Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.2 - MAY 2009


Published on

Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.2 - MAY 2009

UPSC, IAS, IPS, IES, Civil Services, ICS, UPSCPORTAL, PCS, IFS, UPPSC, MPPSC, HPPSC, UTPSC, RPSC, TNPSC, KPSC, Indian Administrative Services, Coaching, Brilliant, Govt Jobs, Babu jobs, Sarkari Naukri. - India's Largest IAS, Civil Services Aspirants Community.

Published in: Career, Education, Business
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Aspirants Times Magazine Vol.2 - MAY 2009

  1. 1. India’s largest Online Community for IAS, Civil Services Aspirants. Vol.2 MAY Vol.2 May 2009 Aspirants Times | 2009 | Free Http:// presents Aspirants Times India’s First Digital Magazine for IAS Aspirants around the world. IES Exam Special HOT TOPICS Articles - Swine Flu - G-20 Leader - Indian Spy Satellite Summit - Current Affairs - North Korea Plan and Strategy Missile Program for Shubhra Tops Indian Engineering - Hindi Article UPSC CSE 2008 Services ( VISHESH ARTHIK Interview at Website (IES) Exam 2009 KSHETRA AVAM KRISHI ) Free MOCK Test Paper(150 Questions) for UPSC (Pre) Exam 2009 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 1
  2. 2. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 “ Thank you for the overwhelming support for Vol.1 of Aspirants Times Digital Magazine. We are working hard to bring you the best possible... ” Founder, UPSCPORTAL.COM Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 2
  3. 3. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 INDEX SECTION - 1 : Editorial • A Step with Confidence ......................................................................................................... 04 SECTION - 2 : Engineering Services Exam Strategy • Plan And Strategy For Indian Engineering Services (IES) ............................................... 05 SECTION - 3 : Articles • G-20 Leaders’ Summit .............................................................................................. 10 • North Korea Missile Threat .................................................................................................. 16 • Hindi Article ( ) ......... 24 SECTION - 4 : HOT-Topics • Swine Flu (Attack Of New Virus H1N1) ................................................................ 30 • Indian Spy Satellite (RISAT-2 and ANUSAT) ........................................................ 34 SECTION - 5 : Current Relevant Facts • Important Current Affairs .................................................................................................... 38 SECTION - 6 : SPORTS ................................................................................................................. 47 SECTION - 7 : AWARDS ................................................................................................... 52 SECTION - 8 : Model Test Paper • MOCK Test Paper For IAS Pre Exam 2009 ...................................................................... 55 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 3
  4. 4. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 SECTION - 1 : Editorial A Step with Confidence We never expected so much, but it happened. Inaugural issue of Aspirant Times got very high number of reader’s support. It has been proved by your letters, suggestions and fast increasing number of membership. We can say Veni, vidi, vici about this magazine. Our editorial board had thought to get such support in coming six months. Now this support has inspired us lot, it is cause of our happiness and inspiration. But at the same time, it has brought greater responsibility and a challenge to prove ourselves on your parameter. We assure that Aspirant Times has a plan to fulfill our reader’s need with confidence. We expect that you will have confidence in our team and we in you. So we must keep a step with mutual confidence to go forward. For success in this exam, confidence is the first step. But beside this, you shall develop many other qualities in yourself- hard work, perseverance, determination, capacity to take risk etc. You can take an example from this year’s IAS topper 30-year-old Shubhra Saxena of Noida. The software engineer, and alumnus of IIT-Rourkee, Shubhra quit her well-paid IT job to become an IAS. It shows her capacity to take risk and success in the age of thirty, proves about her perseverance. Another great example of determination is physically challenged Varinder Kumar Sharma, who got first rank among the male candidates and overall bagged the fourth posi- tion in IAS 2008. He did it in his first attempt. Work hard, yes without it; you can never taste the sweetness of great success. So develop these qualities to become a winner. Still you have sufficient time to clear the IAS pre 2009, read carefully, revise timely and make good practices. So don’t waste the time in confusion, be deter- mined and get success. Personal Note from Editor : In this very second issue, we are providing you many important articles on current happenings and introduc- tion of Indian Engineering Service (IES) Examination with well woven strategy for GS portion for this prestigious examination. We have covered recently held Group-20 Summit, North Korea Missile Programme, Indian Spy Satellite, Swine Flue and many more current topics for Civil Services Main Examination 2009. We also made efforts to present this matter and articles in very lucid and easy way. So you can keep it in your mind for a long time. Under these topics, you will not find only facts and information, but analysis with deep insights. So you can prepare easily for fact based preliminary examinations and short answer type questions and same time these writings are useful for long answer type questions, essay and interview. Beside these topics, regular columns have been covered for Civil Services (Pre) Examination going to be held on May 17, 2009. We wish all the best for your IAS preliminary exam 2009. Meet you in next issue… Thanks! Editor: R. K. PANDEY and UPSCPORTAL Team Published by : Kalinjar Technologies, New Delhi, India Editor : R. K. Pandey Editor-Technicals : UPSCPORTAL Team Typesetting and Design : UPSCPORTAL Team Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 4
  5. 5. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 SECTION - 2 : Civil Service Exam Strategy PLAN AND STRATEGY FOR INDIAN ENGINEERING SERVICES A PATH OF GLORIOUS FUTURE By : R. K. Pandey Any one can never make a comparison of Government ventional Papers of 400 marks ie total 1000 marks. Service with anything. Where ever the question about Indian Engineering Services, actually these have very Beside it there is personality test of 200 marks. IES high position. Here, you play a role in a making a plan exam total carries 1200 marks. Objective Papers con- and executing it not for money, for any person but your sist of three papers each carrying 200 marks of two beloved country and their people. No matter how much hour duration. Here first paper is of General Ability you get in private sector. So in this way, you can play Test divided in two parts-General English and Gen- very important role in India’s development and mak- eral Studies and last two papers are from your chosen ing its future bright. Engineering subjects. Like Civil Servants in India, the Engineers recruited Part two of exam is consist of two Conventional Pa- through Indian Engineering Services get very high pers of each 200 marks are from Engineering subjects. honors in government and society. At present govern- Here I am telling about General Studies, which is very ment is spending more than 15 percent of India's GDP important, because without qualifying in this paper, in Engineering. Given the extent of tasks and func- your other papers will not be evaluated and your all tions managed by the public sector this extends to a efforts will go in waste. So be careful and prepare this fairly broad segment of the economy covering the Rail- paper systematically. I am giving details about this roads, Military, Public works, Power, Telecommuni- paper and related study materials. cations, etc. General Ability Test Government of India recruits its coveted Engineers UPSC has divided General Ability Test in two parts- through competitive exams held each year by Union Part A is General English and Part B is General Stud- Public Service Commission. For this, a combined com- ies. Test of both subjects held in one session of two petitive examination is conducted by the UPSC. hours and carries 200 marks. General Ability Test is part of Objective Papers. The test is conducted in June every year at centres across India, namely: Agartala, Ahmedabad, Aizwal, The Objective Type papers, which carries 600 marks Allahabad, Bangalore, Bareilly, Bhopal, Chandigarh, are very important, because these are evaluated first Chennai, Cuttack, Delhi, Dharwar, Dispur (Guwahati), and evaluation of the Conventional Type papers con- Gangtok, Hyderabad, Imphal, Itanagar, Jaipur, Jammu, tained in Section-II of the Plan of Examination will be Jorhat, Kochi, Kohima, Kolkata, Lucknow, Madurai, done only of those candidates who obtain the mini- Mumbai, Nagpur, Panaji (Goa), Patna, Port Blair, mum qualifying marks in Objective types papers, as Raipur, Sambalpur, Shillong, Simla, Srinagar, fixed by the Commission. So candidate must give im- Thiruvananthapuram, Tirupati, Udaipur,Ranchi portance to General Ability Test. They have often face (Jharkhand) and Vishakapatnam. difficulties in this paper, because their background is very much different. I think a good strategy is impor- There are two parts of Indian Engineering Services tant for this. written exam, Objective Papers of 600 marks and Con- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 5
  6. 6. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 UNDERSTANDING GENERAL ABILITY About General English: The question paper in General English will be designed to test the candidate’s understanding of English and workmanlike use of words. About General Studies: The paper in General Studies will include knowledge of current events and of such matters as of everyday observation and experience in their scientific aspects as may be expected of an educated person. The paper will also include questions on History of India and Geography of a nature which candidates should be able to answer without special study. Instructions And Details of UPSC About IES The examination shall be conducted according to the following plan: Part I of IES Examination Written examination will comprise two sections:-Section I consisting only of objective types of questions and Section II of conventional papers. Both Sections will cover the entire syllabus of the relevant engineering disciplines viz. Civil Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering and Electronics & Tele- communication Engineering. The standard and syllabi prescribed for these papers are given in Schedule to the Appendix. The details of the written examination i.e. subject, duration and maximum marks allotted to each sub- ject are given below: Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 6
  7. 7. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 Note:- Candidates are advised to read carefully special instruction to candidates for conventional type tests and objective type tests given in Appendix-IV (Part A & Part B) including the procedure regarding filling in the Answer Sheet of objective type tests in the Examination Hall. Conventional papers must be answered in English. Question papers will be set in English only. Candidates must write the papers in their own hand. In no circumstances will they be allowed the help of a scribe to write the answers for them. The Commission have discretion to fix minimum qualifying marks in any or all the papers of the examination. The Objective Type papers as contained in Section-I of the Plan of the Examination will be evaluated first and evaluation of the Conventional Type papers contained in Section-II of the Plan of Examination will be done only of those candidates who obtain the minimum qualifying marks in Objective types papers, as fixed by the Commission. Marks will not be allotted for mere superficial knowledge. Deduction up to 5 per cent of the maximum marks for the written papers will be made for illegible handwriting. Credit will be given for orderly, effective and exact expression combined with due economy of words in the conventional papers of the examination.In the question papers, wherever required, SI units will be used. NOTE:- Candidates will be supplied with standard tables/charts in SI units in the Examination hall for reference purpose, wherever considered necessary. Candidates are permitted to bring and use battery operated pocket calculators for conventional (essay) type papers only. Loaning or inter-changing of calculators in the Examination hall is not permitted. It is also important to note that candidates are not permitted to use calculators for answering objective type paper (Test book lets). They should not, therefore, bring the same inside the Examination Hall. Candidates should use only International form of Indian numerals (e.g. 1,2,3,4,5,6 etc.) while answering ques- tion papers. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 7
  8. 8. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 Part II of IES Examination:- What To Read For GS Portion:- Personality test is second part of IES. It carries a maxi- 1. Read a good newspaper,journals,yojana,mainstream mum of 200 marks of such of the candidates who 2. Any competitional magazine like Aspirants Times. qualify on the basis of the written examination. In the 3. NCERT books on various topic of GS Personality Test special attention will be paid to as- 4. Must watch programmes on current affairs sessing the candidate’s capacity for leadership, initia- 5. NBT books on History,India year book tive and intellectual curiosity, tact and other social 6. A.B.C. of science(Holy faith),Any science journal qualities, mental and physical energy, powers of prac- or magazine tical application and integrity of character. 7. Indian Administration by Maheshwari,Our legisla- tion by Subhash Kashyap,Constitution of India by D.D. Standard and Syllabi:- Basu The standard of paper in General Ability Test will be 8. Indian Economy by Dutt and Sundaram or Mishra such as may be expected of a Engineering/Science & Puri Graduate. The standard of papers in other subjects will 9. Geography by khullar,Any Atlas,Any statistical year approximately be that of an Engineering Degree Ex- book. amination of an Indian University. There will be no practical examination in any of the subjects. Key to Success • Determination and positive attitude • Hard work and systematic study • Inner motivation • Strong willpower and faith in yourself • Focused and positive approach • Dedication, time management • Self-confidence This Article is Available Online Also Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 8
  9. 9. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 WHY REGISTER? at UPSCPORTAL Provides following content free of cost to all its members : - Daily GS Dose - Study Material - Previous Year Papers - Current Affairs - Topper Interviews - Online Forum - Tips & Tricks - Books Information - Exams Syllabus - Online Results - Free Downloads - Coaching Center Information - Live Community Chat and much much more... Register Online Now! Http:// Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 9
  10. 10. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 SECTION - 3 : Articles G-20 Leaders’ Summit economy in modern times; a crisis which has deepened, which affects the lives of women, men, and children in every country, and which all countries must join together To Boost up Financial Markets and the World to resolve. A global crisis requires a global solution. Economy By : Dr. Nageshwar Nath Mishra • Prosperity is indivisible; that growth, to be sustained, has to be shared; and global plan for recovery must The G-20 Leaders’ Summit on Financial Markets and have at its heart the needs and jobs of hard-working the World Economy was held in London on 2 April 2009. families, not just in developed countries but in emerg- It followed the ing markets and the poorest countries of the world too; first G-20 Lead- and must reflect the interests, not just of today’s popu- ers Summit on lation, but of future generations too. the only sure foun- Financial Mar- dation for sustainable globalisation and rising prosper- kets and the ity for all is an open world economy based on market W o r l d principles, effective regulation, and strong global in- E co no my, stitutions. Courtesy: which was held in Washington, • The agreements to treble resources available D.C. on 14–15 November 2008. Heads of government to the IMF to $750 billion, to support a new SDR [IMF or heads of state from the Group of Twenty Finance special drawing rights] allocation of $250 billion, to Ministers and Central Bank Governors (G-20), plus some support at least $100 billion of additional lending by regional and international organisations attended. Due the MDBs [Multilateral Development Banks], to en- to the extended membership it has been referred to as sure $250 billion of support for trade finance, and to the London Summit. The policing tactics at the event use the additional resources from agreed IMF gold sales raised some controversy.G-20 leaders began gathering for concessional finance for the poorest countries, con- in London on 1 April 2009. stitute an additional $1.1 trillion programme of sup- port to restore credit, growth and jobs in the world Before leaving for the London Summit, French Presi- economy. Together with the measures have each taken dent Nicolas Sarkozy suggested that if a meaningful deal nationally, this constitutes a global plan for recovery was not agreed France would walk out of the summit on an unprecedented scale. echoing the “empty chair” gesture of then-French Presi- dent Charles de Gaulle in 1965. Brown and Obama said • To establish a new Financial Stability Board (FSB) that suggestions of a rift were exaggerated. Sarkozy at- with a strengthened mandate, as a successor to the Fi- tended a separate press conference with Merkel in which nancial Stability Forum (FSF), including all G20 coun- both repeated calls for the summit to agree on more tries, FSF members, Spain, and the European Com- stringent regulation of financial markets and restated mission. The FSB should collaborate with the IMF to their firm opposition to further financial stimulus pack- provide early warning of macroeconomic and finan- ages. cial risks and the actions needed to address them; Summit Declaration: • Members were agreed to increase the resources avail- After end of summit a major declaration has been pre- able to the IMF through immediate financing from sented. Following points are According to declaration: members of $250 billion, subsequently incorporated • Because it is the greatest challenge to the world into an expanded and more flexible New Arrangements Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 10
  11. 11. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 to Borrow, increased by up to $500 billion, and to con- sider market borrowing if necessary Revolutionary Step: The IMF wants to use this money to offer a new kind of • Member countries are undertaking an unprecedented loan that would be preventative. Rather than waiting for and concerted fiscal expansion, which will save or cre- countries to get into financial difficulties, it would offer ate millions of jobs which would otherwise have been them a line of credit to help them defend their curren- destroyed, and that will, by the end of next year, amount cies in advance. In the past, countries were reluctant to to $5 trillion, raise output by 4 per cent, and accelerate ask for such money, as the financial markets got worried the transition to a green economy. Mebers are com- that they were in trouble. But Mexico has become the mitted to deliver the scale of sustained fiscal effort first country to ask for such a facility and there now seems necessary to restore growth. to be less stigma about this approach. Much of the new IMF funds would be used in this facility, which would • Central banks have also taken exceptional action. mainly be directed to the middle income countries who Interest rates have been cut aggressively in most coun- had relatively sound economies. tries, and central banks have pledged to maintain ex- pansionary policies for as long as needed and to use But in an even more radical step, the G20 leaders ap- the full range of monetary policy instruments, includ- pear to have agreed to increase another type of IMF ing unconventional instruments, consistent with price funds, the quotas owned by individual countries, by stability. an additional $250bn. This would be done by creating more of its own currency, the SDR or special drawing • In addition to reforming international financial insti- right, which is a basket of currencies including the US tutions for the new challenges of globalisation mem- dollar, the yen and the euro. This would give countries bers agreed on the desirability of a new global consen- essentially free money, which they could use as they sus on the key values and principles that will promote wish without having to negotiate deals with the IMF, sustainable economic activity. We support discussion and would do much to boost confidence among poorer on such a charter for sustainable economic activity with countries. a view to further discussion at our next meeting. We take note of the work started in other fora in this re- Many of them have been critical of the harsh condi- gard and look forward to further discussion of this char- tions imposed by the IMF before they are given help. ter for sustainable economic activity. In the past, such moves have always been resisted by Germany, on the grounds that creating money is infla- • Members reaffirm their historic commitment to meet- tionary. But in the current deflationary climate, they ing the Millennium Development Goals and to achiev- appear to have lifted their objections. ing our respective ODA [Overseas Development Agen- cies] pledges, including commitments on Aid for Trade, Reform Looms: debt relief, and the Gleneagles commitments, especially The IMF is also set to have a bigger role in preventing to sub-Saharan Africa. future crises, by developing an early warning system for financial problems, and taking a larger role in look- • The actions and decisions have taken will provide ing at the problems of the financial sector as a whole, $50 billion to support social protection, boost trade in conjunction with a new global regulator, the Finan- and safeguard development in low income countries, cial Services Board. But the biggest changes in the IMF as part of the significant increase in crisis support for will come after 2011, when it has been agreed that there these and other developing countries and emerging will be a review of the voting structure. markets. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 11
  12. 12. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 That could lead to the US losing its veto power, while China and other emerging countries get a bigger voice. It has already been agreed that in future, the convention that the World Bank and IMF must be headed by an American and a European respectively will be abandoned. In return, China will be asked to lend some of its reserves to the IMF - and will continue to push for the idea that the SDR will become a real reserve currency, ultimately replacing the dollar. The changes to the resources and the role of the IMF are historic and perhaps the most important outcome of the G20 summit. But it must be borne in mind that providing more resources for the IMF can be only a short-term solution to the immediate crisis now engulfing developing countries. It is no substitute for a fiscal stimulus, as the money is loaned and must be paid back. Nor will it counter the need for additional development aid to counteract poverty. But it is a move towards a more global system of international finance. Agenda of Summit The British Treasury, as hosts, produced an extended agenda pamphlet proposing the issues to be covered at the London Summit. 1. Coordinated macro-economic actions to revive the global economy, stimulate growth and employment – review measures taken and possible further steps 2. Reform and improve financial sector & systems – continue to deliver progress on the Washington Summit action plan 3. Reform international financial institutions – the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Financial Stability Forum (FSF) and the World Bank Important steps to reconstruct and boost up World Economy :- ¤ Restore confidence, growth, and jobs; ¤ Repair the financial system to restore lending; ¤ Strengthen financial regulation to rebuild trust; ¤ Fund and reform our international financial institutions to overcome this crisis and prevent future ones; ¤ Promote global trade and investment and reject protectionism, to underpin prosperity; and ¤ Build an inclusive, green, and sustainable recovery. This Article is Available Online Also Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 12
  13. 13. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 G20 Agreement • Additional resources of $6bn from agreed IMF gold FINANCIAL REGULATION sales will be made available for lending to the poorest countries • A new Financial Stability Board, with a strengthened • The G20 also supports increased lending to the mandate, will replace the Financial Stability Forum world’s poorest countries of at least $100bn by the mul- tilateral development banks • Financial regulation and oversight will be extended to GLOBAL TRADE all financial institutions, in- • There will be a commitment struments and markets of $250bn of support for trade finance made over the next two • This includes bringing hedge years funds within the global regu- latory net for the first time • This will be made available Courtesy : through export credit and invest- • Members are committed to ment agencies, as well as implementing tough new rules on pay and bonuses at through multilateral develop- a global level ment banks • International accounting standards will be set • National regulators will be asked to make use of avail- able flexibility in capital requirements for trade finance • Credit rating agencies will be regulated in order to remove their conflicts of interest PROTECTIONISM • The G20 has pledged to resist protectionism • A common approach to cleaning up banks’ toxic as- sets has been agreed • There will be a commitment to naming and shaming countries that breach free trade rules TAX HAVENS • There will be sanctions against tax havens that do • The G20 will notify the World Trade Organization not transfer information on request (WTO) of any measures that constrain worldwide capi- tal flows • The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and De- velopment has published a list of countries assessed • The G20 has called on the WTO to monitor and re- by the Global Forum against the international standard port publicly on these undertakings on a quarterly ba- for exchange of tax information sis IMF FISCAL STIMULUS • Resources available to the International Monetary • Although there is no new fiscal stimulus, Gordon Fund will be trebled to $750bn Brown said G20 countries are already implementing “the biggest macroeconomic stimulus the world has • This includes a new overdraft facility, or special draw- ever seen” - an injection of $5tn by the end of next ing rights allocation, of $250bn year. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 13
  14. 14. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 WHAT IS G-20 Members of G-20 The G-20 (more formally, the Group of Twenty Fi- In 2009, there are 20 members of the G-20. These in- nance Ministers and Central Bank Governors) is a clude the finance ministers and central bank governors group of finance ministers and central bank governors of 19 countries and The 20th member is the European from 20 economies: 19 of the world's largest national Union, which is represented by the rotating Council economies, plus the European Union (EU). It also met presidency and the European Central Bank.List of 19 twice at heads-of-government level, in November 2008 countries are following: and again in April 2009. Collectively, the G-20 econo- mies comprise 85%of global gross national product, → Argentina → Japan 80% of world trade (including EU intra-trade) and two- → Australia → Mexico thirds of the world population. → Brazil → Russia → Canada → Saudi Arabia The G-20 is a forum for cooperation and consultation → China → South Africa on matters pertaining to the international financial sys- → France → South Korea tem. It studies, reviews, and promotes discussion → Germany → Turkey among key industrial and emerging market countries → India → United Kingdom of policy issues pertaining to the promotion of inter- → Indonesia → United States national financial stability, and seeks to address issues → Italy that go beyond the responsibilities of any one organization.The G-20 operates without a permanent secretariat or staff. In addition to these 20 members, the following forums The chair rotates annually among the members and is and institutions, as represented by their respective chief selected from a different regional grouping of coun- executive officers, participate in meetings of the G- tries. The chair is part of a revolving three-member 20. management group of past, present and future chairs referred to as the Troika. The incumbent chair estab- • International Monetary Fund lishes a temporary secretariat for the duration of its • World Bank term, which coordinates the group's work and orga- • International Monetary and Financial Committee De- nizes its meetings. The role of the Troika is to ensure velopment Committee of the IMF and World Bank continuity in the G-20's work and management across host years. The membership of the G-20 comprises: • The finance ministers and central bank governors of the G7, 12 other key countries, and the European Union Presidency (if not a G7 member) • The European Central Bank • The Managing Director of the International Mon- etary Fund • The Chairman of the IMFC Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 14
  15. 15. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 • The President of the World Bank April 2009. Another G20 summit is scheduled to be • The Chairman of the Development Committee held in New York City in September 2009. Background of G-20: G-20 Vs G20 Developing Nations: The G-20, which superseded the G33, which had itself The G-20 (more formally, the Group of Twenty Fi- superseded the G22, was foreshadowed at the Cologne nance Ministers and Central Bank Governors) is a Summit of the G7 in June 1999, but was formally es- group of finance ministers and central bank governors tablished at the G7 Finance Ministers' meeting on Sep- from 20 large economies while the G20 (Group of 20, tember 26, 1999. The inaugural meeting took place on also variously G21, G22 and G20+) is a bloc of devel- December 15-16, 1999 in Berlin. In 2008 Spain and oping nations established on 20 August 2003. The The Netherlands were included by French invitation group emerged at the 5th Ministerial WTO conference, for the G-20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets held in Cancun, Mexico from 10 September to 14 Sep- and the World Economy and then were admitted as tember 2003. The G-20 accounts for 60% of the world's members de facto by the UK. population, 70% of its farmers and 26% of world’s agricultural exports. G20 Leaders Summit on Financial Markets and the World Economy was held in Washington on Novem- Its origins date back to June 2003, when foreign min- ber 2009.In 2006 the theme of the G-20 meeting was isters from Brazil, India and South Africa signed a dec- “Building and Sustaining Prosperity”. The issues dis- laration known as the Brasilia Declaration in which cussed included domestic reforms to achieve “sustained they stated that “major trading partners are still moved growth”, global energy and resource commodity mar- by protectionist concerns in their countries’ less com- kets, ‘reform’ of the World Bank and IMF, and the petitive sectors and emphasized how important it is impact of demographic changes due to an aging popu- that the results of the current round of trade negotia- lation. tions provide especially for the reversal of protection- ist policies and trade-distorting practices. Furthermore, Trevor A. Manuel, MP, Minister of Finance, Republic Brazil, India and South Africa decided to articulate their of South Africa, was the chairperson of the G-20 when initiatives of trade liberalization”. South Africa hosted the Secretariat in 2007. Guido Mantega, Minister of Finance, Brazil, was the chair- Nonetheless, the “official” appearance of the G-20 person of the G-20 in 2008; Brazil proposed dialogue occurred as a response to a text released on 13 August on competition in financial markets, clean energy and 2003 by the European Communities (EC) and the economic development and fiscal elements of growth United States with a common proposal on agriculture and development. In a statement following a meeting for the Cancun Ministerial. On 20 August 2003 a docu- of G7 finance ministers on October 11, 2008, U.S. ment signed by twenty countries and re-issued as a President George W. Bush stated that the next meeting Cancun Ministerial document on 4 September pro- of the G-20 would be important in finding solutions toposed an alternative framework to that of the EC and the (then called) economic crisis of 2008. the United States on agriculture for the Cancún Meet- ing. This document marked the establishment of the An initiative by French President Nicolas Sarkozy and G-20. British Prime Minister Gordon Brown led to a special The original group of signatories of the 20 August 2003 meeting of the G-20, a G-20 Leaders Summit on Fi- document went through many changes, being known nancial Markets and the World Economy, on Novem- as such different names as the G-21 or the G-22. The ber 15, 2008. G20 leaders met again in London on 2 title G-20 was finally chosen, in honor of the date of Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 15
  16. 16. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 the group's establishment. Since its creation, the group has had a fluctuating membership. Previous members have included: Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Peru, and Turkey. As of October 2008, the group had 23 members. The core leadership of the G-20, known as the G4 bloc, consists of Brazil, China, India and South Africa. *The Author is Professor And Head of the Department For History This Article is Available Online Also ADVERTISEMENT Looking for Brilliant Tutorials? Now you can buy online at Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 16
  17. 17. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 SECTION - 4 : Articles NORTH KOREA MISSILE for testing the regime's long-range missile technology - one step toward eventually mounting a nuclear THREAT weapon on a missile capable of reaching Alaska and beyond. They contend the launch violates a 2006 reso- SIGN OF FAILING TO ACCOMPLISH AN lution barring the regime from ballistic missile activ- INTENDED RESULT OF SIX PARTY TALK ity. According to America ,the launch a clear violation of U.N. Security Council Resolution 1718, adopted five North Korea carried out a provocative rocket launch days after North Korea carried out a nuclear weapons Unha-2 on April 5,2009, but the rocket is better known test in 2006. Earlier this North Korea shocked Japan to the outside world as the Taepodong-2, a long-range in 1998 when it launched a missile over Japan's main missile that can be mounted with a satellite or nuclear island. Japan has since spent billions of dollars on de- armament.U.S., Japan and other nations suspect was a veloping a missile shield with the United States and cover for a test of its long-range missile has launched a series of spy satellites primarily to watch technology.Liftoff took place from the coastal developments in North Korea. Musudan-ri launch pad in northeastern North Korea. The multistage rocket hurtled toward the Pacific, reach- MOVE OF JAPAN AND US AGAINST NORTH ing Japanese airspace within seven minutes, but no KOREA : debris appeared to hit its territory. Japan and the US have submitted to the UN the names of North Korean companies they believe to The U.N. Security Council approved an emergency be associated with the country's weapons programme. session for in New York, following a request from Ja- The list of companies has been sent to the UN's Secu- pan that came minutes after the launch. The South rity Council's sanctions committee for consideration. Koreans called it ``reckless,'' the Americans ``provoca- The move to enforce sanctions against North Korea tive,'' and Japan said it strongly protested the follows the country's long-range rocket launch on 5 launch.According to Japan The first stage of the rocket April. According todiplomats China, which has a lot dropped about 175 miles (280 kilometers) off the west- of trade with North Korea, will want to study the list ern coast of Akita into the waters between Japan and before agreeing to it. The Council has started the pro- the Korean peninsula. The second stage was to land in cess of tightening the existing sanctions against North the Pacific at a spot about 790 miles (1,270 kilome- Korea. ters) off Japan's northeastern coast. These sanctions were agreed in 2006 after North Ko- The launch was a bold act of defiance against Presi- rea tested a nuclear device, but they were never ap- dent Barack Obama, Japanese leader Taro Aso, Hu plied. North Korean companies suspected of being in- Jintao of China and others who pressed Pyongyang in volved in the government's weapons programme can the days leading up to liftoff to call off a launch which have their financial assets, like bank accounts, seized would threaten peace and stability in Northeast Asia. if they are held abroad. North Korea reacted aggres- South Korea's said the launch poses a ``serious threat'' sively to the Council's condemnation of its launch and to stability on the Korean peninsula and that it would said it would throw out inspectors from the Interna- respond to the provocation ``sternly and resolutely.'' tional Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and restart its North Korea claims its aim is to send an experimental nuclear programme. communications satellite into orbit in a peaceful bid to develop its space program. While the U.S., South NORTH KOREA’s MISSILE PROGRAMME: Korea, Japan and others suspect the launch is a guise North Korea is believed to have more than 800 ballis- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 17
  18. 18. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 tic missiles, including long-range missiles which could two-stage missile comprising Nodong and Scud parts one day strike the US.. North Korea first obtained tac- and can reach a distance of 2,200km, but it is said to tical missiles from the Soviet Union as early as 1969, be even less accurate than the Nodong. North Korea but its first Scuds reportedly came via Egypt in 1976. tested a Taepodong-1 in August 1998, firing a missile Egypt is believed to have supplied North Korea with over northern Japan. It brings US bases on Okinawa Scud-B missiles and designs in return for its support within North Korea's reach. But the missile must be against Israel in the Yom Kippur War. By 1984, North fired from a fixed location and has a long preparation Korea was building its own Scud-Bs and developed time, meaning that potential launches could be de- two new versions, the Scud-C and Scud-D. It has since tected. A land-based missile, the Taepodong-X, is also developed a medium-range missile, the Nodong, and said to be under development but has not yet been a long-range missile based on Scud technology, the tested. Based on a Soviet submarine-launched ballis- Taepodong. In July 2006 it test-fired a modification to tic missile, it is thought to have a range of up to 4,000 the Taepodong, called the Taepodong-2, which experts km, reaching US bases on Guam. Unlike the say could have a range of up to 6,000km (3,500 miles). Taepodong-1, it could be fired from mobile launch The missile failed shortly after launch. systems hidden from view. SHORT-RANGE MISSILES: North Korea has a va- TAEPODONG-2 MISSILE : The Taepodong-2 long- riety of short-range missiles. The KN-02 is thought to range missile is estimated to have a range of between be the most accurate, but its range - around 100 km - is 5,000 and 6,000 km, putting Alaska, Hawaii and parts the shortest. The Scud-B and C have ranges of 300 of the west coast of the US within range. But the first and 500 km respectively, while the Scud-D is believed launch of the missile, in July 2006, appeared to be a to have a range of 700 km. It is thought that these mis- failure after it crashed within seconds of launch - ac- siles could deliver conventional warheads. The Scud- cording to US sources. If the missile was successfully B, C and D have all been tested and deployed. These launched, it is not thought to be particularly accurate missiles would enable North Korea to strike any area or to be able to carry a large warhead. Like the in South Korea. The KN-02 missile, currently in the Taepodong-1, it requires a fixed launch site. The testing stage, could be aimed at key targets in South Taepodong-2 test took place from the Musudan-ri com- Korea such as military installations south of the bor- plex on the East coast of the Korean peninsula. Analy- der. sis of satellite images of the area appear to show a range of missile fabrication, fuelling, testing and control fa- NODONG MISSILE : The Nodong missile is thought cilities. to have a range of around 1,000 km and could poten- NORTH KOREAN BACKGROUND : For decades tially carry a nuclear warhead. But it is not accurate. A North Korea has been one of the world's most secre- March 2006 report by the US Center for Non-prolif- tive societies. It is one of the few countries still under eration Studies said it had a circular error probable of communist rule. North Korea's nuclear ambitions have 2-4 km, meaning that half of the missiles fired would exacerbated its rigidly maintained isolation from the fall outside a circle of that radius. The Nodong could rest of the world. The country emerged in 1948 amid strike most of Japan but not with any accuracy. If it the chaos following the end of World War II. Its his- were fired on a military target, its inaccuracy could tory is dominated by its Great Leader, Kim Il-sung, lead to high levels of civilian casualties. The missile was test fired in May 1993. who shaped political affairs for almost half a century. After the Korean War, Kim Il-sung introduced the per- TAEPODONG-1 MISSILE : The Taepodong-1 is a sonal philosophy of Juche, or self-reliance, which be- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 18
  19. 19. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 came a guiding light for North Korea's development. Kim Il-sung's son, Kim Jong-il, is now head of state, but the post of president has been assigned "eternally" to his late father. Decades of this rigid state-controlled system have led to stagnation and a leadership dependent on the cult of personality. Aid agencies have esti- mated that up to two million people have died since the mid-1990s because of acute food shortages caused by natural disasters and economic mismanagement. The country relies on foreign aid to feed millions of its people. The totalitarian state also stands accused of systematic human rights abuses. Reports of torture, public execu- tions, slave labour, and forced abortions and infanticides in prison camps have emerged. A US-based rights group has estimated that there are up to 200,000 political prisoners in North Korea. Pyongyang has accused successive South Korean governments of being US "puppets", but South Korean President Kim Dae-jung's visit in 2000 signalled a thaw in relations. Seoul's "sunshine policy" towards the north aimed to encourage change through dialogue and aid. But this tentative reaching-out to the world was dealt a blow in 2002 by Pyongyang's decision to reactivate a nuclear reactor and to expel international inspectors. In October 2006 North Korea said it had successfully tested a nuclear weapon, spreading alarm around the region. Since then, intensive diplomatic efforts have aimed to rein in North Korea's nuclear ambitions. After years of on-and-off talks, a deal was thrashed out in February 2007 under which Pyongyang agreed to shut down its main nuclear reactor in return for fuel and aid. North Korea admitted International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors, who verified the shutdown of the Yongbyon reactor in July,2007. However, the denuclearisation process stalled yet again when Pyongyang failed to meet an end-of-year deadline to make a full declaration of its nuclear programmes. It eventually handed over a list of the country's nuclear assets in June 2008, and in October agreed to give international inspectors full access to its nuclear sites. The US responded by dropping North Korea from its list of states sponsoring terror- ism. However, in December 2008 Pyongyang said it would slow down work to dismantle its nuclear programme in response to a US decision to suspend some aid. The process hit a new snag in 2009, when North Korea walked out of international talks aimed at ending its nuclear activities, in protest at UN criticism of a rocket launch by Pyongyang. North Korea maintains one of the world's largest standing armies and militarism pervades everyday life. But standards of training, discipline and equipment in the force are said to be low. In 2002 US President George W Bush named the country as part of an "axis of evil". FACTS Full name: The Democratic People's Republic of Korea Population: 23.9 million (UN, 2008) Capital: Pyongyang Area: 122,762 sq km (47,399 sq miles) Major language: Korean Major religions: Mainly atheist or non-religious, traditional beliefs Life expectancy: 65 years (men), 69 years (women) (UN) Monetary unit: 1 won = 100 chon Main exports: Minerals and metals, cement, agricultural products Eternal president: Kim Il-sung (deceased) Chairman, National Defence Commission: Kim Jong-il Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 19
  20. 20. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 NUCLEAR DEVELOPMENT Taepodong-2, which is also known as Paektusan-2, is North Korea's missile development, which began in yet to be flight-tested. The latest round of North Korea's the early 1960s, benefited greatly from Soviet and seven missile tests on July 5, breaking the moratorium Chinese assistance.In 2005 the United States Defence it had committed itself to with the U.S. in 1999 and Intelligence Agency (DIA) suggested that North Ko- with Japan in 2002, included Taepodong-2. But it failed rea could attach a nuclear warhead to an Inter-Conti- 40 seconds after lift-off at Masudan-ri in North nental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) capable of reaching Hamyong province and crashed into the sea 1.5 km the U.S. DIA testified that North Korea's ICBM under away. development, Taepodong-2, with a "guesstimated range of 5000 km" could deliver a "nuclear warhead to parts So, even if the nuclear test was a successful one with a of the United States in a two-stage variant and target compact missile-capable warhead, Pyongyang is yet all of North America with a three-stage variant". At to have an operational ICBM capability. U.S. intelli- the same the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) testi- gence believes this is only a matter of time. North fied that the North Korean missile was capable of reach- Korea's missile development history perhaps makes it ing the U.S. with a "nuclear-weapon-sized payload". the most advanced among the later breed of missile- This assessment came at a time when North Korea had capable nations. Some analysts feel that North Korea not tested a nuclear device, a necessary step for devel- could have such an operational system by 2015. North oping a reliable warhead system that can be delivered Korea already has an array of short- and intermediate- with long-range ballistic missiles. However, in March range missile systems that can deliver conventional, 2005 Pyongyang claimed that it had become "a full- chemical and perhaps biological weapons. It has de- fledged nuclear-weapon state". Notwithstanding the ployed 600 to 800 short-range (300-700 km) Hwasong DIA's statement, the U.S., according to National Se- (Scud) missile variants, 150 to 200 medium-range curity Adviser Stephen Hadley, had no clear evidence (1,000-1,300 km) Nodong missiles and maybe 10 in- whether Pyongyang had a missile-capable warhead or termediate range (2,000-2,200 km) Taepodong-1 mis- not. siles. The longer-range Taepodong-2 is perhaps ready for deployment (infographic on page 10). These perception was based on an August 2003 CIA report, which said that North Korea had "validated" SOVIET AND CHINA HELPED NORTH KO- designs for "simple fission" nuclear weapons without REA: North Korea's missile development would seem conducting explosive tests. The U.S. Department of to have benefited greatly from Soviet and Chinese as- Defence defines "a simple fission weapon" as one that sistance. It began the development of rockets and mis- "could be delivered by aircraft or tactical missile" and siles in the early 1960s, with cooperation from the not an ICBM. "In the near term", a 1999 DIA report Soviet Union, which supplied surface-to-ship missiles said, North Korea would not be able to develop a and FROG-5/7 rockets. It is generally believed that the nuclear warhead lighter than 650-700 kg but it added Soviets initially declined North Korea's requests for that Taepodong-2 could deliver a 650 kg warhead to ballistic missiles in the mid-1960s, following which Alaska, Hawaii and the Pacific Northwest. Only with North Korea turned to China for ballistic missile de- a much lighter warhead most of the U. S. would come velopment. By 1970, it had begun to acquire surface- under an ICBM threat. A 1999 National Intelligence to-ship missiles, surface-to-air missiles and technical Estimate (NIE), too, said that Taepodong-2 could de- assistance from China. In September 1971, North Ko- liver a "several hundred kg" payload. According to rea and China signed an agreement for missile devel- analysts, 650 kg is about the maximum payload weight opment. However, the cooperation got under way that Taepodong-2 can deliver to parts of the U.S. sometime in 1977 when North Korean engineers par- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 20
  21. 21. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 ticipated in the joint development of DF-61, a 600-km mobile ballistic missile. After this initial training, this cooperation seems to have ended. Despite the earlier refusal, North Korea succeeded in acquiring a few Soviet Scud missiles in the early 1970s. It also received a few Scud-B (R-17) short-range (300 km) missiles from Egypt between 1976 and 1981. North Korea's reverse engineering of Scuds seems to have begun then and an indigenous version of Scud-B (Hwasong- 5) was developed and flight-tested in 1984. In 1985, Iran stepped in under a bilateral agreement to provide financial assistance for missile development in return for an offer of North Korean missiles. Experts believe that Iran's use of Scud-B during the Iran-Iraq war provided Pyongyang with flight data, thus obviating extensive testing on its own territory. Serial production of Hwasong-5 seems to have started around 1987. According to unconfirmed reports, between 1985 and 1988 the Soviet Union also delivered over 200 Scud missiles. North Korea soon undertook the development of the indigenous version of Scud-C with a longer range of 500 km, called Hwasong-6. Around 1987-1989, when serial production of Hwason-6 had started, the development of Nodong got under way. Flight tests were con- ducted successfully in May 1993. MAJOR EVENTS 1945 - After World War II, Japanese occupation of Korea ends with Soviet troops occupying the north, and US troops the south. 1946 - North Korea's Communist Party (Korean Workers' Party - KWP) inaugurated. Soviet-backed leadership installed, including Red Army-trained Kim Il-sung. 1948 - Democratic People's Republic of Korea proclaimed. Soviet troops withdraw. 1950 - South declares independence, sparking North Korean invasion. 1953 - Armistice ends Korean War, which has cost two million lives. 1992 - North Korea agreed to allow inspections by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), but over next two years refuses access to sites of suspected nuclear weapons production. 1994 - Death of Kim Il-sung. Kim Jong-il suceeded him as leader, but doesn't take presidential title. North Korea agreed to freeze nuclear programme in return for $5bn worth of free fuel and two nuclear reactors. 1995 - US formally agreed to help provide two modern nuclear reactors designed to produce less weapons-grade plutonium. Conti.. Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 21
  22. 22. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 Conti.. Six-nation talks 2002 October-December - Nuclear tensions mount. In October the US said North Korea has admitted to having a secret weapons programme. The US decided to halt oil shipments to Pyongyang. In De- cember North Korea began to reactivate its Yongbyon reactor. International inspectors had thrown out. 2003 August - Six-nation talks in Beijing on North Korea's nuclear programme failed to bridge gap between Washington and Pyongyang. October - Pyongyang saed it has reprocessed 8,000 nuclear fuel rods, obtaining enough material to make up to six nuclear bombs. 2004 April - More than 160 killed and hundreds more injured when train carrying oil and chemicals hits power line in town of Ryongchon. June - Third round of six-nation talks on nuclear programme ends inconclusively. North Korea pulls out of scheduled September round. 2005 February - Pyongyang said it has built nuclear weapons for self-defence. 2006 July - North Korea test-fired a long-range missile, and some medium-range ones, to an interna- tional outcry. Despite reportedly having the capability to hit the US, the long-range Taepodong-2 crashes shortly after take-off, US officials say. October - North Korea claimed to test a nuclear weapon for the first time. 2007 February - Six-nation talks on nuclear programme resumed in Beijing. In a last-minute deal, North Korea agreed to close its main nuclear reactor in exchange for fuel aid. May - Passenger trains crossed the North-South border for the first time in 56 years. June - International inspectors visited the Yongbyon nuclear complex for the first time since being expelled from the country in 2002. July - International Atomic Energy Agency inspectors verify shutdown of the Yongbyon reactor. August - North Korea appealed for aid after devastating floods. 2008 June - North Korea maid its long-awaited declaration of nuclear assets Oct - The US removed North Korea from its list of countries which sponsor terrorism Dec - Pyongyang slowed work to dis- mantle its nuclear programme after a US decision to suspend energy aid 2009 Jan - The North said it is scrapping all military and political deals with the South, accusing it of "hostile intent".5 April - Pyongyang launches a rocket carrying what it says is a communications satel- lite.14 April - After criticism of the launch from the UN Security Council, North Korea vowed to walk out of six-party talks. This Article is Available Online Also Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 22
  23. 23. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 Website Statistics Brief Statistics of the http://UPSCPORTAL.COM * India's Largest Online Community * 40000+ Members * 45000+ Daily Hits (1.4 Million Hits per Month) * Reach to 165+ Countries * CONTACT US : Website: Email: Contact Us: Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 23
  24. 24. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 SECTION - 5 : Hindi Article By: Sachchidanand Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 24
  25. 25. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 25
  26. 26. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 26
  27. 27. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 This Article is Available Online Also Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 27
  28. 28. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 Learn more about www.UPSCPORTAL.COM is India’s largest Online community for IAS, Civil Services Aspirants. - 40000+ Registered Members - Pan India Coaching Centers List - Access to 165 Countries Worldwide UPSCPORTAL Provides following content free of cost to all its members : - Daily GS Dose - Study Material - Previous Year Papers - Current Affairs - Topper Interviews - Online Forum - Tips & Tricks - Books Information - Exams Syllabus - Online Results - Free Downloads - Coaching Center Information - Live Community Chat and much much more... Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 28
  29. 29. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 WE NEED YOUR FEEDBACK! Please post your Feedback/Suggestions Online: Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 29
  30. 30. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 SECTION - 6 : Hot-Topics to investigate rumours that people had been falling ill Swine Flu near intensive pig farms. Attack Of New Virus H1N1 The WHO raised its pandemic alert status to level four two levels from a full pandemic - after concluding there had been sustained transmission between humans. Lev- Courtesy : els five and six reserved for when there is widespread human infection. WHO said there were a number of cases in New York "which appear to be human-to-hu- man transmission".The UN body have encouraged countries to begin intensive surveillance of possible infection and send as much information as possible to the WHO. In Mexico, swine flu has been confirmed in 20 of the 152 known deaths. In almost all cases out- side Mexico, people have been only mildly ill and have made a full recovery. New cases of the deadly swine flu virus have been confirmed in April 2009 as far afield as New Zealand Flu eins on their surface called antigens. If the immune and Israel, as the UN warned it can not be system has met a particular strain of the virus before, contained.The US, Canada, Spain and Britain con- it is likely to have some immunity; but if the antigens firmed cases earlier but no deaths have been reported are new to the immune system, it will be weakened. outside Mexico, where the virus was first reported. The influenza A virus can mutate in two different ways; Mexico has raised the number of probable deaths to antigenic drift, in which existing antigens are subtly 152, with 1,614 suspected sufferers under observation. altered, and antigenic shift, in which two or more strains UN inspectors examined reports pig farms may have combine. Antigenic drift causes slight flu mutations spread the virus. The UN's health agency, the World year on year, from which humans have partial, but not Health Organization (WHO), confirmed that the flu complete, immunity. By contrast, the new strain of had been transmitted between humans. Countries with H1N1 appears to have originated via antigenic shift in suspected cases: Brazil, Guatemala, Peru, Australia, Mexican pigs and South Korea, and seven EU states is being trans- mitted from human to human. The name "swine flu" is a slight misnomer as it is be- lieved pigs acted as a mixing pot for several flu strains, WHO PANDEMIC ALERT containing genetic material from pigs, birds and hu- mans. Most humans have never been exposed to some The EU said patients were also under observation in of the antigens involved in the new strain of flu, giv- Denmark, Sweden, Greece, the Czech Republic, Ger- ing it the potential to cause a pandemic. The new virus many, Italy and Ireland. Tests carried out on people in has made the jump from pigs to humans and has dem- Brazil, Guatemala, Peru, Australia and South Korea. onstrated it can also pass from human to human. This A number of countries in Asia, Latin America and Eu- is why it is demanding so much attention from health rope have begun screening airport passengers for symp- authorities. The virus passes from human to human toms, while Germany's biggest tour operator has sus- like other types of flu, either through coughing, sneez- pended trips to Mexico. The UN's Food and Agricul- ing, or by touching infected surfaces, although little is ture Organisation (FAO) have send a team to Mexico Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 30
  31. 31. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 known about how the virus acts on humans. that the new version of H1N1 resulted from a mixing of different versions of the virus, which may usually The new virus has made the jump from pigs to hu- affect different species, in the same animal host. Pigs mans and has demonstrated it can also pass from hu- provide an excellent 'melting pot' for these viruses to man to human. This is why it is demanding so much mix and match with each other. attention from health authorities. The virus passes from human to human like other types of flu, either through Symptoms of swine flu in humans appear to be similar coughing, sneezing, or by touching infected surfaces, to those produced by standard, seasonal flu. These in- although little is known about how the virus acts on clude fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, chills and humans. fatigue. Most cases so far reported around the world appear to be mild, but in Mexico lives have been lost. The name "swine flu" is a slight misnomer as it is be- When any new strain of flu emerges that acquires the lieved pigs acted as a mixing pot for several flu strains, ability to pass from person to person, it is monitored containing genetic material from pigs, birds and hu- very closely in case it has the potential to spark a glo- mans. Most humans have never been exposed to some bal epidemic, or pandemic. The World Health Organi- of the antigens involved in the new strain of flu, giv- zation has warned that taken together the Mexican and ing it the potential to cause a pandemic. US cases could potentially trigger a global pandemic, and stress that the situation is serious. However it is The new virus has made the jump from pigs to hu- still too early to accurately assess the situation fully. mans and has demonstrated it can also pass from hu- man to human. This is why it is demanding so much Nobody knows the full potential impact of a pandemic, attention from health authorities. The virus passes from but experts have warned that it could cost millions of human to human like other types of flu, either through lives worldwide. The Spanish flu pandemic, which coughing, sneezing, or by touching infected surfaces, began in 1918, and was also caused by an H1N1 strain, although little is known about how the virus acts on killed millions of people. The fact that all the cases in humans. the US and elsewhere have so far produced mild symp- toms is encouraging. It suggests that the severity of WHAT IS SWINE FLU the Mexican outbreak may be due to an unusual geo- Swine flu is a respiratory disease, caused by influenza graphically-specific factor - possibly a second unre- type A which infects pigs. There are many types, and lated virus circulating in the community - which would the infection is constantly changing. Until now it has be unlikely to come into play in the rest of the world. not normally infected humans, but the latest form Alternatively, people infected in Mexico may have clearly does, and can be spread from person to person sought treatment at a much later stage than those in - probably through coughing and sneezing. The World other countries. Health Organization has confirmed that at least some of the human cases are a never-before-seen version of It may also be the case that the form of the virus circu- the H1N1 strain of influenza type A. H1N1 is the same lating in Mexico is subtly different to that elsewhere - strain which causes seasonal outbreaks of flu in hu- although that will only be confirmed by laboratory mans on a regular basis. But this latest version of H1N1 analysis. There is also hope that, as humans are often is different: it contains genetic material that is typi- exposed to forms of H1N1 through seasonal flu, our cally found in strains of the virus that affect humans, immune systems may have something of a head start birds and swine. Flu viruses have the ability to swap in fighting infection. However, the fact that many of genetic components with each other, and it seems likely Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 31
  32. 32. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 the victims are young does point to something unusual. fected - should seek medical advice. Normal, seasonal flu tends to affect the elderly dispro- portionately. But patients are being asked not to go into GP surger- ies in order to minimise the risk of spreading the dis- The virus appears already to have started to spread ease to others. Instead, they should stay at home and around the world, and most experts believe that con- call their healthcare provider for advice. After the WHO tainment of the virus in the era of readily available air raised its alert level over swine flu, the Foreign and travel will be extremely difficult. Commonwealth Office began advising against all but essential travel to Mexico. According to World Health Organization that restrict- ing flights will have little effect. It argues that screen-Avoid close contact with people who appear unwell ing of passengers is also unlikely to have much im- and who have fever and cough. General infection con- pact, as symptoms may not be apparent in many in- trol practices and good hygiene can help to reduce trans- fected people. mission of all viruses, including the human swine in- fluenza. This includes covering your nose and mouth HOW IT CAN BE HANDLED when coughing or sneezing, using a tissue when pos- Two drugs commonly used to treat flu, Tamiflu and sible and disposing of it promptly. Relenza, seem to be effective at treating cases that have occurred there so far. However, the drugs must be ad- It is also important to wash your hands frequently with ministered at an early stage to be effective. Use of these soap and water to reduce the spread of the virus from drugs may also make it less likely that infected people your hands to face or to other people and cleaning hard will pass the virus on to others. It is unclear how effec- surfaces like door handles frequently using a normal tive currently available flu vaccines would be at offer- cleaning product. If caring for someone with a flu-like ing protection against the new strain, as it is geneti- illness, a mask can be worn to cover the nose and mouth cally distinct from other flu strains. to reduce the risk of transmission. US scientists are already devel- The UK is looking at increasing its stockpile of masks oping a bespoke new vaccine, for healthcare workers for this reason. But experts say but it may take months to per- there is no scientific evidence to support more general fect it, and manufacture enough wearing of masks to guard against infections. Although supplies to meet what could be there is no evidence that swine flu can be transmitted huge demand. A vaccine was through eating meat from infected animals. However, used to protect humans from a it is essential to cook meat properly. A temperature of version of swine flu in the US in 1976.However, it 70C (158F) would be sure to kill the virus. caused serious side effects, including an estimated 500 cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome. There were more deaths from the vaccine than the outbreak. PRECAUTIONS Anyone with flu-like symptoms who might have been in contact with the swine virus - such as those living or travelling in the areas of Mexico that have been af- Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 32
  33. 33. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 WHAT IS BIRD FLU The strain of bird flu which has caused scores of human deaths in South East Asia in recent years is a different strain to that responsible for the cur- rent outbreak of swine flu. The latest form of swine flu is a new type of the H1N1 strain, while bird, or avian flu, is H5N1. Experts fear H5N1 hold the potential to trigger a pandemic because of its ability to mutate rapidly. However, up until now it has remained very much a disease of birds. Those humans who have been infected have, without exception, worked closely with birds, and cases of human-to-human transmission are extremely rare - there is no suggestion that H5N1 has gained the ability to pass easily from person to person. FLU PANDEMICS In 1918 The Spanish flu pandemic remains the most devastating outbreak of modern times. Caused by a form of the H1N1 strain of flu, it is estimated that up to 40% of the world's population were infected, and more than 50 million people died, with young adults particularly badly affected In 1957 Asian flu killed two million people. Caused by a human form of the virus, H2N2, combining with a mutated strain found in wild ducks. The impact of the pandemic was minimised by rapid action by health authorities, who identified the virus, and made vac- cine available speedily. The elderly were particularly vulnerable In 1968 An outbreak first detected in Hong Kong, and caused by a strain known as H3N2, killed up to one million people globally, with those over 65 most likely to die. This Article is Available Online Also Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 33
  34. 34. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 INDIAN SPY SATELLITE RISAT-2 and ANUSAT SUCCESSFULLY PLACED IN ORBIT In its fifteenth mission car- (IMP) Get UPSCPORTAL , Jobs, Results, No- ried out from Satish tification Alerts on Email. Dhawan Space Centre SHAR (SDSC SHAR), Step-1: Fill Your Email address in form below. Sriharikota on April 20, you will get a confirmation email within 10 min. 2009 ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV- Step-2: Varify your email by clicking on the link C12) successfully placed Courtesy : ISRO.ORG in the email. (check Inbox and Spam folders) two satellites - RISAT-2 and ANUSAT - in the desired orbit. RISAT-2 is a Radar Step-3: Done! you will recieve alerts regularly on Imaging Satellite with the capability to take images of your email. the earth during day and night as well as cloudy condi- tions. At the time of launch, RISAT-2 weighed about 300 kg and was realised by ISRO in association with Is- rael Aerospace Industries. The satellite was placed in an Click here for Newsletter: orbit of 550 km height with an inclination of 41 deg to the equator and an orbital period of about 90 minutes. This satellite will enhance ISRO’s capability for earth ob- servation, especially during floods, cyclones, landslides and in disaster management in a more effective way. The 44 metre tall PSLV-C12 weighing 230 ton was launched from the Second Launch Pad (SLP) at SDSC SHAR in the Core Alone configuration without the use of six solid strap-ons. In this mission, in addition to RISAT-2, PSLV also carried A 40 kg micro satellite named ANUSAT, built by Anna University, Chennai. ANUSAT is the first experimental communication sat- ellite built by an Indian University under the over all guidance of ISRO and will demonstrate the technolo- gies related to message store and forward operations. In this flight, PSLV carried the indigenously developed Advanced Mission Computers and Advanced Telem- etry System, which guided the vehicle from lift-off till Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 34
  35. 35. Aspirants Times | Vol.2 May 2009 the injection of the two sat- based solid propellant. PSLV’s first stage is one of the ellites in the desired orbit. largest solid propellant boosters in the world. Its sec- ond and fourth stages use liquid propellants. PSLV- The main payload, RISAT- C12 was launched without the six strapons in its ‘core 2, was the first satellite to be alone’ configuration. PSLV-C12 weighs about 230 separated in orbit at 1100 tonnes at lift off. seconds after lift-off at an altitude of 550 km. With It may be recalled that PSLV in its core alone configu- this successful launch, the ration had launched AGILE and TECSAR during 2007 versatility and the reliability and 2008 respectively. RISAT-2 is a Radar Imaging of PSLV has been proved Courtesy : ISRO.ORG Satellite with all weather capability to take images of again underscoring its im- the earth. This Satellite will enhance ISRO’s capabil- portance as the workhorse launch vehicle of India. This ity for Disaster Management applications,ANUSAT launch was the fourteenth consecutive success for PSLV. (Anna University Satellite) is the first satellite built by In these launches, PSLV has placed a total of sixteen an Indian University under the over all guidance of Indian satellites and sixteen foreign satellites into Polar, ISRO and will demonstrate the technologies related to Geosynchronous Transfer and Low Earth Orbits. It may message store and forward operations“ be recalled that during its previous mission on October 22, 2008, PSLV had successfully launched Chandrayaan- 1 spacecraft, which is now exploring the moon from lu- HISTORY OF ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE nar orbit. The first artificial satellite was Sputnik 1, launched by FEATURES OF PSLV, the Soviet Union on 4 October 1957, and initiating the RISAT-2 AND ANUSAT Soviet Sputnik program, with Sergei Korolev as chief designer and Kerim Kerimov as his assistant. This in PSLV is a four-stage launch vehicle employing both turn triggered the Space Race between the Soviet Union solid and liquid propulsion stages. PSLV is the trusted and the United States. workhorse launch Vehicle of ISRO. During 1993-2008 period, PSLV had fourteen launches of which thirteen Sputnik 1 helped to identify the density of high atmo- were consecutively successful. PSLV has repeatedly spheric layers through measurement of its orbital proved its reliability and versatility by launching 32 change and provided data on radio-signal distribution spacecrafts (16Indian and 16 for international custom- in the ionosphere. Because the satellite's body was filled ers) into a variety of orbits so far. It may be recalled with pressurized nitrogen, Sputnik 1 also provided the that during its previous mission on October 22, 2008, first opportunity for meteoroid detection, as a loss of PSLV had successfully launched Chandrayaan-1 space- internal pressure due to meteoroid penetration of the craft, which is now exploring the Moon from lunar outer surface would have been evident in the tempera- orbit. ture data sent back to Earth. The unanticipated an- nouncement of Sputnik 1's success precipitated the In its standard configuration, the 44 m tall PSLV has a Sputnik crisis in the United States and ignited the so- lift-off mass of 295 tonne. It is a four-stage launch ve- called Space Race within the Cold War.Sputnik 2 was hicle with the first and the third stages as well as the launched on November 3, 1957 and carried the first six strap-ons surrounding the first stage using HTPB Copyright © 2009 WWW.UPSCPORTAL.COM 35