India’s largest Online Community for IAS, Civil Services Aspirants.
                                                      ...
“ Thank you for the overwhelming support for Aspirants Times Vol.1 & Vol.2

Digital Magazine. We are working hard to bring...
INDEX
Editorial
• Inspiration is the way to Success..................................................................03


...
Editorial
Inspiration is the way to success...

        Now third volume of Aspirants Times is with you. Through your cont...
SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy)




                                                   followed by specialised or...
SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy)




(d) Mathematics and Statistics.                       merit list. The objecti...
SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy)




attempts at the examination. The restriction is ef-    vided that a candidate...
SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy)




fie y
 v ears M litary S
          i        ervi ce a o 1 t Ju y 2
           ...
SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy)




                                                      Jawaharlal   • Nehru an...
SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy)




out what the examiner is asking. Having done that, it is important to organis...
SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election)




       15th Loksabha Election                         Historic win : In...
SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election)




view among large sections of the electorate that       on Sonia Gandhi ...
SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election)




the fi stat e.
     rst                                               Sh...
SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election)




were from the Congress party.                      Shri Sharad Pawar : ...
SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election)




Smt. Ambika Soni : Minister of Information tice and Empowerment
and Bro...
SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election)




tween the number of seats allotted to each State and the population of ...
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                                                     ORDER
                                      ...
SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism)




    Impact of Terrorism
On Social, Economic And Legal
 Structure of The Cou...
SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism)




Trends of Terrorism:-                                 humanitarian. The iro...
SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism)




violence or the threat of violence to achieve po-     or no by standards. A...
SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism)




ing countries, terrorism is fatal to their develop-    against their public...
SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism)




tual legal assistance in the investigation and pros- iii. Protocol against ...
SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism)




portance of International cooperation for dealing      tions and Associated...
SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism)




dangerous. It is even a threat to those countries
that create or promote it...
SECTION - 1 (Article: LTTE Discomfited)




    Liberation Tigers of Tamil                      Tiger rebels when Presiden...
SECTION - 1 (Article: LTTE Discomfited)




sinations and stand accused of using civilians in the war zone as human shield...
SECTION - 1 (Article: LTTE Discomfited)




                                              From TNT to LTTE

        Prabak...
SECTION - 1 (Article: LTTE Discomfited)




                                                      secession from Sri Lanka...
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
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Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
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Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
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Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
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Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
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Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009
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Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.3 - JUNE 2009

  1. 1. India’s largest Online Community for IAS, Civil Services Aspirants. Vol.3 JUNE 2009 | Free http://www.upscportal.com presents Aspirants Times India’s First Digital Magazine for IAS Aspirants around IFS Exam Special All About Articles Indian Forest -15th Lok Sabha Election Services (IFS) - Impact of Terrorism - Liberation Tigers of Exam 2009 Tamil Eelam Discomfited - Wildlife Conservation HOT TOPICS in India - Law Commission Recommendation (Hindi) (Exclusive Interview) - Annual Performance - Mahila Arakshan UPSC Topper Assessment Report Mayank Pandey - Sports and Awards Special Study material of Current Affairs and General Studies for IAS Mains Exam Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 1
  2. 2. “ Thank you for the overwhelming support for Aspirants Times Vol.1 & Vol.2 Digital Magazine. We are working hard to bring you the best possible... ” Founder, UPSCPORTAL.COM Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 2
  3. 3. INDEX Editorial • Inspiration is the way to Success..................................................................03 SECTION - 1: Civil Service Exam Strategy • IFS Examination Strategy ............................................................................05 • 15th Lok Sabha Election...................................................................................11 • Impact of Terrorism.........................................................................................17 • LTTE Discomfited............................................................................................24 • Wildlife Conservation in India........................................................................31 • Hindi Article ( )...............................................................39 SECTION - 2: Hot Topics • Law Commission Recommendation............................................................47 • Assessment Report (Performance Index For Civil Servants).................... 50 SECTION - 3: Interview • An Exclusive Interview With Mayank Pandey............................................52 SECTION -4: Current Relevant Facts • Important Current Affairs ..................................................................55 SECTION - 5: SPORTS...............................................................................68 SECTION - 6: AWARDS ............................................................................74 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 3
  4. 4. Editorial Inspiration is the way to success... Now third volume of Aspirants Times is with you. Through your continuous support and encouragement, we are in position to provide all important and useful materials for forthcoming examination of civil services, state level civil services and other high level exams held by UPSC and state PSC. In the very fi v u e o A pi rant T m s , w p ovi d y m t erial rel at ed to G ne ral rst ol m f s i e e r ed ou a e Studies 2009, strategy for Civil Services Prelims and covered many important topics for IAS main exam. Similarly in Second issue, we provided you strategy for Indian Engineering Services(IES) and articles, notes for UPSC mains exam. In this issue, we are providing you strategy and introduction for another coveted exam- Indian Forest Service(IFS). With this issue, you will also fi d suf fi t n cien material for Civil Services Main Exam 2009. As always we have presented Columns, National, International, Sports, Awards, Personalities and Important events, in very lucid manner. For UPSC Main Exam 2009, articles on Impact of Terrorism on Social, Economic and legal structure on the Countries, Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam-Discomfi ted End of Te r ror , Wildlife Con- servation in India. Hindi article on Women Reservation and Women’s Empowerment is in- cluded. Under the Hot Topics, Law Commission recommendation, Three Regional Benches Need of Time, Annual Performance Assessment Report, New performance index for civil servants have been covered. Editor’s Talk to Readers: Inspiration always plays an important role in success. As MAYANK PANDEY(IAS Topper) told to UPSCPORTAL.COM that always believe in yourself and be confi ent , c mi tm nt a c is- d om e nd ons tency is the mantra of success. In this volume, you will fi d in ervi ew o M YANK P n t f A ANDE Y, w o g 1 h p itio in C v l h ot 70t os n i i Services Examination 2008. He also cleared JRF twice, Bihar PCS(J)-40thrank, UP PCS(J)-20th rank. I want to tell one and most important thing to our readers that providing every fact and every news is not useful for examination. Crucial is to decide useful topics for exam and then serve them in the way that your mind could grasps them easily and memorise it for long period. Here we are trying our best in this front. We wish to your success in forthcoming examinations. Meet you in july issue. Thanks. Editor: R.K.Pandey and UPSCPORTAL Team Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 4
  5. 5. SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy) followed by specialised orientation for the Forest Indian Forest Services Service at the Indira Gandhi National Forest Acad- emy, Dehradun. After training candidates are Make a Good Strategy and Enjoy the posted as the assistant conservator, district con- Forest servator, chief conservator, principal conservator, and the inspector general of forests. The senior By R. K. Pandey most post is that of the Environment Secretary in Indian Forest Service (IFS) offers a highly chal- the Union Government. The number of vacancies lenging and rewarding career like IAS and IPS. It to be filled o th r ts o th 2 n e esul f e 009 e i n tioxam a n is also counted among prestigious and powerful is expected to be approximately 75. services where you can play larger role in the in- terest of people, environment and country. The Plan of the Examination maintenance of the natural resources of the coun- try is very essential for a balanced all round de- 1. The examination comprises: Written Exami- velopment of the country. Maintenance of forests nation in compulsory and optional subjects. Total is so important for maintaining the ecological marks of exam is 1400. balance that the Indian Forest Service has been set up for this very purpose. They play very cru- 2. Interview for Personality Test of such candi- cial role in the management and supervision of dates as may be called by the Commission. the country’s forest reserves and wild life. Compulsory: IFS is also an All India service like IAS and IPS. (1) General English and (2) General Knowledge The Indian Forest Service was created in 1966 for (300 marks each). protection, conservation and regeneration of for- est resources. Being an All India Service, the mem- Optional: bers are recruited by the union level but their ser- Any two of the following subjects: vices are put under the various State cadres, with (1) Agriculture, (2) Botany, (3) Chemistry, (4) Civil the privilege of serving both under the state gov- Engineering, (5) Geology, (6) Agricultural Engi- ernment and under the Central government. For neering, (7) Chemical Engineering, (8) Mathemat- the recruiting offi cers o In an F es t Servi ce, f di or ics, (9) Mechanical Engineering, (10) Physics (11) the UPSC conducts the Indian Forest Service Exam Zoology, (12) Statistics, (13) Forestry and (14) every year. The exam generally held in the month Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science (200 of July. The examination for 2009 is going to be marks each). held on July 11. The pattern of exam is similar to that of civil services but there are some differ- Provided that the candidates will not be allowed ences as there is no preliminary test, so selection to offer the following combination of subjects:- is done in two phases. Selected candidates are sent (a) Agriculture and Agricultural Engineering for foundation training at the Lal Bahadur Shastri (b) Agriculture and Animal Husbandry and Vet- National Academy of Administration, which is erinary Science. (c) Chemistry and Chemical Engg. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 5
  6. 6. SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy) (d) Mathematics and Statistics. merit list. The objective of personality test is to (e) Of the Engineering subjects viz. Agricultural judge the suitability of candidates as offi cers of Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engi- Indian Forest Service. The candidates will be in- neering and Mechanical Engineering - not more terviewed by a Board of competent and unbiased than one subject. observers who will have before them a record of this career. The object of the interview is to as- There are conventional (Essay) type questions in sess the personal suitability of the candidate for all the subjects of the Examination. The standard the Service. The candidate will be expected to have of question papers in general English and general taken an intelligent interest not only in his/her is expected of a Science/Engineering graduate of subjects of academic study but also in events which an Indian University. The standard of papers in are happening around him both within and out- other subjects will be approximately that of side his own State or country, as well as in mod- Bachelor's degree of an Indian University. There ern currents of thoughts and in new discoveries will be no practical examination in any of the sub- which should rouse the curiosity of well-educated jects. All Question Papers must be answered in youth. The technique of the interview is not that English. Question Papers will be set in English of a strict cross examination, but of a natural, only. The duration of each of the papers referred though directed and purposive conversation, in- to above will be three hours. tended to reveal mental qualities of the candidate. The Board will pay special attention to assessing Number of Questions: Total number of questions the intellectual curiosity, critical powers of ob- in the optional papers of optional subjects is eight. servation and assimilation, balance of judgment All questions carry equal marks. Each paper will and alertness of mind, initiative, tact, capacity for be divided into two parts, viz. Part A and Part B, leadership; the ability for social cohesion, mental each part containing four questions. Out of eight and physical energy and powers of practical ap- questions, fie q tio a to b a tem t ed. O e v ues ns re e t p n plication; integrity of character; and other quali- question in each part will be compulsory. Candi- ties such as topographical sense, love for out-door dates will be required to answer three more ques- life and the desire to explore unknown and out of tions out of the remaining six questions, taking at way places. least one question from each Part. In this way, at least two questions will be attempted from each The candidates appearing in the interview may Part i.e. one compulsory question plus one more. expect some questions on current affairs, forest related issues, Indian Polity, Planning Process, Interview: Budgeting and Economic Geography. The person- The written examination is followed by a Person- ality test also aims at testing leadership qualities, ality Test in the form of personal interview. The mental alertness, initiative, balance of judgement, maximum marks for interview is 300. The inter- analytical capabilities etc. views are held by the UPSC soon after the result of written test is declared. The marks obtained in Number of Attempts: the interview are added to the marks obtained by Every candidate appearing at the Examination, a candidate in the written test to draw up the fial who is otherwise eligible, shall be permitted four n Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 6
  7. 7. SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy) attempts at the examination. The restriction is ef- vided that a candidate belonging to categories (b), fective from the examination held in 1984. Pro- (c), (d) and (e) shall be a person in whose favour a vided that this restriction on the number of at- certifi e of el igi b lity h s been issued by th cat i a e tempts will not apply in the case of Scheduled Government of India. Caste and Scheduled Tribe candidates who are otherwise eligible. Provided further that the num- A candidate in whose case a certifi e o el igi - cat f ber of attempts permissible to candidates belong- bility is necessary, may be admitted to the exami- ing to Other Backward Classes, who are other- nation but the offer of appointment may be given wise eligible shall be seven. A candidate shall be only after the necessary eligibility certifi e h s cat a deemed to have made an attempt at the examina- been issued to him by the Government of India. tion if he actually appears in any one or more pa- pers. Notwithstanding the disqualifi n/ cancel - catio Age Limits: lation of candidature the fact of appearance of the (a) A candidate must have attained the age of 21 candidate at the examination will count as an at- years and must not have attained the age of 30 tempt. years on 1st July, 2009, i.e. he must have been born not earlier than 2nd July, 1979 and not later Training: than 1st July, 1988. Selected candidates are sent for foundation train- (b) The upper age limit prescribed above will be ing at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy, relaxable :– which is followed by specialised orientation in (i) upto a maximum of fi e y v ears if a candi d e at Forest Service at the Indira Gandhi National For- belongs to a Scheduled Caste or a Scheduled Tribe. est Academy, Dehradun with inputs on wildlife (ii) upto a maximum of three years in the case of management, tribal welfare, soil conservation, candidates belonging to Other Backward Classes forest management, engineering survey, weapon who are eligible to avail of reservation applicable handling etc. to such candidates. Eligibility (iii) upto a maximum of fi e y v ears if a candi d e at Nationality: had ordinarily been domiciled in the State of A candidate must be either :- Jammu & Kashmir during the period from the 1st (a) A citizen of India, or January, 1980 to the 31st day of December, 1989. (b) a subject of Nepal, or (c) a subject of Bhutan, or (iv) upto a maximum of three years in the case of (d) a Tibetan refugee who came over to India be- Defence Services personnel disabled in operations fore 1st January, 1962 with the intention of per- during hostilities with any foreign country or in a manently settling in India. or (e) a person of In- disturbed area and released as a consequence dian origin who has migrated from Pakistan, thereof: Burma, Srilanka, East African countries of Kenya, Uganda, the United Republic of Tanzania, Zam- (v) upto a maximum of fi e y v ears in th case o e f bia, Malawi, Zaire, Ethiopia and Vietnam with ex-servicemen including Commissioned Offi c- the intention of permanently settling in India. Pro- ers and ECOs/SSCOs who have rendered at least Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 7
  8. 8. SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy) fie y v ears M litary S i ervi ce a o 1 t Ju y 2 s n s l , 009 a h ve b nd a een rel eased (i) o com l et io o a n p n f ssign- ment (including those whose assignment is due to be completed within one year from 1st July, 2009) otherwise than by way of dismissal or discharge on account of misconduct or ineffi enc y, o (ii) o ci r n account of physical disability attributable to Military Service, or (iii) on invalidment. (vi) Upto a maximum of fi e y v ears in th c o E e ase f COs /SSCOs w o h ve c p l et ed a in tial p d h a om n i erio of assignment of fi e y v ears o M litary S f i ervi ce a o 1 t Ju y 2 s n s l , 009 a w os e a nd h ssignm nt h s b e a een extended beyond fie y v ears a in w os e c th M n stry o D f ence issu a c nd h ase e i i f e es ertifi t h th ca cate at ey n apply for civil employment and that they will be released on three month's notice on selection from the date of receipt of offer of appointment. (vii) upto a maximum of 10 years in the case of blind, deaf-mute and Orthopaedically handicapped persons. Minimum Educational Qualificat i ons : The candidate must hold a Bachelor’s degree with at least one of the subjects namely Animal Hus- bandry & Veterinary Science, Botany, Chemistry, Geology, Mathematics, Physics, Statistics and Zo- ology or a Bachelor’s degree in Agriculture, Forestry or in Engineering of any of Universities incor- porated by an Act of the Central or State Legislature in India or other educational institutions estab- lished by an Act of Parliament or declared to be deemed as a University Under Section 3 of the University Grants Commission Act, 1956, or possess an equivalent qualifi io cat n. Examination Centre AGARTALA BAREILLY DEHRADUN GANGTOK JAMMU LUCKNOW PANAJI (GOA) SAMBALPUR TIRUPATI AHMEDABAD BHOPAL DELHI HYDERABAD JORHAT MADURAI PATNA SHILLONG UDAIPUR AIZAWL CHANDIGARH DHARWAD IMPHAL KOCHI MUMBAI PORT BLAIR SHIMLA VISHAKHAPATNAM ALLAHABAD CHENNAI DISPUR ITANAGAR KOHIMA NAGPUR RAIPUR SRINAGAR BANGALORE CUTTACK JAIPUR KOLKATA RANCHI THIRUVANANTHAPURAM Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 8
  9. 9. SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy) Jawaharlal • Nehru and Rabindranath Tagore How to Prepare Compulsory Papers • Statistics and General Mathematics Ability General English:- Candidates will be required to write an essay in It is essential to read one national newspaper, English. Other questions will be designed to test magazines like Frontline, Mainstream, EPW and their understanding of English and workmanlike any monthly competitive magazine to get mas- use of words. Passages will usually be set for sum- tery over General Studies. At the time of studying mary or precis. The standard of papers in General the round up of national and international affairs, English is such as may be expected of a Science or efforts should not be merely taking up the infor- Engineering graduate of an Indian University. mation but also to understand the issues involved. General Knowledge Go into the background of events. General Knowledge including knowledge of cur- rent events and of such matters of every day ob- For History: NCERT books of class XI and XII, servation and experience in their scientifi a c spects Wonder that was India by AL Basham, History of as may be expected of an educated person who has India Vol- 1 and 2, Freedom Struggle by Bipan not made a special study of any scientifi su ect . c bj Chandra The paper will also include questions on Indian Polity including the political system and the Con- For Geography: Class XII books of Geography stitution of India, History of India and Geography (NCERT), a good Atlas. of a nature which the candidate should be able to answer without special study. The standard of Indian Polity: Introduction to the Indian Con- papers in General Knowledge will be such as may stitution by DD Basu and Our Parliament by be expected of a Science or Engineering graduate Subhash Kashyap of an Indian University. Indian Economy: NCERT and other books on Evo- lution of the Indian Economy and Indian Economy Suggested Readings by Dutta Sunderam The following topics must be covered for General Science: NCERT books on science, a General Studies:- science magazine or newspaper supplements on science. • Current Affiars N t iona l and Int ernat iona l a Current Events: A national newspaper, A Com- • Indian Polity petitive Magazine. • Indian Economy General Mental Ability: Do the Quantitative • Geography of India Aptitude published in magazines, past years test • Science and Technology papers. A practice in writing is required to at- • History of India and Freedom Movement tempt the paper timely and perfectly. You should not be only informative but analysis the topic. You • Study of thoughts of Mahatma Gandhi, must carefully read the questions in order to make Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 9
  10. 10. SECTION - 1 (Article: IFS Exam Strategy) out what the examiner is asking. Having done that, it is important to organise your thoughts before writing and the sequence of the answer should be from the most important/potent aspect to less important aspects. Be Carefull » All Question Papers must be Answered in English. Question Papers will be set in English only. » The duration of each of the papers referred to above will be three hours. Candidates must write the papers in their own hand. In no circumstances, will they be allowed the help of a scribe to write the answers for them. » The Commission have discretion to fi q ifyi n m rks in any o al l the subj ect s o x ual g a r f the examination. » If a candidate’s handwriting is not easily legible, a deduction will be made on this account from the total marks otherwise accruing to him/her. » Marks will not be allotted for mere superfi al k l edge. ci now » Credit will be given for orderly, effective and exact expression combined with due economy of words in all subjects of the examination. » In the question papers, wherever required, SI units will be used. » Candidates should use only International form of Indian numerals (i.e. 1,2,3,4,5,6 etc.) while answering question papers. » Candidates will be allowed the use of Scientifi (N n- Pr ogram bl e type) C l cul a- c o ma a tors at the conventional (Essay) type examination of UPSC. Programmable type Calcula- tors will however not be allowed and the use of such calculators shall tantamount to resorting to unfair means by the candidates. Loaning or interchanging of calculators in the Examination Hall is not permitted. This Article is Available Online Also:- http://upscportal.com/civilservices/mag/vol-3/article/IFS-Exam-Strategy Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 10
  11. 11. SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election) 15th Loksabha Election Historic win : In recent past, no single party crossed the number 200, so winning 2006 seats Coalition Government Formed with by Congress on its own makes a historic victory. New Hope and Ambition When we observe situation immediate before voting, we fid th t th re w re m ny c l lenges n a e e a ha By R. K. Pandey before congress. Congress picked up an alliance The result of 15th Lok Sabha was declared on May on the eve of the election in West Bengal. But 17, 2009. Actual result was very different from two of the participating parties, the RJD and LJSP, all predictions and exit poll. It proved all survey parted on the issue of seat-shares in Bihar. The false and unrealistic. The UPA’s tally reached 262 Samajwadi Party in UP, which had joined the coa- seats, with the Congress itself accounting for 206 lition late on the crucial issue of the Indo-Ameri- of them. There is huge gap between it and its near- can nuclear power deal to save the coalition from est rival, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP)-led Na- collapse, also separated on the same issue. Mem- tional Democratic Alliance (NDA). The NDA got bers of the Bihar party pleaded that they remained only 157 seats, with the BJP’s own score being committed to the UPA and continued to be in the 116. The non-Congress, non-BJP formation was Ministry. reduced to 72. The Fourth Front, which sought to develop a separate political identity in order to If Verdict 2009 were to be summed up in a short enhance its bargaining power with the Congress phrase, this is it. Large sections of the electorate and the UPA in a post-poll situation, was also across the country voted to bring back the regime brought down, to just 27 seats. Obviously, this of the Congress-led United Progressive Alliance result went contrary to the perceptions that held (UPA) and brought it within striking distance of sway among the political class and observers the simple-majority mark of 272. Though the num- throughout the election process. bers thrown up by the results would, technically, imply a hung Parliament, there is little doubt The main perception was about a hopelessly hung about the mandate given to the Manmohan Singh Parliament. Even the Congress, which now bask- led government to run its course for fi e y v ears, ing in the glory of a spectacular victory, had shared without too many pressures and problems from this view and gone about looking for new allies smaller parties and allies. The message was very for a post-poll scenario. That search had even taken clear, that role of regional and smaller parties in it to the Nitish Kumar-led Janata Dal (United), the 15th Lok Sabha, and through it in the forma- which has been a consistent partner in the NDA tion of the new government was minimised. The for the past decade and a half. Midway through verdict was such that the UPA had the opportu- the process, Sharad Pawar, UPA Minister and nity to form the government by choosing its al- president of the Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), lies at its own will and convenience and, at a pinch, made bold to predict that the Congress would get even with the support of independents who do not 150 to 160 seats and that the UPA would have to have specifi p itical af fi on . c ol liati s take the support of the Left parties to form the government. Winning Factors: The primary factor was the Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 11
  12. 12. SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election) view among large sections of the electorate that on Sonia Gandhi and Manmohan Singh by Modi only the Congress can provide a stable, secular and other leaders also boomeranged. government. The second factor relates to the track record of the Manmohan Singh government, par- As a result, the larger Congress win was on nega- ticularly its social sector initiatives such as the tive vote more than on positive vote. A reason National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme why the party is strongly focusing on the person- (NREGS) and the bank loan waiver. The third cru- ality of Rahul Gandhi is just that. Sonia Gandhi, cial factor was the shift of the Muslim vote to- Rahul Gandhi and even Priyanka Vadra have been wards the Congress in the Hindi heartland in gen- played up much by the national media as well. eral and in Uttar Pradesh in particular. That the There is heavy investment in propping up the dy- election issues highlighted by the NDA, such as nasty and strengthening the case for dynastic suc- internal security and the bringing back of black cession. It is diffi t to ju cul dge h m ch c ri- ow u ont money from Swiss banks, failed to generate popu- bution has really been made by these and other lar appeal was also a factor. The internal security personalities to the Congress victory. The image plank fell fl b at ecaus e th earlier N e DA regi m s e of the Congress party with very limited talent has had also witnessed several internal security chal- been strengthened by the outcome of this elec- lenges that were not countered properly, such as tion. There is no doubt that the BJP has proved the attack on the Parliament House and the incompetent in focusing on more real issues and Kandahar hijck. T leadersh p p d b S a a he i rovi ed y oni wasting much less energy in negative campaign- Gandhi to the Congress and the UPA as a whole ing. Its dividend from a socially divisive agenda was also a factor that raised the UPA’s prospects. cannot go up any further. And its loss from di- minishing return has given that bit of extra mile- The Rahul Gandhi effect supplemented this, espe- age to the Congress. It should not be ignored that cially in Uttar Pradesh. Finally, the presence of these two parties are pursuing a common agenda several regional spoilers, who took the form of of promoting a two-party system in which they new political parties and essentially weakened the should be the two poles. The negative campaign- adversaries of the UPA, also helped produce this ing of the BJP has served that objective well. verdict. The BJP campaign for the elections was particularly non-productive. The party sent mixed Facts on 15th Loksahba Election signals even on its leadership by projecting Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi as a potential Prime » The highest number of candidates that an EVM Minister midway through the elections. This can support is 64 and if the number exceeds this, caused great humiliation even to Lal Krishna the commission will have to use manual ballot Advani. The manner in which Advani condoned for elections. Varun Gandhi’s communal utterances in Pilibhit also did not go down well with the electorate. The » The EVMs are designed by Electronics Corpo- open tussle between party president Rajnath Singh ration of India Ltd. and Bharat Electronics Ltd. and general secretary Arun Jaitley over the EVMs were fi u ed in In a 1 rst s di 989- 90 in 1 a6 s- organisational preparations for the elections in sembly constituencies in three states. Kerala was Assam and some of the caustic comments made Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 12
  13. 13. SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election) the fi stat e. rst Shashtra Seema Bal was deployed along the Indo- Nepal border in Uttar Pradesh during the Lok » The Government spends Rs. 10 crore approxi- Sabha elections. mately on conducting a Lok Sabha election. » Photo electoral roll was used in 522 Parlia- » Danseuse Mallika Sarabhai, who was contest- mentary seats in 2009 elections. ing as an Independent from the Gandhinagar Lok » The number of electorate in 2009 general elec- Sabha seat, had challenged her opponent tions was 71.377 crore with an increase of 4.3 L.K.Advani to a public debate on his achieve- crore from the 2004 general elections. ments. » Total number of candidates was 8070. General Elections in India The Constitution of India came into force on Janu- » 7514 was male candidates: while number of ary 26, 1950. The fi gene ral , el ect ions u rst nder female candidates was 556. the new Constitution were held during the year » Percentage of female candidates was 6.9 % of 1951-52 and the fi e ected P rliam nt c e in o rst l a e am t total candidates. being in April, 1952, the Second Lok Sabha in » The number of polling stations were 8,34,944 April,1957, the Third Lok Sabha in April,1962, in 2009. the Fourth Lok Sabha in March, 1967, the Fifth There were 2046 observers and 1.4 lakh micro- Lok Sabha in March, 1971, the Sixth Lok Sabha in observers in 2009. March, 1977, the Seventh Lok Sabha in Janu- ary,1980, the Eighth Lok Sabha in December, 1984, » The total number of polling staffs was 46.9 lakh. » Total number of Booth Level Offi (B cers LO) the Ninth Lok Sabha in December, 1989, the Tenth was 8.34 lakh. Lok Sabha in June, 1991, the Eleventh Lok Sabha in May, 1996, the Twelfth Lok Sabha in March, » Highest number of candidates was 43 in Chennai 1998, the Thirteenth Lok Sabha in October, 1999, the Fourteenth Lok Sabha in May, 2004 and the South, Tamil Nadu while lowest number of can- Fifteenth Lok Sabha in May, 2009. didates was 3 in Nagaland. » Highest polling station was AuleyPhu in Leh. New Government: Dr Manmohan Singh was It was setup at an altitude of 15,300ft. sworn in as the Prime Minister of India for the second consecutive term along with his 19 Cabi- » Number of seats in the Lok Sabha (lower house net colleagues at a simple and brief function at of Parliament): 545 (of which two are appointed the Rashtrapati Bhavan on May 22. Thus he be- by the President) Moni Kumar Subba, the Con- come the fi pr im m n ster sin e Jaw ha rlal rst e i i c a gress candidate for the Tezpur LS seat, was the Nehru in 1961 to be elected to another fi e y v ear richest candidate in the poll fray in Assam. He term after completing his fi Jaw ha rlal N hr u rst a e has declared assets worth Rs 60 crore. was re-elected in 1962. There were four new faces in the fi e tio o th U i o C bi n t . A l th rst di n f e n n a e l e » For the fi tim , a w m n bat tal ion of the rst e o e others were in the outgoing Cabinet. All but two Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 13
  14. 14. SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election) were from the Congress party. Shri Sharad Pawar : Minister of Agriculture, Food & Civil Supplies and Consumer Affairs & Among the new entrants in the Cabinet were Public Distribution Mamata Banerjee, the Trinamool Congress leader who trounced the Communists in West Bengal, Shri A. K. Antony : Minister of Defence Rajasthan Congress unit president CP Joshi, Con- gress general secretary M Veerappa Moily, and Shri P. Chidambaram : Minister of Home Af- former Karnataka chief minister S M Krishna. The fairs new Cabinet of the Congress-led UPA Govern- ment is a mix of the old and the new, refl in ect g Kum. Mamata Banerjee : Minister of Rail- Manmohan Singh’s experience and the youthful- ways ness. Agatha Sangma, the daughter of former Lok Sabha Speaker P A Sangma, is the youngest min- Shri S. M. Krishna : Minister of External Af- ister in the Manmohan Singh cabinet at the age of fairs 28 years. Jitin Prasada of Congress, who was the minister of state for steel, was the youngest min- Shri Ghulam Nabi Azad : Minister of Health ister in the previous UPA government at 35 years and Family Welfare of age. Shri Sushil Kumar Shinde : Minister of Power Shri M. Veerappa Moily : Minister of Law and Justice Shri S. Jaipal Reddy : Minister of Urban De- velopment Shri Kamal Nath : Minister of Road Transport and Highways Shri Vayalar Ravi : Minister of Overseas In- dian Affairs Smt. Meira Kumar : Minister of Water Re- sources Council of Ministers Shri Murli Deora : Minister of Petroleum and Dr Manmohan Singh : Prime Minister Natural Gas Shri Pranab Mukherjee : Minister of Finance Shri Kapil Sibal : Minister of Human Resource Development Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 14
  15. 15. SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election) Smt. Ambika Soni : Minister of Information tice and Empowerment and Broadcasting Shri Kantilal Bhuria : Minister of Tribal Af- Shri B. K. Handique : Minister of Mines : Min- fairs ister of Development of North Eastern Region Shri M. K. Alagiri : Minister of Chemicals Shri Anand Sharma : Minister of Commerce and Fertilizers and Industry Shri A Raja : Minister of Communications and Shri Virbhadra Singh : Minister of Steel Information Technology Shri Vilasrao Deshmukh : Minister of Heavy Lok Sabha Industries and Public Enterprises Lok Sabha is composed of representative of the Shri C. P. Joshi : Minister of Rural Develop- people chosen by direct election on the basis of ment : Minister of Panchayati Raj adult suffrage. The qualifying age for member- ship of Lok Sabha is 25 years. The Lok Sabha at Kum. Selja : Minister of Housing and Urban present consists of 545 members including the Poverty Alleviation & Minister of Tourism Speaker and two nominated members. Lok Sabha, unless sooner dissolved, continues for fi e y v ears Shri Subodh Kant Sahay : Minister of Food from the date appointed for its fi m et in a rst e g nd Processing Industries the expiration of the period of fie y v ears o perat es as dissolution of the House. Dr. M. S. Gill : Minister of Youth Affairs and Sports However, while a Proclamation of Emergency is in operation, this period may be extended by Par- Shri G. K. Vasan : Minister of Shipping liament by law for a period not exceeding one year at a time and not extending, in any case, beyond a Shri Dayanidhi Maran : Minister of Textiles period of six months after the proclamation has ceased to operate. The maximum strength of the Dr. Farooq Abdullah : Minister of New and House envisaged by the Constitution is 552, upto Renewable Energy 530 members to represent the States, up to 20 members to represent the Union Territories and Shri Mallikarjun Kharge : Minister of Labour not more than two members of the Anglo-Indian and Employment Community to be nominated by the President, if, in his opinion, that community is not adequately Shri Pawan K. Bansal : Minister of Parlia- represented in the House. mentary Affairs The total elective membership is distributed Shri Mukul Wasnik : Minister of Social Jus- among the States in such a way that the ratio be- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 15
  16. 16. SECTION - 1 (Article: 15th Lok Sabha Election) tween the number of seats allotted to each State and the population of the State is, so far as practicable, the same for all States. An exercise to redraw Lok Sabha constituencies' boundaries has been carried out by the Delimitation Commission based on the Indian census of 2001. The number is divided among the 28 States and the 7 Union Territories as follows:- Seats in States and Union Territories » Uttar Pradesh - 80 » Jammu & Kashmir - 6 » Maharashtra - 48 » Uttarakhand - 5 » Andhra Pradesh - 42 » Himachal Pradesh - 4 » West Bengal - 42 » Arunachal Pradesh - 2 » Bihar - 40 » Goa - 2 » Tamil Nadu –39 » Manipur - 2 » Madhya Pradesh - 29 » Meghalaya - 2 » Karnataka - 28 » Sikkim - 1 » Gujarat - 26 » Mizoram - 1 » Rajasthan - 25 » Nagaland - 1 » Orissa - 21 » Tripura - 2 » Kerala - 20 » Andaman & Nicobar Islands - 1 » Jharkhand - 14 » Chandigarh - 1 » Assam -14 » Dadra & Nagar Haveli - 1 » Punjab - 13 » Daman & Diu - 1 » Chhattisgarh - 11 » Lakshadweep - 1 » Haryana - 10 » Pondicherry -1 » Delhi - 7 Anglo-lndians (if nominated 2 by the President under Article 331 of the Constitution) This Article is Available Online Also:- http://upscportal.com/civilservices/mag/vol-3/article/15th-Loksabha-Election Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 16
  17. 17. FREE BOOKS DOWNLOAD ORDER ONLINE NOW! ORDER ONLINE AT UPSCPORTAL ONLINE STORE http://upscportal.com/store/tag/free-books Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 17
  18. 18. SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism) Impact of Terrorism On Social, Economic And Legal Structure of The Countries Obstacle to Global Peace It is vital tool for our law enforcement as a van- guard of terror act attempted by any individual or Dr. Arvind shukla group within our jurisdiction. So from law en- Sr. lecturer, Invertis Institute Of manage- forcement perspective the law is vital to stop a ment Studies, Bareilly. would-be criminal (s) from attempting to com- mit crime of terrorism which used to be absent in The term "terrorism" since the 1970s was directed Indonesia for several years. to various phenomenon, starting from fearsome threats Until today the world under UN has failed From a perspective of motives of terrorist acts to come to an agreement about what is an accept- are recognized as follows: publicizing a statement able defi i tio for terror ism It is still u n n . nder d e- through acts of ruthlessness. In that way they can bate despite attempts made by many experts. The make fast and massive publication; act of ven- effort to approach terrorism from a defi i tio l n na geance towards groups considered disadvanta- perspective has thus become a never-ending ef- geous to them; serving as a catalyst for militari- fort, let alone conform the defii tio itsel f. n n zation or mass mobilization; spreading hatred and inter-communal confl ; announc i n a certai n ict g So many defi i tio o terror ism h ve b n ns f a een at - group as the enemy and should be held respon- tempted, but I am not going to discuss the diver- sible; victims are not the goal but a means to cre- sities of terrorism defi i tio W a t I in end to n n. h t ate "neural war"; create mass panic, damage pub- discuss here is that for the purpose of enforcing lic trust towards the government including secu- the law against the act of terror, Indonesia has rity and law enforcement authorities. enacted a law on terror in its Act number 15 and 16, 2003 which goes as follows: Whereas the justifi io o terror ism taken o cat ns f n by terrorists including: justifying all means for "Every person deliberately uses violence or the accomplishment of transcendental goals; ex- threatens to use violence causing terror or treme violence considered to be therapeutic, full wide fear against person or causing massive of blessings and regenerative; the executor places victims, by taking others' freedom or the loss himself/herself as part of history, where the act is of life, property of others, or causing dam- a consequential element of history under the per- age and destruction against vital and/ or spective of moral balance (a deserved treatment); strategic installations or environment or pub- the act of terrorism perceived as a minor crime; lic facility or international facility, shall be many among them even take this act insignifi cant penalized with a death penalty or life im- in comparison to the enemy's posing threat that prisonment or at least four years imprison- suppresses them structurally; Let us now look at ment and maximum 20 years imprisonment. " how terrorism has developed and its trend these days. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 18
  19. 19. SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism) Trends of Terrorism:- humanitarian. The iron fi appr oach a o w ll st l ne i Terrorism is a global crime. It has become the not succeed. Terrorist will often have the advan- predominant geopolitical theme. The affairs of the tage over the law enforcer in the sense that he/ world are infl enc ed in im or tant areas b th u p y e she is able to decide when and where he/she will terrorist agenda. The thinking of policy makers strike, and how hard he/ she will strike. Law en- and law enforcers is shaped increasingly by the forcement, on the other hand, has to maintain con- need to respond appropriately to the threat of ter- stant vigilance. That is not easy at a time when rorism. Terrorism represents a challenge not just commercial airlines can be used as fl i n b b s , y g om to the bases of civilized society, but also to the and when terrorist strategy is planned by internet, very foundations of the world order. Terrorism mobile phone, satellite and coded messages on activities threaten fundamental nations' law and websites. order, human rights and it is the enemy of man- kind. Terrorism, in one form or another, has been The threats we face from terrorism are constantly around for a long time, and there is no realistic changing in all sorts of ways. Just when progress prospect of its becoming extinct in the foresee- is being made against a terrorist group, splinter- able future. All of those concerned with the effec- ing often occurs, and hardliners break away and tive combat of terrorism must be prepared for the form splinter groups committed to the campaign long haul. There is no simple solution to terror- of violence. It is feared that weapons of mass de- ism. struction previously controlled by governments can now be purchased on the black market. It is Terrorism is fuelled by various factors. These in- said that not only the weapons but also the scien- clude the openness of free societies, the easy ac- tists with the knowledge of how to make them cess to technologies by means of violence and a are available if the price is right. And fianc e m y n a radical and global ideology of hatred. Confl s be the key. Terrorists, like more conventional ict in some countries particularly in the Middle East criminals, need access to adequate funds in order have inevitably formed a global issue and soli- to fi a nc e th i r act iv ties . W apons , com ni - n e i e mu darity among terrorists. This global issue has be- cation systems and transport all come at a price, come a unifying factor to share the sufferings and as does training. establish a sense of togetherness based on religious brotherhood among the believers to resist against Terrorism seeks power through violence, and the oppressor. money is a means to achieve that. Terrorism needs access to international payment systems in order Terrorism will remain a menace as long as there to fi a nc e and sus tai n its cam ai gns . T rror ists, n p e are people who are driven by fanaticism, para- like organized criminals, make active use of credit noia and extremism. So long as there exists in the card fraud and check fraud. This is why vigorous world poverty, strife, injustice and oppression, identifi n c cks r m m s t b e catio he egi e u e xerci sed on conditions will exist which terrorists can turn to potential customers by credit card companies. The their advantage. No doubt that the campaign loopholes are in the area of money laundering leg- against terrorism is one that must be mounted at islation that must be closed. various levels, including political, economic, and Terrorism as it was defi e d a sys tem t ic u e of n a s Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 19
  20. 20. SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism) violence or the threat of violence to achieve po- or no by standards. Another form of global ter- litical, social or economic goals. Terrorism uses rorism is sponsored terrorism, which is operated extreme physical violence to shock the targeted from safe areas in another country, which are out audience. The psychological impact generated in of reach of the counter insurgency forces of the the mind of people as a natural corollary of that targeted country. matters more to the terrorists than the physical attack on the victims (Cline, Ray S, 1998). There cannot be any single cause of terrorism. Causes of terrorism may range from socio-eco- Terrorism is as old as the civilization of mankind nomic and political conditions to theories based itself and has existed in all ages in some form or on the personality and environment of the terror- other which might be known anarchists, revolu- ist. Terrorism is motivated by a variety of inner tionaries, fundamentalist or dissidents against the drives ranging from fi a nc i al gai n to revenge, n s established authority or even ruling tyrants hav- from fundamentalism to deprivation, political ing no tolerance or dissent. However, terrorism frustration, regional disparities, marginalization was not as widespread phenomenon as it is today of sub-national groups, extremism, despair, injus- in contemporary political system of the world. tice, discrimination, resentment against the ex- isting regime, feeling of insignifi e, in erven- canc t Terrorism has, in fact, become a global phenom- tion into personal freedom, weak government, enon with increasing and rather well identifi e abl separatism and oppression, inequality etc. links between different terrorist group and orga- nization. They use each other's areas for recruit- Terrorism produces harmful effects in several ment and training, exchange of illegal weapons, ways. The consequences of terrorism can be di- engage in joint planning and ventures and also sastrous for all countries, both rich and poor, and provide administrative and other logistic support. their people. The normal social life gets totally This type of terrorist activities show a new di- disturbed and a large number of innocent lives go mension due to circumstances characterized by in vein. Fear and terror haunt everybody and the the advancement of science, technology and di- productivity of people is miserably stalled. Ev- verse social, economic, political and historical erything may come to a halt and the dream of lead- reasons conditioning it. ing a life of happiness and peace is shattered. Eco- nomic and social development of the society cease The development of computer science, satellite to uncertainly. Almost all become paralyzed amid and mobile links have also affected the modern- terrorist incidents. ization of terrorist activities. This further facili- tated by support of states/ governments unfavor- Terrorism breaks down the social, economic po- able to each other. An element of international litical and legal structures of the affected coun- terrorism comes into the picture when specifi tries and the entire process of development stops. c persons of the nation are designed as targets by Socio-cultural mosaic goes to rack and ruin, and the members of another group outside that nation. the economy of the country suddenly becomes a It is, therefore, described as warfare without ter- shamble. The rule of law and human rights ritory. It is warfare without neutrals and with few crumble and people suffer terribly. For develop- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 20
  21. 21. SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism) ing countries, terrorism is fatal to their develop- against their public order and institutions that ment planning because they can hardly withstand protect the liberty and security of their citizens the violent assaults of terrorism; their longing for but, also at the same time as a serious danger to a better and brighter future goes up in smoke. peaceful international relations and cooperation, Moreover, terrorism not only weakens the estab- which is clearly understood as encompassing hu- lished political authority but also brings about man rights and values as well as the principles of political instability. In that situation the mainte- equal rights and self determination of people. It nance of the rule of law and human rights become is, therefore, that the transnational character of almost impossible. contemporary terrorist events has prompted in- ternational efforts to suppress them at the global Terrorism idealizes violence, does away with mo- regional and bilateral levels. rality, distorts politics, promotes totalitarianism, subverts progress, destroys the apparatus of free- Suggestions for stemming the growth of dom in democratic societies. In fact, it destroys transnational crime the will of a civilized society to defend itself. It appears that everything the mankind strives for The answer seems to be intensifying law enforce- collapses like a house of cards. As a matter of ment, more vigilance along borders, depriving the fact, terrorism is war against civilization. criminals of their profi ats, ssistin p g oor c ount ries with their efforts at strict law enforcement by way Today, terrorism poses a great threat not just to of providing training to their law enforcement human life, human rights, dignity and democratic offi cers, p ovi d n n ces sary technol o h rm - r i g e gy, a o values but to very existence of a civilized life. If nizing laws, sharing information, concluding in- the present trend continues, human civilization ternational agreements to facilitate co-operation itself will be a casualty. That is why Jerusalem and co-ordination in law enforcement and more Conference on International Terrorism held in importantly, political will and commitment. 1979 declared that ‘terrorism is a serious and growing threat to the people of all states which Profi g rat ed b o gani zed c e far e ts ene y r rim xceed live under the rule of law, that it is no longer a those that legitimate business enterprises could national problem, but a global one; that it cannot make. The incentive for organized crime, whether be constrained, and eliminated, except by con- local or transnational, is profi If o t. rgani zed c e rim certed international action; and that the case for syndicates can be deprived of their profi th y ts, e such action is overwhelming and urgent’. will cease their activities – altogether. It will (Jonathan Institute, 1979) therefore be worthwhile to examine and explore the ways and means of depriving them of their Prevention and Control Strategies:- profi T m s t e fect iv w y to d th s is c ts. he o f e a o i on- In this age of increasing globalization and inter- fi io o th p oceeds o such illegal act iv ty scat n f e r f i dependence, the national and international dimen- by judicial means or with suffi ent saf eguards , ci sion of terrorism in fact, constitutes two facets of by administrative means. the same social phenomenon which infringes upon the interest of all states, not only as an assault A sine qua non in this direction is effective mu- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 21
  22. 22. SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism) tual legal assistance in the investigation and pros- iii. Protocol against traffi n in F rearm a cki g i s nd ecution. iv. Protocol against Corruption It has been found that certainty of detection and effective and expeditious disposal of cases is a Combating terrorism at regional level is becom- deterrent to would be criminals. At present extra- ing effective and popular. The external support is dition procedures take a long time. Simplifi eed x- often found in every operation of terrorist acts in tradition procedures will go a long way in expe- any part of the world whether in the context of ditious disposal of cases. inter-connection between a group and its rival group, a group and its enemy state, or a state and The international community responded to the its unfriendly state. It is here that regional coop- phenomenal growth of transnational organized eration can be an effective instrument for the sup- crime by signing in the year 2000, the UN Con- pression to terrorism. In Europe, besides their vention against Transnational Organized Crime. individual national legal and institutional mea- By the end of 72 hours 124 countries have signed sures, a historic convention known as the “Euro- the Convention. This is an indication of the enor- pean Convention on the Suppression of Terror- mity of the problem transnational crime poses to ism, 1977” was signed and ratifi “Sout h A ia ed. s the world. Countries also recognized the importance of com- bating terrorism at regional level and conse- Success of the struggle against transnational or- quently, signed a Convention titled the “Conven- ganized crime lies in the answers to the six points tion on Suppression of Terrorism, 1987” and rati- set out above. fi it. ed The most signifi cant step in th d rect io o th e i n f e Similarly, in view of the complexity and prob- prevention of transnational organized crime is the lems of terrorism some bilateral and multilateral adoption of the UN Convention against agreements between groups of countries have also Transnational Organized Crime. It has obligated been concluded. And many countries have extra- states to act despite constraints of bank secrecy dition treaties between them. and also to extend co-operation in confi scatin a g nd seizing of assets obtained through corruption and At the international level, response and coopera- transferred to different jurisdictions. tion against international terrorism has been in- voked many a time, and a variety of measures and The following four protocols add muscle counter-measures have been designed for check- to the convention, namely, ing the menace of terrorism. Concerned by the increase of terrorist acts, the United Nations Gen- i. Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Traf- eral Assembly in 1972 established a 35-member fi n in P rsons , speci al ly W m n and C l- ad hoc Committee on International Terrorism, and cki g e o e hi dren. in 1977 asked it to study the underlying causes of terrorism and recommend ways to combat ter- ii. Protocol against the Smuggling of Migrants rorism. In 1979, the Assembly stressed the im- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 22
  23. 23. SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism) portance of International cooperation for dealing tions and Associated Personnel in 1994, and In- with the acts of international terrorism. Adopt- ternational Convention for the Suppression of ing the report of the Committee, it condemned all Terrorist Bombings in 1997.’ acts of international terrorism that endangered or took human lives or jeopardized fundamental free- Despite all these Conventions adopted and rati- doms. fi decl arat io m de, and res ol u io passed ed, ns a t ns against international terrorism within the UN In 1994, the General Assembly adopted a Decla- system outside, terrorism has become a ubiqui- ration on Measures to Eliminate international Ter- tous phenomenon in the contemporary interna- rorism, which condemned all acts and practices tional affairs, and continues to grow. Every state of terrorism as criminal and unjustifi e, w e r- abl h is supposed to refrain from organizing, instigat- ever and whomever they were committed. States ing assisting or participating in acts of civil strife were urged to take measures at the national and on terrorist acts in another state or involved in international levels to eliminate international ter- organized activities within its territory directed rorism. towards the commission of such acts as well as prosecuting and punishing the perpetrators of ter- Important international Conventions on terrorism rorist acts. A concerted action has to be initiated are the Convention on Offences and Certain Other and sustained by all States whether they are af- Acts Committed on Board Aircraft (Tokyo, 1963), fected or not in collaboration and co-operation the Convention for the Suppression of Unlawful with each other with strong determination and Seizure of Aircraft (The Hague, 1970); the Con- will to root out terrorism altogether from the vention for the Suppression of Unlawful Act world. against the Safety of Civil Aviation (Montreal, 1971); the Convention on the Prevention and Pun- Of course, mutual agreement at the international, ishment of Crimes against Internationally Pro- and regional levels have consolidated and tected Persons, including diplomatic Agents (New strengthened co-operation between the countries York, 1973); the Convention on the Physical Pro- in the fi a n t terror ism H rd lin p ici es ght gai s . a e ol tection of Nuclear Material (Vienna, 1980); the against terrorism adopted by some countries have Protocol for the Suppression of Unlawful Acts of achieved success in this regard. But, it seems that Violence at Airports Serving International Civil combating of terrorist activities in a signifi cant Aviation (Montreal, 1988); the Convention for the proportion will be possible only if terrorism is Suppression of Unlawful Acts against the Safety condemned and fought universally, unequivocally of Fixed Platforms located on the Continental Shelf and effectively, by all the countries in the world. (Rome, 1988) and the Convention on the Marking of Plastic Explosives for the Purpose of Detection Conclusion:- (Montreal, 1991). Terrorism has no respect for national boundaries, and the problem-taking place in any part of the The UN General Assembly also adopted the Con- world today will sure enough to become the prob- vention against the Taking of Hostages in 1979 lem of all tomorrow. Terrorism is a monster like and the Convention on the Safety of United Na- Frankenstein’s creation that is too horrible and Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 23
  24. 24. SECTION - 1 (Article: Impact of Terrorism) dangerous. It is even a threat to those countries that create or promote it. Therefore, terrorism is a phenomenon which must be condemned, fought, resisted, controlled and, eventually, eliminated at (IMP) Get UPSCPORTAL , all levels-national, regional and international. Jobs, Results, Notification Conditions necessary for wiping out terrorism Alerts on Email. must, accordingly, be cultivated and strengthened nationally, regionally and internationally, and uni- Step-1: Fill Your Email address laterally, bilaterally or multilaterally. in form below. you will get a confirmation email within 10 min. Terrorist acts confronted by a state cannot be eliminated by the affected States alone because of Step-2: Varify your email by the international linkage of the terrorist groups. clicking on the link in the It is, therefore, clear that all the nations must form email. (check Inbox and Spam a common front to fi terror ism If th m ch ght . e u folders) needed spirit of international cooperation in the required degree is not properly established, the Step-3: Done! you will recieve world would become a dangerous place to live. It is for this reason that one nation’s peace and secu- rity will be determined by the success of all na- tions’ response to any kind of terrorism particu- larly for international terrorism. This Article is Available Online Also:- http://upscportal.com/civilservices/mag/vol-3/article/Imapct-Of-Terrorism Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 24
  25. 25. SECTION - 1 (Article: LTTE Discomfited) Liberation Tigers of Tamil Tiger rebels when President Mahinda Rajapaksa Eelam Discomfited told the country that the war is over. On the ground, the rebels have admitted that their 25- year struggle for a Tamil homeland has reached End of Terror But Political Steps To- "its bitter end". However, the victory has come at wards Effective Devolution Needed a high price in terms of civilian life and damage By Dr. Divya to Colombo's international reputation. According Author is an expert and analyst of social and to UN fi es , an es tim t ed 7, 0 gur a 00 et h c T m l ni a i political issues civilians were killed between 20 January, when a military offensive pushed back the rebels into a Founder and chief of Liberation Tigers of Tamil tiny enclave in the north-east, and 7 May. Al- Eelam(LTTE) Velupillai Prabakaran was shot though the military largely blocked the world's dead by the Sri Lanka Army on May 18,2009 at media from covering the carnage in the so-called Mullivaikkal in Mullaithivu district in northern no-fi z , som T im ges h ve c re one e V a a onveyed p art Sri Lanka. The 37-year-old quest of the LTTE has of the horror, showing civilians making a desper- ended with the death of its all in all Prabakaran. ate break across a lagoon to escape the last strip He was 54 years old. His elder son Charles of land controlled by the rebels. Antony, and also the entire top leadership of the LTTE, including the LTTE’s intelligence chief, Doctors have recounted the cries of the wounded Pottu Amman, and the Sea Tigers chief, Soosai, at a makeshift hospital that they had to abandon were killed after being encircled by the Sri Lankan because of continual artillery shelling – bombard- armed forces. ments denied by the Sri Lankan military. UN of- fi al s a h a n right s g ci nd um roups h ve b a een horri- Until the last, Prabakaran, a ruthless and dreaded fi at th d sregard for ci v lians o b h sid , ed e i i n ot es terrorist yet ironically remaining an inspirational particularly in the fi a l stages of th conflict. n e symbol to thousands of Sri Lankan Tamils, re- Despite pleas from the US president, Barack mained uncompromising on his goal of armed Obama, and the UN secretary-general, Ban Ki- struggle, a struggle that despite its lofty claims Moon, Colombo has zealously pursued its objec- had often manifested in ruthless violence even tive of wiping out the separatist Liberation Ti- directed at fellow Tamils. Yet in the early 1980s, gers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) once and for all. Prabakaran had indeed appeared eager to be seen as a revolutionary fi er, in th m ul d o h roi c For Rajapaksa, military victory is the climax of ght e o f e fiur es o legendary r g f evol u io . P abakaran, w o t ns r h his election campaign in November 2005, when had little patience for the sophistry of political he ruled out autonomy for Tamils – a harbinger negotiations, made a virtue out of his sole reli- of the military option. Rajapaksa has been able to ance on violence and armed struggle. dress up the offensive as part of the global fi ght against terrorism. There is little sympathy for the Crisis of Human Rights:- Tigers. A ruthless group, listed as a terrorist Thousands of Sri Lankans celebrated their organisation by both the US and the EU, the Ti- government's military victory over the Tamil gers pioneered suicide attacks, carried out assas- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 25
  26. 26. SECTION - 1 (Article: LTTE Discomfited) sinations and stand accused of using civilians in the war zone as human shields and shooting those who tried to flee. However, such tactics provide no excuse for the Sri Lankan government's blatant disregard for the plight of civilians. While many Tamils are appalled by the Tigers' tactics, they also harbour deep grievances about their treatment by the Sinhalese majority. Analysts claim the government's conduct has hardened an already humiliated Tamil diaspora, storing trouble for the future. If the Tigers' leadership is removed or killed in a government assault, it's easy to imagine one of the newly energised generation stepping in to fi th v d T d eam o a in ll e oi . he r f n dependent T m l h e l and a i om in Sri Lanka resonates powerfully across the diaspora and will certainly live on even after the defeat of the LTTE as a conventional military force. The deaths of tens of thousands of innocent Tamil civilians – while their family members watch from afar – is a recipe for another, possibly more explosive, generation of terrorism. For now, the Sri Lankan government has prevailed, militarily. It has a huge humanitarian problem on its hands, with tens of thousands of displaced civilians to care for, and it will need international aid. For western leaders who have urged restraint, this is the time to call on Rajapaksa to address Tamil demands for devolution of power and language rights now that the military confl is o ict ver. India’s Opinion India told Colombo to tackle the grievances of the Tamil minority which gave rise to the ethnic confl . It sought p itical steps tow rds “ef fect iv d ict ol a e evol u io o p e r w th n th S L nkan C n- t n” f ow i i e ri a o stitution so that Sri Lankans of all communities, including the Tamils, could feel at home and lead lives of dignity of their own free will. India’s response came soon after Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa called up External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee to confi th t th a e d r rm a e rm esistance by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) had ended and its leader Velupillai Prabakaran was dead. India had promised to work with the people and the Government of Sri Lanka to provide relief to those affected by the tragic confl , a to rapi d y r bi litat e a l th e w o h d b ict nd l eha l os h a een d spl aced, i bringing their lives to normality as soon as possible. In several interactions at the top level, India had received assurances from the Sri Lankan government that after the LTTE was militarily defeated, it would ensure the political accommodation of its Tamil origin citizens through several measures. Concerned at the developing unease among parties commit- ted to a peaceful solution in eastern Sri Lanka, where the LTTE had already been routed, India wanted Colombo to take steps that guaranteed safety, a better quality of life and the genuine feeling of partici- pation by Tamils of Indian origin in both provinces. These included Sri Lanka adhering to its earlier promise of implementing its Constitution’s Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 26
  27. 27. SECTION - 1 (Article: LTTE Discomfited) From TNT to LTTE Prabakaran was drawn into the Tamil struggle after the Sri Lankan government passed a series of legislations, first aimed at the plantation Tamils and then against the Sri Lankan Tamils themselves. Repeated violence against the Tamils in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s influenced Prabakaran to take to armed struggle. Prabakaran, still in his teens, first formed the Tamil New Tigers (TNT) in 1972. The tiger was chosen as the emblem because the tiger represented the Chola flag and stood for Tamil patriotism and a Tamil nation. Yet the TNT was a forerunner of the LTTE, just as ruthless and fascist in its tactics. Apart from the assas- sination of Alfred Duraiappa, the record of the TNT included raids on banks, lamp-posting killing of informants and murdering secret service police officers. Prabakaran had a child-like craving for the LTTE to be recognised “as the sole representa- tive of the Tamil race.” Unfortunately that craving turned into a deadly cannibalistic tendency to devour other Tamil militant groups, thus undermining the struggle for equal rights for Sri Lankan Tamils. The result was that most of his military energies were spent on the destructive task of liquidating other militant leaders and groups. An early chilling indication of Prabakaran’s fascistic side was his personal gunning down of the Mayor of Jaffna, Alfred Duraiappa, in July 1975. With the dastardly assassination of Rajiv Gandhi on May 21, 1991 by means of suicide belt-bomber Dhanu at Sriperumbudur, about 35 km from Chennai, Prabakaran was proclaimed an absconding offender. Prabakaran was the No. 1 accused in the Rajiv Gandhi assassination case. The assassination led to the LTTE being banned by India and further ostracism internationally with a number of countries including the U.S. and the U.K. follow- ing suit. ‘Thirteenth Amendment plus’ which should include moving some items from the concurrent to pro- vincial list and the setting up of a second chamber of federal representatives. As part of helping in providing humanitarian relief, India had already announced a Rs. 100-crore grant which included dispatching over one lakh family packs containing rations and shelter materials for a nuclear family that would last. India was also considering expanding of its 50-bed hospital, manned by a 62-member medical complement from the armed forces. It planned to increase the size of the de-mining team to ensure that civilians had access to more safe areas than was possible at present. India had received feelers from several countries for a joint effort to provide relief and to reconstruct the battered northern and eastern provinces. Some countries that kept a watch over the peace process or actively participated in it would like to be involved in the setting up of democratic institutions and associated infrastructure in the area. India had so far preferred to operate alone or through the International Committee of the Red Cross. It had earlier not favoured a joint civilian evacuation programme proposed by the U.S. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 27
  28. 28. SECTION - 1 (Article: LTTE Discomfited) secession from Sri Lanka. In late 1977, in the af- Background of confl : - ict termath of a serious communal clash in August The root of modern confl g ict oes b ack to B itish r that year, Junius Richard Jayawardene's UNP gov- colonial rule when the country was known as ernment granted only the educational rights de- Ceylon. A nationalist political movement from manded by the Tamils. But to the Tamil leader- Sinhalese communities arose in the country in the ship that was losing the control it had on the Tamil early 20th century with the aim of obtaining po- militants after not being able to follow through litical independence, which was eventually with the election promise of seceding from Sri granted by the British after peaceful negotiations Lanka to form Tamil, it was too little too late. in 1948. Disagreements between the Sinhalese and Tamil ethnic communities fl ared u w e n d aw p h r - After nearly two decades of violence, a ceasefi re ing up the country's fi p t-in rst os dependence c on- was signed in 2002, but it broke down in January stitution. Prime Minister S.W.R.D. 2008, leading to renewed fi erce fi t i n . Te vio- gh g h Bandaranaike's declaration of the "Sinhala Only lence killed more than 60,000 people, damaged Act" language policy was the spark that led to the economy and harmed tourism in one of South confl . T c v l w r is a d rect res ul t o th e - ict he i i a i f e s Asia's potentially prosperous societies. A ceasefi re calation of the confrontational politics that fol- and a political agreement reached between the lowed. Communal uprisings in the 1950s, 1977, government and rebels in late 2002 raised hopes and the formation of the Tamil United Liberation for a lasting settlement. But Norwegian-brokered Front TULF with its Vaddukkodei (Vattukottai)) peace talks stalled and monitors reported open resolution of 1976 were key events. These led to a violations of the truce by the government and hardening of attitudes on both sides. Tamil Tiger rebels. Escalating violence between the two sides in 2006 killed hundreds of people The TULF supported the armed actions of young and raised fears of a return to all-out war. In Janu- militants who were dubbed "our boys." These ary 2008, the government said it was withdraw- "boys" were the product of the post-war popula- ing from the 2002 ceasefi agr eem nt . The re e tion explosion. Many partially educated, unem- ceasefi expi red a for tn ght lat er. Fol lo i n a re i w g ployed Sinhala and Tamil youth fell for simplis- renewal of fi in in January 2 ght g, 009 govern e nt m tic racist and violent revolutionary solutions to troops captured the northern town of Kilinochchi, their problems. The leftist parties had remained held for ten years by the Tigers as their adminis- "non-communal" for a long time, but the Federal trative headquarters. Party (as well as its off-shoot, the TULF), deeply conservative and dominated by Vellala casteism, Sri Lankan Civil War did not attempt to form a national alliance with The Sri Lankan Civil War is the name given to the leftists in their fi for language right s. ght the ongoing confl o th island- na t io o S ict n e n f ri Lanka. Since July 23, 1983, there has been on and Following the sweeping electoral victory of the off civil war, predominantly between the govern- UNP in July 1977, the TULF became the leading ment and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam opposition party, with around one sixth of the to- (LTTE, also known as the Tamil Tigers), a sepa- tal electoral vote winning on a party platform of ratist armed organization which fiht s fo th c g r e re- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 28

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