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Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.2 - MAY 2009


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Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.2 - MAY 2009 …

Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.2 - MAY 2009

UPSC, IAS, IPS, IES, Civil Services, ICS, UPSCPORTAL, PCS, IFS, UPPSC, MPPSC, HPPSC, UTPSC, RPSC, TNPSC, KPSC, Indian Administrative Services, Coaching, Brilliant, Govt Jobs, Babu jobs, Sarkari Naukri. - India's Largest IAS, Civil Services Aspirants Community.

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  • 1. India’s largest Online Community for IAS, Civil Services Aspirants. Vol.2 MAY Vol.2 May 2009 Aspirants Times | 2009 | Free Http:// presents Aspirants Times India’s First Digital Magazine for IAS Aspirants around the world. IES Exam Special HOT TOPICS Articles - Swine Flu - G-20 Leader - Indian Spy Satellite Summit - Current Affairs - North Korea Plan and Strategy Missile Program for Shubhra Tops Indian Engineering - Hindi Article UPSC CSE 2008 Services ( VISHESH ARTHIK Interview at Website (IES) Exam 2009 KSHETRA AVAM KRISHI ) Free MOCK Test Paper(150 Questions) for UPSC (Pre) Exam 2009 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 1
  • 2. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 “ Thank you for the overwhelming support for Vol.1 of Aspirants Times Digital Magazine. We are working hard to bring you the best possible... ” Founder, UPSCPORTAL.COM Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 2
  • 3. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 INDEX SECTION - 1 : Editorial • A Step with Confidence ......................................................................................................... 04 SECTION - 2 : Engineering Services Exam Strategy • Plan And Strategy For Indian Engineering Services (IES) ............................................... 05 SECTION - 3 : Articles • G-20 Leaders’ Summit .............................................................................................. 10 • North Korea Missile Threat .................................................................................................. 16 • Hindi Article ( ) ......... 24 SECTION - 4 : HOT-Topics • Swine Flu (Attack Of New Virus H1N1) ................................................................ 30 • Indian Spy Satellite (RISAT-2 and ANUSAT) ........................................................ 34 SECTION - 5 : Current Relevant Facts • Important Current Affairs .................................................................................................... 38 SECTION - 6 : SPORTS ................................................................................................................. 47 SECTION - 7 : AWARDS ................................................................................................... 52 SECTION - 8 : Model Test Paper • MOCK Test Paper For IAS Pre Exam 2009 ...................................................................... 55 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 3
  • 4. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 SECTION - 1 : Editorial A Step with Confidence We never expected so much, but it happened. Inaugural issue of Aspirant Times got very high number of reader’s support. It has been proved by your letters, suggestions and fast increasing number of membership. We can say Veni, vidi, vici about this magazine. Our editorial board had thought to get such support in coming six months. Now this support has inspired us lot, it is cause of our happiness and inspiration. But at the same time, it has brought greater responsibility and a challenge to prove ourselves on your parameter. We assure that Aspirant Times has a plan to fulfill our reader’s need with confidence. We expect that you will have confidence in our team and we in you. So we must keep a step with mutual confidence to go forward. For success in this exam, confidence is the first step. But beside this, you shall develop many other qualities in yourself- hard work, perseverance, determination, capacity to take risk etc. You can take an example from this year’s IAS topper 30-year-old Shubhra Saxena of Noida. The software engineer, and alumnus of IIT-Rourkee, Shubhra quit her well-paid IT job to become an IAS. It shows her capacity to take risk and success in the age of thirty, proves about her perseverance. Another great example of determination is physically challenged Varinder Kumar Sharma, who got first rank among the male candidates and overall bagged the fourth posi- tion in IAS 2008. He did it in his first attempt. Work hard, yes without it; you can never taste the sweetness of great success. So develop these qualities to become a winner. Still you have sufficient time to clear the IAS pre 2009, read carefully, revise timely and make good practices. So don’t waste the time in confusion, be deter- mined and get success. Personal Note from Editor : In this very second issue, we are providing you many important articles on current happenings and introduc- tion of Indian Engineering Service (IES) Examination with well woven strategy for GS portion for this prestigious examination. We have covered recently held Group-20 Summit, North Korea Missile Programme, Indian Spy Satellite, Swine Flue and many more current topics for Civil Services Main Examination 2009. We also made efforts to present this matter and articles in very lucid and easy way. So you can keep it in your mind for a long time. Under these topics, you will not find only facts and information, but analysis with deep insights. So you can prepare easily for fact based preliminary examinations and short answer type questions and same time these writings are useful for long answer type questions, essay and interview. Beside these topics, regular columns have been covered for Civil Services (Pre) Examination going to be held on May 17, 2009. We wish all the best for your IAS preliminary exam 2009. Meet you in next issue… Thanks! Editor: R. K. PANDEY and UPSCPORTAL Team Published by : Kalinjar Technologies, New Delhi, India Editor : R. K. Pandey Editor-Technicals : UPSCPORTAL Team Typesetting and Design : UPSCPORTAL Team Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 4
  • 5. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 SECTION - 2 : Civil Service Exam Strategy PLAN AND STRATEGY FOR INDIAN ENGINEERING SERVICES A PATH OF GLORIOUS FUTURE By : R. K. Pandey Any one can never make a comparison of Government ventional Papers of 400 marks ie total 1000 marks. Service with anything. Where ever the question about Indian Engineering Services, actually these have very Beside it there is personality test of 200 marks. IES high position. Here, you play a role in a making a plan exam total carries 1200 marks. Objective Papers con- and executing it not for money, for any person but your sist of three papers each carrying 200 marks of two beloved country and their people. No matter how much hour duration. Here first paper is of General Ability you get in private sector. So in this way, you can play Test divided in two parts-General English and Gen- very important role in India’s development and mak- eral Studies and last two papers are from your chosen ing its future bright. Engineering subjects. Like Civil Servants in India, the Engineers recruited Part two of exam is consist of two Conventional Pa- through Indian Engineering Services get very high pers of each 200 marks are from Engineering subjects. honors in government and society. At present govern- Here I am telling about General Studies, which is very ment is spending more than 15 percent of India's GDP important, because without qualifying in this paper, in Engineering. Given the extent of tasks and func- your other papers will not be evaluated and your all tions managed by the public sector this extends to a efforts will go in waste. So be careful and prepare this fairly broad segment of the economy covering the Rail- paper systematically. I am giving details about this roads, Military, Public works, Power, Telecommuni- paper and related study materials. cations, etc. General Ability Test Government of India recruits its coveted Engineers UPSC has divided General Ability Test in two parts- through competitive exams held each year by Union Part A is General English and Part B is General Stud- Public Service Commission. For this, a combined com- ies. Test of both subjects held in one session of two petitive examination is conducted by the UPSC. hours and carries 200 marks. General Ability Test is part of Objective Papers. The test is conducted in June every year at centres across India, namely: Agartala, Ahmedabad, Aizwal, The Objective Type papers, which carries 600 marks Allahabad, Bangalore, Bareilly, Bhopal, Chandigarh, are very important, because these are evaluated first Chennai, Cuttack, Delhi, Dharwar, Dispur (Guwahati), and evaluation of the Conventional Type papers con- Gangtok, Hyderabad, Imphal, Itanagar, Jaipur, Jammu, tained in Section-II of the Plan of Examination will be Jorhat, Kochi, Kohima, Kolkata, Lucknow, Madurai, done only of those candidates who obtain the mini- Mumbai, Nagpur, Panaji (Goa), Patna, Port Blair, mum qualifying marks in Objective types papers, as Raipur, Sambalpur, Shillong, Simla, Srinagar, fixed by the Commission. So candidate must give im- Thiruvananthapuram, Tirupati, Udaipur,Ranchi portance to General Ability Test. They have often face (Jharkhand) and Vishakapatnam. difficulties in this paper, because their background is very much different. I think a good strategy is impor- There are two parts of Indian Engineering Services tant for this. written exam, Objective Papers of 600 marks and Con- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 5
  • 6. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 UNDERSTANDING GENERAL ABILITY About General English: The question paper in General English will be designed to test the candidate’s understanding of English and workmanlike use of words. About General Studies: The paper in General Studies will include knowledge of current events and of such matters as of everyday observation and experience in their scientific aspects as may be expected of an educated person. The paper will also include questions on History of India and Geography of a nature which candidates should be able to answer without special study. Instructions And Details of UPSC About IES The examination shall be conducted according to the following plan: Part I of IES Examination Written examination will comprise two sections:-Section I consisting only of objective types of questions and Section II of conventional papers. Both Sections will cover the entire syllabus of the relevant engineering disciplines viz. Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Electronics & Tele- communication Engineering. The standard and syllabi prescribed for these papers are given in Schedule to the Appendix. The details of the written examination i.e. subject, duration and maximum marks allotted to each sub- ject are given below: Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 6
  • 7. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 Note:- Candidates are advised to read carefully special instruction to candidates for conventional type tests and objective type tests given in Appendix-IV (Part A & Part B) including the procedure regarding filling in the Answer Sheet of objective type tests in the Examination Hall. Conventional papers must be answered in English. Question papers will be set in English only. Candidates must write the papers in their own hand. In no circumstances will they be allowed the help of a scribe to write the answers for them. The Commission have discretion to fix minimum qualifying marks in any or all the papers of the examination. The Objective Type papers as contained in Section-I of the Plan of the Examination will be evaluated first and evaluation of the Conventional Type papers contained in Section-II of the Plan of Examination will be done only of those candidates who obtain the minimum qualifying marks in Objective types papers, as fixed by the Commission. Marks will not be allotted for mere superficial knowledge. Deduction up to 5 per cent of the maximum marks for the written papers will be made for illegible handwriting. Credit will be given for orderly, effective and exact expression combined with due economy of words in the conventional papers of the examination.In the question papers, wherever required, SI units will be used. NOTE:- Candidates will be supplied with standard tables/charts in SI units in the Examination hall for reference purpose, wherever considered necessary. Candidates are permitted to bring and use battery operated pocket calculators for conventional (essay) type papers only. Loaning or inter-changing of calculators in the Examination hall is not permitted. It is also important to note that candidates are not permitted to use calculators for answering objective type paper (Test book lets). They should not, therefore, bring the same inside the Examination Hall. Candidates should use only International form of Indian numerals (e.g. 1,2,3,4,5,6 etc.) while answering ques- tion papers. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 7
  • 8. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 Part II of IES Examination:- What To Read For GS Portion:- Personality test is second part of IES. It carries a maxi- 1. Read a good newspaper,journals,yojana,mainstream mum of 200 marks of such of the candidates who 2. Any competitional magazine like Aspirants Times. qualify on the basis of the written examination. In the 3. NCERT books on various topic of GS Personality Test special attention will be paid to as- 4. Must watch programmes on current affairs sessing the candidate’s capacity for leadership, initia- 5. NBT books on History,India year book tive and intellectual curiosity, tact and other social 6. A.B.C. of science(Holy faith),Any science journal qualities, mental and physical energy, powers of prac- or magazine tical application and integrity of character. 7. Indian Administration by Maheshwari,Our legisla- tion by Subhash Kashyap,Constitution of India by D.D. Standard and Syllabi:- Basu The standard of paper in General Ability Test will be 8. Indian Economy by Dutt and Sundaram or Mishra such as may be expected of a Engineering/Science & Puri Graduate. The standard of papers in other subjects will 9. Geography by khullar,Any Atlas,Any statistical year approximately be that of an Engineering Degree Ex- book. amination of an Indian University. There will be no practical examination in any of the subjects. Key to Success • Determination and positive attitude • Hard work and systematic study • Inner motivation • Strong willpower and faith in yourself • Focused and positive approach • Dedication, time management • Self-confidence This Article is Available Online Also Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 8
  • 9. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 WHY REGISTER? at UPSCPORTAL Provides following content free of cost to all its members : - Daily GS Dose - Study Material - Previous Year Papers - Current Affairs - Topper Interviews - Online Forum - Tips & Tricks - Books Information - Exams Syllabus - Online Results - Free Downloads - Coaching Center Information - Live Community Chat and much much more... Register Online Now! Http:// Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 9
  • 10. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 SECTION - 3 : Articles G-20 Leaders’ Summit economy in modern times; a crisis which has deepened, which affects the lives of women, men, and children in every country, and which all countries must join together To Boost up Financial Markets and the World to resolve. A global crisis requires a global solution. Economy By : Dr. Nageshwar Nath Mishra • Prosperity is indivisible; that growth, to be sustained, has to be shared; and global plan for recovery must The G-20 Leaders’ Summit on Financial Markets and have at its heart the needs and jobs of hard-working the World Economy was held in London on 2 April 2009. families, not just in developed countries but in emerg- It followed the ing markets and the poorest countries of the world too; first G-20 Lead- and must reflect the interests, not just of today’s popu- ers Summit on lation, but of future generations too. the only sure foun- Financial Mar- dation for sustainable globalisation and rising prosper- kets and the ity for all is an open world economy based on market W o r l d principles, effective regulation, and strong global in- E co no my, stitutions. Courtesy: which was held in Washington, • The agreements to treble resources available D.C. on 14–15 November 2008. Heads of government to the IMF to $750 billion, to support a new SDR [IMF or heads of state from the Group of Twenty Finance special drawing rights] allocation of $250 billion, to Ministers and Central Bank Governors (G-20), plus some support at least $100 billion of additional lending by regional and international organisations attended. Due the MDBs [Multilateral Development Banks], to en- to the extended membership it has been referred to as sure $250 billion of support for trade finance, and to the London Summit. The policing tactics at the event use the additional resources from agreed IMF gold sales raised some controversy.G-20 leaders began gathering for concessional finance for the poorest countries, con- in London on 1 April 2009. stitute an additional $1.1 trillion programme of sup- port to restore credit, growth and jobs in the world Before leaving for the London Summit, French Presi- economy. Together with the measures have each taken dent Nicolas Sarkozy suggested that if a meaningful deal nationally, this constitutes a global plan for recovery was not agreed France would walk out of the summit on an unprecedented scale. echoing the “empty chair” gesture of then-French Presi- dent Charles de Gaulle in 1965. Brown and Obama said • To establish a new Financial Stability Board (FSB) that suggestions of a rift were exaggerated. Sarkozy at- with a strengthened mandate, as a successor to the Fi- tended a separate press conference with Merkel in which nancial Stability Forum (FSF), including all G20 coun- both repeated calls for the summit to agree on more tries, FSF members, Spain, and the European Com- stringent regulation of financial markets and restated mission. The FSB should collaborate with the IMF to their firm opposition to further financial stimulus pack- provide early warning of macroeconomic and finan- ages. cial risks and the actions needed to address them; Summit Declaration: • Members were agreed to increase the resources avail- After end of summit a major declaration has been pre- able to the IMF through immediate financing from sented. Following points are According to declaration: members of $250 billion, subsequently incorporated • Because it is the greatest challenge to the world into an expanded and more flexible New Arrangements Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 10
  • 11. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 to Borrow, increased by up to $500 billion, and to con- sider market borrowing if necessary Revolutionary Step: The IMF wants to use this money to offer a new kind of • Member countries are undertaking an unprecedented loan that would be preventative. Rather than waiting for and concerted fiscal expansion, which will save or cre- countries to get into financial difficulties, it would offer ate millions of jobs which would otherwise have been them a line of credit to help them defend their curren- destroyed, and that will, by the end of next year, amount cies in advance. In the past, countries were reluctant to to $5 trillion, raise output by 4 per cent, and accelerate ask for such money, as the financial markets got worried the transition to a green economy. Mebers are com- that they were in trouble. But Mexico has become the mitted to deliver the scale of sustained fiscal effort first country to ask for such a facility and there now seems necessary to restore growth. to be less stigma about this approach. Much of the new IMF funds would be used in this facility, which would • Central banks have also taken exceptional action. mainly be directed to the middle income countries who Interest rates have been cut aggressively in most coun- had relatively sound economies. tries, and central banks have pledged to maintain ex- pansionary policies for as long as needed and to use But in an even more radical step, the G20 leaders ap- the full range of monetary policy instruments, includ- pear to have agreed to increase another type of IMF ing unconventional instruments, consistent with price funds, the quotas owned by individual countries, by stability. an additional $250bn. This would be done by creating more of its own currency, the SDR or special drawing • In addition to reforming international financial insti- right, which is a basket of currencies including the US tutions for the new challenges of globalisation mem- dollar, the yen and the euro. This would give countries bers agreed on the desirability of a new global consen- essentially free money, which they could use as they sus on the key values and principles that will promote wish without having to negotiate deals with the IMF, sustainable economic activity. We support discussion and would do much to boost confidence among poorer on such a charter for sustainable economic activity with countries. a view to further discussion at our next meeting. We take note of the work started in other fora in this re- Many of them have been critical of the harsh condi- gard and look forward to further discussion of this char- tions imposed by the IMF before they are given help. ter for sustainable economic activity. In the past, such moves have always been resisted by Germany, on the grounds that creating money is infla- • Members reaffirm their historic commitment to meet- tionary. But in the current deflationary climate, they ing the Millennium Development Goals and to achiev- appear to have lifted their objections. ing our respective ODA [Overseas Development Agen- cies] pledges, including commitments on Aid for Trade, Reform Looms: debt relief, and the Gleneagles commitments, especially The IMF is also set to have a bigger role in preventing to sub-Saharan Africa. future crises, by developing an early warning system for financial problems, and taking a larger role in look- • The actions and decisions have taken will provide ing at the problems of the financial sector as a whole, $50 billion to support social protection, boost trade in conjunction with a new global regulator, the Finan- and safeguard development in low income countries, cial Services Board. But the biggest changes in the IMF as part of the significant increase in crisis support for will come after 2011, when it has been agreed that there these and other developing countries and emerging will be a review of the voting structure. markets. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 11
  • 12. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 That could lead to the US losing its veto power, while China and other emerging countries get a bigger voice. It has already been agreed that in future, the convention that the World Bank and IMF must be headed by an American and a European respectively will be abandoned. In return, China will be asked to lend some of its reserves to the IMF - and will continue to push for the idea that the SDR will become a real reserve currency, ultimately replacing the dollar. The changes to the resources and the role of the IMF are historic and perhaps the most important outcome of the G20 summit. But it must be borne in mind that providing more resources for the IMF can be only a short-term solution to the immediate crisis now engulfing developing countries. It is no substitute for a fiscal stimulus, as the money is loaned and must be paid back. Nor will it counter the need for additional development aid to counteract poverty. But it is a move towards a more global system of international finance. Agenda of Summit The British Treasury, as hosts, produced an extended agenda pamphlet proposing the issues to be covered at the London Summit. 1. Coordinated macro-economic actions to revive the global economy, stimulate growth and employment – review measures taken and possible further steps 2. Reform and improve financial sector & systems – continue to deliver progress on the Washington Summit action plan 3. Reform international financial institutions – the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Financial Stability Forum (FSF) and the World Bank Important steps to reconstruct and boost up World Economy :- ¤ Restore confidence, growth, and jobs; ¤ Repair the financial system to restore lending; ¤ Strengthen financial regulation to rebuild trust; ¤ Fund and reform our international financial institutions to overcome this crisis and prevent future ones; ¤ Promote global trade and investment and reject protectionism, to underpin prosperity; and ¤ Build an inclusive, green, and sustainable recovery. This Article is Available Online Also Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 12
  • 13. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 G20 Agreement • Additional resources of $6bn from agreed IMF gold FINANCIAL REGULATION sales will be made available for lending to the poorest countries • A new Financial Stability Board, with a strengthened • The G20 also supports increased lending to the mandate, will replace the Financial Stability Forum world’s poorest countries of at least $100bn by the mul- tilateral development banks • Financial regulation and oversight will be extended to GLOBAL TRADE all financial institutions, in- • There will be a commitment struments and markets of $250bn of support for trade finance made over the next two • This includes bringing hedge years funds within the global regu- latory net for the first time • This will be made available Courtesy : through export credit and invest- • Members are committed to ment agencies, as well as implementing tough new rules on pay and bonuses at through multilateral develop- a global level ment banks • International accounting standards will be set • National regulators will be asked to make use of avail- able flexibility in capital requirements for trade finance • Credit rating agencies will be regulated in order to remove their conflicts of interest PROTECTIONISM • The G20 has pledged to resist protectionism • A common approach to cleaning up banks’ toxic as- sets has been agreed • There will be a commitment to naming and shaming countries that breach free trade rules TAX HAVENS • There will be sanctions against tax havens that do • The G20 will notify the World Trade Organization not transfer information on request (WTO) of any measures that constrain worldwide capi- tal flows • The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and De- velopment has published a list of countries assessed • The G20 has called on the WTO to monitor and re- by the Global Forum against the international standard port publicly on these undertakings on a quarterly ba- for exchange of tax information sis IMF FISCAL STIMULUS • Resources available to the International Monetary • Although there is no new fiscal stimulus, Gordon Fund will be trebled to $750bn Brown said G20 countries are already implementing “the biggest macroeconomic stimulus the world has • This includes a new overdraft facility, or special draw- ever seen” - an injection of $5tn by the end of next ing rights allocation, of $250bn year. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 13
  • 14. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 WHAT IS G-20 Members of G-20 The G-20 (more formally, the Group of Twenty Fi- In 2009, there are 20 members of the G-20. These in- nance Ministers and Central Bank Governors) is a clude the finance ministers and central bank governors group of finance ministers and central bank governors of 19 countries and The 20th member is the European from 20 economies: 19 of the world's largest national Union, which is represented by the rotating Council economies, plus the European Union (EU). It also met presidency and the European Central Bank.List of 19 twice at heads-of-government level, in November 2008 countries are following: and again in April 2009. Collectively, the G-20 econo- mies comprise 85%of global gross national product, → Argentina → Japan 80% of world trade (including EU intra-trade) and two- → Australia → Mexico thirds of the world population. → Brazil → Russia → Canada → Saudi Arabia The G-20 is a forum for cooperation and consultation → China → South Africa on matters pertaining to the international financial sys- → France → South Korea tem. It studies, reviews, and promotes discussion → Germany → Turkey among key industrial and emerging market countries → India → United Kingdom of policy issues pertaining to the promotion of inter- → Indonesia → United States national financial stability, and seeks to address issues → Italy that go beyond the responsibilities of any one organization.The G-20 operates without a permanent secretariat or staff. In addition to these 20 members, the following forums The chair rotates annually among the members and is and institutions, as represented by their respective chief selected from a different regional grouping of coun- executive officers, participate in meetings of the G- tries. The chair is part of a revolving three-member 20. management group of past, present and future chairs referred to as the Troika. The incumbent chair estab- • International Monetary Fund lishes a temporary secretariat for the duration of its • World Bank term, which coordinates the group's work and orga- • International Monetary and Financial Committee De- nizes its meetings. The role of the Troika is to ensure velopment Committee of the IMF and World Bank continuity in the G-20's work and management across host years. The membership of the G-20 comprises: • The finance ministers and central bank governors of the G7, 12 other key countries, and the European Union Presidency (if not a G7 member) • The European Central Bank • The Managing Director of the International Mon- etary Fund • The Chairman of the IMFC Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 14
  • 15. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 • The President of the World Bank April 2009. Another G20 summit is scheduled to be • The Chairman of the Development Committee held in New York City in September 2009. Background of G-20: G-20 Vs G20 Developing Nations: The G-20, which superseded the G33, which had itself The G-20 (more formally, the Group of Twenty Fi- superseded the G22, was foreshadowed at the Cologne nance Ministers and Central Bank Governors) is a Summit of the G7 in June 1999, but was formally es- group of finance ministers and central bank governors tablished at the G7 Finance Ministers' meeting on Sep- from 20 large economies while the G20 (Group of 20, tember 26, 1999. The inaugural meeting took place on also variously G21, G22 and G20+) is a bloc of devel- December 15-16, 1999 in Berlin. In 2008 Spain and oping nations established on 20 August 2003. The The Netherlands were included by French invitation group emerged at the 5th Ministerial WTO conference, for the G-20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets held in Cancun, Mexico from 10 September to 14 Sep- and the World Economy and then were admitted as tember 2003. The G-20 accounts for 60% of the world's members de facto by the UK. population, 70% of its farmers and 26% of world’s agricultural exports. G20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy was held in Washington on Novem- Its origins date back to June 2003, when foreign min- ber 2009.In 2006 the theme of the G-20 meeting was isters from Brazil, India and South Africa signed a dec- “Building and Sustaining Prosperity”. The issues dis- laration known as the Brasilia Declaration in which cussed included domestic reforms to achieve “sustained they stated that “major trading partners are still moved growth”, global energy and resource commodity mar- by protectionist concerns in their countries’ less com- kets, ‘reform’ of the World Bank and IMF, and the petitive sectors and emphasized how important it is impact of demographic changes due to an aging popu- that the results of the current round of trade negotia- lation. tions provide especially for the reversal of protection- ist policies and trade-distorting practices. Furthermore, Trevor A. Manuel, MP, Minister of Finance, Republic Brazil, India and South Africa decided to articulate their of South Africa, was the chairperson of the G-20 when initiatives of trade liberalization”. South Africa hosted the Secretariat in 2007. Guido Mantega, Minister of Finance, Brazil, was the chair- Nonetheless, the “official” appearance of the G-20 person of the G-20 in 2008; Brazil proposed dialogue occurred as a response to a text released on 13 August on competition in financial markets, clean energy and 2003 by the European Communities (EC) and the economic development and fiscal elements of growth United States with a common proposal on agriculture and development. In a statement following a meeting for the Cancun Ministerial. On 20 August 2003 a docu- of G7 finance ministers on October 11, 2008, U.S. ment signed by twenty countries and re-issued as a President George W. Bush stated that the next meeting Cancun Ministerial document on 4 September pro- of the G-20 would be important in finding solutions toposed an alternative framework to that of the EC and the (then called) economic crisis of 2008. the United States on agriculture for the Cancún Meet- ing. This document marked the establishment of the An initiative by French President Nicolas Sarkozy and G-20. British Prime Minister Gordon Brown led to a special The original group of signatories of the 20 August 2003 meeting of the G-20, a G-20 Leaders Summit on Fi- document went through many changes, being known nancial Markets and the World Economy, on Novem- as such different names as the G-21 or the G-22. The ber 15, 2008. G20 leaders met again in London on 2 title G-20 was finally chosen, in honor of the date of Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 15
  • 16. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 the group's establishment. Since its creation, the group has had a fluctuating membership. Previous members have included: Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Peru, and Turkey. As of October 2008, the group had 23 members. The core leadership of the G-20, known as the G4 bloc, consists of Brazil, China, India and South Africa. *The Author is Professor And Head of the Department For History This Article is Available Online Also ADVERTISEMENT Looking for Brilliant Tutorials? Now you can buy online at Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 16
  • 17. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 SECTION - 4 : Articles NORTH KOREA MISSILE for testing the regime's long-range missile technology - one step toward eventually mounting a nuclear THREAT weapon on a missile capable of reaching Alaska and beyond. They contend the launch violates a 2006 reso- SIGN OF FAILING TO ACCOMPLISH AN lution barring the regime from ballistic missile activ- INTENDED RESULT OF SIX PARTY TALK ity. According to America ,the launch a clear violation of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1718, adopted five North Korea carried out a provocative rocket launch days after North Korea carried out a nuclear weapons Unha-2 on April 5,2009, but the rocket is better known test in 2006. Earlier this North Korea shocked Japan to the outside world as the Taepodong-2, a long-range in 1998 when it launched a missile over Japan's main missile that can be mounted with a satellite or nuclear island. Japan has since spent billions of dollars on de- armament.U.S., Japan and other nations suspect was a veloping a missile shield with the United States and cover for a test of its long-range missile has launched a series of spy satellites primarily to watch technology.Liftoff took place from the coastal developments in North Korea. Musudan-ri launch pad in northeastern North Korea. The multistage rocket hurtled toward the Pacific, reach- MOVE OF JAPAN AND US AGAINST NORTH ing Japanese airspace within seven minutes, but no KOREA : debris appeared to hit its territory. Japan and the US have submitted to the UN the names of North Korean companies they believe to The U.N. Security Council approved an emergency be associated with the country's weapons programme. session for in New York, following a request from Ja- The list of companies has been sent to the UN's Secu- pan that came minutes after the launch. The South rity Council's sanctions committee for consideration. Koreans called it ``reckless,'' the Americans ``provoca- The move to enforce sanctions against North Korea tive,'' and Japan said it strongly protested the follows the country's long-range rocket launch on 5 launch.According to Japan The first stage of the rocket April. According todiplomats China, which has a lot dropped about 175 miles (280 kilometers) off the west- of trade with North Korea, will want to study the list ern coast of Akita into the waters between Japan and before agreeing to it. The Council has started the pro- the Korean peninsula. The second stage was to land in cess of tightening the existing sanctions against North the Pacific at a spot about 790 miles (1,270 kilome- Korea. ters) off Japan's northeastern coast. These sanctions were agreed in 2006 after North Ko- The launch was a bold act of defiance against Presi- rea tested a nuclear device, but they were never ap- dent Barack Obama, Japanese leader Taro Aso, Hu plied. North Korean companies suspected of being in- Jintao of China and others who pressed Pyongyang in volved in the government's weapons programme can the days leading up to liftoff to call off a launch which have their financial assets, like bank accounts, seized would threaten peace and stability in Northeast Asia. if they are held abroad. North Korea reacted aggres- South Korea's said the launch poses a ``serious threat'' sively to the Council's condemnation of its launch and to stability on the Korean peninsula and that it would said it would throw out inspectors from the Interna- respond to the provocation ``sternly and resolutely.'' tional Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and restart its North Korea claims its aim is to send an experimental nuclear programme. communications satellite into orbit in a peaceful bid to develop its space program. While the U.S., South NORTH KOREA’s MISSILE PROGRAMME: Korea, Japan and others suspect the launch is a guise North Korea is believed to have more than 800 ballis- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 17
  • 18. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 tic missiles, including long-range missiles which could two-stage missile comprising Nodong and Scud parts one day strike the US.. North Korea first obtained tac- and can reach a distance of 2,200km, but it is said to tical missiles from the Soviet Union as early as 1969, be even less accurate than the Nodong. North Korea but its first Scuds reportedly came via Egypt in 1976. tested a Taepodong-1 in August 1998, firing a missile Egypt is believed to have supplied North Korea with over northern Japan. It brings US bases on Okinawa Scud-B missiles and designs in return for its support within North Korea's reach. But the missile must be against Israel in the Yom Kippur War. By 1984, North fired from a fixed location and has a long preparation Korea was building its own Scud-Bs and developed time, meaning that potential launches could be de- two new versions, the Scud-C and Scud-D. It has since tected. A land-based missile, the Taepodong-X, is also developed a medium-range missile, the Nodong, and said to be under development but has not yet been a long-range missile based on Scud technology, the tested. Based on a Soviet submarine-launched ballis- Taepodong. In July 2006 it test-fired a modification to tic missile, it is thought to have a range of up to 4,000 the Taepodong, called the Taepodong-2, which experts km, reaching US bases on Guam. Unlike the say could have a range of up to 6,000km (3,500 miles). Taepodong-1, it could be fired from mobile launch The missile failed shortly after launch. systems hidden from view. SHORT-RANGE MISSILES: North Korea has a va- TAEPODONG-2 MISSILE : The Taepodong-2 long- riety of short-range missiles. The KN-02 is thought to range missile is estimated to have a range of between be the most accurate, but its range - around 100 km - is 5,000 and 6,000 km, putting Alaska, Hawaii and parts the shortest. The Scud-B and C have ranges of 300 of the west coast of the US within range. But the first and 500 km respectively, while the Scud-D is believed launch of the missile, in July 2006, appeared to be a to have a range of 700 km. It is thought that these mis- failure after it crashed within seconds of launch - ac- siles could deliver conventional warheads. The Scud- cording to US sources. If the missile was successfully B, C and D have all been tested and deployed. These launched, it is not thought to be particularly accurate missiles would enable North Korea to strike any area or to be able to carry a large warhead. Like the in South Korea. The KN-02 missile, currently in the Taepodong-1, it requires a fixed launch site. The testing stage, could be aimed at key targets in South Taepodong-2 test took place from the Musudan-ri com- Korea such as military installations south of the bor- plex on the East coast of the Korean peninsula. Analy- der. sis of satellite images of the area appear to show a range of missile fabrication, fuelling, testing and control fa- NODONG MISSILE : The Nodong missile is thought cilities. to have a range of around 1,000 km and could poten- NORTH KOREAN BACKGROUND : For decades tially carry a nuclear warhead. But it is not accurate. A North Korea has been one of the world's most secre- March 2006 report by the US Center for Non-prolif- tive societies. It is one of the few countries still under eration Studies said it had a circular error probable of communist rule. North Korea's nuclear ambitions have 2-4 km, meaning that half of the missiles fired would exacerbated its rigidly maintained isolation from the fall outside a circle of that radius. The Nodong could rest of the world. The country emerged in 1948 amid strike most of Japan but not with any accuracy. If it the chaos following the end of World War II. Its his- were fired on a military target, its inaccuracy could tory is dominated by its Great Leader, Kim Il-sung, lead to high levels of civilian casualties. The missile was test fired in May 1993. who shaped political affairs for almost half a century. After the Korean War, Kim Il-sung introduced the per- TAEPODONG-1 MISSILE : The Taepodong-1 is a sonal philosophy of Juche, or self-reliance, which be- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 18
  • 19. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 came a guiding light for North Korea's development. Kim Il-sung's son, Kim Jong-il, is now head of state, but the post of president has been assigned "eternally" to his late father. Decades of this rigid state-controlled system have led to stagnation and a leadership dependent on the cult of personality. Aid agencies have esti- mated that up to two million people have died since the mid-1990s because of acute food shortages caused by natural disasters and economic mismanagement. The country relies on foreign aid to feed millions of its people. The totalitarian state also stands accused of systematic human rights abuses. Reports of torture, public execu- tions, slave labour, and forced abortions and infanticides in prison camps have emerged. A US-based rights group has estimated that there are up to 200,000 political prisoners in North Korea. Pyongyang has accused successive South Korean governments of being US "puppets", but South Korean President Kim Dae-jung's visit in 2000 signalled a thaw in relations. Seoul's "sunshine policy" towards the north aimed to encourage change through dialogue and aid. But this tentative reaching-out to the world was dealt a blow in 2002 by Pyongyang's decision to reactivate a nuclear reactor and to expel international inspectors. In October 2006 North Korea said it had successfully tested a nuclear weapon, spreading alarm around the region. Since then, intensive diplomatic efforts have aimed to rein in North Korea's nuclear ambitions. After years of on-and-off talks, a deal was thrashed out in February 2007 under which Pyongyang agreed to shut down its main nuclear reactor in return for fuel and aid. North Korea admitted International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors, who verified the shutdown of the Yongbyon reactor in July,2007. However, the denuclearisation process stalled yet again when Pyongyang failed to meet an end-of-year deadline to make a full declaration of its nuclear programmes. It eventually handed over a list of the country's nuclear assets in June 2008, and in October agreed to give international inspectors full access to its nuclear sites. The US responded by dropping North Korea from its list of states sponsoring terror- ism. However, in December 2008 Pyongyang said it would slow down work to dismantle its nuclear programme in response to a US decision to suspend some aid. The process hit a new snag in 2009, when North Korea walked out of international talks aimed at ending its nuclear activities, in protest at UN criticism of a rocket launch by Pyongyang. North Korea maintains one of the world's largest standing armies and militarism pervades everyday life. But standards of training, discipline and equipment in the force are said to be low. In 2002 US President George W Bush named the country as part of an "axis of evil". FACTS Full name: The Democratic People's Republic of Korea Population: 23.9 million (UN, 2008) Capital: Pyongyang Area: 122,762 sq km (47,399 sq miles) Major language: Korean Major religions: Mainly atheist or non-religious, traditional beliefs Life expectancy: 65 years (men), 69 years (women) (UN) Monetary unit: 1 won = 100 chon Main exports: Minerals and metals, cement, agricultural products Eternal president: Kim Il-sung (deceased) Chairman, National Defence Commission: Kim Jong-il Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 19
  • 20. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 NUCLEAR DEVELOPMENT Taepodong-2, which is also known as Paektusan-2, is North Korea's missile development, which began in yet to be flight-tested. The latest round of North Korea's the early 1960s, benefited greatly from Soviet and seven missile tests on July 5, breaking the moratorium Chinese assistance.In 2005 the United States Defence it had committed itself to with the U.S. in 1999 and Intelligence Agency (DIA) suggested that North Ko- with Japan in 2002, included Taepodong-2. But it failed rea could attach a nuclear warhead to an Inter-Conti- 40 seconds after lift-off at Masudan-ri in North nental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) capable of reaching Hamyong province and crashed into the sea 1.5 km the U.S. DIA testified that North Korea's ICBM under away. development, Taepodong-2, with a "guesstimated range of 5000 km" could deliver a "nuclear warhead to parts So, even if the nuclear test was a successful one with a of the United States in a two-stage variant and target compact missile-capable warhead, Pyongyang is yet all of North America with a three-stage variant". At to have an operational ICBM capability. U.S. intelli- the same the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) testi- gence believes this is only a matter of time. North fied that the North Korean missile was capable of reach- Korea's missile development history perhaps makes it ing the U.S. with a "nuclear-weapon-sized payload". the most advanced among the later breed of missile- This assessment came at a time when North Korea had capable nations. Some analysts feel that North Korea not tested a nuclear device, a necessary step for devel- could have such an operational system by 2015. North oping a reliable warhead system that can be delivered Korea already has an array of short- and intermediate- with long-range ballistic missiles. However, in March range missile systems that can deliver conventional, 2005 Pyongyang claimed that it had become "a full- chemical and perhaps biological weapons. It has de- fledged nuclear-weapon state". Notwithstanding the ployed 600 to 800 short-range (300-700 km) Hwasong DIA's statement, the U.S., according to National Se- (Scud) missile variants, 150 to 200 medium-range curity Adviser Stephen Hadley, had no clear evidence (1,000-1,300 km) Nodong missiles and maybe 10 in- whether Pyongyang had a missile-capable warhead or termediate range (2,000-2,200 km) Taepodong-1 mis- not. siles. The longer-range Taepodong-2 is perhaps ready for deployment (infographic on page 10). These perception was based on an August 2003 CIA report, which said that North Korea had "validated" SOVIET AND CHINA HELPED NORTH KO- designs for "simple fission" nuclear weapons without REA: North Korea's missile development would seem conducting explosive tests. The U.S. Department of to have benefited greatly from Soviet and Chinese as- Defence defines "a simple fission weapon" as one that sistance. It began the development of rockets and mis- "could be delivered by aircraft or tactical missile" and siles in the early 1960s, with cooperation from the not an ICBM. "In the near term", a 1999 DIA report Soviet Union, which supplied surface-to-ship missiles said, North Korea would not be able to develop a and FROG-5/7 rockets. It is generally believed that the nuclear warhead lighter than 650-700 kg but it added Soviets initially declined North Korea's requests for that Taepodong-2 could deliver a 650 kg warhead to ballistic missiles in the mid-1960s, following which Alaska, Hawaii and the Pacific Northwest. Only with North Korea turned to China for ballistic missile de- a much lighter warhead most of the U. S. would come velopment. By 1970, it had begun to acquire surface- under an ICBM threat. A 1999 National Intelligence to-ship missiles, surface-to-air missiles and technical Estimate (NIE), too, said that Taepodong-2 could de- assistance from China. In September 1971, North Ko- liver a "several hundred kg" payload. According to rea and China signed an agreement for missile devel- analysts, 650 kg is about the maximum payload weight opment. However, the cooperation got under way that Taepodong-2 can deliver to parts of the U.S. sometime in 1977 when North Korean engineers par- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 20
  • 21. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 ticipated in the joint development of DF-61, a 600-km mobile ballistic missile. After this initial training, this cooperation seems to have ended. Despite the earlier refusal, North Korea succeeded in acquiring a few Soviet Scud missiles in the early 1970s. It also received a few Scud-B (R-17) short-range (300 km) missiles from Egypt between 1976 and 1981. North Korea's reverse engineering of Scuds seems to have begun then and an indigenous version of Scud-B (Hwasong- 5) was developed and flight-tested in 1984. In 1985, Iran stepped in under a bilateral agreement to provide financial assistance for missile development in return for an offer of North Korean missiles. Experts believe that Iran's use of Scud-B during the Iran-Iraq war provided Pyongyang with flight data, thus obviating extensive testing on its own territory. Serial production of Hwasong-5 seems to have started around 1987. According to unconfirmed reports, between 1985 and 1988 the Soviet Union also delivered over 200 Scud missiles. North Korea soon undertook the development of the indigenous version of Scud-C with a longer range of 500 km, called Hwasong-6. Around 1987-1989, when serial production of Hwason-6 had started, the development of Nodong got under way. Flight tests were con- ducted successfully in May 1993. MAJOR EVENTS 1945 - After World War II, Japanese occupation of Korea ends with Soviet troops occupying the north, and US troops the south. 1946 - North Korea's Communist Party (Korean Workers' Party - KWP) inaugurated. Soviet-backed leadership installed, including Red Army-trained Kim Il-sung. 1948 - Democratic People's Republic of Korea proclaimed. Soviet troops withdraw. 1950 - South declares independence, sparking North Korean invasion. 1953 - Armistice ends Korean War, which has cost two million lives. 1992 - North Korea agreed to allow inspections by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), but over next two years refuses access to sites of suspected nuclear weapons production. 1994 - Death of Kim Il-sung. Kim Jong-il suceeded him as leader, but doesn't take presidential title. North Korea agreed to freeze nuclear programme in return for $5bn worth of free fuel and two nuclear reactors. 1995 - US formally agreed to help provide two modern nuclear reactors designed to produce less weapons-grade plutonium. Conti.. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 21
  • 22. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 Conti.. Six-nation talks 2002 October-December - Nuclear tensions mount. In October the US said North Korea has admitted to having a secret weapons programme. The US decided to halt oil shipments to Pyongyang. In De- cember North Korea began to reactivate its Yongbyon reactor. International inspectors had thrown out. 2003 August - Six-nation talks in Beijing on North Korea's nuclear programme failed to bridge gap between Washington and Pyongyang. October - Pyongyang saed it has reprocessed 8,000 nuclear fuel rods, obtaining enough material to make up to six nuclear bombs. 2004 April - More than 160 killed and hundreds more injured when train carrying oil and chemicals hits power line in town of Ryongchon. June - Third round of six-nation talks on nuclear programme ends inconclusively. North Korea pulls out of scheduled September round. 2005 February - Pyongyang said it has built nuclear weapons for self-defence. 2006 July - North Korea test-fired a long-range missile, and some medium-range ones, to an interna- tional outcry. Despite reportedly having the capability to hit the US, the long-range Taepodong-2 crashes shortly after take-off, US officials say. October - North Korea claimed to test a nuclear weapon for the first time. 2007 February - Six-nation talks on nuclear programme resumed in Beijing. In a last-minute deal, North Korea agreed to close its main nuclear reactor in exchange for fuel aid. May - Passenger trains crossed the North-South border for the first time in 56 years. June - International inspectors visited the Yongbyon nuclear complex for the first time since being expelled from the country in 2002. July - International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors verify shutdown of the Yongbyon reactor. August - North Korea appealed for aid after devastating floods. 2008 June - North Korea maid its long-awaited declaration of nuclear assets Oct - The US removed North Korea from its list of countries which sponsor terrorism Dec - Pyongyang slowed work to dis- mantle its nuclear programme after a US decision to suspend energy aid 2009 Jan - The North said it is scrapping all military and political deals with the South, accusing it of "hostile intent".5 April - Pyongyang launches a rocket carrying what it says is a communications satel- lite.14 April - After criticism of the launch from the UN Security Council, North Korea vowed to walk out of six-party talks. This Article is Available Online Also Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 22
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  • 30. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 SECTION - 6 : Hot-Topics to investigate rumours that people had been falling ill Swine Flu near intensive pig farms. Attack Of New Virus H1N1 The WHO raised its pandemic alert status to level four two levels from a full pandemic - after concluding there had been sustained transmission between humans. Lev- Courtesy : els five and six reserved for when there is widespread human infection. WHO said there were a number of cases in New York "which appear to be human-to-hu- man transmission".The UN body have encouraged countries to begin intensive surveillance of possible infection and send as much information as possible to the WHO. In Mexico, swine flu has been confirmed in 20 of the 152 known deaths. In almost all cases out- side Mexico, people have been only mildly ill and have made a full recovery. New cases of the deadly swine flu virus have been confirmed in April 2009 as far afield as New Zealand Flu eins on their surface called antigens. If the immune and Israel, as the UN warned it can not be system has met a particular strain of the virus before, contained.The US, Canada, Spain and Britain con- it is likely to have some immunity; but if the antigens firmed cases earlier but no deaths have been reported are new to the immune system, it will be weakened. outside Mexico, where the virus was first reported. The influenza A virus can mutate in two different ways; Mexico has raised the number of probable deaths to antigenic drift, in which existing antigens are subtly 152, with 1,614 suspected sufferers under observation. altered, and antigenic shift, in which two or more strains UN inspectors examined reports pig farms may have combine. Antigenic drift causes slight flu mutations spread the virus. The UN's health agency, the World year on year, from which humans have partial, but not Health Organization (WHO), confirmed that the flu complete, immunity. By contrast, the new strain of had been transmitted between humans. Countries with H1N1 appears to have originated via antigenic shift in suspected cases: Brazil, Guatemala, Peru, Australia, Mexican pigs and South Korea, and seven EU states is being trans- mitted from human to human. The name "swine flu" is a slight misnomer as it is be- lieved pigs acted as a mixing pot for several flu strains, WHO PANDEMIC ALERT containing genetic material from pigs, birds and hu- mans. Most humans have never been exposed to some The EU said patients were also under observation in of the antigens involved in the new strain of flu, giv- Denmark, Sweden, Greece, the Czech Republic, Ger- ing it the potential to cause a pandemic. The new virus many, Italy and Ireland. Tests carried out on people in has made the jump from pigs to humans and has dem- Brazil, Guatemala, Peru, Australia and South Korea. onstrated it can also pass from human to human. This A number of countries in Asia, Latin America and Eu- is why it is demanding so much attention from health rope have begun screening airport passengers for symp- authorities. The virus passes from human to human toms, while Germany's biggest tour operator has sus- like other types of flu, either through coughing, sneez- pended trips to Mexico. The UN's Food and Agricul- ing, or by touching infected surfaces, although little is ture Organisation (FAO) have send a team to Mexico Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 30
  • 31. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 known about how the virus acts on humans. that the new version of H1N1 resulted from a mixing of different versions of the virus, which may usually The new virus has made the jump from pigs to hu- affect different species, in the same animal host. Pigs mans and has demonstrated it can also pass from hu- provide an excellent 'melting pot' for these viruses to man to human. This is why it is demanding so much mix and match with each other. attention from health authorities. The virus passes from human to human like other types of flu, either through Symptoms of swine flu in humans appear to be similar coughing, sneezing, or by touching infected surfaces, to those produced by standard, seasonal flu. These in- although little is known about how the virus acts on clude fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, chills and humans. fatigue. Most cases so far reported around the world appear to be mild, but in Mexico lives have been lost. The name "swine flu" is a slight misnomer as it is be- When any new strain of flu emerges that acquires the lieved pigs acted as a mixing pot for several flu strains, ability to pass from person to person, it is monitored containing genetic material from pigs, birds and hu- very closely in case it has the potential to spark a glo- mans. Most humans have never been exposed to some bal epidemic, or pandemic. The World Health Organi- of the antigens involved in the new strain of flu, giv- zation has warned that taken together the Mexican and ing it the potential to cause a pandemic. US cases could potentially trigger a global pandemic, and stress that the situation is serious. However it is The new virus has made the jump from pigs to hu- still too early to accurately assess the situation fully. mans and has demonstrated it can also pass from hu- man to human. This is why it is demanding so much Nobody knows the full potential impact of a pandemic, attention from health authorities. The virus passes from but experts have warned that it could cost millions of human to human like other types of flu, either through lives worldwide. The Spanish flu pandemic, which coughing, sneezing, or by touching infected surfaces, began in 1918, and was also caused by an H1N1 strain, although little is known about how the virus acts on killed millions of people. The fact that all the cases in humans. the US and elsewhere have so far produced mild symp- toms is encouraging. It suggests that the severity of WHAT IS SWINE FLU the Mexican outbreak may be due to an unusual geo- Swine flu is a respiratory disease, caused by influenza graphically-specific factor - possibly a second unre- type A which infects pigs. There are many types, and lated virus circulating in the community - which would the infection is constantly changing. Until now it has be unlikely to come into play in the rest of the world. not normally infected humans, but the latest form Alternatively, people infected in Mexico may have clearly does, and can be spread from person to person sought treatment at a much later stage than those in - probably through coughing and sneezing. The World other countries. Health Organization has confirmed that at least some of the human cases are a never-before-seen version of It may also be the case that the form of the virus circu- the H1N1 strain of influenza type A. H1N1 is the same lating in Mexico is subtly different to that elsewhere - strain which causes seasonal outbreaks of flu in hu- although that will only be confirmed by laboratory mans on a regular basis. But this latest version of H1N1 analysis. There is also hope that, as humans are often is different: it contains genetic material that is typi- exposed to forms of H1N1 through seasonal flu, our cally found in strains of the virus that affect humans, immune systems may have something of a head start birds and swine. Flu viruses have the ability to swap in fighting infection. However, the fact that many of genetic components with each other, and it seems likely Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 31
  • 32. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 the victims are young does point to something unusual. fected - should seek medical advice. Normal, seasonal flu tends to affect the elderly dispro- portionately. But patients are being asked not to go into GP surger- ies in order to minimise the risk of spreading the dis- The virus appears already to have started to spread ease to others. Instead, they should stay at home and around the world, and most experts believe that con- call their healthcare provider for advice. After the WHO tainment of the virus in the era of readily available air raised its alert level over swine flu, the Foreign and travel will be extremely difficult. Commonwealth Office began advising against all but essential travel to Mexico. According to World Health Organization that restrict- ing flights will have little effect. It argues that screen-Avoid close contact with people who appear unwell ing of passengers is also unlikely to have much im- and who have fever and cough. General infection con- pact, as symptoms may not be apparent in many in- trol practices and good hygiene can help to reduce trans- fected people. mission of all viruses, including the human swine in- fluenza. This includes covering your nose and mouth HOW IT CAN BE HANDLED when coughing or sneezing, using a tissue when pos- Two drugs commonly used to treat flu, Tamiflu and sible and disposing of it promptly. Relenza, seem to be effective at treating cases that have occurred there so far. However, the drugs must be ad- It is also important to wash your hands frequently with ministered at an early stage to be effective. Use of these soap and water to reduce the spread of the virus from drugs may also make it less likely that infected people your hands to face or to other people and cleaning hard will pass the virus on to others. It is unclear how effec- surfaces like door handles frequently using a normal tive currently available flu vaccines would be at offer- cleaning product. If caring for someone with a flu-like ing protection against the new strain, as it is geneti- illness, a mask can be worn to cover the nose and mouth cally distinct from other flu strains. to reduce the risk of transmission. US scientists are already devel- The UK is looking at increasing its stockpile of masks oping a bespoke new vaccine, for healthcare workers for this reason. But experts say but it may take months to per- there is no scientific evidence to support more general fect it, and manufacture enough wearing of masks to guard against infections. Although supplies to meet what could be there is no evidence that swine flu can be transmitted huge demand. A vaccine was through eating meat from infected animals. However, used to protect humans from a it is essential to cook meat properly. A temperature of version of swine flu in the US in 1976.However, it 70C (158F) would be sure to kill the virus. caused serious side effects, including an estimated 500 cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome. There were more deaths from the vaccine than the outbreak. PRECAUTIONS Anyone with flu-like symptoms who might have been in contact with the swine virus - such as those living or travelling in the areas of Mexico that have been af- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 32
  • 33. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 WHAT IS BIRD FLU The strain of bird flu which has caused scores of human deaths in South East Asia in recent years is a different strain to that responsible for the cur- rent outbreak of swine flu. The latest form of swine flu is a new type of the H1N1 strain, while bird, or avian flu, is H5N1. Experts fear H5N1 hold the potential to trigger a pandemic because of its ability to mutate rapidly. However, up until now it has remained very much a disease of birds. Those humans who have been infected have, without exception, worked closely with birds, and cases of human-to-human transmission are extremely rare - there is no suggestion that H5N1 has gained the ability to pass easily from person to person. FLU PANDEMICS In 1918 The Spanish flu pandemic remains the most devastating outbreak of modern times. Caused by a form of the H1N1 strain of flu, it is estimated that up to 40% of the world's population were infected, and more than 50 million people died, with young adults particularly badly affected In 1957 Asian flu killed two million people. Caused by a human form of the virus, H2N2, combining with a mutated strain found in wild ducks. The impact of the pandemic was minimised by rapid action by health authorities, who identified the virus, and made vac- cine available speedily. The elderly were particularly vulnerable In 1968 An outbreak first detected in Hong Kong, and caused by a strain known as H3N2, killed up to one million people globally, with those over 65 most likely to die. This Article is Available Online Also Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 33
  • 34. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 INDIAN SPY SATELLITE RISAT-2 and ANUSAT SUCCESSFULLY PLACED IN ORBIT In its fifteenth mission car- (IMP) Get UPSCPORTAL , Jobs, Results, No- ried out from Satish tification Alerts on Email. Dhawan Space Centre SHAR (SDSC SHAR), Step-1: Fill Your Email address in form below. Sriharikota on April 20, you will get a confirmation email within 10 min. 2009 ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV- Step-2: Varify your email by clicking on the link C12) successfully placed Courtesy : ISRO.ORG in the email. (check Inbox and Spam folders) two satellites - RISAT-2 and ANUSAT - in the desired orbit. RISAT-2 is a Radar Step-3: Done! you will recieve alerts regularly on Imaging Satellite with the capability to take images of your email. the earth during day and night as well as cloudy condi- tions. At the time of launch, RISAT-2 weighed about 300 kg and was realised by ISRO in association with Is- rael Aerospace Industries. The satellite was placed in an Click here for Newsletter: orbit of 550 km height with an inclination of 41 deg to the equator and an orbital period of about 90 minutes. This satellite will enhance ISRO’s capability for earth ob- servation, especially during floods, cyclones, landslides and in disaster management in a more effective way. The 44 metre tall PSLV-C12 weighing 230 ton was launched from the Second Launch Pad (SLP) at SDSC SHAR in the Core Alone configuration without the use of six solid strap-ons. In this mission, in addition to RISAT-2, PSLV also carried A 40 kg micro satellite named ANUSAT, built by Anna University, Chennai. ANUSAT is the first experimental communication sat- ellite built by an Indian University under the over all guidance of ISRO and will demonstrate the technolo- gies related to message store and forward operations. In this flight, PSLV carried the indigenously developed Advanced Mission Computers and Advanced Telem- etry System, which guided the vehicle from lift-off till Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 34
  • 35. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 the injection of the two sat- based solid propellant. PSLV’s first stage is one of the ellites in the desired orbit. largest solid propellant boosters in the world. Its sec- ond and fourth stages use liquid propellants. PSLV- The main payload, RISAT- C12 was launched without the six strapons in its ‘core 2, was the first satellite to be alone’ configuration. PSLV-C12 weighs about 230 separated in orbit at 1100 tonnes at lift off. seconds after lift-off at an altitude of 550 km. With It may be recalled that PSLV in its core alone configu- this successful launch, the ration had launched AGILE and TECSAR during 2007 versatility and the reliability and 2008 respectively. RISAT-2 is a Radar Imaging of PSLV has been proved Courtesy : ISRO.ORG Satellite with all weather capability to take images of again underscoring its im- the earth. This Satellite will enhance ISRO’s capabil- portance as the workhorse launch vehicle of India. This ity for Disaster Management applications,ANUSAT launch was the fourteenth consecutive success for PSLV. (Anna University Satellite) is the first satellite built by In these launches, PSLV has placed a total of sixteen an Indian University under the over all guidance of Indian satellites and sixteen foreign satellites into Polar, ISRO and will demonstrate the technologies related to Geosynchronous Transfer and Low Earth Orbits. It may message store and forward operations“ be recalled that during its previous mission on October 22, 2008, PSLV had successfully launched Chandrayaan- 1 spacecraft, which is now exploring the moon from lu- HISTORY OF ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE nar orbit. The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by FEATURES OF PSLV, the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957, and initiating the RISAT-2 AND ANUSAT Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer and Kerim Kerimov as his assistant. This in PSLV is a four-stage launch vehicle employing both turn triggered the Space Race between the Soviet Union solid and liquid propulsion stages. PSLV is the trusted and the United States. workhorse launch Vehicle of ISRO. During 1993-2008 period, PSLV had fourteen launches of which thirteen Sputnik 1 helped to identify the density of high atmo- were consecutively successful. PSLV has repeatedly spheric layers through measurement of its orbital proved its reliability and versatility by launching 32 change and provided data on radio-signal distribution spacecrafts (16Indian and 16 for international custom- in the ionosphere. Because the satellite's body was filled ers) into a variety of orbits so far. It may be recalled with pressurized nitrogen, Sputnik 1 also provided the that during its previous mission on October 22, 2008, first opportunity for meteoroid detection, as a loss of PSLV had successfully launched Chandrayaan-1 space- internal pressure due to meteoroid penetration of the craft, which is now exploring the Moon from lunar outer surface would have been evident in the tempera- orbit. ture data sent back to Earth. The unanticipated an- nouncement of Sputnik 1's success precipitated the In its standard configuration, the 44 m tall PSLV has a Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the so- lift-off mass of 295 tonne. It is a four-stage launch ve- called Space Race within the Cold War.Sputnik 2 was hicle with the first and the third stages as well as the launched on November 3, 1957 and carried the first six strap-ons surrounding the first stage using HTPB Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 35
  • 36. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 living passenger into orbit, a dog named Laika. satellites, other space assets. They may have particle weap- ons, energy weapons, kinetic weapons, nuclear and/or In May, 1946, Project RAND had released the Prelimi- conventional missiles and/or a combination of these nary Design of a Experimental World-Circling Space- weapons. Astronomical satellites are satellites used for ship, which stated, "A satellite vehicle with appropri- observation of distant planets, galaxies, and other outer ate instrumentation can be expected to be one of the space objects. most potent scientific tools of the Twentieth Century. The United States had been considering launching or- Biosatellites are satellites designed to carry living or- bital satellites since 1945 under the Bureau of Aero- ganisms, generally for scientific experimentation. nautics of the United States Navy. Communications satellites are satellites stationed in space for the purpose of telecommunications. Modern The United States Air Force's Project RAND eventu- communications satellites typically use geosynchro- ally released the above report, but did not believe that nous orbits, Molniya orbits or Low Earth orbits. the satellite was a potential military weapon; rather, they considered it to be a tool for science, politics, and Miniaturized satellites are satellites of unusually low propaganda. In 1954, the Secretary of Defense stated, weights and small sizes. New classifications are used "I know of no American satellite program." On July to categorize these satellites: minisatellite (500– 29, 1955, the White House announced that the U.S. 200 kg), microsatellite (below 200 kg), nanosatellite intended to launch satellites by the spring of 1958. This (below 10 kg). became known as Project Vanguard. On July 31, the Soviets announced that they intended to launch a sat- Navigational satellites are satellites which use radio ellite by the fall of 1957. time signals transmitted to enable mobile receivers on the ground to determine their exact location. The rela- Following pressure by the American Rocket Society, tively clear line of sight between the satellites and re- the National Science Foundation, and the International ceivers on the ground, combined with ever-improving Geophysical Year, military interest picked up and in electronics, allows satellite navigation systems to mea- early 1955 the Air Force and Navy were working on sure location to accuracies on the order of a few meters Project Orbiter, which involved using a Jupiter C rocket in real time. to launch a satellite. Reconnaissance satellites are Earth observation satel- The project succeeded, and Explorer 1 became the lite or communications satellite deployed for military United States' first satellite on January 31, 1958. In or intelligence applications. Little is known about the June 1961, three-and-a-half years after the launch of full power of these satellites, as governments who op- Sputnik 1, the Air Force used resources of the United erate them usually keep information pertaining to their States Space Surveillance Network to catalog 115 reconnaissance satellites classified. Earth-orbiting satellites. The largest artificial satellite currently orbiting the Earth is the International Space Earth observation satellites are satellites intended for Station. non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc. TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE Space stations are man-made structures that are de- Anti-Satellite weapons/"Killer Satellites" are satellites signed for human beings to live on in outer space. A that are armed, designed to take out enemy warheads, space station is distinguished from other manned space- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 36
  • 37. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 craft by its lack of major propulsion or landing facili- ties — instead, other vehicles are used as transport to and from the station. Space stations are designed for medium-term living in orbit, for periods of weeks, months, or even years. Tether satellites are satellites which are connected to another satellite by a thin cable called a tether. Weather satellites are primarily used to monitor Earth's weather and climate. This Article is Available Online Also ADVERTISEMENT BUY ONLINE AT UPSCPORTAL ONLINE STORE Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 37
  • 38. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 SECTION - 7 : Current Relevant Facts Current Affairs for six years. • Jatiya Party leader and former President Gen H M Ershad was cleared of 1982 'powergrab' charges on • The leader of South Africa's African National March 30,2009. He was sued for usurping state power, Congress, Jacob Zuma, has been officially elected on suspension of the constitution and declaration of mar- 6 May 2009 the tial law in Bangladesh on Mar 24, 1982. Inu, now an country's president by MP as part of the same AL-led electoral alliance as members of parliament. Ershad's Jatiya Party, sued the former general for his The ANC won the gen- takeover of state power. The CID final report was sub- eral election in South mitted to a Dhaka Metropolitan magistrate's court on Africa. Jacob Zuma was Jan 30. Inu was asked to appear in the court to respond fired as vice-president to the police report but did not. The court accepted the after being implicated in report and cleared Ershad. a graft scandal. T he charges were dropped • Supreme National Security Council Secretary of the just before last month's Islamic Republic of Iran, Dr Saeed Jalili, visited India Courtesy : Wikipedia.Org election - amid evidence on 28th March 2009. This visit was in keeping with of government med- the tradition of high level exchanges between the two dling in pursuing the case. In February 2006, the con- countries. The two sides conducted a strategic review troversial polygamist was acquitted of rape in a sepa- of India Iran relations and prospects for their further rate case, though he was widely criticised for his com- expansion. Their wide ranging discussions also cov- ments about sex and HIV/Aids. ered regional and international issues including terror- ism, the situation in Afghanistan and energy security. • A group of Nepalese political parties has agreed to form a "national government" a day after Maoist Prime • The name of the sleek aircraft inducted by the IAF Minister Pushpa Kamal Dahal resigned on 5 May 2009. for flying VVIPs is Rajdoot. It was rolled out from the After a meeting in Kathmandu, members of the Com- tarmac of the Palam airport on April 1,2009. The air- munist UML party agreed to head the government. Mr craft with the first citizen of the country onboard took Dahal, best known as Prachanda, resigned after the its maiden flight to Assam without a glitch and the president opposed his decision to sack the army chief. exclusive passengers enjoyed its style and comfort. The Maoists boycotted the all-party meeting. • Former Cabinet Secretary Naresh Chandra was ap- • Iranian-American journalist Roxana Saberi was con- pointed chairman of the advisory board of Price victed of spying and sentenced to 8 years in prison on Waterhouse India on April 22,2009. Price Waterhouse April 18,2009. 31-year-old dual American-Iranian citi- India (PW) recently set up an advisory board, which zen was arrested in January 2009 and initially accused was expected to help the audit company reflect on the of working without press credentials. A freelance jour- voice of external stakeholders in its strategic decision nalist Roxana Saberi was reporting for National Pub- making. lic Radio and other media. She had been living in Iran Former Comptroller and Auditor General of India V K Shunglu and former Chief Election Commissioner B Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 38
  • 39. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 B Tandon are other eminent members, who were in- war against the LTTE in Sri Lanka was not stopped. ducted to the board. The case was registered under 13 (1) b of the Unlaw- • Indian-American Sonal Shah was appointed head of ful Activities (Prevention) Amendment Act, 2004 (ad- the new Office of Social Innovation and Civic Partici- vocating, abetting, advising or inciting the commission pation in the Obama administration. Sonal Shah, a In- of any unlawful activity) and also under Section 124 -A dia Abroad Person of the Year in 2003 and co-founder and Section 505 (1) (b) of the Indian Penal Code. Sec- of India Corps was a member of the Obama transition tion 124-A relates to sedition (attempting to bring into project's advisory board and co-chairperson of a tran- hatred or contempt or exciting or attempting to excite sition group that made recommendations about tech- disaffection towards the Government established by law nology and innovation, including innovation and civil in India). society. • Former President of Peru Alberto Fujimori was con- • Advocate Anjali Waghmare was removed on grounds victed of human rights crimes and sentenced to 25 years of professional miscon- in prison on April 7,2009. A three-judge panel con- duct as Mohammad Ajmal victed him of ordering a military death squad to carry Kasab’s lawyer. Allegedly out two massacres that killed 25 people during his she had first accepted brief 1990-2000 rule, when he was battling communist guer- of a witness in this case rillas. Later, he appealed to Peru's Supreme Court to before deciding to defend overturn his 25-year prison sentence. A corruption scan- Kasab. She was earlier on dal involving his spy chief, Vladimiro Montesinos, sank March 30,2009 appointed his government in 2000. Fujimori fled to exile in Ja- by the court to represent pan. He was later arrested in Chile and extradited to Kasab, the long surviving Peru, where he often snoozed through testimony and terrorist captured by police for the attacks that took place took off his socks. First time a democratically elected on November 26, 2008. Latin American president has been found guilty in his own country of such offenses. Other Latin American • Fiji's President Ratu Josefa Iloilo abolished the consti- rulers faced trials over human rights crimes before tution, assumed all governing power and revoked all ju- Fujimori were military dictators or prosecuted outside dicial appointments on April 10,2009 following the their home countries. Alberto Fujimori was 45th Presi- country's second-highest court ruled that armed forces dent of Peru and he was in office from July 28, 1990 to chief Commodore Frank Bainimarama's government November 22, 2000. that took power after a 2006 coup was illegal. Fiji's mili- tary commander and Prime Minister Frank Bainimarama • According to Sri Lankan Defence Ministry, the head relinquished the prime minister's post but later he was of the intelligence wing of the LTTE, Pottu Amman sworn in again as Fiji's Prime Minister as the head of the took overall command of the outfit due to fast deterio- interim government. rating mental health condition of Velupillai Prabakaran. Pottu Amman has not battlefield experience, so he ap- • A sedition case was registered against MDMK gen- pointed Velawan, the last of LTTE’s battle-hardened eral secretary V. Gopalsamy known as Vaiko by the cadre, as the LTTE’s new military chief. Chennai City police on April 9,2009. He warned in a speech that India would not remain one country if the • According to the overall ranking, compiled by the Wall Street Journal, Mobile phone maker Motorola's India-born chief Sanjay Jha became America's top paid CEO. Citigroup's Vikram Pandit tops the league among bailed out bank. Another Indian on the list is PepsiCo's Indra Nooyi at the 36th slot with a pay package of 13.98 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 39
  • 40. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 million dollar. Jha is the only CEO to get a compensa- 192-member UN General Assembly on world financial tion package exceeding 100 million dollar, with and economic crisis. After retirement as Indian Ambas- Occidental's Ray Irani at a distant second with 49.9 sador to UN on March 31,2009 Nirupam Sen had been million dollar. Irani is followed by Walt Disney's Rob- made India’s high commissioner to Sri Lanka. ert Iger third rank. • Virginia’s secretary of technology Aneesh Chopra was • Advocate S G Abbas Kazmi was appointed by court appointed as the Chief Technology Officer in Obama as the lawyer of Mohammed Amir Ajmal Qasab, the Administration. He included in a three-man team lone surviving gunman in the 26/11 Mumbai terror at- formed by U.S. President Barack Obama to help break tack. He replaced Anjali Waghmare, who was removed Washington’s ‘bad habits’ of wasteful spending and move by court. Another lawyer to defend Qasab is KP Pawar, recession-hit America from recovery to prosperity. who was appointed with Anjali Waghmare. The 54- year-old S G Abbas Kazmi had defended 25 to 30 ac- • She was appointed country head and group general cused in the 1993 Mumbai serial bomb blasts case and manager of the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Cor- 3 accused in the Gulshan Kumar murder case who were poration (HSBC) India on ultimately acquitted by the court. April 15. Famous woman banker Naina Lal Kidwai • A native of Tamil Nadu and 1973 batch IAS officer had been with HSBC as of the Andhra Pradesh cadre, Veeravalli Sundaram CEO and deputy CEO for Sampath took over as the third election commissioner the last five years. Padma following the elevation of Navin B. Chawla as Chief Shri awardee Naina Lal Election Commissioner on April 21,2009. V S Sampath Kidwai is the first Indian was Union Power Secretary prior to his elevation as woman to graduate from the the election commissioner in the Election Commis- Harvard Business School. sion of India. Navin B. Chawla succeeded N She was listed the World's Gopalaswami as the new Chief Election Commissioner Top 50 Corporate Women of India. from 2000 to 2003 by Fortune magazine. • Prime Minister of Denmark Anders Fogh Rasmussen • Indian American star of Mira Nair's ‘The Namesake’, selected as the new NATO Secretary-General on April Kal Penn joined the White House staff as an associate 4. Later on he resigned as Denmark’s prime minister director in the Office of Public Liaison. Born to Indian on April 5,2009. NATO leaders agreed unanimously immigrant parents from Gujarat, the 31-year-old actor to appoint him as the next head of the 28-member alli- Kalpen Suresh Modi had a recurring role on Fox's ance after US President Barack Obama convinced Tur- popular TV show ‘House’ will play a new role connect key to drop its objections in NATO summit held at Obama with the Asian-American and Pacific Islander Strasbourg and Kehl. Rasmussen will succeed Jaap communities, as well as arts groups. de Hoop Scheffer of the Netherlands, who steps down at the end of July 2009. • According to recently released International Yearbook of Industrial Statistics 2009 by United Nations Indus- • Shikha Sharma was appointed Managing Director trial Development Organisation (Unido), the share of and Chief Exicutive Officer of Axis Bank on April developing countries in the world’s manufacturing 20,2009. She was working as chief of the ICICI group’s value-added output has almost doubled in the last 18 life insurance business. years due to the shift of production units and outsourcing of services from developed nations. De- • An Indian Foreign Service officer of the 1969 batch veloping countries produced almost 30% of world Nirupam Sen was appointed Special Senior Advisor manufacturing value added (MVA) at the end of 2008 to the President Miguel D Escoto Brockmann of the Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 40
  • 41. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 as compared to 16% in 1990. The per capita MVA tional or nuclear pay loads of 500 kg. doubled as early as 2006, while the industrialised world achieved merely 30% increase. Among industrialised • N. Gopalaswami retired from the post of Chief Elec- countries, Japan accounts for most MVA per capita, tion Commissioner of India on March 20,2009. A 1966 followed by Switzerland, Singapore, Ireland, Finland, batch IAS officer of Gujarat cadre, N. Gopalaswami Sweden, USA, Germany and Austria. Luxemburg, was appointed as Election Commissioner in January Republic of Korea, Denmark, Iceland, Canada, Belgium, 2004. Later on June 30 2006, he succeeded B. B. Tandon United Kingdom, Norway, Netherlands, Italy and France as Chief Election Commissioner of India. come lower down the list. • Home minister of Canada's British Columbia prov- • For India, the growth rate of MVA output rose from ince, John van Dongen resigned on April 27,2009 af- 6.9% in 2000-2005 to 12.3% in 2005-2007. The MVA ter he was caught and fined for over-speeding. He was per capita grew 10.6 % in 2005-2007 compared to 5.2% also fined 368 US dollar for his offence. in 2000-2005. The share of MVA in India’s gross do- mestic product (GDP) stood at 14.8% in 2006 compared • Leading film producer and director Shakti Samant to 13.8% in 2001. Manufacturing still contributes around passed away on April 9,2009 in Santacruz. He was 83. 15% of GDP in India. International Yearbook 2009 Shakti Samant launched the career of Sharmila Tagore ranks India among the world’s leading 12 producers of with film, ‘Kashmir Ki Kali’ and directed films like textiles (ranked 4th after China, the U.S. and Italy); elec- Kashmir Ki Kali, Aradhana, An Evening in Paris, trical machinery and apparatus (5th); basic metals (6th); Amanush, Amar Prem, Anurodh,Anuraag, Ajnabee and chemicals and chemical products (7th); leather, leather Kati Patang. He directed Rajesh Khanna in films like products and footwear (10th); coke, refined petroleum Aradhana, Kati Patang, Amar Prem and Anuraag. products and nuclear fuel (10th); machinery and equip- Shakti Samant started his career with the cinema from ment (12th); and motor vehicles (12th), based on 2007 the black and white era with Howrah Bridge. figures. Among the leading developing countries, India figures among the top five. • Noted Hindi writer and Gandhian Vishnu Prabhakar died on April 11,2009 in New Delhi. He was 97. He • Mughal Trust was set up on April 6,2009 to find and wrote in almost all then help the families of the Mughal lines of descent. forms of prose-story, The Trust is brainchild of businessman Mohd Shahid novels, plays, biography Khan. The trust will also create pressure on the gov- etc. Born on January 29, ernment to bring back the remains of Bahadur Shah 1912, in the Mirapur Zafar from Myanmar. village of Muzaffarnagar district • India successfully test-fired an improved version of in Uttar Pradesh, Dr nuclear-capable 'Prithvi-II' ballistic missile from a Tatra Prabhakar was best transporter erector launcher from the Integrated Test known for his engaging Range at Chandipur, about 15 km from Balasore, off biography of Bengali the Orissa coast on April 15,2009. The indigenously litterateur Sarat developed surface-to-surface 'Prithvi-II' missile’s range Chandra Chattopadhyay, ‘Awara Maseeha’. His first play is 350 km. The 8.56 meter-long and one meter wide was ‘Hatya ke Baad’. His body of works included ‘Dhalti twin engine missile features to deceive any anti ballis- Raat’ and ‘Swapnamayi’ (novel), ‘Navprabhat’ an ‘Doc- tic missile and is equipped with "added inertial navi- tor” (drama), ‘Sangharsh ke Baad’ (short stories), ‘Prakash gation" system. The missile is designed to operate with Aur Parchhaiyan’, ‘Barah Ekanki’ and ‘Ashok’ (plays) both liquid as well as solid fuel. It can carry conven- and ‘Awara Maseeha’ (biography). He had over 50 pub- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 41
  • 42. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 lished works to his credit. after seven years of brutal military rule, passed away on March 31,2009. He was 82. He was president from 1983 He was awarded Padma Bhushan and the Sahitya to 1989 and won international admiration for putting on Akademi Award for his novel Ardhanarishvara (The trial and jailing the former military leaders. Androgynous God or Shiva). Dr Prabhakar had decided to donate his body organs in his will so his body was • Former heavyweight champion Greg Page passed away donated to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences on April 27,2009 at his Louisville home at the age of 50. (AIIMS). He lifted the WBA belt in 1984 during the post-Ali, pre- Tyson era. • Bollywood actor-producer-director famous as style icon Feroz Khan passed away on April 27,2009 at his farm- • Stunt master in Tamil cinema industry Rajkumar died house in Bangalore after a prolonged battle with cancer. at the age of 53. He is remembered as the fight master He was 69. Famous for his blockbusters like ‘Qurbani’ whose action choreography was strikingly similar to and ‘Dharmatma’, Feroz Khan appeared in more than Sylvester Stallone in Rambo. Rambo Rajkumar has 50 films. He made his Bollywood debut as the co-star in worked for over 450 films in five languages, Tamil, Hindi, the movie Didi in 1960 and went on to star in a number Telugu, Kannada and Malayalam. of films in the 1970s and 1980s. The last film he acted in was Welcome in 2007. He won a Filmfare award for best · Rugby legend of Ireland Karl Mullen, who captained supporting role in ‘Aadmi Aur Insaan’ in 1970 and was the 1948 Grand Slam winning team passed away at the honoured with the lifetime achievement award in 2000. age of 82. He won 25 international caps for Ireland in He was elder brother of actor-producer-director Sanjay the 1940s and 1950s, playing at hooker. Khan and father of Bollywood actor Fardeen Khan. • Emergency was lifted on April 24 in Thailand. Earlier • Veteran economist Raja Jesudoss Chelliah died in Prime Minister Abhisit Vejjajiva declared a state of emer- Chennai on April 7,2009. gency in the capital, Bangkok, and five provinces on April He was 86. He was chair- 12,2009 and Police and military units were deployed to man of the Tax Reforms enforce the decree. Summit between India and the As- Committee and worked as sociation of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) was Fiscal Adviser in the Union postponed. India’s Union Commerce and Industry Min- Finance Ministry. Padma ister Kamal Nath and other leaders were safely evacu- Vibhushan awardee, found- ated from the venue at the resort town of Pattaya on ing Chairman of the Ma- April 11,2009. dras School of Economics, Raja J Chelliah wrote nearly • More than 200 died in a quake in in L'Aquila of cen- 15 books and various re- tral Italy. A strong tremor shook on April 6,2009 dam- search papers. aged buildings and some of the 17000 left homeless. • Puducherry Lieutenant Governor Govind Singh • The four-day Naval Commanders’ Conference was Gurjar passed away in New Delhi on 6th April,2009. held at the Eastern Naval Command headquarters, in He was born in 1932 in Balakanangal village of Visakhapatnam, from April 13 to 15,2009. The con- Rajasthan. He was appointed to the post of Lt. Gover- ference focused on macro level issues pertaining to nor in March 2008 during the tenure of former Chief military strategy, operational logistics and matters im- Minister N. Rangasamy. pacting the welfare and enhancement of satisfaction level amongst all ranks and ‘Coastal Security’. The • Former President of Argentina Raul Alfonsin, who Naval Commanders’ Conference is the highest deci- guided Argentina's return to democracy in the 1980s sion making body of the navy. It meets annually to deliberate upon major operational issues that have a bearing on the nation’s maritime interests, coastal and offshore security, naval strategy, and operational and Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 42
  • 43. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 two member nations France and Germany. The summit reaffirmed the values, objectives and obligations of the Washington Treaty which unite Europe with the United States and Canada. • The Leaders of the Group of Twenty, met in London on 2 April 2009. They decided to treble resources available to the IMF to 750 billion dollar, to support a new SDR allocation of 250 billion dollar, to support at least 100 billion dollar of additional lending by the MDBs, to ensure 250 billion dollar of support for trade finance, and to use the additional resources from agreed IMF gold sales for concessional finance for the poorest countries, consti- tute an additional 1.1 trillion dollar programme of support to restore credit, growth and jobs in the world economy. They also pledged to do whatever is necessary to restore confidence, growth, and jobs, repair the financial system to restore lending, strengthen financial regulation to rebuild trust, fund and reform our international financial institutions to overcome this crisis and prevent future ones, promote global trade and investment and reject protectionism, to underpin prosperity and build an inclusive, green, and sustainable recovery. • International Labour Organisation (ILO) released ‘Global Employment Trends for Women’. The report sug- gests that there is a gender aspect too to its impact on jobs. Stating that the emerging trends are extremely worrying for both men and women, the report explained the time has come for a coordinated effort internationally to stop the slowdown. At the global level, the share of the vulnerable employed among all women employed is as high as 52.7 per cent compared with 49.1 per cent for men. Recently many cases of Swine Influenza Virus were found in number of Asian and Latin American countries. 103 people have died of swine flu and about 1600 people have been infected with the virus in Mexico. The US has confirmed 20 cases. Mexico is recognised as the source of the virus. Many countries have issued a negative travel advice for Mexico, and China has ordered a ban on the import of pork from Mexico and a number of Latin American countries, after Russia took a similar measure earlier. Swine influenza is known to be caused by influenza a subtypes H1N1, H1N2, H3N1, H3N2 and H2N3 SIV refers to influenza cases that are caused by Orthomyxoviruses endemic to pig populations. This Article is Available Online Also Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 43
  • 44. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 Books and Authors • Challenge and Strategy-Rethinking India’s Foreign Policy : Rajiv Sikri • A Better India, A Better World : N R Narayana Murthy • Open Veins of Latin America: Five Centuries of the Pillage of a Continent : Eduardo Galeano • The Court and the Constitution of India: Summits and Shallows : O. Chinnappa Reddy • My Album: Pravin Mahajan • Soldiers' Saga Of Adventure: Col AP Tanwar • If Cricket Is a Religion, Sachin Is God: Vijay Santhanam and Shyam Balasubramaniam This Article is Available Online Also Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 44
  • 45. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 Advertise on www.UPSCPORTAL.COM 40000+ Users 45000+ Hits Daily 1.4 Million(14 Lacs) Hits per Month 1100 Unique Users per day Top 1100 Websites in India - Alexa Rating Online Shopping Store 29000+ Newsletters Subscribers Free Services: Free Website for Coaching Centers Free Brochure Upload Free Enquiry Page Guaranteed Results Make most of the Internet Audience.. Contact Us Now... Http:// Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 45
  • 46. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 Useful Links UPSC Papers: UPSC Tips: FREE CHAT: UPSC Toppers: UPSC Interviews: UPSC QUIZ: Current Affairs: Online Forum: UPSC Books: Free NCERT Books: UPSC Syllabus: UPSC Results: UPSC Coaching: GOVT Jobs: Notification: Civil Services IAS: IES: IPS: IFS: NDA: examination CDS: SSC: SCRA: nation RRB: Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 46
  • 47. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 SECTION - 6 : SPORTS SPORTS • The International Cricket Council Board (ICC) decided to remove Pakistan as a co-host of the 2011 Cricket World Cup due to security fears. A bus carrying Sri Lankan team was attacked on March 3,2009 as it approachedthe stadium in Lahore before the scheduled third day of the second Test against Pakistan. The majority of 2011 Cricket World Cup matches scheduled to be hosted in Pakistan were switched to India. The tournament's organising committee decided that India will host 29 of the 49 matches, Sri Lanka will host 12 games while Bangladesh will stage eight. Thirteen venues in India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh were selected for 49 matches of the ICC World Cup 2011. Eight venues will be in India, three in Sri Lanka and two in Bangladesh. The decision was taken in a meeting of the ICC World Cup 2011 Central Organising Committee (COC) at the Cricket Centre in Mumbai on April 28,2009. • South Africa won five match one-day cricket series with Australia by 3-2. Though, Australia lost to South Africa 3-2, it claimed a comfortable 47-run win in the fifth and last at the Wanderers. • England won the series by 3-2 with defeating West Indies in the fifth and final One-Day International cricket match at the Beausejour Stadium in Gros Islet, St Lucia on April 3,2009. Wisden Dream Team The prestigious Wisden Cricketers' Almanac published its Dream Test XI on April 8 in London. Indian captain Mahendra Singh Dhoni was named skipper of a Dream Test XI that includes Indians Virender Sehwag, Sachin Tendulkar, Harbhajan Singh and Zaheer Khan. The players in the Wisden Test XI are Virender Sehwag (India), Graeme Smith (South Africa, vice-captain), Ricky Ponting (Australia), Sachin Tendulkar (India), Kevin Pietersen (England), Shivnarine Chanderpaul (West Indies), Mahendra Sing Dhoni (India, captain), Harbhajan Singh (India), Mitchell Johnson (Australia), Dale Steyn (South Af- rica) and Zaheer Khan (India). • Five Cricketers of the Year: James Michael Anderson (England), Dale Benkenstein, Mark Verdon Boucher and Neil Douglas McKenzie (South Africa) and Samantha Claire Taylor (England) have been included in the Five Cricketers of the Year 2009 of Wisden Almanack. The Five Cricketers of the Year represent a tradition that dates back in Wisden to 1889, making this the oldest individual award in cricket. Claire Taylor became the first woman to be included in the Five Cricketers of the Year. • Leading Cricketer in the World for 2008 : India’s explosive opener Virender Sehwag was chosen as the 'Leading Cricketer in the World for 2008'. He became sixth player to be honoured with the award instituted in 2004. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 47
  • 48. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 • Cricket team of Ireland, Canada, the Netherlands and Vinci won her first tour title in Bogota, Colombia, in Kenya qualified for the 2011 World Cup on April 2007, when Tathiana Garbin of Italy retired during the 17,2009. These four, along with Afghanistan, also se- third set with a stomach illness. cured their one-day international status for the next four years. Afghanistan beat Namibia by 21 runs to achieve • Defending champion Rafael Nadal won the Monte ODI status on April 17,2009. Carlo Masters titles beating third- seeded Novak Djokovic 6-3, 2-6, • Though denied a victory in the third and final Test 6-1 on April 19,2009. The top- cricket at Basin Reserve in Wellington by rain, India won ranked Spaniard Nadal became the series by defeating New Zealand by 1-0. MS Dhoni- the first player to win five straight led Indian team won the test series against on Kiwi soil Monte Carlo Masters titles. after 41 years. Earlier Mansur Ali Khan Pataudi led In- dian team won against New Zealand in 1967-68. India won the first Test in Hamilton by 10 wickets and drew • Victoria Azarenka of Belarus won the Sony Ericsson the second Test in Napier. India's Gautam Gambhir Open women title on April 4,2009 beating World No. 1 was named man of the series. Serena Williams 6-3, 6-1. ATP World Tour No. 4 Andy Murray won his third ATP World Tour Masters 1000 • India won under-19 three-day cricket series defeating tennis tournament with a 6-2, 7-5 victory over No. 3 Australia 3-2. The visitors Indian won two out of the Novak Djokovic. He became first British champion at three limited-over matches and then beat the Aussies in the Sony Ericsson Open in Miami. Max Mirnyi and Andy the first three-day game by nine wickets in Hobart to Ram won the Men’s doubles. They beat Ashley Fisher win the Under-19 International series between the two and Stephen Huss by 6-7(4), 6-2, 10-7. sides. However, in the second and final three-day match, Mitchell Marsh scored an unbeaten 69 to help Australia • World number four Jelena Jankovic of Serbia de- compile 127 and win the match. Mayank Agarwal of feated Carla Suarez Navarro of Spain and won her first India was chosen Player of the Series for his exploits title of the season at the Andalucia Tennis Champion- with the bat. The 17-year-old Karnataka lad made 379 ships on April 12,2009. It was first final of Suarez runs at an average of 75.8 in his six innings. Navarro. • BCCI working committee agreed to lift ban on players • The former World No. 1 Lleyton Hewitt won the associated with the rebel ICL if they severed their links United States in the U.S. men’s clay court tennis cham- with the Subhash Chandra-owned League. The players pionships defeating Wayne Odesnik on April 12,2009. would not be given any international It was his 498th career match and he moved closer to assignments for a year after they quit joining Roger Federer and Carlos Moya as the only the ICL but can immediately start active players with 500 or more victories. Second- playing in the domestic competition. seeded Caroline Wozniacki of Denmark beat Cana- The amnesty period is till May dian Aleksandra Wozniak 6-1, 6-2 to won the WTA 31,2009. The BCCI also advised the clay court tournament. India’s Sania Mirza with Chi- other national boards to have a simi- nese Taipei’s Chia-Jung Chuang defeated Czech- lar approach to the ICL, which had American combine of Kveta Peschke and Lisa become a home for many disgruntled players from across Raymond 6-3, 4-6, 10-7 and won the doubles WTA the world. clay court tournament. It was Sania’s first WTA title of 2009. • Italian Roberta Vinci won her second WTA Tour title at the Barcelona Open tennis beating sixth seeded Maria • Michael Jordan, David Robinson, John Stockton and Kirilenko of Russia 6-0, 6-4 on April 19,2009. Roberta coach Jerry Sloan were inducted in The Basketball Hall of Fame 2009 on April 6,2009. Jordan was a six-time Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 48
  • 49. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 NBA champion with the Chicago Bulls. Robinson was a • Pankaj Advani won a record third Asian billiards 10-time NBA All-Star and double champion with the championship title by defeating Peter Gilchrist of San Antonio Spurs, while Stockton became the NBA's Singapore in the final of the Rewale Group Asian bil- all-time assists leader during his career with the Utah liards held at the P.Y.C. Gymkhana in Pune on April Jazz. 19,2009. 23-year-old from Bangalore Pankaj Advani won the Asian title at Pune for the first time in 2005, • Jyoti Randhawa won final round of the Thailand Open at Myanmar in 2008. Zhang Anda of China won his at the Laguna Phuket Golf Club on March 8,2009. He first Asian under-21 snooker title by Noppom blasted a flawless five-under 65 in the final round to Saegkham of Thailand. cruise to a comfortable two- stroke victory over Rhys • Jenson Button won Malaysian Grand Prix for a sec- Davies of Wales at the ond straight victory after the race was abandoned when Singha USD 500000. The a ferocious storm lashed the Sepang circuit on April 36-year-old Randhawa sank 5,2009. Nick Heidfeld, of BMW Sauber, came second as many as five birdies to take and Timo Glock in a Toyota was third. Toyota’s Jarno his tally to 17-under 263 to Trulli came fourth, Rubens Barrichello in the other pip Davies, who hit three- Brawn was fifth and Mark Webber in the Red Bull under 67 at Laguna Phuket was sixth. World champion Lewis Hamilton picked Golf Club today. Chinese valuable points by coming seventh with Nico Rosberg Taipei's Lu Wei-chih fired a filling out the top eight. five-under 65 to settle for third position, one stroke ahead of SSP Chowrasia (69) at tied fourth along with Chi- • Churchill Brothers won its maiden I-League foot- nese Wu Ashun (66). Among other Indians in fray, ball title after a 6-2 thrashing of Mohammedan Sport- Gaganjeet Bhullar carded a one-under 69 to finish tied ing in the last round encounter at Nehru Stadium 10th with a total of 10-under 270. Anirban Lahiri's tied Margao on April 16,2009. Sporting Clube de Goa de- 19th spot with a total of 9-under 271, while Shiv Kapur feated Air India 3-1 at the Tau Devi Lal Stadium at finished tied 32 with a final round 69. Gurgaon to finish third in the league while Dempo, tied with Mahindra United on 31 points, finished • Angel Cabrera of Argentina won the 73rd Masters fourth. Churchill topped the table with 46 points, golf title with a par on the second sudden-death play- earned Rs. 50 lakh as the winner’s prize money. The off hole on April 12,2009 a stunning recovery after put- league’s top scorer Odafe Okolie with 26 goals in the ting his first play-off tee shot behind a tree. He defeats tournament earned Rs. 50000. Kenny Perry and Chad Campell in a stunning play-off. Cabrera, Perry and Chad Campbell all finished 72 holes • India won the Azlan Shah title after a 13-year gap, on 12-under par 276 to force the eighth sudden-death defeating hosts Malaysia 3-1 in the final of the five- play-off in Masters history, which began at the 18th hole nation hockey tournament on April 12,2009 in Ipoh with Cabrera firing his tee shot behind a tree right of (Malaysia). India also registered 3-0 win against Ma- the fairway. laysia during the round-robin stage. Arjun Halappa (8th minute), Prabhjot Singh (20th) and Shivender Singh • Thongchai Jaidee of Thailand won the second edition (41st) sounded the board for India through neatly of the Ballantine’s championship after a play-off at a worked out field goals. Halappa was adjudged 'Man windswept Pinx Golf Club on Jeju Island in South Ko- of the Final', while captain Sandeep Singh was named rea on April 26,2009. He shot a round of two-under-par 'Player of the Tournament'. Sandeep was the top goal 70 to move into joint first alongside Spain’s Gonzalo scorer with 7 goals. New Zealand won the award of Fernandez-Castano and local player Kang Sung-hoon 'Fair Play'. Kumar Subramaniam of Malaysia was de- on four under overall and force an extra hole at the par- 4 18th. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 49
  • 50. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 clared Best Goalkeeper. The Indian team lost in the fi- • Rahul Banerjee, Mangal Singh Champia and Jayanta nal 1-2 at the hands of Argentina in 2008. New Zealand Talukdar won the gold medal in the men’s recurve team pipped Pakistan 2-1 in the third-fourth place play-off championship at the World Cup archery on April match. Final positions in Azlan Shah cup : 1. India, 2. 5,2009 at Santo Domingo in the Dominican Repub- Malaysia, 3. New Zealand, 4. Pakistan 5. Egypt. lic. The trio combined to hand Great Britain a 221- 215 points defeat in the final. The women’s compound • International Master Deep Sengupta attained his sec- team, comprising Jhano Hansdah, Bheigyabati Chanu ond Grandmaster norm and topped a three-way tie to and Manjudha Soy, defeated Venezuela 219-208 in the win the Doeberl Cup chess tournament at Canberra on bronze medal play-off. April 13,2009. In the ninth and final round, Deep lost to Deepan Chakkravarthy also of India to remain on • Yulia Yefimova set a world record in the women’s seven points. This was the biggest title for Deep in the 50 meter breaststroke by clocking 30.23 seconds at open section, he also had won World boys’ under-12 the Russian swimming championships. She shaved title in 2000. Deep, Jones and Deepan received 2,700 0.08 seconds off the mark set by Australia’s Jade Australian dollars each. Edmistone in Melbourne in January 2006. • Indian shooter Gagan Narang won the gold in the • The 22-year-old Dinara Safina of Russia replaced men’s 50 m rifle 3 position and a bronze in 10m air rifle Serena Williams as the World’s top-ranked women’s event at the ISSF World Cup in Chongwon, Korea. Thus tennis player, despite never having won a Grand Slam. The Hyderabad-based Her brother Marat was the men’s top player in the world marksman became first ever in 2000. First time a brother and sister got N0. 1 posi- Indian to win two medals at tion in the World. a single World Cup. Han Jin- seop of Korea and Aleksey • Roshan Ferrao of India won the gold in the short- Kamensky of Russuia won class event of the Asia Pacific body building champi- silver and bronze respectively onship recently at Christchurch in New Zealand. in the men’s 50 m rifle 3 po- Shodhan Kumar Rai won the silver in the tall group. sition. Another Indian Sanjeev Rajput finished sixth in this competition. Zhu Qinan of China won gold and • Rohini Rau became the first Indian woman to finish his compatriot Cao won silver in 10m air rifle event. on the podium of an international Olympic-class re- Heena Sidhu of India won silver in 10 metre air pistol gatta when she won the bronze medal in the 2009 Izola competition held in Beijing on April 21,2009. Spring Cup ISAF Grade 3 event in Slovenia on April 12,2009. This Article is Available Online Also Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 50
  • 52. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 SECTION - 7 : Awards Shriya Kishore won Miss India Earth 2009 title. Awards • The show was choreographed by Marc Robinson and hosted by Bollywood beauty Malaika Arora Khan • The Russian-French mathemati- and star R. Madhavan and performed by bollywood cian Mikhail Leonidovich Gromov actresses Priyanka Chopra, Kangana Ranaut and was selected for Abel Prize for 2009 Genelia D’souza. The contestants dazzled the event in for his revolutionary contributions beautiful creations by designers Ritu Kumar, Rocky to geometry. The award is given by S. Pantaloons and Prasad Bidappa. The regal gold The Norwegian Academy of Sci- crowns for the winners were created by the World Gold ence and Letters. Known as the Council and D'damas and presented by Collection g; ‘Nobel Prize for mathematics’, the crowns designed on a sun-moon-star theme. Abel Prize recognises contributions of extraordinary depth and influence to the mathematical sciences and • Dadasaheb Phalke Academy felicitated film digni- has been awarded annually since 2003. It carries a cash taries in an award function on May 4 at Bhaidas Audi- award of 6000000 Norwegian krone (about Rs. 4.8 torium to commemorate 140th birth anniversary of crore). 65-year-old-Russian-born Mikhail Leonidovich Dadasaheb Phalke. Dadasaheb Phalke Academy is an Gromov became a French citizen in 1992 and work- All India Body of 38 Cine Associations. It is engaged ing as a professor at the Institut des Hautes Etudes in the service of Father of Indian Cinema. Scientifiques at Bures- sur-Yvette, France. Name of awards and personalities are following:- • Winners of Pantaloons Femina Miss India 2009 were Phalke Ratna Award: Manoj Kumar declared at the Andheri sports club in Mumbai on April Phalke Legend Actor Award: Shammi Kapoor 5,2009 in a star-studded colorful ceremony. 22-year- Phalke Golden Singer Award: Shamshad Begum old Ekta Choudhury from New Delhi was crowned Phalke Kalptaru Award: Prithvi Raj Kapoor (post- Pantaloons Femina Miss India Universe 2009. She will humously) represent the country at the global beauty pageant 2009. Phalke Memorable Commercial Film Award: Pooja Chopra was crowned Miss India World and Ashutosh Gowariker Sub title winners of Pantaloons Femina Miss India 2009 • Pantaloons Femina Miss Fresh Face: Deeksha Seth Courtesy : • Femina Miss Beautiful Smile: Pooja Chopra • Femina Miss Talented: Ekta Chaudhary and Pooja Hegde • Evolve Femina Miss Photogenic: Dimple Patel • Kohler Femina Miss Bold: Akanksha Yadav • Talwalkars Femina Miss Beautiful Body: Pooja Chopra • Bajaj Allianz Femina Miss Confident: Karishma Karnik Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 52
  • 53. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 Phalke Academy for the senior most producer of tecture Prize is considered one of the highest honours India: Surendra Kapoor and an equal to the Nobel Prize in Architecture. • Lasantha Wickrematunge was awrded UNESCO's • Ramnath Goenka Excellence in Journalism Awards 2009 World Press Freedom Prize. A journalist and edi- were given to 29 journalists. P. Sainath, Rural Affairs tor of Sri Lanka, Lasantha Wickrematunge was assas- Editor of The Hindu and Karan Thapar were conferred sinated January 8, 2008. Wickrematunge is the sec- ‘Journalists of the Year’ in print and broadcast catego- ond reporter in the award's 12-year history to be hon- ries respectively. Ms Nidhi Razdan of NDTV won the ored posthumously, Anna Politkovskaya, the Russian award in the category of reporting from Jammu and journalist and human rights campaigner who was killed Kashmir, while V.K. Sasikumar of CNN-IBN was in 2006, was awarded the prize in 2007. honoured for his reportage from the North-East. In the category of ‘Uncovering India Invisible (Print),’ • Distinguished journalist Neerja Choudhury was se- Neelesh Mishra and Nagendra Sharma of Hindustan lected for the Prem Bhatia Award for her exemplary Times won the awards. The award in the broadcast contribution in the field of political reporting. Senior category of the same segment went to Mridu Bhandari journalist Gargi Parsai of The Hindu was awarded in of CNN-IBN. the category of reporting on environment issues. Neerja Choudhury fought for social causes and was • Tyre major MRF was given J.D. Power Award 2008 for the first and only Civil Rights correspondent for an customer satisfaction on April 9,2009 in Indian newspaper when she was serving The States- New Delhi . According to the J.D. Power man from 1982 to 1987. The award is given by the Asia Pacific 2008 customer satisfaction Prem Bhatia Memorial Trust to promote excellence in index study, MRF is ranked highest in cus- journalism in India by raising public consciousness. tomer satisfaction with original equip- ment tyres in India among five tyre manu- • Dr C.P. Chandrasekhar was chosen for the Dr. facturers. Malcolm Adiseshiah Award 2009. He is a Professor at the Centre for Economic Studies and Planning, School • Noted Hindustani classical vocalist Pandit Jasraj was of Social Sciences in Jawaharlal Nehru University, awarded Saraswati Sammanan at a function in New New Delhi. This award is presented to an outstanding Delhi by Saraswati Music College as to mark its 85 social scientist for his or her contribution in econom- years in the field of arts, music and dance. Saraswati ics and development studies and carries a citation and Music College was established in 1924 by Shri Rs. 2 lakh. Bansilalji, disciple of the veteran musician Pandit Maniramji of Mewati gharana. • Swiss architect Peter Zumthor, whose creations in- clude chapels, spas, museums and housing for seniors • Chinese dissident and writer Liu Xiaobo was given was awarded Pritzker Architecture Prize. Peter 2009 PEN/Barbara Goldsmith Freedom to Write Zumthor is known for his ‘crisp look’ buildings and Award. He has been in detention since December 8, his approach to design and the nature of his practice. 2008 and held at an unknown location under a form The Thermal Bath at Vals, Switzerland, built in 1996, of house arrest. Established in 1987, this award is given is considered a masterpiece, and celebrated as a su- to honour writers anywhere in the world who have perb example of simple detailing. The Kolumba Art fought courageously in the face of adversity for the Museum in Germany, the Kunsthaus Bregenz in Aus- right to freedom of expression. tria and the Saint Benedict Chapel in Switzerland, are some of his other well known works. Pritzker Archi- • HCL Technologies Ltd (HCL) was chosen as one of Britain’s Top Employers 2009 by CRF International, the independent business research organisation. HCL This Article is Available Online Also a global IT services provider. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 53
  • 54. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 ADVERTISEMENT COACHING through Audio Cassettes at Most Nominal Prices yet more effective and better than any Class-Room Coaching, you can Join. More than 70% Result in Prelimns for last 8 years. For the best Coaching through Audio Cassettes inside your home at most nominal prices, according to the latest syllabus. Salient Features of our Tutorials programme : • Our tutorials through audio teaching streamline the whole syllabus for you in a systematic & focussed form. It rids you of all confusion, which arise due to Free : One Philips Walkman with Stereo the vastness of syllabus. Head Phones & Two Chargeable Batteries , Battery Charger • Comprehensive, Analytic and Focussed material All above mentioned items are Original presented in clear, forceful voice. bought directly from Companies & • Study material a perfect combination of Intensive & come with warranty. Extensive approach. • Extremely time saving & Time Utilizing. • Very inexpensive and much more effective than classroom coaching. • Totally Result Oriented to fetch you maximum marks. • Study Material prepared by Reserach Scholars, Professors and Experts from Coaching Institute. • Recording is done in Professional Voices in Each Cassette is of 90 minutes Modern Studios. (1-1/2 hour) duration • All Items (Cassettes, Walkman, Battery Charger, Battery Cells) are technicaly guaranteed. • Material is sent by Speed Post or Courier. BUY ONLINE AT UPSCPORTAL ONLINE STORE Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 54
  • 55. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 SECTION - 8 : Model Test Paper MOCK SAMPLE PAPER 1. Which canal links Red c) Selma Ottilia Lovisa Legerlot sea and Mediterranean sea? d) Sigrid Lindset a) Panama canal Ans: (a) b) Suez canal c) Palk strait 5) What is the name of telecom gaint of South Africa d) None of these which was in news for it merger with Reliance Ans: (b) Communication? a) MTN b) Cell C c) TelKom d) Neotel 2. Arrange the following in descending order Ans: (a) depending on their area - i) Pacific Ocean 6) Which of the following energy companies had ii) Atlantic Ocean acquired chinese wind energy firm, Honiton energy iii) Indian Ocean holding? iv) Arctic Ocean a) RS India Group b) Reliance Power a) i, iii, iv & iii c) PTC India b) i, ii, iii, & iv d) Suzlon Energy Ltd. c) ii, iv, i & iii Ans: (d) d) iii, iv, i & ii Ans: (b) 7) In which hill range is Kodai Kanal located? a) Nilgiris 3) Which of the following countries are participating b) Palni Hills in the TAP gas pipeline project? c) Animalai Hills i) Afganistan d) Shevanoy HIlls ii) Pakistan Ans: (b) iii) Turkmenistan iv) Tanzania 8) Who was the first recipient of the Rajiv Gandhi Kel Ratna Award in 1991-92? a) Only i, ii & iv a) Anju George b) ii, iii & iv b) Pankaj Advani c) i, ii & iii c) Leander Pacs d) All the above d) Viswanathan Anand Ans: (c) Ans: (d) 4) Who was the first women to receive the Nobel Prize 9) Which mountain range marks the border between for literature? northern and peninsular indian? a) Grazia Deledda a) Stpura Range b) Pearl Buck This Model Paper is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 55
  • 56. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 MOCK SAMPLE PAPER b) Maikhal Rarge a) The lungs c) Ajanta Range b) The eyes d) Vindhya Range c) The brain Ans: (d) d) THe heart Ans: (b) 10) Which of the follwing state has has Transferred the power to Panchayats which are mentioned in the 16) Which is the commercial wing of the indian space 11th schedule of the constitution? agency for marketing Indian space capabilities? a) Karnataka a) ANTRIX b) Madhya Pradesh b) ISRO c) West Bengal c) ATLAS d) Kerala d) ANTRAX Ans: (d) Ans: (a) 11) Which of the folowing state is not bordering Nepal? 17) Rajiv Gandhi National Institute of youth a) Assam development is situated is ehich state? b) Uttara Khand a) Tamil Nadu c) West Bengal b) Uttar Pradesh d) Bihar c) Andhra Pradesh Ans: (a) d) Rajasthan Ans: (a) 12) In the body, the adrenal glands are located? a) Above small intestine 18) Which of the following vitamins rich diet may help b) In the kindney to protect against memory loss in old age? c) Below tongue a) Vatamin A d) In the brain b) Vitamin B Ans: (b) c) Vitamin C d) Vitamin D 13) Who was the first Indian women to reach the finals Ans: (c) of an olympic athletics event? a) Karman Maheshwari 19) The founder of modern statistics is - b) P. T. Vsha a) Srivastav Ramanuja c) Aparna Popat b) Ennstine d) Kamaljit Sandhu c) Bhasker Ans: (d) d) Karl Pearson Ans: (d) 14) Who is considered as India’s premier imagist writer? 20) Which of the following is not correctly matched? a) Salman Sushid a) International Labour Organization - Geneva b) Kiran Desai b) Universal postal Union - Washington c) Mulk Raj Anand c) Food and Agriculture Organization - Rome d) Anita desai d) UN’s Environment Program - Nairobi Ans: (c) Ans: (b) 15) Conjunctivitis affects which part of the human 21) In wich year was the international Physicians for body? the prevention of nuclear was awarded the Nobel Peace This Model Paper is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 56
  • 57. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 MOCK SAMPLE PAPER Prize? known as the Kamrup sanctuary? a) 1985 a) Orang b) 1995 b) Kaziranga c) 1990 c) Manas d) 1994 Dibru - Saikhowa Ans: (a) Ans: (c) 22) Which of the following countries does not have 28) Which of the following is not correctly matched? Rupee as its currency? a) Zaire - Africa a) Nepal b) parana - S. America b) Seychelles c) Lena - Australia c) Bhutan d) Volga - Russia d) Mauritius Ans: (c) Ans: (c) 29) The Tomu - Kalemyo road links India to which 23) Elephant Mountain are also called as - country? a) Cardamom Hills a) Myanman b) Khasi Hills b) Afghanistan c) Anamalai hills c) China d) Mahendragiri Hills d) Bhutan Ans: (c) Ans: (a) 24) Siachen one of the world’s longest mountain 30) Which of the following banks has the maximum glaciers, is located which mountain range? number of branches in foreign countries? a) Pir Panjal a) SBI b) Karakoram b) Bank Of Baroda c) Ladakh c) PNB d) Siwalika d) None of the above Ans: (b) Ans: (a) 25) Which script is used for Hindi, Marathi, Sanskrit 31) The new Goodwill Ambassador appointed for the and Prakrit? united Nation Development Fund for women is also a) Kharoshti Princess of one of the country, She is - b) Gurmukhi a) Bajrakitiyapha Mahidol of Thailand c) Devanagari b) Devyani Rana of Nepal d) None of the above c) Masako Owada of Japan Ans: (c) d) Camila Parker Bowlesof United Kingdom Ans: (a) 26) Brine means - a) Solution of iodine in alcohol 32) Which of the following Public Public section b) Solution of sulphur in barbon disulphide companies has been given the status of ‘Miniratna’ in c) Solution of sodium chloride in water category? d) None of the above a) Hindustan Copper Ltd. (HCL) Ans: (c) b) Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. (IOCL) c) Hindustan Aeronauticsal Ltd (HAL) 27) Which famous wildlife sanctuary in Assam is also d) Bharat Pertolium Corporation This Model Paper is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 57
  • 58. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 MOCK SAMPLE PAPER Ans: (a) 39) The Nanga Parbat Peak is situated in the - a) Kara Koram Range 33) Who was the founder of Tatwabodhni Sabha? b) Zaskar Range a) Ram Mohan Rai c) Laddakh Range b) Devendra Nath Taigore d) Himalayas c) Keshav Sen Ans: (d) d) Dayanand Saraswati Ans: (b) 40) Which on of the following sectors attracted maximum foreign investment in 2007-08? 34) Who among the following were invalved in Kanpur a) Petrolium and natural gas conspiracy case? b) Service sector a) Aurobindo Ghosh and Har Dayal c) Housing and Real Estate b) Muzaffer Ahmed and S.A. Dange d) Power c) Bhagat Sight and Rajguru Ans: (b) d) Sukhdev, Azad and Rajguru Ans: (b) 41) Generally the soil of the northern plains of India has been formed by - 35) The second disarmament decade was observed by a) Degradation the UNO during the year of - b) Aggradation a) 1990 - 2000 c) weathering b) 1980 - 1990 d) Erosion c) 1970 - 1980 Ans: (b) d) 1960 - 1970 Ans: (b) 42) Nyaya System of Philosophy was founded by - a) Gautama or Aksapada 36) In which year first session of Lok Sabha held? b) Patanjali a) 1952 c) Kapila b) 1962 d) Satanika c) 1950 Ans: (a) d) 1956 Ans: (a) 43) Ranu and Rima together can complete a piece of work in 35 days while Ranu alone can complete the 37) UNESCO declared world heritage site for - same work in 60 days. Rina alone will be able to a) Nilgiri Mountain Railway complete the same work in - b) Kalka Shimal Railway a) 72 days c) Darjiling Himalayan Railway b) 96 days d) None of these c) 42 days Ans: (b) d) 64 days Ans: (d) 38) ‘Rods’ cells of cornea are responsible for - a) Vision in dim light 44) A sum of money is divided between two persons b) Vision in bright light in the ratio of 3.5; if the share of one person is Rs. 20 c) identification of colours less than that of the other the sum? d) Identification of depth a) Rs. 75 Ans: (a) b) Rs. 90 c) Rs. 85 This Model Paper is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 58
  • 59. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 MOCK SAMPLE PAPER d) Rs. 80 Ans: (d) 50) Which one of the following industrial product is not obtained by the bacterial fermentation? 45) Which of the following mobile network company a) oxalic acid has teamed up with social networking site my sapce to b) Citric acis create an interactive music plaform? c) Butyric acid a) Airtel d) Alcohol b) Reliance Ans: (a) c) Vodafone d) Idea 51) RBC are destroyed in - Ans: (c) a) Spleen b) Liven 46) According to latest world investment report c) Kidney released by UNCTAD for 2008 the largest recipient of d) Limph glands was - Ans: (a) a) India b) Chaina 52) Which of the first Latin American country to signa c) USA Preferential Trade Agreement with India? d) UK a) Maxico Ans: (c) b) Brazil c) Venezulea 47) Who has been elected as as the Chinanam of d) Chile International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) ? Ans: (d) a) Rajat Gupta b) Ms Ravichandran 53) Which of the following galnds controls the blood c) Victor Fung pressure in human body? d) Ratan Tata a) Thyroid Ans: (c) b) Pituitary c) Adrenaline 48) Who has been conferred with the ‘Global Vision’ d) kidney award by us-india Business Council? Ans: (b) a) Indra Noogi b) Sunil Mittal 54) The first industrial policy resolution appeared in - c) Sam Pitroda a) 1948 d) None of these b) 1956 Ans: (b) c) 1958 d) 1962 49) Quinine & morphine are the - Ans: (a) a) Stored food in fruits b) Substance essntial for maintaing osmatic pressure 55) Who among the following journalist was conferred in plants with General Loeb Prize for his contribution in the c) Emmergency food stored in the stem field of Economic Journalism? d) Waste products of plants a) Anshuman Tiwari And: (d) b) Sanjay Jha This Model Paper is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 59
  • 60. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 MOCK SAMPLE PAPER c) Nishikant Thakur d) Warren Hosting d) Mrinal Pandey Ans: (b) Ans: (b) 61) Which one of the following pairs is not correctly 56) Sri Lankan team has won the Star Cricket Asia matched? Cup 2008 after defeating - a) Jahangir - William Hawkins a) Pakistan b) Akbar - Sir Thomas Roe b) India c) Shahjahan - Traverrien c) Bangladesh d) Aurangzeb - Manucci d) None of these Ans: (b) Ans: (b) 62) Which of the combination is correct? 57) National Rural Health Mission was launched in - a) B.R. Ambedkar : President of Constitution Assembly a) 2006 b) Rajendra prasad : Nominated president of the b) 2007 Constituent Assembly c) 2005 c) G.V. Mavalan Khan : First speaker of the Lok Sabha d) 2004 d) Jawaharlal Nehru : First leader of the opposition in Ans: (c) Lok Sabha Ans : (c) 58) Which one of the folowing is the correct statement? a) The mordern Kochi was Dutch colony till India’s 63) Indian Constitution is created by - independence. a) British Parliament b) The Dutch defeated the portuguese and built fort b) National Congress williams in the mordern Kochi. c) Constituent Assembly c) The mordern Kochi was first a Dutch colony before d) Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha the Portuguese took over from them. Ans: (c) d) The mordern Kochin even become a part of the British colony. 64) The constituent assembly which framed the Ans: (b) constitution of free India was set up under - a) Cripps Mission Plan 59) In India among the following locations the Dutch b) Cabinet Mission Plan established their earliest factory at - c) Wavall Plan a) Surat d) None of above b) Pulicat Ans: (b) c) Cochin d) Cassimbazan 65) Which one of the following fundamental rights is Ans: (b) not available the alien - a) Freedom of speech 60) Who among the following was the first euro initiate b) Equality before law the policy of taking part in the qurrels of prineces with c) Protection in respect of conviction against ex past a view to acquire territories? facto laws a) Clive d) Protection of life b) Dupleix Ans: (a) c) Albuquerque This Model Paper is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 60
  • 61. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 MOCK SAMPLE PAPER 66) It shall be the duty of every citizen of india to abide c) He has to reapply for membership by the constitution and respect ots ideals and d) The speaker seeks on explanation from him institutional the national flag and the national anthen - Ans: (b) a) Art 35 b) Art 50 72) The provision of non-confidence motion is also c) Art 51A called - d) Art 52 a) Question hour Ans: (c) b) Adjournment motion c) Censure motion 67) Right to constitutional remedies is given under - d) None of above a) Art 20 Ans: (d) b) Art 28 c) Art 30 73) Which are the following motion cannot be moved d) Art 32 in Rajya Sabha - Ans: (d) a) Cesure motion b) Adjourn motion 68) Swaran Singh committee was regarding - c) No-day yet motion a) DPSP d) Noconfidence motion b) Minorities Ans: (d) c) FRS d) Fundamental Duties 74) The government resign if a noconfidence motion Ans: (d) is passed in - a) Lok Sanha 69) Which is the longest committee in the Indian b) Rajya Sabha Parliament? c) Either Lok Sabha or Rajya Sabha a) Public Account Committee d) Joint Session of Parliament b) The Estimates Committee Ans: (a) c) The Cmmitee on Public Undertaking d) The Rule Committee 75) Who is authorised to decide a dispute regarding Ans: (b) the disqualification of members of parliament? a) The President 70) With regard to amendment the constitution the b) Supreme Court Rajya Sabha - c) Election Commissioner a) Enjoys equal power with Lok Sabha d) President in constitution with Election Commission b) Enjoys exclusive power to imitiate certain type of Ans: (d) amendment c) Does not enjoy any powers 76) Freedom of speech for members of the parliament d) Is associated with only certain types of amendment has been described - Ans: (a) a) 105 b) 19 71) If a member of Parliament remains absent with c) 19 (7) out notice for 60 days then - d) 104 a) Nothing happens Ans: (a) b) His seat may be declared vacant This Model Paper is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 61
  • 62. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 MOCK SAMPLE PAPER c) General Secretory of UN 77) Under the constitution of India, The President - d) President of Nigeria a) eligible for re-election Ans: (a) b) ..not eligible for re-election c) ..there is no such provision 83) President’s rule can be impased in a state for a d) None of the above maximum period of - Ans: (a) a) Three months b) Six months 78) The condidate of the office of the president much c) One month be proposed by - d) Three years a) At least 50 electors Ans : (d) b) At least 200 electors c) At least 100 electors 84) How many times has the President of India declared d) At least 150 electors financial emergency so far - Ans: (a) a) One once b) Only twice 79) The president of India is elected by - c) only thrice a) All the members of the Parliament d) Never b) All elected members of the Parliament Ans: (d) c) All the elected members of the parliament and the elected members of the legislative assemblies of the 85) The Union Pulic Service Commission (UPSC) is state concerned with recruitment of - d) All members of Rajya Sabha a) Central Services Ans: (c) b) All India Services c) Both (a) and (b) 80) The Vice-President can be removed from his office d) None of these before expiry of him term by the - Ans: (c) a) President b) Members of the two house of Parliament 86) The office of the district collector was created in c) Member of the Rajya Sabha India in - d) The supreme court a) 1771 Ans: (b) b) 1772 c) 1774 81) The President government operates on the principle d) 1777 of - Ans: (b) a) Fusion of powers b) Separation of powers 87) The most important feature in the community c) Division od powers development programme is - d) Centralization of powers a) Prevention of migration of rural people to gram area Ans: (b) b) People participation c) Provision of relief during natural calanities 82) The status of the President of India resemble to - d) Collection of land revenue by the local people a) Crown of UK Ans: (b) b) President of USA This Model Paper is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 62
  • 63. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 MOCK SAMPLE PAPER 88) Which of the following ions violates the octal rule? d) 30 Kg a) I2 Ans: (a) b) BR c) Te2 94) What was the aim of Antyodya Programme? d) N3 a) Elimination of urbon poverty Ans: (a) b) Improving the living statements of SC’s c) Helping the poorest among poor 89) ‘Grand Slam’ is related to which of the following d) Uplifting the minorities games? Ans: (c) a) Chess b) Tennis and Bridge 95) A weightless rubber baloon is filled with 200cc of c) Badmition water, its weight in water is equal to - d) Polo a) 9.8/5N Ans: (d) b) 9.8/10N c) 9.8/2N 90) The approximate percentage of salt by which sea d) Zero water is - Ans: (d) a) 2.1% b) 5.2% 96) Kisan credit card scheme was started in the year - c) 4.1% a) 2000-01 d) 3.6 b) 1996-97 Ans: (d) c) 1999-2000 d) 1998-99 91) What is the name of the currency of Belgium? Ans: (d) a) Dollar b) Sterling 97) Father has blood group ‘A’ and Mother is of blood c) Peseta group ‘B’ find out possitive blood group in children- d) Franc a) Blood group ‘A’ Ans: (d) b) Blood group ‘B’ c) Blood group ‘C’ 92) The author of the Book ‘Wating For The Mahatma’ d) Blood groups A, B, O & AB - Ans: (d) a) R.K. Ranayan b) N.A. Plakhiwala 98) Ribisomes are cellular structures involved in - c) amrita Pritam a) Photosynthesis d) m. Molgonkan b) Chemosynthesis Ans: (a) c) Protien Sysnthesis d) Carbohydrate Synthesis 93) Acceleration due to gravity on moon is 0.166 times Ans: (c) that on the earth, a man weight 60Kg on Earth, Would weight ________..Kg on moon? 99) Which of the following has a potentiality for a) 10 Kg harnessing of tidal energy in India? b) 16.6 Kg a) Gulf of Combay c) 60 Kg b) Gulf of Mannan This Model Paper is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 63
  • 64. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 MOCK SAMPLE PAPER c) Bank waters of Kerala ministers- d) Chika Lake (a). 90th Ans: (a) (b). 91st (c). 92nd 100) Exchange products of mammalian embryo are (d). 93rd eliminate out by - Ans: (b) a) Placenta b) Amniotic Fluid 105. The metals, mainly used for minting coins during c) Allantois the mauryan period were- d) Ureters (a). Gold and Silver Ans: (a) (b). Silver and Copper 101. Which of the following methods are used to (c). Copper and Bronz remove impurity (gangueasit as it is called in (d). Lead and Bronz metallurgy) from metallic ores so as to extract metals Ans: (b) from the latter ? (1). Roasting 106. Which one of the following is not in the state list (2). Calcination under the constitution of india- (3). Precipitation (a). Fisheries (4). Electrolysis (b). Agriculture (5). Aluminothermic (c). Insurance (d). Betting and Gambling Select your answer from the choices given below : Ans: (a) (a). 1,2,3 (b). 1,2,3,4 107. Consider the following about Sovereign wealth (c). 3,4,5 fund (swf)- (d). 1,2,3,4,5 (1). SWF is a state owend fund which comprises stocks, Ans: (d) bonds property or other financial instrument. (2). Recently established SWF is managed by RBL. 102. The hybrid between hores and donkey is called - (3). The use of india’s forex neserves for setting up a (a). Pony SWF has been the subject of much bebate. (b).Colt (c). Mule Which of these statement(s) is/are correct ? (d). Zebra (a). lonly Ans: (c) (b). only (c). 1 and 3 103. In India those farmers are called’marginal farmers’ (d). 3 and 2 who hold land up to- Ans: (c) (a). 1 hectare (b). 2 hectare 108. Consider the followings- (c). 3 hectare (1). Ratan Tata led investment commission has (d). 4 hectare suggested a rural industrialization model based on Ans: (a) garmenting business. (2). Commission has advised a 10-year tax holiday for 104. Which amendment act fixed the number of This Model Paper is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 64
  • 65. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 MOCK SAMPLE PAPER rural industries. 113. The PH value of blood is- (3). It suggested a flexible labour law for rural apparel (a). 6.5 units without restrictions on hiring and retrenchment. (b). 7.35 (c).6.3 Select the code:- (d). 8 (a). only 1 and 2 are correct. Ans: (b) (b). only 1 and 3 are correct. (c). only 2 and 3 are correct. 114. The pollination of plant affected by snails is called- (d). all are correct. (a). Entomphily Ans: (a) (b). Anemophily (c). Melacophily 109. What is Direct Market Access (DMA) ? (d). Zoophily (a). It is a recently SEBI introduced facility which Ans: (c) allows brokers to offer clients direct access to the exchange trading system through the broker’s 115. Which of the following reduces blood calcium infrastructure without manual intervention by the level- broker. (a). Parathormone (b). It is a new policy for market reforms,initiated by (b). Calcitronin central goverment. (c). Adrenal (c). Through MA, SEBI permits FDI for market. (d). Pancreas (d). None of these. Ans: (c) Ans: (a) 116. Which of the following is used in electrical fire 110. Oilcrisis refers to- extinguisher ? (a). Deficit in demand and supply of crude oil in india (a). water (b). Rising crude oil prices in international market (b). carbon dioxide (c). Rising crude oil prices in US (c). foam (d). Rising edible oil prices in world (d). cacl4 Ans: (a) Ans: (d) 111. Where was first apparel park developed ? 117. Transistor was invented by- (a). Cochin (a). Shockly (b). Tirupur (b). Huckel Debye (c). Vishakhapatnam (c). Mosley (d). Trivandrum (d). Oswald Ans: (b) Ans: (a) 112. Full form of AFTA is- 118. Choose the wrong one- (a). Asian Federation for Technology Agreement (a). Saliva-Ptylin (b). ASEAN Free Trade Association (b). Pancreatic Juice-Trypsin (c). ASEAN Fixed Trade Association (c). Succus entricus-Peptidase (d). Atlantic Free Trade Area (d). Bile Juice-Gastriclipase Ans: (b) Ans: (d) This Model Paper is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 65
  • 66. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 MOCK SAMPLE PAPER 119. The is Synthesized by the bacteria present is the of police has been chosen for the National Award for intestine- egovernance 2008-09 ? (a). Vitamin-A (a). Kerla (b). Vitamin-B (b). Gujrat (c). Vitamin-K (c). Andhra Pradesh (d). Vitamin-C (d). Himachal Pradesh Ans: (b) Ans: (d) 120. Till the birth of baby, foetus is enclosed in the- 125. In which country world social forum was hold (a). Amniotic sac recently ? (b). Fellopian sac (a). Brazil (c). Semniferous tubule (b). Switgerland (d). Valva (c). China Ans: (a) (d). Mexico Ans: (a) 121. Consider the following and choose the best answer- 126. In which of the following countries euthanasia is (1). canpus luetum secrets progesterone hormone at legalized ? the time of ovalation (a). Belgium (2). invitro fertilization is also known as test tube baby (b). Thailand (c). Luxembourg Select the answer- (d). All the above (a). 1 is correct Ans: (d) (b). 2 is correct (c). 1 and 2 are correct 127. Who of the following is not included in the prime (d). neither 1 nor 2 correct Ministers Global Advisory Council ? Ans: (c) (a). L.N.Mittal (b). Amartya Sen 122. Recently Zillur Rahman is elected as a 19th (c). Ratan Tata President of which country- (d). Sam Pitroda (a). Malaysia Ans: (c) (b). Indonesia (c). Sudan 128. Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed, become a new (d). Bangladesh President of which African country after the with Ans: (d) drawal of Ethipio ? (a). Kenya 123. Who won the 2009 men’s single Australian open (b). Dijibouti litle- (c). Nigeria (a). Rogar Federer (d). Somalia (b). Sampras Ans: (d) (c). Rafael Nadal (d). Andy Ram 129. Which of the following Latin American country Ans: (d) approved a new constitution in a referendum held in 124. Which states e-Gazette Project and the web Portal This Model Paper is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 66
  • 67. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 MOCK SAMPLE PAPER the last week of janvary-2009 ? (d). France (a). Chile Ans: (c) (b). Bolivia (c). Venezuela 135. Working age population (15 to 64 years) in india (d). Brazil is- Ans: (b) (a). 53 percent (b). 63 percent 130. Which state of india become first carban free state (c). 69 percent in india ? (d). 72 percent (a). Himachal Pradesh Ans: (b) (b). Kerala (c). Gujrat 136. Production of which of the following was over (d). Uttarkhand achieves in 2006-07 ? Ans: (a) (a). Sugarcane (b). Oilseeds 131. How many languages of india are their in (c). Rice UNESCO’S list of counries having the Maximum (d). Jute and Marta number of dialects on the verge of extinction ? Ans: (a) (a). 192 (b). 147 137. According to planning commission of india, (c). 196 except which one of the following factors, that (d). 157 contribute to agriculture growth, there has been Ans: (c) declearation in the growth of all other factores- (a). Gross irrigated area 132. Hogenakkal controversy is between which of the (b). Jerms of trade following states ? (c). Area under fruits and vegetables (a). Kerala and Tamilnadu (d). Credit supply (b). Tamilnadu and AndhraPradesh Ans: (d) (c). Maharastra and AndhraPredesh (d). Tamilnadu and KarnatakaPredesh 138. Which one of the following states is the largest Ans: (d) sugar production- (a). Maharastra 133. What is Quark 2009 ? (b). Uttar Pradesh (a). Technical festival (c). Punjab (b). Cultural festival (d). Haryana (c). Handicraft festival Ans: (b) (d). None of the above Ans: (a) 139. Which of the following states have larger number of co-operative sugar mills- 134. Which of the following country has over taken (a). Maharastra, Uttar Pradesh and Haryana Russia as the main defance supplien to india ? (b). Maharastra, Karnataka and Tamilnadu (a). China (c). Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Bengal (b). USA (d). Punjab, Haryana and Gujrat (c). Israel Ans: (b) This Model Paper is Available Online Also:- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 67
  • 68. MOCK SAMPLE PAPER 140. According to the authors of a set of simple charts Ans: (b) spelling out death risks from various causes, which of the following shortens and person’s life by 5 to 10 145. The provide betten medical serviceses corporation years? has established a model hospital at- (a). Smoking (a). Lucknow (U.P) (b). AIDS (b). Madurai (Tamilnadu) (c). Liqor Drinking (c). Baddi (Himachal Predesh) (d). Both a and b (d). Nagpur(Maharastra) Ans: (a) Ans: (c) 141.Nuclear Power supplies made what Percent of 146. Which insurance company launched family india’s electricity ? medicare policy in which the sum insured floats oven (a). About 4 percent the entire family ? (b). About 3 percent (a).The United India Insurance (c). About 5 percent (b). SBI Life Insurance Company (d). About 6 percent (c). Oriental Insurance Company Ans: (b) (d). Life Insurance Corporation Of India Ans: (a) 142. What is GBP108 mfund ? (a). Britain and Norway created and fund to help save 147. Nextzone, an information technology special the world’s second largest rainforest of central Africa’s Economic Zone (SEZ) is being established at- Corgo basin. (a). Banglore, Karnataka (b). it will use satellite imaging technology. (b). Panvel near Mumbai (c). this fund curb the destruction of forest by (c). Panki near Kanpur providing alternative sources of income or energy. (d). Secundrabad near Hydrabad (d). All of the above. Ans: (b) Ans: (d) 148. What is the name of india’s first power exchange 143. Which of the following chemicals present in the which started operations on June 2008- brain plays a key role in regulating emotions such as (a). Chennai Power Exchange aggression ? (b). Hindustan Power Exchange (a). Acetylcholine (c). Indian Energy Exchange (b). Histamine (d). Mumbai Energy Exchange (c). Serotonin Ans: (c) (d). Vasopressin Ans: (c) 149. India’s first grid-connected Photovoltaic Solar power plant of 2MW has been established in- 144. Asia’s only and world’s second Human DNA Bank (a). Burwah district of W.Bengal has been established by IQRA Biotech services under (b). Bharuch district of Gujrat a public- private partnership in (c). Tanjavan district of Tamilnadu (a). New Delhi (d). Nellore district of Andhra Predesh (b). Lucknow Ans: (a) (c). Hyderabad (d). Banglore This Model Paper is Available Online Also:-
  • 69. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 MOCK SAMPLE PAPER 150) Short term loans to correct the balance of payments problems are given by - a) I.M.F. b) I.B.R.D. c) I.D.A. d) A.D.B. Ans: (a) For more Online Quizzes visit: This Model Paper is Available Online Also:- ADVERTISEMENT Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 69
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