Cilia and flagella
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  • 1. Cilia and FlagellaCilia and Flagella Structure and Function inStructure and Function in EukaryotesEukaryotes By Justin Robbins and KatrinaBy Justin Robbins and Katrina TruebenbachTruebenbach
  • 2. OverviewOverview  Cilia and Flagella areCilia and Flagella are organelles that areorganelles that are primarily used for theprimarily used for the transportation of the cell.transportation of the cell. They propel the cell byThey propel the cell by flicking back and forth.flicking back and forth.  Cilia are short andCilia are short and reminiscent of hairs.reminiscent of hairs. There are many per cell.There are many per cell.  Flagella are longer andFlagella are longer and there are far fewer perthere are far fewer per cell. They are reminiscentcell. They are reminiscent of a tail.of a tail.
  • 3. Real-life Examples:Real-life Examples: EukaryotesEukaryotes  Most common in single-celled organismsMost common in single-celled organisms (protists).(protists).  However, some multi-cellular organisms haveHowever, some multi-cellular organisms have cilia and flagella.cilia and flagella.  Human windpipe cells and some lung cells have ciliaHuman windpipe cells and some lung cells have cilia to clean the respiratory system of breathing hazards.to clean the respiratory system of breathing hazards.  Fish have cilia to help bring water through the gills.Fish have cilia to help bring water through the gills.  Many types of sperm have flagella to help them move.Many types of sperm have flagella to help them move.
  • 4. Structure: 9+2 PatternStructure: 9+2 Pattern  Cilia or flagella is composed ofCilia or flagella is composed of microtubules that are encased in amicrotubules that are encased in a plasma membrane. This bundle ofplasma membrane. This bundle of microtubules is called the axoneme.microtubules is called the axoneme.  A plasma membrane is made of lipidsA plasma membrane is made of lipids and proteins and is essentially the sameand proteins and is essentially the same as a normal cell membrane.as a normal cell membrane.  There are 9 pairs of connectedThere are 9 pairs of connected microtubules in a circle towards themicrotubules in a circle towards the outside edge of the cilia/flagella. Theseoutside edge of the cilia/flagella. These are called the outer microtubuleare called the outer microtubule doublets.doublets.  The outer microtubules are connectedThe outer microtubules are connected to each other in a ring with cross-linksto each other in a ring with cross-links (not pictured).(not pictured).  The outer microtubules also connect toThe outer microtubules also connect to the center structure with radial spokes.the center structure with radial spokes.  These outer microtubules surroundThese outer microtubules surround another pair of central microtubules,another pair of central microtubules, which are not connected.which are not connected.
  • 5. Structure: Basal BodyStructure: Basal Body  The 9+2 patternThe 9+2 pattern continues throughout thecontinues throughout the entire organelle until theentire organelle until the base.base.  The base is called theThe base is called the Basal Body. It is theBasal Body. It is the foundation of the cilia orfoundation of the cilia or flagella and is embeddedflagella and is embedded in the cell membrane.in the cell membrane.  It does not have a pair ofIt does not have a pair of central microtubules.central microtubules. Instead, it has nineInstead, it has nine triplets of microtubules.triplets of microtubules.
  • 6. How They Work: Dynein ArmsHow They Work: Dynein Arms  Each of the outer microtubule pairsEach of the outer microtubule pairs have a set of dynein, a functionalhave a set of dynein, a functional protein, arms.protein, arms.  These arms change shape andThese arms change shape and subsequently create a sliding force,subsequently create a sliding force, therefore moving the tubule pairs.therefore moving the tubule pairs.  Since the pairs are held togetherSince the pairs are held together with cross-links and are anchored inwith cross-links and are anchored in the cell membrane, thethe cell membrane, the microtubules bend as a result of thismicrotubules bend as a result of this force.force.  If they were not held together, theIf they were not held together, the force exerted would cause the twoforce exerted would cause the two doublets to slip past each other.doublets to slip past each other.  This bending motion makes the ciliaThis bending motion makes the cilia or flagella to flick back and forth,or flagella to flick back and forth, therefore propelling the celltherefore propelling the cell forwards.forwards.
  • 7. How They Work: ATPHow They Work: ATP  The change of shapeThe change of shape of the dynein arms isof the dynein arms is powered by ATP.powered by ATP.  ATP, or Adenine-Tri-ATP, or Adenine-Tri- Phosphate, isPhosphate, is molecule that mostmolecule that most cells use as theircells use as their main energy source.main energy source.
  • 8. Differences in Motion:Differences in Motion: single-celled organismssingle-celled organisms  Cilia movement is well timed with eachCilia movement is well timed with each other and propel the organism in a wave-other and propel the organism in a wave- like motion.like motion.  Flagella in eukaryotes give the organismFlagella in eukaryotes give the organism smoother movement.smoother movement.  Flagella in prokaryotes rotate, like a motor.Flagella in prokaryotes rotate, like a motor.
  • 9. Primary CiliaPrimary Cilia  Primary Cilium are an alternate type of cilia.Primary Cilium are an alternate type of cilia. They do not aid in motion and are thereforeThey do not aid in motion and are therefore referred to as immotile cilia.referred to as immotile cilia.  Primary cilia do not have central microtubules.Primary cilia do not have central microtubules. They have a 9+0 structure.They have a 9+0 structure.  They have sensory functions.They have sensory functions.  Examples: monitoring flow in the kidneys andExamples: monitoring flow in the kidneys and detecting smells.detecting smells.  Defects in kidney primary cilia can lead toDefects in kidney primary cilia can lead to kidney disease.kidney disease.
  • 10. SourcesSources  Campbell, Mitchell, and Reece. "Cilia and Flagella Move When Microtubules Bend."Campbell, Mitchell, and Reece. "Cilia and Flagella Move When Microtubules Bend." Biology: Concepts and ConnectionsBiology: Concepts and Connections. 3rd ed. Reading, Massachusetts:. 3rd ed. Reading, Massachusetts: Benjamin/Cummings, 2000. 65. Print.Benjamin/Cummings, 2000. 65. Print.  Campbell, Mitchell, and Reece. "Glossary." Campbell, Mitchell, and Reece. "Glossary." Biology: Concepts and ConnectionsBiology: Concepts and Connections. 3rd. 3rd ed. Reading, Massachusetts: Benjamin/Cummings, 2000. G-18. Print.ed. Reading, Massachusetts: Benjamin/Cummings, 2000. G-18. Print.  Cilia and FlagellaCilia and Flagella. Photograph. University of Illinois. Web. 21 Nov. 2010.. Photograph. University of Illinois. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. <http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lectf03am/cilia_flagella.jpg>.<http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lectf03am/cilia_flagella.jpg>.  Davidson, Michael W. "Cilia and Flagella."Davidson, Michael W. "Cilia and Flagella." Molecular ExpressionsMolecular Expressions. Florida State. Florida State University, 13 Dec. 2004. Web. 21 Nov. 2010.University, 13 Dec. 2004. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. <http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/ciliaandflagella/ciliaandflagella.html>.<http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/cells/ciliaandflagella/ciliaandflagella.html>.  Diagrams of Cilia and Flagella. Digital image.Diagrams of Cilia and Flagella. Digital image. Both Brains and BeautyBoth Brains and Beauty. Web.. Web. <http://www.bothbrainsandbeauty.com/academic-discussions/cilia-vs-flagella-<http://www.bothbrainsandbeauty.com/academic-discussions/cilia-vs-flagella-461>.461>.  Diagrams of Dynein Arms. Digital image. University of Illinois. Web. 21 Nov. 2010.Diagrams of Dynein Arms. Digital image. University of Illinois. Web. 21 Nov. 2010. <http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lectures/07_35_flagellas_bend-<http://www.uic.edu/classes/bios/bios100/lectures/07_35_flagellas_bend- L.jpg>.L.jpg>.  Kimball, John W. "Cilia and Flagella."Kimball, John W. "Cilia and Flagella." Kimball's Biology PagesKimball's Biology Pages. 28 July 2007. Web. 21. 28 July 2007. Web. 21 Jan. 2010.Jan. 2010. <http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/Cilia.html>.<http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/Cilia.html>.