i ch a c p l em nt ary a nc ns h re om e nd mutually reinforcing: • A conservation function - to contribute to the conservation of landscapes, ecosystems, species and genetic variation; • A development function - to foster economic and human development which is socio-culturally and ecologically sustainable; • A logistic function - to provide support for research, monitoring, education and information ex- change related to local, national and global issues of conservation and development (UNESCO, 2005). The Indian government has established 15 Biosphere Reserves of India, (categories roughly corre- sponding to IUCN Category V Protected areas), which protect larger areas of natural habitat (than a National Park or Animal Sanctuary), and often include one or more National Parks and/or preserves, along buffer zones that are open to some economic uses. Protection is granted not only to the flra a o nd fauna of the protected region, but also to the human communities who inhabit these regions, and their ways of life. Four of the fi fteen b o phe re res erves are a p o th W r ld N t w r k o B o phe re i s art f e o e o f i s Reserves, based on the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere (MAB) Programme list. • Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve • Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 37
  • 38. SECTION - 1 (Article: Wildlife Conservation in India) • Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve Project Tiger which was launched on April 1, 1973, has become one of the most successful con- • Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve servation ventures in modern history. The project aims at tiger conservation in specially constituted Conservation of wildlife in India:- 'tiger reserves' which are representative of vari- The need for conservation of wildlife in India is ous bio-geographical regions falling within In- often questioned because of the apparently incor- dia. It strives to maintain a viable tiger popula- rect priority in the face of dire poverty of the tion in their natural environment. Today, there people. However Article 48 of the Constitution are 27 Project Tiger wildlife reserves in India cov- of India specifi th t "th stat e sh l l e es a e a ndeavour ering an area of 37,761 km².Project Elephant, to protect and improve the environment and to though less known, started in 1992 and works for safeguard the forests and wildlife of the country" elephant protection in India. Most of India's rhi- and Article 51-A states that "it shall be the duty nos today survive in the Kaziranga National Park. of every citizen of India to protect and improve The wildlife institute of India (WII) is a govern- the natural environment including forests, lakes, ment institution run by the Indian Council of For- rivers, and wildlife and to have compassion for estry Research and Education which trains wild- living creatures." life managers and wildlife researchers. Large and charismatic mammals are important for Trained personnel from WII have contributed in wildlife tourism in India and several national studying and protecting wildlife in India. WII has parks and wildlife sanctuaries cater to these needs. also popularized wildlife studies and careers. The Project Tiger started in 1972 is a major effort to institute is based in Dehradun, India. It is located conserve the tiger and its habitats. At the turn of in Chandrabani, which is close to the southern the 20th century, one estimate of the tiger popu- forests of Dehradun. The Indian Council of For- lation in India placed the fi e a 4 0 gur t 0, 00, y a et n estry Research and Education also runs the Forest Indian tiger census conducted in 1972 revealed Research Institute and the Indian Institute of For- the existence of only 1827 tigers. Various pres- est Management sures in the later part of the 20th century led to the progressive decline of wilderness resulting in Wildlife Protection Act of 1972 :- the disturbance of viable tiger habitats. At the In- In 1972 by the Government of India. Prior to 1972, ternational Union for Conservation of Nature and India only had fi e des igna t ed na t io l parks . v na Natural Resources (IUCN) General Assembly Among other reforms, the Act established sched- meeting in Delhi in 1969, serious concern was ules of protected plant and animal species; hunt- voiced about the threat to several species of wild- ing or otherwise harvesting these species was life and the shrinkage of wilderness in the India. largely outlawed. In 1970, a national ban on tiger hunting was im- posed and in 1972 the Wildlife Protection Act The Act provides for the protection of Wild ani- came into force. The framework was then set up mals, birds and plants and for matters connected to formulate a project for tiger conservation with therewith or ancillary or incidental thereto. It ex- an ecological approach. tends to the whole of India, except the State of Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 38
  • 39. SECTION - 1 (Article: Wildlife Conservation in India) Jammu and Kashmir which has its own wildlife act. It has six schedules which give varying de- grees of protection, with absolute protection be- ing provided under Schedule I and part II of sched- ule II with the highest penalties prescribed for offences under these schedules and Species listed in the Sch. IV are also protected but the penalties are much lower, with the enforcement authori- ties having the power to compound offences (as in they impose fi es o th o fenders). n n e f This Article is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 39
  • 40. Advertise on www.UPSCPORTAL.COM 40000+ Users 45000+ Hits Daily 1.4 Million(14 Lacs) Hits per Month 1100 Unique Users per day Top 1100 Websites in India - Alexa Rating Online Shopping Store 29000+ Newsletters Subscribers Free Services: Free Website for Coaching Centers Free Brochure Upload Free Enquiry Page Guaranteed Results Make most of the Internet Audience.. Contact Us Now... Http:// Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 40
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  • 49. SECTION - 2 (Hot Topics: Law Commission Recommendation) of cases. It referred to various reports submitted Law Commission by the parliamentary committees recommending Recommendation such regional Benches and said , there were tried all the measures to reduce the backlog of cases Three Regional Benches and the result appeared to be far from satisfac- Need of Time tory. The time has come when the entire judicial set-up will have to be re-hauled and refurbished The Law Commission of India headed by its Chair- in order to make the goal of speedy justice a pul- person Justice A.R. Lakshmanan has recommended sating reality. on May 07,2009 that a Constitution Bench of the Supreme Court be set up at Delhi and three re- Why Should be New Benches Set-up? gional Benches at Chennai/Hyderabad, Kolkata The advantage of setting up Benches is that this and Mumbai to deal with appeals from High Courts can be made effective without any delay since the from the respective regions to exercise cessative constitution of Benches is a matter within the pur- jurisdiction of the apex court in each of the re- view and jurisdiction of the Supreme Court itself. gion. If the judge strength of the zonal benches is con- fi e d to tw ju n o dges , e ach zone w ll requi re o y i nl The Commission, in its report to be submitted to six judges which means that only 24 judges will the government said: “The apex court would thus be required for the four zones and other judges be relieved of the backlog of accumulated cases will be available in the apex court which have a which are causing a burden and continuous strain Constitution Bench working on a regular basis. on the resources of the apex court.” It said: “Since the accumulated cases pertaining to a particular Apex Court's View:- region would be dealt with by the particular zonal A parliamentary panel's repeated recommenda- Bench, the apex court would be free to deal with tions to establish more benches of the Supreme only constitutional cases such as interpretation of Court - aimed at enhancing its accessibility - have the Constitution, matters of national importance fallen on deaf ears in January 2009. While the apex such as references made by the zonal Benches to court continued to stonewall the idea of establish- larger Benches due to confl o a h ict f ut ority o ar ny ing just a single bench 'even on experimental ba- other reason, cases where the interests of more sis', the government is wary of accepting the than one State are involved such as inter-State dis- panel's recommendation to amend the constitu- putes on land, electricity, water, etc. Reference tion to set up more benches. The Supreme Court's made under Articles 143 and 217 of the Constitu- view on this issue is well known. tion, Presidential and Vice-Presidential elections, suits between two or more States, etc.” According to it, no proposal at present to set up any bench of the Supreme Court anywhere in the The Commission suggested that all PILs from any country. The particular parliamentary panel has part of India should be decided by the apex Con- been stressing with unfailing regularity the need stitution court to ensure no contradictory orders to set up at least three Supreme Court benches, were issued and also to halt the mushroom growth one each at Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai for over Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 49
  • 50. SECTION - 2 (Hot Topics: Law Commission Recommendation) the last two decades. But the Supreme Court had up its bench in Chennai 'even on an experimental been consistently rejecting the proposal which basis'. would enhance its accessibility by its decentralisation. During the 14th Lok Sabha term, Cases Pending in Courts:- the parliamentary panel on the law and justice Over three million cases are pending in India's 21 ministry, then headed by Congress stalwart and high courts, and an astounding 26.3 million cases present External Affairs Minister Pranab are pending in subordinate courts across the coun- Mukherjee, had recommended at least thrice be- try. At the same time, there are almost a quarter tween 1999 and 2000 to have more Supreme Court million under-trials languishing in jails across the benches. And the Supreme Court rejected it every country. Of these, some 2,069 have been in jail time. for more than fi e years, even as th i r gui lt or v e innocence is yet to be ascertained. This has been The recommendation was repeated in mid-2005 revealed by offi al fi res em ging f rom t he ci gu er by the present parliamentary panel, headed by home ministry's department of justice, under a Natchiappan, who said at least one Supreme Court Right to Information Act application placed by a bench should be set up in Chennai 'at least on ex- citizen. It has also been found that over a quarter perimental basis'. Expressing its exasperation over of all pending high court cases are at Allahabad. the apex court's aversion to have any bench in other parts of the country, the committee had observed • The Allahabad High Court had some 1.09 mil- that it was not satisfi w th th p ed i e ersistent o ppo- lion pending cases, with over eight out of every sition of the Supreme Court in establishing more 10 cases being civil cases at the end of 2006. Mean- benches in other parts of the country, more so while, the Supreme Court of India had a total of when the court does not have any convincing rea- 39,780 civil and criminal pending cases at the end son or the justifi io th reof ' . cat n e of last year. Madras High Court (406,958 pend- ing cases) and Bombay High Court (362,949) were The committee therefore endorsed its earlier view the others with a large number of pending cases. that the establishment of benches of the Supreme Sikkim is the lowest with just 51 pending cases. Court in other parts of the country would be of Of the pending cases in high courts, 704,214 were immense help to the poor, who cannot afford to criminal and 3.2 million were civil cases. travel from their native places to Delhi .Factor- ing in the apex court's consistent opposition to the establishment of its bench, the parliamentary • In subordinate courts, Uttar Pradesh again panel went to the extent of asking the government topped the number of pending cases (4.6 million), to amend the constitution to set up more Supreme followed by Maharashtra (4.1 million), Gujarat Court benches. Article 130 of the constitution pro- (3.9 million), West Bengal (1.9 million), Bihar vides that 'the Supreme Court shall sit in Delhi or (1.2 million), Karnataka (1.06 million), Rajasthan in such other place or places as the chief justice of (1.05 million), Orissa (1 million), Andhra Pradesh India may, with the approval of the president, de- (900,000). cide from time to time. But Union Law Ministry said the apex court has rejected the idea of setting • In another query, the National Crime Records Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 50
  • 51. SECTION - 2 (Hot Topics: Law Commission Recommendation) Bureau that functions under the home ministry codifi n o th P na l C de, th C im n l P o- catio f e e o e r i a r told Hari Kumar P. of Kasargod in a Right to In- cedure Code and a few other matters. Thereafter, formation Act reply that the number of under-tri- the second, third and fourth Law Commissions als in India was highest in Maharashtra (15,784) were constituted in 1853, 1861 and 1879 respec- and Madhya Pradesh (15,777). tively which, during a span of fi y fty ears c rib ont - uted a great deal to enrich the Indian Statute Book • Bihar (with 628 prisoners) topped the number with a large variety of legislations on the pattern of states with the maximum number of under-tri- of the then prevailing English Laws adapted to als kept for over fi e y v ears. P ab al so h d 3 unj a 34 Indian conditions. The Indian Code of Civil Pro- v ears a U tar P adesh cedure, the Indian Contract Act, the Indian Evi- under-trials for over fie y nd t r had 212. Delhi itself had 344 under-trials languish- dence Act, the Transfer of Property Act. etc. are ing in jails for over fi e y v ears. products of the labour of the fi four L w C m rst a o - missions. • On the positive side, some states had no under- After independence, the Constitution of India with trials in jail for this long a period without their its Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles trials being completed. These states included of State Policy gave a new direction to law re- Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, form geared to the needs of a democratic legal Manipur, Mizoram, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, and order in a plural society. Though the Constitution Tripura, apart from some smaller states and union stipulated the continuation of pre-Constitution territories. Laws (Article 372) till they are amended or re- pealed, there had been demands in Parliament and What is Law Commission? outside for establishing a Central Law Commis- Law Reform has been a continuing process par- sion to recommend revision and updating of the ticularly during the last 300 years or more in In- inherited laws to serve the changing needs of the dian history. In the ancient period, when religious country. and customary law occupied the fi d r o p o- el , ef rm r cess had been ad hoc and not institutionalised The Government of India reacted favourably and through duly constituted law reform agencies. established the First Law Commission of Inde- However, since the third decade of the nineteenth pendent India in 1955 with the then Attorney- century, Law Commissions were constituted by General of India, Mr. M. C. Setalvad, as its Chair- the Government from time to time and were em- man. Since then eighteen more Law Commissions powered to recommend legislative reforms with have been appointed, each with a three-year term a view to clarify, consolidate and codify particu- and with different terms of reference. The Eigh- lar branches of law where the Government felt teenth Law Commission was constituted under Dr. the necessity for it. Justice A R Lakshmanan, Former Judge Supreme Court of India through a Government order with The fi su C m ssio w s e rst ch o mi n a stabl ish d in 1 e 834 effect from September 1, 2006. It will have a three under the Charter Act of 1833 under the Chair- year term ending August 31, 2009. manship of Lord Macaulay which recommended This Article is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 51
  • 52. SECTION - 2 (Hot Topics: Assessment Report (Performance Index For Civil Servants) 1 (Article: Hindi Article) Annual Performance communication shall be made after the reporting Assessment Report offi ha s com l et ed th perfor m nc e asses s- cer p e a ment", the rules say. The concerned offi sh l l cer a New Performance Index be given the opportunity to make any representa- For Civil Servants tion against the entries and the fial g n g v n radi g i en in the report within a period of 15 days. The Ministry of Personnel has brought about The representation shall be restricted to the spe- changes in the method of evaluating the perfor- cifi fact u o ervat io c ai n d in th repor t c al bs ns ont e e mance of the civil servants working under the leading to assessment of the offi in term o cer s f government. Extending the ambit of changes for attributes, work output etc.The authority after due other civil services, which are not All India Ser- consideration may reject the representation or may vices, the existing nomenclature of the Annual accept and modify the APAR accordingly. The Confi ent ial R por t (A d e CR) h s b a een m di fi as o ed decision of the authority and the fial g n sh l l n radi g a Annual Performance Assessment Report (APAR). be communicated to the offi repor ted u cer pon within 15 days. When the new PAR rules came The process had begun two years ago with the in- into effect in 2007, the goal was to make perfor- troduction of the new All India Services (Perfor- mance appraisal a tool for career planning and mance Appraisal Report) Rules, 2007, which only training, rather than a "mere judgmental exercise". catered to the three All India Services (AIS) - In- dian Administrative Service (IAS), Indian Police New All India Services Service (IPS) and Indian Forest Service (IFoS). (Performance Appraisal Report) Rules, Unlike other services, All India Services have 2007 state cadres. The All India Services (Performance Appraisal Report) Rules, 2007, provided for nu- A performance appraisal report assessing the per- merical assessment of the offi cers o a 1 10 scal e, n - formance, character, conduct and qualities of ev- which was known as the "benchmark score". These ery member of the Service shall be written for rules further specifi th t p r m nc e a ai sal ed a erfo a ppr each fi a nc i al y n ear o a m y b speci fi by t h r s a e ed e of AIS offi cers w ll n b b i ot e ased sol el y o th i r n e Government. Provided that a performance ap- accomplishments, but will also take into account praisal report may not be written in such cases as their integrity in handling the various responsi- may be specifi b th C nt ral G vernm nt , b ed y e e o e y bilities. general or special order. "The full APAR including the overall grade and Provided further that if a performance appraisal assessment of integrity shall be communicated to report for a fi a nc i al y is n r n ear ot ecor ded b 3 t y 1s the concerned offi a ter th r cer f e epor t is c p l et e om of December of the year in which the fi a nc i al n with the remarks of the reviewing offi a th cer nd e year ended, no remarks may be recorded thereaf- accepting authority. Where government servant ter and the offi m y b a cer a e ssessed o th b n e asis o f has only one supervisory level above him as in the overall record and self assessment for the year, the case of personal staff attached to officers, such if he has submitted his self-assessment on time. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 52
  • 53. SECTION - 2 (Hot Topics: Assessment Report (Performance Index For Civil Servants) 1 (Article: Hindi Article) Explanation: For the purposes of this rule, “a Minister” shall not be construed as having demitted the offi if h ce e continues to be a Minister in the Council of Ministers with a different portfolio or in the Council of Ministers immediately reconstituted after the previous Council of Ministers of which he was a Min- ister with the same or a different portfolio provided the Prime Minister or the Chief Minister, as the case may be, continues in offi ce. Review of the performance appraisal report: (1) The reviewing authority shall record his remarks on the performance appraisal report, within the timeframe specifi in th S dul e 2 ed e che . (2) Where the report is written by the reviewing authority under sub-rule of rule 5, or where the reviewing authority has not seen, and the accepting authority has seen, the performance of a member of the Service for at least three months during the period for which the performance appraisal report is written, the accepting authority shall review the performance appraisal report of any such member for any such period within the timeframe specifi in th S dul e 2 ed e che . (3) It shall not be competent for the reviewing authority, or the accepting authority, to review any such performance appraisal report unless it has seen the performance of the member of the Service for at least three months during the period for which the report has been written, and in every such case an entry to that effect shall be made in the performance appraisal report. (4) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-rules (1) and (2), it shall not be competent for the reviewing authority or the accepting authority to review any such performance appraisal report- (a) Where the authority reviewing the performance appraisal report is a Government servant, after one month of his retirement from service, and (b) In other cases, after one month of the date on which he demits office. This Article is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 53
  • 54. WE NEED YOUR FEEDBACK! Please post your Feedback/Suggestions Online: Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 54
  • 55. SECTION - 3 (Interview : An Article) Interview With Mayank Pandey) 1 (Article: Hindi Exclusive An Exclusive Interview With Mayank Pandey Name : Mayank pandey Date of birth: 1/03/1981 High school: FCI Inter college gorakhpur 1996 Ist division 61% Intermediate: FCI Inter College Gorakhpur 1998 Ist division 62% B.Sc.: St Andrew’s College Gorakhpur 2001 IInd division 57% LL.B.: St Andrew’s College Gorakhpur 2004 Ist division 68% Gold Medallist of gorakhpur university LL.M. : Faculty of LAW , Delhi University 2007 Ist Division 61% Gold Medalist of DU Success Story : Bihar PCS (J) 40th Rank, UPPCS (J) 20th Rank, JRF Qualified Twice, IAS 2008 - 170th AIR Rank. INTERVIEW UPSCPORTAL: What were the basic mantras of your success? Mayank Pandey- Confi enc e c mi tm nt a c istenc y a th m nt ra o succes s. d om e nd ons re e a f UPSCPORTAL: When did you start your preparation for the IAS examination? What was your strategy for this examination? Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 55
  • 56. SECTION - 3 (Interview : An Article) Interview With Mayank Pandey) 1 (Article: Hindi Exclusive Mayank Pandey: I started preparation from Mayank Pandey: SMART approach of study June 2007 appeared in pre in may 2008 you i.e. SIMPLE, MEASURABLE have 2 devote one and half year for this exam. ,ANSWERABLE, REVISABLE AND For pre I was confi ent b d ecaus e w th law p e i r TRICKY. is easy but for mains I was apprehensive specially for public administration so I made UPSCPORTAL: Did you join any coaching extensive study fi a a th last sel ect iv rst nd t e e institute? What is your opinion about approach. coaching institute? UPSCPORTAL:What were your optional? Mayank Pandey: I joined vazi ram for GS and for Public AD I joined SUNIL gupta’s Mayank Pandey: First optional- Law answer writing classes besides that Alok sir of AMBITION coaching guided me in law for 2nd Public Administration. mains. Selection of coaching institute is very UPSCPORTAL: How did you plan for pre imp coz it will save your time energy and exam? give you a right direction. Mayank Pandey: For pre with law UPSCPORTAL: Tell Us About Your concentrate on bare act for IPC, TORT, Interview? CONSTITUTION and books for Mayank Pandey: My interview was in international law and jurisprudence. I.M.G.Khan’s board it was about 35 minutes UPSCPORTAL: What about General board was very cordial questions were asked studies? about Naxalisn , Financial crisis criminal justice reform and the problems of my native Mayank Pandey: Syllabus is very vast so place Gorakhpur. there is a need of smart approach geography, science, reasoning and current covers almost UPSCPORTAL: What is your suggestion 60-70 questions so I prepared these well. for new comers? UPSCPORTAL: What is the best way to Mayank Pandey: Always believe in yourself prepare current affairs? and be confient . d Mayank Pandey: Besides reading you will UPSCPORTAL: Your opinion about have to think over current event because Aspirants Times? opinion based question have been asked in Mayank Pandey: Aspirants Times is the mains which requires knowledge plus your best magazine for civils because coverage of own articulation. this magazine is very extensive. The articles UPSCPORTAL: What about time about matter of current importance are well management? And what was your strategy for articulated and rich in content. mains? Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 56
  • 57. SECTION - 3 (Interview : An Article) Interview With Mayank Pandey) 1 (Article: Hindi Exclusive UPSCPORTAL: What is your opinion about self study? Mayank Pandey: Self-study is inevitable for civil services. UPSCPORTAL: Do you think civil services exam is true test of a candidate’s merit? What is your advice to the candidate who failed in the exam? Mayank Pandey: Try & Try again never lose your confi enc e. S e t im s lu for d om e ck cede labor but there is no substitute of labor. UPSCPORTAL: What do you feel about the secret of your success? To whom do you refer for the credit your success? Mayank Pandey: The credit for my success goes to my mother who is a source of inspiration for me and specially my roommate Brajesh Rajak and Shailendra who were my helping hand throughout the preparation... Best of luck .. UPSCPORTAL Team! This Article is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 57
  • 58. SECTION - 1 (Article: Hindi Article) 4 (Current Affairs) CURRENT AFFAIRS the month of April,2009. Even as certain sectors showed signs of revival in the last few weeks, ex- • Air Chief Marshal Pradeep Vasant Naik on May ports continued to decline for the seventh month in a row dropping sharply by 33.2 per cent $10.74 31,2009 took charge as the 19th chief of the India billion in April, the highest fall in the last 14 Air Force from Air Chief Marshal Fali Homi Ma- years, from $16.08 billion in the same month a jor, who demitted offi ce. year ago. After an impressive growth rate of over With more than four de- 30 per cent in the fi six m nt h o 2 rst o s f 008- 09, ex- cades of distinguished ports started declining since October. In 2008-09, service, Air Chief Mar- exports grew by a megre 3.4 per cent to $168.7 shal Naik (60) saw action billion. According to the offi al fi res, o im ci gu il - in the 1971 India-Paki- ports contracted by 58.5 per cent to $3.6 billion stan war. He has been in April, while non-oil inbound shipments too decorated with the dropped by 24.6 per cent to $12.1 billion. exports Param Vishist Seva would remain in the range of $170 billion in 2009- Medal and the Vishist 10. With rising oil product prices, the trade defi- Seva Medal. Born on cit for the current fi scal w ul d rem i n at $100 o a July 22, 1949 in Nagpur, Air Chief Marshal Naik billion compared to last year’s $120 billion. was commissioned into the IAF on June 21, 1969 as a fi er p lo . A al u n us o S n k S ght i t n m f ai i chool , Satara, and the National Defence Academy, • The Board of Approval (BoA) in the Ministry Khadakvasla, Maharashtra, he has held many of Commerce and Industry on june 3,2009 has ap- ‘Command Staff’ and ‘Instructional’ appointments. proved 10 special economic zones (SEZs) and al- He has clocked more than 3000 hours of fl i ny g. lowed one-year extension to four projects, includ- He has also served as Air Offi C m ndi n cer o ma g- ing Mukesh Ambani-promoted Rewas Ports, for in-Chief of the Central Air Command, Allahabad. land acquisition. The BoA gave formal approvals Besides being a fellow of the National Defence to eight proposals, including those of Gulf Oil College, New Delhi, the College of Defence Man- Corporation, Emmar MGF and Larsen and agement, Secunderabad, and the Defence Services Toubro. Two other proposals were also given in- Staff College, Wellington, he has attended courses principle approvals. The Board also allowed lead- such as the fl i n in truct or ’ s c se, th ju e y g s our e ngl ing realty players DLF to withdraw four of its IT/ and snow survival course and the junior ITeS tax-free enclaves, asking the company to re- commander’s course. He is also one of the Hon- fund Rs. 6-7 crore worth of fi scal sops it w ul d o orary Aides-de-Camp to the President, the Su- have availed itself of. Four developers, including preme Commander of the armed forces. Ambani-promoted Rewas Ports in Raigad, Maharashtra, and K. Raheja group have been al- • The continued recession and economic down- lowed extension of in-principle approval by one year. These projects have not been able to acquire turn, especially in the U.S. and European markets, the required land. The total investment expected took a toll on exports as well as imports. Imports from these approved SEZs would be about Rs. dropped by 36.6 per cent to $15.75 billion during Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 58
  • 59. SECTION - 1 (Article: Hindi Article) 4 (Current Affairs) 1,000 crore. The two proposals that have got in- while deaths due to terrorism decreased by 6,700, principal approvals include Krishnapatnam or 30 percent. According to the report, coordina- Infratech in Kota Mandal (Andhra Pradesh) and tion, sophistication, and frequency of suicide Maharaja Multitrade in Nashik (Maharashtra) for bombings in Pakistan continued to grow in 2008. multi-product and multi-services SEZs respec- The report also noted that India-Pakistan relations tively. were improving despite an increased number of infi io a s th L n o C nt rol , u il th y ltrat ns cros e i e f o nt e • The Supreme Court on june 01,2009 expressed were significant ly set b b the M m ai attack ack y u b its anguish over the increasing incidents of dowry in November 2008. deaths and suggested that no mercy be shown to those accused of burning women to death over • Congressional Research Service has prepared a dowry demands and such persons should be report according to which Pakistan with about 60 hanged. The Bench was hearing an application nuclear warheads primarily targeted towards In- fi b P em K a r G l ati, th e d b h r-in led y r um u e l er ot e - dia is continuing production of fi ssile m t erial fo a r law of the bride, who was burnt to death in weapons and adding to its weapons production fa- Haryana. He was awarded life imprisonment by cilities and delivery vehicles. CRS is a research the Punjab and Haryana High Court. The appli- wing of the US Congress which prepares reports cant was accused of burning his brother’s wife in for Congressmen. It confi e d th recent stat e- rm e collusion with his brother and mother. The Court ments and media reports that Pakistan was expand- said that in India hundreds of innocent women are ing its nuclear arsenal. According to the report, being burnt to death. It is an uncivilised act. This Pakistan stores its warheads unassembled with the is against the norms of civilised society. It’s bar- fissile c e separat e from n nucl ear e o iv or on- xpl s es, baric. and these are stored separately from their deliv- ery vehicles. • US State Department released an annual report on terrorism on April 30,2009. According to the • A 1973 batch IAS offi o th G j arat c e, cer f e u adr report, India ranks among the world’s most ter- Ashok Chawla was appointed Finance Secretary rorism-affected countries. The report on terror- in the Government of India. Ashok Chawla hold ism was released on April 30. The report high- various important port- lighted the 26/11 Mumbai carnage and seven folios in the fi d of el other major terror strikes across India in 2008. economy, Industry, The terrorism report 2008 was heavily focused Chemicals & Fertiliz- on Pakistan, far more than Iraq or Afghanistan, ers, Oil and Natural and paints a grim picture of a country in the throes Gas, Insurance and in- of endemic extremist violence. Approximately frastructure. He also 11800 terrorist attacks occurred in various coun- worked as Secretary, tries during 2008, resulting in over 54,000 deaths, Department of Eco- injuries, and kidnappings. Compared to 2007, at- nomic Affairs and Sec- tacks decreased by 2,700, or 18 percent, in 2008 retary, Ministry of Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 59
  • 60. SECTION - 1 (Article: Hindi Article) 4 (Current Affairs) Civil Aviation. Also he was given Additional • Leader of Meghalaya United Alliance Donwa charge of the Department of Financial Services Dethwelson Lapang was sworn-in as the Chief since May 1,2009. Minister of Meghalaya on May 13,2009. Meghalaya United Alliance is comprises of the • 1975 batch IAS officer o A dhr a P adesh cadr e Congress and a regional party, United Democratic f n r H. S. Brahma took the charge of Secretary, Union Party. The alliance has 37 Members of Legisla- Ministry of Power on May 12,2009. He was ear- tive Assembly -26 from the Congress, nine from lier Special Secretary, National Disaster Manage- UDP and two Independents-in the 60-member ment Authority in the Ministry of Home Affairs. house. Meghalaya was under President's rule since March 18, 2009 after the governor reported that • 1971 batch IAS officer o A dhr a p adesh cadr e there was a 'breakdown of constitutional machin- f n r JS Sarma took the charge of the chairman of the ery.' President's rule was lifted on May 8. Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) on May • Ruth Padel, one of Britain’s most respected po- 14,2009. He succeeded ets and great-great-granddaughter of Charles Dar- Nripendra Misra who superan- win had been elected the fi w m n P of es sor rst o a r nuated on March 22. After of Poetry at Oxford University in 300 years beat- Nripendra Misra’s retirement ing Indian academic Arvind Krishna Mehrotra. AK Sawhney, the senior-most Later on May 26,2009 she was forced to quit fol- member in Trai had been act- lowing a row over her alleged involvement in a ing as the TRAI chairman. TRAI smear campaign against her main rival, Nobel is an independent regulator for all issues relating laureate Derek Walcott. to telecom and broadcasting. The salary and emoluments for the TRAI chairman's position was • Aditya Puri, managing director of HDFC Bank recently increased to Rs 3 lakh per month, who was ranked as India's holds a three-year term as the industry regulator. Best CEO (overall) in Finance Asia • Pascal Lamy was reappointed director-general magazine's annual of World Trade Organisation. The General Coun- poll of investors and cil, on 30 April,2009 endorsed reappointment of analysts. He defeated Lamy for a second term of four years. He was Infosys Technology, elected unopposed for the post as none of the Bharti Airtel and Re- WTO's 153 member states put forward another liance Industries to candidate by the deadline of December 31, 2008. take the top spot in A French political advisor and businessman Pas- 2009 poll. Finance cal Lamy had worked as European Commissioner Asia conducts annual for Trade. He is also Honorary President of Paris- polls to rank Asia's top companies in different cat- based think tank Notre Europe. egories, including those with the Best CEO. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 60
  • 61. SECTION - 1 (Article: Hindi Article) 4 (Current Affairs) • Leader of African National Congress (ANC), • Leader of the Communist Party of Nepal (Uni- Jacob Gedleyihlekisa Zuma took oath as fourth fi M rxi st Le ni n st) M dha v K m r N pal ed a i a u a e President of South Africa since the end of apart- sworn in by President Ram Baran Yadav as sec- heid. He was administered the oath by Constitu- ond Prime Minister of the Federal Democratic tional Court Chief Justice Pius Langa in front of Republic of Nepal on May 25,2009. Earlier he Father of the Nation for the New South Africa received 359 votes out of the 601-member Con- and fi b ack p es id rst l r ent N l son M ndel a a 3 e a nd 0 stituent Assembly and was declared winner. Heads of States and Governments on May 10,2009 Nepali Congress president Girij P asad K i ral a a r o in Pretoria. Jacob Zuma, a self-taught man who and senior congress leader Sher Bahadur Deuba fought the apartheid regime from inside South proposed Madhav Kumar Nepal’s name while Africa and spent 10 years in prison in Robben Is- CPN-UML chairman Jhalanath Khanal and 21 land along with Mandela succeeded outgoing other Constituent Assembly members supported President Kgalema Motlanthe. Jacob Zuma was it. The UCPN (Maoists) boycotted the election the head of the ANC’s internal security wing dur- announcing they would not support the govern- ing the struggle against apartheid. The election ment. The CPN (unifi a th Jana t a D l a so ed) nd e a l held in April 2009, his party ANC polled 65.9 per boycotted the House. He replaced fi M oi st rst a cent of the votes and narrowly missed getting the prime minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal Prachanda two-thirds majority in parliament. who had resigned on May 4, following a row over the tenure of Army chief General Rookmangud • Human rights activist and vice-president of the Katawal. People’s Union for Civil Liberties, Binayak Sen was granted bail by Su- • The former Deputy Director-General of the preme Court on May Telecom department, Runu Ghosh was sentenced 25,2009. Binayak Sen to three-year rigorous imprisonment by a court was arrested under the on May 15,2009 for amassing disproportionate act on the charges of assets worth Rs 20.94 lakhs during the tenure of acting as a courier for former union minister Sukhram and ordered for- an alleged Naxalite feiture of the assets. She was convicted for acquir- ideologue. He had been ing the illegal wealth during a period from No- in detention in Raipur vember 1, 1992 to August 16, 1996 while serving jail since since May 14, as deputy director general in the Telecom depart- 2007 under the Unlaw- ment ful Activities (Prevention) Act. • Conservative supermarket magnate Ricardo • P. Sabita Indra Reddy was given the responsi- Martinelli was elected New President of Panama bility of home minister in newly formed cabinet on May 3,2009. He got 61 percent votes and rul- in Andhra Pradesh. She became fi w m n in ing party candidate Balbina Herrera got 37 per- rst o a Andhra Pradesh to hold the post of home minister cent votes. Former President Guillermo Endara of state. was a distant third. 54 -year-old Herrera served Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 61
  • 62. SECTION - 1 (Article: Hindi Article) 4 (Current Affairs) as housing minister under outgoing President • Horst Koehler was reelected as the President Martin Torrijs . P es id s in P na m a e ected o r ent a a re l of Germany by a single vote for a second fie y v ear for a single, fi e-year term T U S -educat ed, v . he . . term on May 23,2009. The 1224-seat assembly pro-business 57-year-old Martinelli owns members and state representatives of the country's Panama's largest supermarket chain. He promised 16 state legislatures, who include local television work for a national unity government. celebrities and sports stars, voted in a secret bal- lot. He had the backing of Chancellor Angela • Sister Mary Prema was declared new superior Merkel's Christian Democrats and the opposition general of the Missionaries of Charity, a congre- Free Democrats. Horst Koehler received 613 votes gation founded by Mother Teresa. German-born while his opponent the center-left Social Demo- nun Mary Prema replaced Sister Nirmala Joshi, cratic Party candidate Gesine Schwan secured 503 who was re-elected for the third time on 13 votes. Horst Koehler had been managing director March,2009 but she requested to be relieved of of the International Monetary Fund between 2000 her duties due to ailing health. Miss Joshi has led and 2004. the congregation since 1997, after the death of Nobel laureate Mother Teresa. Missionaries of • INS Airavat, the fifth in genous ly- bui lt land- di Charity (MoC)was established in Kolkata in 1950 ing ship tank, was commissioned into the naval by Mother Teresa. She was awarded Nobel Peace fl a th E stern N val C m nd (E eet t e a a o ma NC) b ase prize in 1979. MoC is a Roman Catholic religious Visakhapatnam on May 19,2009. The warship can order comprising of over 4500 sisters in 133 coun- carry 10 main battle tanks, 11 combat trucks and tries. 500 troops and has a considerable range and en- durance on sea. Third of the Shardul Class of ships, • The government of India appointed Hardeep INS Airavat is the most contemporary and fully Singh Puri as India’s Permanent Representative indigenized LST (L) in the Indian Navy. The war- to the United Nations. ship has soft-kill ability through chaff rockets He succeed Nirupam which could be used to clutter the sensory inputs Sen, whose term ended of an incoming energy aircraft or missile. It is March 31,2009. A also fitted w th r o t e p opul sio c rol , b tle i em r n ont at 1974-batch Indian For- damage control and automated power management eign Service offi , cer systems. INS Airavat would augment the opera- Hardeep Singh Puri tional capabilities and reach of the Eastern Naval served as India’s ambas- Command, in addition to enhancing the amphibi- sador to Brazil and prior ous and disaster relief potential of the Eastern Fleet. to his new appoint- ment, he was as secre- • The ‘Time’ magazine has published Time 100 tary (economic affairs) list of the World's Most Inflent ial P opl e’ in th u e e in the external affairs category of political leaders, celebrities and aca- ministry. demicians among others in the May 11,2009 an- nual Time 100 issue. World's Most Infl ent ial u Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 62
  • 63. SECTION - 1 (Article: Hindi Article) 4 (Current Affairs) People list was prepared by magazine's editors and it was different from popular choice in TIME. com's online poll. Infosys co-founder Nandan Nilekani (31st) and Oscar winning Indian music direc- tor A R Rahman (59th) made it to the list. Democratic senator Edward Kennedy and British premier Gordon Brown made it to the fi a second spot r pect iv y U secret ary o S at e H llary C in on rst nd es el . S f t i l t is in the eighth place, Pakistan army chief Ashfaq Kayani is sitting pretty at the 19th position, just a spot ahead of President Barack Obama. German Chancellor Angela Merkel, French President Nicolas Sarkozy, founder Jeff Bezos and media celebrity Oprah Winfrey also placed on the list. Sri Lankan performer in the ‘O Saya’ song of Slumdog Millionaire, Maya Arulpragasam placed 43rd. • The U.S. State Department's security director Gregory Starr was appointed new U.N. security chief overseeing the world body's far-fl ng secur ity o u perat io . St arr w s gi v res pons ib lity o ns a en i f protecting more than 285 U.S. embassies and consulates overseas as well as 100 domestic facilities. He replaced David Veness of Britain who resigned in June 2008 over the December 2007 truck bomb- ing at U.N. offi a a h r b ld n in A gi ers th t k lled 1 U N staf fers a in u ed 4 o h rs. ces nd not e ui i g l a i 7 . . nd j r 0 t e Prakash Mehra passed away Seventy year old Veteran fi ma ker P akash M hr a p lm r e assed aw y o a n May 17,2009 at Andheri in Mumbai.. Mehra had begun his career as a production controller in the late 50s and turned director with the musi- cal super hit Haseena Man Jaayegi (1968) starring Shashi Kapoor. He is credited for giving Amitabh Bachchan that big break with his Zanjeer, following which there was no looking back for Bachchan. They together made seven fi s , m s t not abl e of th m bei n H ra P ri (1976) , lm o e g e he Muqaddar Ka Sikandar (1978), Laawaris (1981), Namak Halal (1982) and of course Sharaabi (1984). Bal Brahmachari (1996) was his last di- rected fi a R kha starrer M j h M ri B w S B cha o (2001) w s lm nd e u e e i i e a a his last produced fi . P akash M hr a w s o o th fi B l l y oo d dir ect ors to t ry lm r e a ne f e rst o w venture into Hollywood. • Madhu Kannan was appointed managing director and chief executive offi (C cer EO) o B b ay f om Stock Exchange (BSE) on May 11,2009 by its board. Prior to his appointment, he was a managing director (corporate strategy) with Bank of America-Merrill Lynch based in New York. Kannan also held various senior roles across businesses at the NYSE Euronext. The post of CEO was lying vacant ever since its managing director, Rajnikant Patel, resigned abruptly in August 2008. • Rajan Santosham, cardiothoracic surgeon and chairman of the Santosham Chest Hospital Rajan Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 63
  • 64. SECTION - 1 (Article: Hindi Article) 4 (Current Affairs) Santosham was elected the Regent for India of the the careers of several MPs following damaging American College of Chest Physicians and Sur- revelations about widespread abuse of the claims geons, U.S. He was also elected the president of system by members of all parties. the Indian Association of Cardio-Vascular Tho- racic Surgeons that was held on May 17,2009 at • Admiral SM Nanda died after a prolonged ill- Srinagar in Kashmir. ness on May 11,2009 in New Delhi. He led the Indian Navy during the Indo-Pak Confl o 1 ict f 971. • Congress leader YS Rajasekhara Reddy took Ninety three-year-old Nanda, a Padma Vibhushan the oath as the 14th Chief Minister of Andhra award winner, Admiral Nanda was appointed the Pradesh on May 20,2009. He became the fi C e rst hi f Chief of Naval Staff on March 1, 1970. He retired Minister in the State to be sworn in for a second in 1973. He was awarded the Param Vishist Seva consecutive term after serving full fi e-year ten- v Medal (PVSM) and the Ati Vishist Seva Medal ure. Andhra Pradesh governor ND Tiwari also (AVSM) for his distinguished service. administered the oath of offi to 3 m n sters, ce 5 i i who were inducted into the ministry. • The Brazilian theater director and playwright Augusto Boal passed away on May 2,2009. He • Chairman, Intergovernmental Panel on Cli- was 78. Augusto Boal was known for the interac- mate Change (IPCC), and director-general, The tive genre called the Energy and Resources Institute, R.K. Pachauri ‘Theater of the Op- took over as chairman, governing council, Na- pressed.’ It was a way tional Agro Foundation (NAF). NAF was founded to establish a dialogue by the C. Subramaniam, who was an architect of between audience, India’s Green Revolution. playwright, director and actors that encour- • Britain's Speaker of the House of Commons, aged political activism. Michael Martin resigned on May 19,2009 because Boal was arrested, of a backlash over excessive expense claims by jailed and tortured be- lawmakers. He is the fi speaker to b for ced rst e fore being exiled to Argentina by the dictatorship out of offi sin e 1 ce c 695. B f or e M rtin s res igna - e a ’ that ruled Brazil between 1964 and 1985. tion, Sir John Trevor was last speaker to be forced from his position in 1965. He was found guilty of •Sant Rama Nand, associate head of the accepting a bribe in 1695. Michael Martin was Jalandhar-based Dera Sacha Khand died on May elected to represent a Glasgow constituency in the25,2009 after he wounded in the fatal shooting at House of Commons in 1979 as a member of the a Sikh temple in Vienna. He was 57. At least 15 Labour Party and became speaker in 2000. other people were wounded, including four of the attackers, who were eventually overpowered by • British Justice Minister Shahid Malik was worshippers. forced to resign on May 15,2009 in the MPs’ ex- penses claims scandal. The scandal already ruined Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 64
  • 65. SECTION - 1 (Article: Hindi Article) 4 (Current Affairs) • Former South Korean President Roh Moo- Lakshmi Automatic Loom Works Limited and the Lakshmi Card Clothing Manufacturing Company. hyun died after throwing himself off a rocky cliff He was the founder-president of the South India that overlooks his home in the village of Bongha, Cotton Association (1978-1998) and continued to 450 kilometers southeast of Seoul on May 23,2009. be its emeritus president. He was 62. Roh was under investigation for re- ceiving millions of dollars in bribes from a busi- nessman while in offi H s a i n stratio e ce. i dm i n nded • Sri Lankan Army killed Liberation Tigers of in 2008 dogged by scandal and infi in R h ght g. o Tamil Eelam chief Velupillai Prabakaran with at Moo-hyun’s Uri party was hit by scandal and in- least 18 top leaders including Pottu Amman, B. fi in and th re w s fi ght g, e a erce pu i c op i tion bl pos Nadesan and S. to several of his policies. He was suspended early Pulithevan in an intense in 2004, after parliament voted to impeach him battle on May 18,2009. over a breach of election rules, but the Constitu- Prabhakaran founded tional Court later overturned the move and he was LTTE on a culture of reinstated. suicide attacks and had developed an aura of • A prominent and infl ent ial yoga teache r u invincibility. He was the prime architect of Krishna Pattabhi Jois passed away in Mysore at the bloody 30-year civil war, and was responsible the age of 93. He popularised the school of yoga for the assassinations of several political leaders known as Ashtanga, characterised by fast-paced including India's Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi exercises that involve pronounced, but controlled, in1991 and Sri Lankan President Premadasa breathing while holding varying postures. He in1993. opened his own school, the Ashtanga Yoga Insti- tute. • Many people died in Mexico from swine fl in u • Gadar Activist Bhagat Singh Bilga died on April and May,2009. Government decided to shut down all schools nationwide for more than a week May 22,2009 in Birmingham, England, at his son’s and vastly limit public gatherings in the country. residence. He was 102. He was the last surviving A virus subtype H1N1 is an epidemic of a new member of the pre-Independence Gadar Party strain of infl enz a v rus id ifi i nAp i l 209, u i ent ed r 0 founded in San Francisco in 1913 by U.S.-based commonly referred to as ‘swine fl ’ . u Indians to join in the struggle for India’s indepen- dence. He openly and totally opposed the Khalistan agitation. • A key strategic town north of Mogadishu, Jowhar was taken control by the Somali insur- • Chairman and managing director of Lakshmi gent group al-Shabaab on May 17,2009. Mills G.K. Sundaram died in Coimbatore on May 18,2009 at the age of 95. A doyen of the textile • Sikh guru Sant Rama Nand of to Sach Khand industry, Sundaram was also the chairman of dera was killed with others in a rival group attack Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 65
  • 66. SECTION - 1 (Article: Hindi Article) 4 (Current Affairs) on a Sikh temple in Vienna, Austria. Later many people wounded in post-Vienna clashes in Punjab and Haryana states of India. • Scientists found evidence of an unexpected particle whose curious characteristics may reveal new ways that quarks can combine to form matter. The new particle was temporarily designated as Y(4140). It has a mass equivalent to 4140 million electron volts (MeV) of energy – in the sense of Einstein’s mass-energy relation – and the symbol Y is indicative of its as yet unconfi e d and ill- rm understood status. At present, it is not clear what exactly Y (4140) is made of. • A new 47-million year old primate fossil Ida, found in Germany was unveiled to the world at the American Museum of Natural History in New York on May 19,2009. It may be a key link to explain- ing the evolution of early primates and, perhaps, telling them about developments that led to modern human beings. Dr. Jorn Hurum of the University of Oslo, who led the two-year effort to determine the fossil's importance, nicknamed it ‘Ida’ after his own six-year-old daughter. Ida, the fossil of a young female that probably resembled a modern-day lemur was described as the most complete primate fossil ever found. • Tropical cyclone Aila wreaked havoc in Kolkata, its suburbs and across south Bengal. Aila also hit Bangladesh's southern coastlines with wind-driven tidal surged inundating residential areas and breach- ing embankments. Many people died on both sides. Books and Authors • Challenge and Strategy-Rethinking India’s Foreign Policy : Rajiv Sikri • Is Slam in Danger of Going Soft? :Larry Rohter • India and the Global Financial Crisis: Managing Money and Financ:Y. V. Reddy • The Boy with the Topknot: A Memoir of Love, Secrets and Lies in Wolverhampton: Sathnam Sanghera • CIA's eye on South Asia: Anuj Dhar • Tiger Hills : Sarita Mandanna • The Icon : Marshal of the Indian Air force Arjun Singh : Air Commodore Jasjit Singh • Government in India : An Inside View: T.S.R. Subramanian • Why I Supported the Emergency: Essays and Profiles: Khushwant Singh • The Two Lolitas : Michael Maar Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 66
  • 67. SECTION - 1 (Article: Hindi Article) 4 (Current Affairs) • AWACS aircraft was inducted into Indian Air Force on May 28,2009. Earlier the AWACS aircraft landed at Jamnagar air base in Gujarat. The aircraft will operate from the Agra air base under the Central Air Command as part of the extended fl o th IL 76s fam ly In a b e th fi co eet f e - i . di ecam e rst un- try in South Asia to own an AWACS, popularly called 'an eye in the sky'. The aircraft being looked as a replacement for the IL-76 include Embraer and Gulfstream 550, which can carry out fl i n m s- y g i sions of over nine hours at a stretch. • A meeting of the SCO security chiefs was held in Moscow in May 2009. The meet voiced concern over the situation in Pakistan and the risk of its nuclear weapons falling into terrorist hands. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) is an intergovernmental mutual-security organization which was founded in 2001 by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. • The Supreme Court strengthened the Special Investigation Team (SIT), headed by the former CBI Director, R.K. Raghavan, by inducting the two more former CBI offi cers to p obe rel at iv y g r el rue- some incidents during the 2002 Gujarat riots. Thus it became a six-member team now. • Astra is India’s fi b rst eyond v sual range a r-to- ai r m ssile (B i i i VRAM) . It w s tes t-launc he d from a the integrated test range at Chandipur-on-sea on May 7,2009. Astra is a high-end tactical missile and is envisaged to intercept enemy aircraft at supersonic speeds in head-on mode at a range of 80 km and in tail-chase mode at 20 km. • Former Governor of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab passed away on May 2,2009 at his house in Shamli town of Uttar Pradesh at the age of 93. He was also a member of the Lok Sabha from 1998 to 1999. • Renowned Marathi fi d rect or and edi tor N S V i d d ed at th age o 83. H w n m ny lm i a ya i e f e o a acclaims including ‘Filmfare’ award for best direction and editing of the fi ‘L k C l al i S lm e ha asarla’ in 1985. • A team from Appalachian State University and Deccan College Pune analyses 4000- year-old skeleton from India and found the evidence of leprosy. The skeleton represents both the earliest archaeological evidence for human infection with Mycobacterium leprae in the world and the fi rst evidence for the disease in prehistoric India. The study demonstrates that leprosy was present in human populations in India by the end of the mature phase of the Indus Civilisation (2000 BC) and provides support for one hypothesis about prehistoric transmission routes for disease. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 67
  • 68. SECTION - 1 (Article: Hindi Article) 4 (Current Affairs) World Bank Report According to World Bank report, India can further its climate resilience through a com- bination of measures and right incentives aimed at multiple levels of government-local, state, and national. The Report, ‘Climate Change Impacts in Drought-and Flood-Af- fected Areas: Case Studies in India’ is the fi o its k n in S h A ia R gi o T rst f i d out s e n. he Report looks at options to tackle the problem of adaptation to climate change in selected climate hotspots. It addresses both current climate vulnerabilities, identifi e fect iv es f e coping strategies and investigates future climate impacts and adaptive responses. The report’s regional focus is on two drought-prone regions of Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra and a fl od p one regi o in O issa. It m kes a strong case for a sh ft in o r n r a i agricultural systems in order to overcome future climate change pressures. The report said that building climate risk assessment as a requirement for all long- lived infrastructure projects; explores new and innovative fia nci al in trum nt s to p o- n s e r mote income diversifi catio in r al a n ur reas; e p ha sizes th n m e eed for a ggres siv y p su- el ur ing water conservation and controlling groundwater demand at a larger geographical scale and suggests strengthened support for agricultural research and extension to pro- mote sustainable modes of dryland farming. The report has suggested a better manage climate risks through setting up a climate information management system to help inte- grate baseline information into policy, planning and investment decisions. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 68
  • 69. SECTION - 1 (Article: Hindi Article) 4 (Current Affairs) • Amnesty International launched its report on May 28,2009 in London. The 2009 Report pro- » Amnesty International recorded torture and vides key trends and events in 2008 across 157 other forms of ill-treatment in 14 of the G-20 countries. According to the report, the World is countries during 2008. sitting on a social, political and economic time » China is also the world’s leading executioner. bomb that will explode if human rights concerns are not addressed. Billions of people are suffering » China increased repression of human rights de- from insecurity, injustice and indignity around the fenders, religious practitioners, ethnic minorities, world and the global fia nci al situ io m de th n at n a e lawyers and journalists. human rights crisis far worse. More people were driven into poverty and placed at increased risk » In Japan, the number of executions increased of human rights violations. In Africa, the food cri- and prisoners faced prolonged periods of solitary sis, a hallmark of 2008, had a disproportionate confi e m nt and in dequat e acces s to m di cal n e a e impact on vulnerable groups. In Asia, millions of care. people swelled the ranks of those already living in poverty, as the cost of food, fuel and other com- modities increased dramatically in 2008. » The world needs leadership that moves states from narrow self-interest to multilateral coopera- Facts: tion. » Across the region, the gap between rich and poor remained vast. » The world needs a new global deal for human rights. » During 2008 many governments continued to » The consequences of the economic crisis can ignore the voices of the poor and the marginalized. only be addressed with a coordinated global re- » The fia nc i al crisis and risin food pr ices af - sponse based on human rights and the rule of law. n g fected those already living in or close to poverty in the Middle East and North Africa, » World leaders must invest in human rights as » Recession has fuelled even greater repression, purposefully as it invests in economic growth. as protests stemming from poverty, economic dis- parities or a lack of justice are brutally suppressed. • A six-day international festival of children’s » In Latin America and the Caribbean, poverty, fi s show asin film from 2 0 count r ies w lm c g s as inequality and discrimination increased. held in Kolkata from May 24,2009. Hollywood hit ‘Kung Fu Panda’ was the inaugural fi o th lm f e festival, it also included award-winning fi s lm » At least 2,390 people were executed worldwide. from the Netherlands, Italy, France, Iran, Japan, China, Saudi Arabia and the USA – all G-20 mem- etc as well as some UNICEF productions. ber states – accounted for the highest number of executions Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 69
  • 70. SECTION - 1 (Article: Hindi Article) 4 (Current Affairs) • User trial of nuclear-capable ‘Agni-II' missile was successfully conducted by the Army on May 19,2009. Scientists from Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) were present to provide the necessary logistical support. The test of ‘Agni-II', an indigenously built Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile was carried out from a mobile launcher pad-4 of Integrated Test Range at Wheelers Island near Dhamra, about 80 km from Balasore (Orissa). The state-owned Bharat Dynam- ics Ltd is the nodal agency for the production of Agni-I and Agni-II missiles. Agni-II missile was first tested on April 11, 1999, and inducted in the Army in 2004. The indigenously built surface-to-surface Agni-I missile has a strike range of 1500 km, while Agni-II missile has the capability of hitting targ ets at ranges between 2500 to 3,000 km with a 1000 kg pay-load. (IMP) Get UPSCPORTAL , Jobs, Results, Notification Alerts on Email. Step-1: Fill Your Email address in form below. you will get a confirmation email within 10 min. Step-2: Varify your email by clicking on the link in the email. (check Inbox and Spam folders) Step-3: Done! you will recieve alerts regularly on your email. Click here for Newsletter: This Article is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 70
  • 71. SECTION - 5 (SPORTS) Hindi Article) 1 (Article: SPORTS for the fi tim in 2 C m i o L rst e 6 ha p ns eague m tche s a and failed to defend its 2008 title. This was the l As part of the ‘Win in India with India’ third title of the season for Barcelona. Thus it be- programme launched by FIFA President Sepp came the fi team to w n th S rst i e pani sh trebl e of Blatter in 2007, the La Liga, the King's Cup and the Champions football’s world gov- League. Manchester United earlier won European erning body has sanc- Champion Clubs’ Cup in 1968, then 1999 and 2008. tioned 10 international Barcelona won fi E opean C m i o C in rst ur ha p ns up standard artifi al tu f ci r 1992 and then in 2006. The UEFA Champions fi d to th A l In a el s e l di League is usually referred to as simply the Cham- Football Federation pions League or less frequently as the European (AIFF).The AIFF is un- Cup. It is an annual football cup competition derstood to have picked organised by UEFA since 1955 for the top foot- states where the I-League clubs are based and ball clubs in Europe. It is the most prestigious club where the ambitious Asian Football Confedera- trophy in European football. Prior to 1992 the tion programme ‘Vision India’ is being imple- tournament was offi al ly cal led th E opean ci e ur mented to lay the turfs. States like Goa, West Ben- Champion Clubs' Cup. The all-time record-holder gal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Manipur, Punjab, Delhi, is Real Madrid, who won the competition nine Sikkim, Maharashtra and Karnataka stand a good times, including the fi fi s e on it w co rst ve as s as n- chance to get the turfs. FIFA is expected to handle tested. the project independently in terms of bidding pro- cess, contract signing and testing. Each artifi al l Inter Milan retained their Series A title with ci turf is expected to cost a minimum of Rs four three games to spare after second-placed AC Milan crore. put in a weak performance to lose 2-1 at Udinese on May 17,2009. Inter's triumph, in former l In Table Tennis World Championship held at Chelsea coach Jose Mourinho's fi season i n rst Yokohama in Japan, China swept away the cham- charge, is their fourth straight scudetto and their pionship bagging all the gold and silver medals 17th overall. Mourinho now won titles with in the in the eight-day bonanza. Remaining three Porto, Chelsea and Inter. It was Mourinho’s fi fth bronzes were won by Hong Kong, South Korea title in seven years in three different countries and host Japan. Wang Hao of China won men’s having claimed the Portuguese crown with Porto singles fia l d eatin c p at rio W ng L q n a n ef g om t a i i nd in 2003 and 2004 and the English Premier League Olympic champion Zhang Yining won women’s trophy in 2005 and 2006 with Chelsea. Similarly singles title defeating fellow Chinese Guo Yue. in Spain, Barcelona was gifted its 19th Primera Liga title without kicking a ball on Saturday when l Barcelona registered 2-0 victory against holder second placed Real Madrid was beaten 3-2 at Manchester United in the European Champions Villarreal. League Football fi a l o M y 2 at th stadi u n n a 8 e m in Rome, Stadio Olimpico. Manchester United lost l England won the three matches one-day Cricket series 2-0 by defeating West Indies’ in the third Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 71
  • 72. SECTION - 5 (SPORTS) Hindi Article) 1 (Article: n a dgbaston. E and p ted a » Left arm seamer RP Singh of Deccan Chargers and fi a l m t ch at E ngl os daunting total of 328 for seven after being put in won the Purple Cap by taking maximum scalps by West Indies captain Chris Gayle. It was their (23) in the event. sixth highest one-day total. » Matthew Hayden of Chennai Super Kings • Deccan Chargers clinched the nail biting fin s al grabbed Orange Cap for scoring maximum runs by six runs against Royal Challengers Bangalore (573) in Twenty20. to win the Indian Pre- mier League —Season » Adam Gilchrist of Deccan Chargers was ad- II at the Wanderers in judged Golden Player of the Tournament. Johannesburg on May 24,2009. Royal Chal- • East London’s 34-year-old actress and model lengers Bangalore skip- Dune Kossatz was crowned Miss IPL Bollywood per Anil Kumble won South Africa at a glittering event at the Monte the toss and put Deccan Casino entertainment complex in Johannesburg on Chargers to bat led by May 24. She represented Chennai Super Kings. Adam Gilchrist. Deccan scored 143 for the loss of 6 wickets. It • South Korea won Asia Cup hockey title after was Kumble's four- beating Pakistan 1-0 in a tough title-clash on May wicket haul that restricted Deccan Chargers to a 16. World's top goal scorer Sohail Abbas of Pa- sub-150 score. Chasing a modest 144 for win, kistan, who was recalled for the tournament, failed Bangalore scored 137 for nine. Put into bat, the to convert any of the three short corners. Drag Chargers had earlier found their nemesis in Anil fl speci al ist K m B ick i yung- hoon o S h K r ea f out o Kumble (4/16) and it took Herschelle Gibbs' un- scored the winner in the 65th minute and fii sh d n e beaten 48-ball 53 and Andrew Symonds' brisk 33 as tournament's top scorer with six goals. It was to reach 143 for six. Rajashtan Royals had won third Asia Cup hockey title for South Korea. Their fi edi tio of IP h l d in In a in A r il-M y previous two titles came in 1994 and 1999. Korea rst n L e di p a 2008, defeating Chennai Super Kings. now holds both the Asian Games and the Asia Cup titles and also secured a place at the 2010 World FACTS Cup in India. » 19-year-old Manish Pandey become the first • National champion Sayali Gokhale won the Indian to hit an IPL century when he made 117 women’s singles title in the Spanish Open bad- for Bangalore against Deccan in a round-robin minton championship at Madrid on May 24. She match. beat Lianne Tan of Belgium 21-9, 21-18 in 23 minutes. The rest of the Indian team wasn’t able » Bangalore skipper Anil Kumble was named to climb the highest step of the podium. English Man of the Match. and Danish won four titles. In the men’s singles Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 72
  • 73. SECTION - 5 (SPORTS) Hindi Article) 1 (Article: Champions League Twenty20: Inaugural Champions League Twenty20 (CLT20) tournament will be played in India from October 8-23,2009. Earlier the tournament was scheduled to be held in 2008 but was postponed because of the Mumbai attacks. CLT20 is a joint venture of the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), Cricket Australia (CA) and Cricket South Africa (CSA). IPL chairman and Commissioner Lalit Modi will also be Chairman of CLT20. The Royal Challengers, Deccan Chargers and Delhi Daredevils will represent India. Champions League Qualifi s: - er » Deccan Chargers (Ind) » Royal Ch'gers Bangalore (Ind) » Delhi Daredevils (Ind) » Cape Cobras (SA) » Eagles (SA) » Victoria (Aus) » New South Wales (Aus) » Otago (NZ) » Trinidad & Tobago (WI) » Wayamba (SL) » Twenty20 Cup winners and losing fia l ists (E n ng) fial , P K sh n . a yap lo t to H ns -K istian V ttin s a r i ghus at Khanty Mansiysk, Russia, from November 21 of Denmark, while the women’s doubles pair of to December 14, 2009. Among the women, Air- Shruthi Kurien and Aparna Balan went down to India’s Subbraman Meenakshi defeated second the second-seeded Danish duo Line Damkjær seed China’s Ju Wenjun and tied for the third Kruse and Mie Schjøtt-Kristensen. In the mixed place. doubles fia l , th E ish p r o R bi n M d et on n e ngl ai f o i dl • World champion Viswanathan Anand was for- and Mariana Agathangelou beat Arun Vishnu and mally presented the Chess Oscar on May 6,2009 Aparna Balan. by the FIDE President Kirsan Ilyumzhinov in Baku, Azerbaij H w s aw rded for th y an. e a a e ear • Grandmaster Surya Shekhar Ganguly won the 2008 for his outstanding play while retaining his Asian chess championship following a draw World Championship title in Bonn. It was his sixth against China’s Zhou Jianchao in the 11th and fi Oscar. Thus he became only non-Russian to have - nal round at Subic, Olongapo City in the Philip- won the award more than 5 times. To put this pines, on May 24. Sandipan Chanda and his ONGC achievement in perspective, the late colleague K. Sasikiran joined Ganguly as the Robert.J.Fischer, chess genius from U.S.A, won it qualifi for th W rld C sche dul ed to b h l d three times. ers e o up e e Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 73
  • 74. WHY REGISTER? at UPSCPORTAL Provides following content free of cost to all its members : - Daily GS Dose - Study Material - Previous Year Papers - Current Affairs - Topper Interviews - Online Forum - Tips & Tricks - Books Information - Exams Syllabus - Online Results - Free Downloads - Coaching Center Information - Live Community Chat and much much more... Register Online Now! Http:// Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 74
  • 75. SECTION - 5 (SPORTS) Hindi Article) 1 (Article: The maximum number of chess Oscars has been which concluded in Yerevan, Armenia on may won by the Chess Master, Garry Kasparov-a record 30,2009.India, which had claimed two gold and a 11 times. The fi w n rst i ner o C ss O car w s B nt f he s a e silver medal in the previous edition held in 2007, Larsen in 1967 and the award ceremony was held ended its campaign with a silver and three bronze in Madrid. In 1988 Puig died and the award was medals this time around. Pin weight (46kg) pugi- not given until 1995. They were reinstituted in list Sandeep was the lone Indian to make it to the the year 1995, by the popular Russian chess maga- fi a l s af ter N m t B ha dur (50kg) , Shi v T pa n a i a a ha zine-'64'. (52kg) and Vikas Khatri (54kg) lost in the semis to settle for bronze medals. Up against host • Pei-Ying Tsai of Taiwan’s (271) won the Ma- Armenia’s Koryun Soghomonyan, Sandeep was laysian amateur Open golf tournament title by tied 1-1 with his rival at the end of the fi round rst three strokes. Rashid Khan signed off with a three but it all went downhill for the Indian thereafter. under 69 to leapfrog 10 places and fii sh tied th rd. n i The second round belonged to Soghomonyan, who Vikram Rana slipped to 16th place after a round landed a flr ry o p he s to n ch u fie po nts u f unc ot p v i of 76, while Gagan Verma, fii sh d tied 2 n e 3rd c ard- and establish a 6-3 lead over Sandeep. The decid- ing 77. ing third round followed a similar script and Sandeep could add just one more point to his tally • Nike Golf athlete Paul Casey won BMW PGA and Soghomonyan eventually won 10-4. Championship at Wentworth Club in the United Kingdom. Paul Casey (271) carded 68 to win the • Suranjoy Singh won the flywe i ght g d in b ol ox- title ahead of Ross Fisher (64), who fell just one ing after beating Armenia’s H Danielyan 4-1 on stroke behind. Shiv Kapur of India signed off with May 16,2009 at the European Grand Prix event in a level-par round to fi i sh tied 3 h w i le c - n 5t h om Usti Nad Labem, Czech Republic. With Suranjoy’s patriot Jyoti Randhawa ended tied 64th after re- gold, Indian boxers grabbed four medals in he turning his best card of the week. event. Earlier, Beij g O y p i cs b onz e in l m r medallist Vij ender Si n (75kg) , M noj K m r gh a u a • Indian judoka Ram Ashrey Yadav won a silver (64kg) and Jai Bhagwan (60kg) ended with bronze after losing in the semifi a l s. n medal in the 73kg event at the Asian Judo Cham- pionship held from May 21-24,2009 at Chinese Taipei. Among other Indians, Anil Kumar(100kg), • Zhu Qinan of China and Artur Aivazian of I Sanju Singh (66kg), KH Tombi Devi (48kg) and Ukrain got fi a second p ace res pect iv y in rst nd l el L Nirupama Devi (57kg) reached the semifi a l s. the air rifl e n e vent o th sh in W r ld C in f e oot g o up Five other Indians ended up at the seventh place Milan on May 23,2009. World record-holder in their respective categories. Suma Shirur fi i sh d fi wit h a t o o 49 7. n e fth tal f 9. The 35-year-old who had shot a world-record equaling 400 out of 400 in the Asian Champion- • Gold eluded Sandeep Singh who lost fin l b a ut ship in Kuala Lumpur in 2004, shot her best score India managed its best-ever haul of four medals in a World Cup with a 398. Lajja Gauswami shot at the AIBA World junior boxing championships a 397 but had to settle for the ninth place from among 90 shooters. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 75
  • 76. SECTION - 5 (SPORTS) Hindi Article) 1 (Article: • Helio Castroneves won Indianapolis 500 on May 24,2009 at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway in Speedway. It was third victory of Castroneves at Indianapolis 500. Castroneves, a Brazilian who won at the Indianapolis in 2001 and 2002, also became the fi for ei gn- bor n d iv w th th ee In 5 rst r er i r dy 00 wins, and the victory marked Penske Racing’s record 15th in the race. He became the ninth driver to win the historic race three times, and his timing couldn't have been better. • Jorge Lorenzo won the French Grand Prix and took the overall MotoGP championship lead from Valentino Rossi on May 17,2009. The Spanish rider fi i sh d 1 7 seconds a ad o M rco M l andr i o n e 7. 1 he f a e f Italy, with Dani Pedrosa of Spain overtaking Italian racer Andrea Dovizioso took third place with a stunning late burst. • Valentino Rossi won the MotoGP world championship table after taking his first w n o i f th season e in Spain on May 3,2009. Dani Pedrosa was on secon and Casey Stoner on third place. • The Indian archery group won three gold and four silver medals in the second Asian Grand Prix meet held at Tehran from May 18 to May 24,2009. The men’s recurve team, consisting of Tarundeep Rai, Muni Ram Tirkey and Kapil, grabbed the gold medal beating Iran 217-211. Bangladesh won the bronze medal defeating Nepal. The third gold medal was earned by compound archer L. Haridas Singh in the individual event. The men’s and women’s compound teams fii sh d second b t to Iran in n e es the fi al . T m n’ s a w m n’ s c p ound team fiis h s e n he e nd o e om s n ed cond be t toI ran i nt h fin Te m s e al. h en lost 220-227 and the women went down 207-208 to Iran. Tarundeep Rai won the third silver medal losing the fi a l 1 108 to Iran’ s M lad V zi ri T ym or lo n 07- i a e o oei in th m n’ s recur ve in v d e e di i ual e vent . Compound women archer Sweety Kumari too settled for silver going down 102-108 to Seyedeh Vida Halimian Avval of Iran. Tirkey and Sushma lost to Nadar M. and Zahara Nemati of Iran respectively in the individual recurve bronze medal play-off. • Qualifi D an Y n Y n o C n d eated th fi -s eeded Ke en Sh om of Israel 6 6 er u i g i g f hi a ef e fth r l o -3, -4 in the fi a l of th $10, 0 IT w m n’ s tenni s tour na m nt at th D TA C m l ex on M y n e 00 F o e e e L o p a 30,2009.Though the tall Chinese allowed things to drift a bit towards the end, when she missed three Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 76
  • 77. SECTION - 5 (SPORTS) Hindi Article) 1 (Article: matchpoints while trying to serve out the match in the eighth game of the second set, she was easily the better player against the stocky Israeli. The 20-year-old Chinese served well hit the flanks w th i punch and accuracy that proved too good for Shlomo. Results Singles Final: Duan Ying Ying (Chn) bt Keren Shlomo (Isr) 6-3, 6-4 Doubles (fi a l ): He Chun Yan (Chn) and Rushmi Chakravarthi bt Kristina Pejkovic (Aus) and n Keren Shlomo (Isr) 6-2, 6-1. • Roger Federer of Switzerland won the Madrid Masters Tennis defeat- ing World No.1 Rafael Nadal of Spain 6-4, 6-4 on May 17,2009. The second-ranked Federer broke Nadal once in both sets before fi g h s rin i sixth ace to win his 15th Masters Series title on the second match point. Federer also won in Madrid in 2006. Federer ‘s win ended a fi e-m t ch, v a 18-month losing streak against the Nadal of Spain. • Dinara Safin a of R s sia w n Ital ian O en T nni s tour na m nt def eat in com at rio Svet lana u o p e e g p t Kuznetsova at the Internazionali BNL d’Italia in Rome on May 9,2009. Safi a w n h r fi sin es n o e rst gl title in 2009, playing her fourth fi a l o th season. H r v ct or y w s w r th 3 n f e e i a o 50000 U d lar. S ol • World number one Rafael Nadal of Spain won his record fourth Rome Masters Tennis on May 3,2009 beating defending champion Novak Djokovic 7-6 (2), 6-2. Earlier Nadal had won the title in 2005, 2006 and 2007. • Romanian qualifi A exandr a D l ghe ru w n W rsaw O en o h r W A T er l u o a p n e T our debut b in eat g eighth-seeded Alona Bondarenko of Ukraine on May 23,2009. This Article is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 77
  • 78. SECTION - 6 (AWARDS) 1 (Article: Hindi Article) AWARDS The 62nd edition of Cannes Film Festival held at the Palais des Festivals et des Congrès, in the resort town of Cannes, in the south of France from May 13 to May24,2009. The main prize of Cannes Film Festival, the Palme d’Or went to Austrian director Michael Haneke for his austere but powerful The White Ribbon. The fi is set a o ng a sm l l P ot es tant c mu ni ty in n th rn G rm ny in th y lm m a r om or e e a e ear before the outbreak of First World War. For the fi tim in C nne s h stor y, in 2 rst e a i 009, ju y h d a r a majority of women, fie o o th n n m m ers. v ut f e i e e b WINNERS » Palme d'Or: Das Weisse Band (The White Ribbon) directed by Michael HANEKE » Grand Prix: Un Prophète (A Prophet) directed by Jacques AUDIARD » Best Director: Brilliante Mendoza of the Philippines for Kinatay. » Best Screenplay: Lou Ye for Chun Feng Chen Zui De Ye Wan (Spring Fever) » Best Actress: Charlotte Gainsbourg in Antichrist directed by Danish film-maker's Lars Von Trier » Best Actor: Austrian Christoph Waltz in Inglourious Basterds directed by Quentin Tarantino » Jury Prize Ex-aequo: Fish Tank directed by Andrea Arnold and » Bak-Jwi (Thirst) directed by Park Chan-Wook » Lifetime achievement award for his work : Les Herbes Folles (Wild Grass) directed by Alain Resnais » Palme d'Or for Short Film: Portugal's Arena directed by João salaviza » Short Film Special Distinction: The Six Dollar Fifty Man directed by Louis Sutherland • Wildlife biologist M.D. Madhusudan was awarded the Whitley Award in recognition of his work to reduce human-wildlife confl in th W stern G a ts. M D M dhus u n ict e e h . . a dha is working as the Director of the Mysore-based Nature Conservation Foun- dation (NCF). The award, reckoned to be one of the most important inter- national nature conservation awards, includes a 30000 ponds project grant to carry forward outstanding science-based research and conservation ef- forts. Two other Indian conservationists Sudipto Chatterjee and Supraja Dharini also received Associate Awards. Sudipto Chatterjee was given 10000 ponds to develop an action plan to conserve wild rhododendrons in the Eastern Himalayas while Supraja Dharini was given similar support for a community based initiative to protect sea turtles and dolphins in Kancheepuram. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 78
  • 79. SECTION - 6 (AWARDS) 1 (Article: Hindi Article) • Bina Agarwal, Professor of Economics at the Institute of Economic Growth was conferred the Leontief Award 2009. The Award is given to recognise outstanding contribution to economic theory that addresses contemporary realities and supports just and sustainable societies. Leontief Award has been instituted in the honor of Nobel laureate Wassily Leontief, given by the Global Development and Environment Institute at Tufts University, US. John K. Galbraith, Amartya Sen, Paul Streeten, Herman Daly, Dani Rodrik and Robert Wade are among the distinguished winners of the Leontief Award in previous years. • Kiran Mazumdar Shaw, Chairman and Managing Director of Indian Biotechnology-major, Biocon was awarded ‘Nikkei Asia Prize’ 2009 for Regional Growth on May 11,2009. Japan's business daily Nihon Keizai Shimbun (Nikkei) awards Nikkei Asia Prizes annually to individuals or institutions from Asia Pacifi regi o recogni zi n o standi n achi evem nt s th t im r ove th q ity o life in c n g ut g e a p e ual f Asia. Established in 1996 to commemorate the 120th anniversary of Nikkei's founding, the Prize is given to promote mutual understanding among Asian nations and to help people around the world deepen their understanding of Asia. • Pro-democracy leader of Myanmar Aung San Suu Kyi was chosen for Mahatma Gandhi Interna- tional Award for Peace and Justice 2009. Leader of National League for Democracy (NLD) of Myanmar 63-year old Suu Kyi is a prisoner for the last two decades in her own country, Myanmar. Mahatma Gandhi International Award for Peace and Justice is awarded by the Mahatma Gandhi Foundation of South Africa. Ela Gandhi is the chairman of the Mahatma Gandhi Foundation. • All India Radio has got three awards at the 10th International Radio Festival of Iran organized by Islamic Republic of Iran Broadcasting (IRIB), in Tehran. ‘Family No.1’ a programme on HIV/AIDS produced by All India Radio, Lucknow was given the Best Programme Award in the category- ‘Radio Competition’. The Presenter of the ‘Family No.1’ Vivek Srivastava was given the Best Presenter Award in the competition. The script writer of the programme ‘Ripples in a Still Pond’ Ms. Anubha Mukerji Sen bagged Second Prize in the category of ‘Script Writers’ of the programme-entries. This Article is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 79
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