Effect of language in learning college organic chemistry
EFFECTS OF LANGUAGE INLEARNING COLLEGE ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Dr. Marilou M. Saong University of Baguio Dr. Amelia E. PunzalanUniversity of the Philippines National Institute for Science and Mathematics Education Development August 2012
EFFECTS OF LANGUAGE IN LEARNING COLLEGE ORGANIC CHEMISTRYThis presentation is based on the University of thePhilippines Open University Doctoral Dissertation ofthe first author entitled Effects of Language andOther Correlates in Learning College Chemistry andpresented during the 3rd International Conference:Filipino as Global Language held in DLSU, Manila,Philippines in August 2012. Please send communication to: email@example.com
Introduction Bernardo (2007) - holistic understanding of the socio-psycholinguistic reality of multilingualism in the Philippines make teaching and learning in Philippine schools, colleges, and universities empowering efficient use of language in communication on the part of the students
Objectives of the Study a basis in developing a language model in teaching and learning tertiary level organic chemistry particularly in Baguio City a foundation among policy makers to create a language and education policy explicitly in favor of Filipino college students in learning science
A school-based model ofscience learning (Guo, 2007)
Effects of BilingualInstruction Cummins (1981) balanced bilinguals who learned their languages in additive learning environment had cognitive advantage over monolinguals or those who have learned mathematics in the first language
Effects of BilingualInstructionthose who begin school in their first language with careful bridging with the two second languages emerge as more competent in all areas of study than the children who do not (Quijano, 2010) MLE in the Philippines: History and Possibilities
Importance of Mother Tongue-Based Schooling forEducational Quality (Benson, 2004) facilitated bilingualism and biliteracy classroom participation, positive attitude and increased self-esteem valorization of the home language and culture increased parent participation increased participation of girls
Mother Tongue Based MultilingualEducation in the PhilippinesIloilo Experiments (1948-54 and 1961- 64)Rizal Experiment (1960-66)First Language Component-Bridging Program (1986-93) in Ifugao ProvinceLingua Franca Project (1999-2001)
Mother Tongue Based MultilingualEducation in the Philippines Culture-Responsive Curriculum for Indigenous People –Third Elementary Education Project (CCIP-TEEP) case study (2003-07) Lubuagan First Language Component (FLC) multilingual education (MLE) (1998 to present)
Mother Tongue Based MultilingualEducation in the Philippines Borbon (1992) - effectiveness of Filipino and English as media of instruction in developing science enquiry skills Gabriel (2002) - comprehensible input strategies and pedagogical moves using Filipino or English as medium of instruction, and relate them to mathematics achievement
Mother Tongue Based MultilingualEducation in the Philippines Pitpit (2004) - codeswitching (CS) as a communication strategy is more effective than the use of pure English in terms of the mastery of concepts and effective communication Inducfiro (1994) - use of CS communication strategy in Science, its effects on pupils’ achievement, attitude and class participation in a Grade IV exclusive girls’ school.
Mother Tongue Based MultilingualEducation in the Philippines
Mother Tongue Based MultilingualEducation in the Philippines Reyes (2004) - explain the performance of students in the English and Filipino versions of a mathematics test, consisted of 21 first year high school classes Ocampo (2002) - investigated literacy development and difficulties in the context of bilingualism involving 6 to 13 y/o children bilinguals in English and Filipino
Sample Language Spoken at Home Frequency (%) Experimental Group Control GroupTagalog and other languages 22 (81.48) 25 (86.21)like Ilocano, English, etc.Ilocano only plus other languages 4 (14.81) 2 (6.90)Kapampangan only 1 (3.70) 0 (0.00)Twali only plus other languages 0 (0.00) 1 (3.45)Kankana-ey only 0 (0.00) 1 (3.45)
Instruments 17 instruments Reliability – Test-retest, Cronbach Alpha, KR20, Inter-rater reliability Chemistry Diagnostic Test based on the major topics in general and inorganic chemistry syllabus
Instruments Demographic Questionnaire determine students’ age, ethnic background, parents’ highest educational attainment and language/s spoken at home
Instruments Language of Learning and Instruction Interview Guide determine preferred language in teaching organic chemistry and the language in learning organic chemistry
Instruments Seven quizzes and three examinations determine the academic performance of the two groups consisted of all topics in organic chemistry
Instruments English and Filipino Proficiency Testsconsist of grammar, vocabulary and reading comprehensionEnglish proficiency test is adapted from Transparent Language®Filipino proficiency test is researcher made
Results and Analysis English Proficiency TestClass N Mean Descriptive SD t-value Significance Interpretation level (2- tailed)Experimental Group 27 77.97 High 13.22 -.149 .882*Control Group 29 78.49 High 12.93
Results and Analysis Filipino Proficiency Test Class N Mean Descriptive SD t-value Significance Interpretation level (2-tailed)Experimental 27 74.46 High 10.42Group .364 .718*Control Group 29 73.41 High 11.17
Results and Analysis Language PreferenceLanguage Teaching Learning Frequency (%) Experimental Control Group Experimental Control Group Group GroupEnglish 3 (11.11) 11 (37.93) 5 (18.52) 16 (55.17)Bilingual 21 16 20 12 (77.78) (55.17) (74.07) (41.38)Filipino 3 (11.11) 2 (6.90) 2 ( 7.40) 1 (3.45)Total 27 (100) 29 (100) 27 (100) 29 (100)
Results and Analysis Scientific IdeaEssay Experimental Control Group t-value SignificanceQuestion Group Mean Mean Score level (2-tailed) Score1 87.04 80.00 2.86 .006*2 88.15 83.22 1.13 .264Over-all 87.70 82.62 1.78 .081Mean
Results and Analysis Academic AchievementClass N CDT Sig. AP Mean Sig. AA Sig. Mean (2-tailed) (2- Mean (2-tailed) tailed) (CDT – AP)Experimental 27 43.80 65.51 .500 -21.71Group .033* .004*Control Group 29 53.88 62.98 -9.10
Correlation Analysis(Experimental Group)Correlation Pearson Descriptive Significance Interpretation (2-tailed) (Relationship)English Proficiency .461 Moderate .015*Filipino Proficiency .621 Strong .001*Attitude Towards Science .229 Weak .252Chemistry Diagnostic Test .539 Moderate .004*Language Preference forTeaching Bilingual .250 Weak .209 English -.050 Very Weak .803Language of Learning Bilingual .330 Weak .093 English -.140 Very Weak .485
Correlation Analysis(Control Group)Correlation Pearson Descriptive Interpretation Significance (2-tailed) (Relationship)English Proficiency .578 Moderate .001*Filipino Proficiency .293 Weak .123Attitude Towards .475 Moderate .009*ScienceChemistry Diagnostic .523 Moderate .004*TestLanguage Preference forTeaching -.169 Very Weak .380 Bilingual .273 Weak .153 EnglishLanguage of Learning Bilingual .010 Very Weak .960 English .016 Very Weak .934
Path Analysis The positive correlation between English and Filipino proficiency is consistent with the “developmental interdependence hypothesis” by Cummins (1981). bilingual students’ first and second languages acted on each other.
Path Analysis Ocampo (2002) – although literacy development in English and Filipino seems to progress at different rates, underlying skills in literacy show a high degree of cross-language interdependence.
Conclusions There was a significant difference between the mean scores of the control and experimental group in the Chemistry Diagnostic Test.
Conclusions There were no significant differences between the performances of the control and experimental groups in the English Proficiency Test, Filipino Proficiency Test, Scientific Attitude Survey and Scientific idea test.
Conclusions There was a significant difference in the academic achievement in organic chemistry between the control and experimental groups based on the language of instruction used in class.
Conclusions There were significant predictors of academic performance in organic chemistry and there were significant correlations between academic performance and the different variables investigated.
Recommendations 1a) Commission on Higher Education (CHED) - develop a dual language program in Baguio City employing English and Filipino languages
Recommendations To achieve higher academic performance, the bilingual program must acknowledge the contribution of the context variables
Recommendations college chemistry teachers and teacher trainees in Baguio City must be trained in order to develop adequate competencies and skills in bilingual education in terms of required language, content and methods
Recommendations policy makers and school administrators need to carry out the implementation of the bilingual program and to allocate appropriate resources for teacher training and development of instructional materials
Recommendations curriculum developers need to formulate more teaching materials for tertiary level chemistry written in the Filipino language
Recommendations undertake other studies using larger samples in other Science Education institutions in Baguio City or in the Northern part of Luzon for more conclusive databases
Recommendations CHED, curriculum developers, policy makers, school administrators, chemistry teachers and the community should be involved in the decision-making regarding implementation of bilingual schooling as well as which languages will be used and how they will be developed.