Ribosome

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Ribosome

  1. 1. RibosomeRibosome a presentation by Erin Hussona presentation by Erin Husson
  2. 2. Just a quick overview of what we’re going to cover…  What ribosome is and what its subunits are  The purpose of ribosome  The process of protein synthesis, including:  DNA to mRNA (transcription)  mRNA to protein (translation)  Initiation  Elongation  End of translation
  3. 3. Just a quick overview of what we’re going to cover…  Structures of the two ribosome subunits  The larger subunit  The smaller subunit  RNA’s relation to their structure
  4. 4. What is ribosome?  Ribosome - protein synthesizer consisting of two subunits  Larger one, “50S”, is upper picture. Smaller is “30S” (They look the same size here because of space restrictions.)
  5. 5. 50S and 30S???  Related to their respective sizes. Numbers actually measures of how quickly each subunit sinks to the bottom of a container of liquid when spun in a centrifuge  One subunit smaller than other, but both are larger than average protein
  6. 6. A couple more nifty pictures…  50S (left) and 30S. This time you can see them from different angles, through different style of picture
  7. 7. So what’s the purpose of ribosome?  Ribosome basically a protein factory. Subunits each have role in making of proteins  To understand exactly what each subunit does, it’s necessary to walk through protein synthesis step by step
  8. 8. Protein synthesis  Process starts from DNA through “transcription”  “Translation” is where ribosome comes in. Translation occurs when protein formed from code on mRNA  Ribosome carries out the translation of the nucleotide triplets
  9. 9. Protein synthesis  Chart - visual image of transcription and translation in protein synthesizing  DNA and RNA have nucleotides that determine kind of protein  3 nucleotides = 1 amino acid of a protein
  10. 10. Ribosome and RNA  mRNA with code for proteins located at 30S subunit  tRNAs responsible for carrying amino acids to mRNA. Each tRNA has own nucleotide triplet which binds to matching triplet on mRNA, ex., tRNA with code AAA (triple adenine) would match up with mRNA that has code UUU (triple uracil)
  11. 11. Initiation: The first phase of translation  Translation begins when mRNA attaches to the 30S  tRNA comes and binds to mRNA where nucleotide code matches  This triggers 50S binding to 30S. 50S is where all tRNAs will bind. Now we move on to elongation
  12. 12. Elongation: The second phase  Two binding sites on 50S: A site and P site, which aid in continuing translation  First tRNA connected at A site. Now moves to P site as another tRNA approaches  Second tRNA binds to A site
  13. 13. Elongation (continued)  Peptide bond forms between amino acids of tRNAs (methionine and proline)  First tRNA now detached from its amino acid, and it leaves ribosome. Second tRNA still has proline and methionine attached
  14. 14. Elongation (continued)  The tRNA left now moves to P site. Ribosome ready to accept another tRNA and continue process  Each tRNA adds another amino acid to growing peptide chain (thus “elongation”)  Eventually process has to finish, however…
  15. 15. End of translation  Ribosome was moving along nucleotide triplets one by one  Ribosome reaches “stop codon,” peptide chain finished. Last tRNA leaves ribosome, leaving behind completed peptide chain
  16. 16. End of translation (continued)  Ribosome separates from mRNA  Ribosome subunits also separate, and will remain this way until another mRNA comes along to restart the process
  17. 17. Still awake? It’s Pop Quiz Time!!!  Here’s a little quiz on what we’ve covered so far, just to keep your brain alert.  First question…  What are the two subunits of ribosome known as, and which is which?  Answer: 50S (the larger one) and 30S (the smaller one)
  18. 18. Another question…  (This one’s multiple choice!)  The process of converting code on the mRNA into a protein is called…?  A. Transition  B. Transduction  C. Translation  D. Transcription
  19. 19. And now…  That’s the end of the quiz (whew)!  Any questions so far?  Okay, that’s taken care of. And now, without further ado, we move on to…
  20. 20. Structures of the subunits  50S and 30S besides difference in size, also have somewhat different structures  Both are rather complicated, since they’re much larger than average protein  We’ll cover structure of 50S first
  21. 21. The 50S subunit  This part of ribosome contains site where new peptide bonds are formed when proteins are synthesized  mRNA would be located horizontally in groove across middle  To help with protein synthesis, subunit uses adenine RNA nucleotide, shown by green dot in center
  22. 22. The 50S subunit  This part of ribosome contains site where new peptide bonds are formed when proteins are synthesized  mRNA would be located horizontally in groove across middle  To help with protein synthesis, subunit uses adenine RNA nucleotide, shown by green dot in center
  23. 23. The 50S subunit  50S made of two RNA strands: a long one, shown in an orangey color, and shorter one, shown in yellow  Blue things in the picture are a few of many proteins that have bound to ribosome’s surface  Many of proteins have long tails that go inside ribosome and keep the RNA strands in place
  24. 24. A bit more on 50S…  50S is quite rigid, folded and packed so well that it’s virtually immobile within its structure  Contrasts with structure of 30S, which we’ll now move to
  25. 25. The 30S subunit  Unlike 50S, 30S is fairly flexible  It needs to have movable regions because, when it shifts from one mRNA nucleotide triplet to another, movement is necessary to aid this process  30S controls flow of information during protein synthesis
  26. 26. The 30S subunit  30S finds an mRNA and then makes sure that each tRNA is matched up correctly on mRNA  It’s been suggested that mRNA enters through small hole in 30S (shown here in center of left side)
  27. 27. The 30S subunit  30S finds an mRNA and then makes sure that each tRNA is matched up correctly on mRNA  It’s been suggested that mRNA enters through small hole in 30S (shown here in center of left side)
  28. 28. The 30S subunit  mRNA then extends up into the place where translation occurs, located in cleft between top part, “head”, and bottom part, “body”
  29. 29. Structure and RNA  Recently discovered - about two-thirds of ribosome’s mass made up of RNA  Most important functions of ribosome performed by RNA. This has been found because of atomic knowledge of structures of 50S and 30S and their assemblage into 70S (One might logically think it to be 80S, but it really isn’t)
  30. 30. Concluding…  Although a good amount of progress has been made in figuring out structures of 50S and 30S, there is probably still a lot that hasn’t been deciphered yet  It’s somewhat difficult to find out structures because, as mentioned earlier, they’re relatively large. Hopefully more will be discovered about them in the future
  31. 31. Guess what… It’s Quiz Time again!  This is the last one, I promise. It’s a piece of cake anyway…well, if you were paying attention, that is.  Ribosome is primarily made up of…?  A. DNA  B. RNA  C. Proteins  Glad that’s over, huh? Now to summarize what we covered…
  32. 32. To summarize…  Ribosome: protein synthesizer consisting of two subunits, 50S and 30S  Protein synthesis starts from DNA, which carries the code for making the proteins. The DNA is converted to mRNA by “transcription”, and mRNA, in turn, is converted to protein by “translation”  Ribosome translates nucleotide triplets on mRNA into proteins
  33. 33. To summarize…  tRNAs carry amino acids to ribosome to be linked together by the ribosome. One by one, they bind to the ribosome, add their amino acid to the chain, and then depart  50S and 30S made primarily of RNA and are both larger than the average protein. 50S has rather rigid structure, while 30S has fairly flexible one. Not all about them has been discovered yet, but significant progress has been made in that respect
  34. 34. The EndThe End That’s a wrap!That’s a wrap! Any questions?Any questions?

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