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Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
Leadership 1 (theories)
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Leadership 1 (theories)

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  • 1. Leadership<br />theories<br />
  • 2. Leadership<br />theories<br />
  • 3. What is Leadership?<br />A Small Story<br />Trait Theory<br />Relationship Between Trait and Behavior<br />Personality<br />Measures of Personality<br />Difference Between Leaders and Managers<br />Behavioral Theories<br />Ohio States Study<br />University Of Michigan Studies<br />The Managerial Grid<br />Topics Covered<br />
  • 4. Contingency Theories<br /><ul><li>Fiedler Model
  • 5. Cognitive Resource Theory
  • 6. Hershey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory
  • 7. Leader-Member Exchange Theory
  • 8. Path-Goal Theory
  • 9. Leader-Participation Model
  • 10. Conclusion
  • 11. Bibliography</li></ul>Topics Covered (Cont.)<br />
  • 12. What is leadership ?<br /> Leadership :-<br />Leadership is the ability to influence an individual or a group of individual towards the achievement of a predefined goals.<br />Leadership <br />
  • 13. A group of workers and their leaders are set a task of clearing a road through a dense jungle on a remote island to get to the coast where an estuary provides a perfect site for a port. <br />The leaders organise the labour into efficient units and monitor the distribution and use of capital assets – progress is excellent. The leaders continue to monitor and evaluate progress, making adjustments along the way to ensure the progress is maintained and efficiency increased wherever possible. <br />Then, one day amidst all the hustle and bustle and activity, one person climbs up a nearby tree. The person surveys the scene from the top of the tree.<br />A Leadership Story:<br />
  • 14. And shouts down to the assembled group below…<br />“Wrong Way!”<br />(Story adapted from Stephen Covey (2004) “The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People” Simon & Schuster).<br />“Management is doing things right, leadership is doing the right things”<br />(Warren Bennis and Peter Drucker) said by them<br />A Leadership Story:<br />
  • 15. Difference Between Leader and Manager<br />
  • 16. Difference Between Leader and Manager (Cont…)<br />
  • 17. ‘Not all leaders are manager and, for that matter,<br /> not all managers are leaders.’<br />
  • 18. What is trait theory ?<br />Traits Theory :-<br />Differentiate leader from non leader by focusing on there personal qualities and characteristics. personal qualities like charismatic , courageous etc.<br />Trait Theory<br />
  • 19. What is Personality ? <br />Personality isthe complex of all the attributes-- behavioral, temperamental, emotional and mental--that characterize a unique individual. <br />Personality <br />
  • 20. Extroversion :- this dimension captures ones comfort level with relationship . These people tend to be gregarious, assertive and social. <br />Agreeableness :- this dimension refers to an individual propensity to defer to other .Highly agreeable persons are cooperative ,warm and trusting.<br />The Big Five (measures of personality)<br />
  • 21. Conscientiousness :- This dimension is a measure of reliability a highly conscientious person is responsible , organized and dependable<br />Emotional stability :- This dimension taps the ability of person to handle stress.<br />Openness to experience: - This dimension address one’s range of interest and fascination with novelty .<br />
  • 22. People are born with inherited traits.<br />Certain physical, social and personal traits are inherent in leaders.<br />You should look for people with the “right” traits when looking to fill leadership roles. <br />Assumptions: To trait theory <br />
  • 23. Physical Traits:<br /> Being young to middle-aged<br /> Energetic<br /> Tall<br /> Handsome<br />Social Background Traits:<br />Educated at the “right” school<br />Socially prominent <br />Upwardly mobile<br />Types<br />
  • 24. Social Traits:<br />Charismatic<br />Charming<br />Tactful<br />Popular<br />Cooperative<br />Diplomatic<br />Personality Traits:<br /> Self-Confidence<br /> Adaptable<br /> Assertive<br /> Emotionally-stable <br />Types(cont..)<br />
  • 25. It is found that people with some special characteristics & quality generally establishes them self as leaders . <br /> leaders like Mahatma Gandhi who was often recognized as charismatic ,enthusiastic and courageous person . <br />Relationship between traits & leadership <br />
  • 26. Traits that are consistent determinants of leadership success:<br />1.Emotional stability and composure: Remaining calm, confident and predictable, particularly when under stress. <br />2.Willingness to admit to errors: Owning up to mistakes, rather than putting energy into covering up. <br />3.Interpersonal skills: Ability to communicate and persuade others without resorting to negative or coercive tactics. <br />4.Intellectual breadth: Ability to understand a wide range of areas, rather than having a narrow (and narrow minded) area of expertise. <br />Relationship between traits & leadership (cont..)<br />
  • 27. Initially examined leadership in only one context.<br />Assumed the traits observed were inherent, not learned .<br />Have yet to identify a set of traits that will consistently separate leaders from followers. <br />Drawbacks of trait theory <br />
  • 28. BEHAVIORALTHEORIES<br />
  • 29. Failure of trait theory led researchers to go in different directions<br />These were theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from non-leaders<br />Researchers wondered if there was something unique in the way that effective leaders behave.<br />If yes, then we can implant these behavioral patters to individual and make them effective leaders.<br />
  • 30. Trait theory<br />Based on selection<br />Leaders are born rather than made<br />Behavioral theory<br />We could train people to be leaders<br />To implant behavior patters in individuals to make effective leaders<br />BASIC ASSUMPTION<br />
  • 31. Behavioral theories include a number of studies that looked at the behavioral styles or skills exhibited by the leaders or they have in them . <br /> 1.The Ohio state leadership studies<br /> 2. The university of Michigan studies<br /> 3. The managerial grid<br />
  • 32. Research began at Ohio state university in late 1940’s<br />To identify independent dimensions of leader behavior.<br />Resulted in two dimensions:<br />Initiating structure<br />consideration<br />OHIO STATE STUDIES<br />
  • 33. INITIATING STRUCTURE - the extend to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinate in the search for goal attainment<br />CONSIDERATION - the extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust ,respect for subordinates’ ideas , and regards for their feelings.<br />
  • 34. High on one dimension does not mean low on another<br />Followers of leaders high in consideration were more satisfied , motivated and had respect for their leaders<br />Leaders high in initiating structure increased organizations productivity and performance.<br />CONCLUSION OF OHIO STUDIES<br />
  • 35. Objective= to locate behavioral characteristics of leaders that appeared to be related to measure of performance effectiveness<br />Came up with two-dimension of leadership behavior<br />Employee-oriented<br />Production-oriented<br />UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN STUDIES<br />
  • 36. Employee-oriented--- emphasizing interpersonal relations; taking a personal interests in the needs of employees; and accepting individual differences among members<br />Production-oriented --- one who emphasizes technical or task aspect of the job <br />Closely related to Ohio state dimensions<br />Employee oriented = consideration<br />Production oriented = initiating structure<br />
  • 37. Favored the leaders who were employee-oriented in behavior .<br />Recommended only one dimension important for a manger to be successful<br /> i.e. employee-oriented leadership (or consideration)<br />CONCLUSION OF MICHIGAN RESEARCHERS<br />
  • 38. A graphic portrayal of two-dimensional view of leadership styles<br />Developed by Blake and Mouton<br />Based on the styles of “concern for people” and “concern for production”<br />It doesn’t tell us why a manager falls into one part or another grid<br />Helps in understanding both the Ohio studies and the Michigan university studies<br />THE MANAGERIAL GRID<br />
  • 39. THE MANAGERIAL GRID<br /> <- Concern for people -><br /> 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 <br />1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9<br />Concern for production-><br />
  • 40. It’s a 9 by 9 matrix outlining the 81 different leadership styles.<br />(1,1) – impoverished manager<br />(1,9) – manger who seeks “cheap popularity”<br />(5,5) – middle of the road manager<br />(9,1) – task master <br />(9,9) – team manager , ideal manager<br />99.5% researchers say that 9.9 style is the soundest way to manage<br />
  • 41. Contingency theories of leadership focus on particular variables related to the environment that might determine which particular style of leadership is best suited for the situation. <br />According to this theory, no one leadership style is best in all situations. Success depends upon a number of variables, including the leadership style, qualities of the followers, and aspects of the situation.<br />Contingency Theory<br />
  • 42. <ul><li>Fiedler Contingency Model
  • 43. Cognitive Resource Theory
  • 44. Hershey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory
  • 45. Leader-Member Exchange Theory
  • 46. Path-Goal Theory
  • 47. Leader-Participation Model</li></ul>Contingency Theories<br />
  • 48. The Fiedler contingency model proposes that effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader.<br />Fiedler Model<br />
  • 49. Fiedler Model<br />Identifying Leadership Styles<br />Defining The Situation<br />Leader-Member Relations<br />Task Structure<br />Position Power<br />Matching Leaders and Situations<br />Evaluation<br />
  • 50. Identifying Leadership Style<br /><ul><li>Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC)
  • 51. It Purports to measure if a person is task oriented or relationship oriented.
  • 52. The LPC Questionnaire consists of 16 sets of adjectives (such as pleasant and unpleasant, efficient and inefficient, supportive and hostile etc.)
  • 53. Rating the Least Preferred Co-Worker on scale of 1 to 8 for each set(16) of adjective.
  • 54. Determining leadership style by:
  • 55. A High LPC Score ---------- Relationship Oriented.
  • 56. A Low LPC Score ---------- Task Oriented</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Fiedler assumes that an individual’s Leadership Style is fixed.
  • 57. This is Important because it means that if a situation requires a task-oriented leader and the person is relationship oriented leader, either the situation has to be modified or the leader replaced if optimal effectiveness is to be achieved.</li></li></ul><li>Defining the Situation<br /><ul><li>Three Contingency dimensions as defined by Fiedler are as follows :</li></ul>Leader-Member Relations:<br />The Degree of confidence, trust and respect members have in there leader.<br />Task Structure:<br />The Degree to which the job assignments are procedurized<br />(i.e. Structured or Unstructured)<br />Position Power:<br />The Degree of influence a leader has over power variables <br />such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions and salary increases.<br />
  • 58. <ul><li>Evaluating the Situation in terms of:
  • 59. Leader-Member Relations ---------- Either Good or Poor.
  • 60. Task Structure ---------- Either High or Low.
  • 61. Position Power ---------- Either Strong or Weak.
  • 62. Accordingly there are 8 different types of Situations, as stated by Fiedler</li></ul>Fiedler States that “The better the leader member relations, the more highly structured the jobandstronger the position power, the more control the leader has”<br />
  • 63. Good <br />Performance<br />Poor <br />Performance<br />Category<br />Leader member<br /> relationship <br />Task structure<br />Position power<br />Favorable Moderate Unfavorable<br />Good<br />Good<br />Good<br />Good<br />Poor<br />Poor<br />Poor<br />Poor<br />High<br />High<br />Low<br />High<br />Low<br />Low<br />Low<br />Low<br />Strong<br />Strong<br />Strong<br />Strong<br />Weak<br />Weak<br />Weak<br />Weak<br />Task Oriented<br />Relation-Ship Oriented<br />
  • 64. Matching Leaders and Situations<br /><ul><li>With the research of LPC and the three contingency dimensions, Fiedler model was developed.
  • 65. Based On research, Fiedler concluded that:
  • 66. Task Oriented leaders tend to perform better in situations that are favorable to them and also in situations that were very unfavorable.
  • 67. Relationship-Oriented leaders, perform better in moderately favorable situations</li></li></ul><li><ul><li> Fiedler Views an individual’s style of leadership as fixed.
  • 68. Therefore, there are only 2 ways in which the leader effectiveness can be improved:
  • 69. Change the Leader to fit the Situation
  • 70. Change the Situation to fit the Leader.</li></ul>How To Improve Leader Effectiveness?<br />
  • 71. Evaluation<br /><ul><li>The Logic underlying the LPC is not well understood.
  • 72. Studies have shown that respondents LPC scores are not stable.
  • 73. It is Difficult to determine:
  • 74. How good the leader member relations are.
  • 75. How structured the Task is.
  • 76. How much position power the leader has.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Developed by Fred Fiedler and Joe Garcia in 1987.
  • 77. Focused on the Role of Stress in different Situation’s and how leader’s intelligence and experience influence his reactions to stress.</li></ul>What is Stress?<br /> In Simple Terms:<br /> Stress can be defined as a difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension or in other words a state of mental or emotional strain to a person.<br />Cognitive Resource Theory(Introduction)<br />
  • 78. <ul><li>The Importance of leader’s intelligence and experience to effectiveness differs under low and high stress situations.
  • 79. Fiedler and Garcia found that:
  • 80. Intellectual abilities correlated positively under Low stress.
  • 81. Intellectual abilities correlated negatively under High Stress</li></ul>Cognitive Resource Theory<br />
  • 82. <ul><li>So, According to Fiedler and Garcia:</li></ul> It’s the level of stress in the situation that determines whether an individuals intelligence or experience will contribute to leadership performance.<br /><ul><li>A Study, has confirmed that:
  • 83. When Stress level was low the leader was directive, and intelligence was important to leaders effectiveness.
  • 84. When the Stress level was high, the leader was afraid to share his thoughts, and intelligence was of no or very little use as he couldn’t address properly.</li></ul>These results were exactly what this theory predicted.<br />Cognitive Resource Theory(Conclusion)<br />
  • 85. <ul><li>“Successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style, which Is contingent to the followers readiness.”
  • 86. Thus, this theory tends to explain:
  • 87. Regardless of what a leader does, effectiveness depends upon the actions of followers.
  • 88. Follower’s are who accept or reject the leader.
  • 89. Leader-Follower relations are analogous to that between a parent and a child.</li></ul>Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory<br />
  • 90. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Theory (SLT MODEL)<br />
  • 91. LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY<br /><ul><li>Leader-Member Exchange Theory[LMX] describes how leaders in groups maintain their position through a series of tactic exchange agreements with their members.
  • 92. Formation of groups known as In-group & out-group
  • 93. The in-group consists of a small number of trusted followers with whom the leader usually establishes a special higher quality exchange relationship.</li></li></ul><li>The out-group includes the followers with whom the relationship of the leader remains more formal.<br />LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY<br />
  • 94.
  • 95. Follower’s characteristics play major role in driving leader’s decision<br />Research says that leader do differentiate employees <br />Being part of inner-circle is dangerous as one may fall and rise with his leader <br />
  • 96. Developed by Robert House<br />It is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining goals and to provide the direction and support needed to ensure that their goals are compatible with the organization’s goals.<br />Theory provides 4 leadership behaviors<br />Directive<br />Supportive<br />Participative<br />Achievement- oriented<br />PATH-GOAL THEORY<br />
  • 97. The Situational Factors of the Path-Goal Theory are:<br />I) Subordinates' Personality:     A Locus of Control (A participative leader is suitable for subordinates with internal locus of control; A directive leader is suitable for subordinates with external locus of control).     B Self-perceived ability (Subordinates who perceive themselves as having high ability do not like directive leadership).<br />
  • 98. II) Characteristics of the environment:     - When working on a task that has a high structure, directive leadership is redundant and less effective.     - When a highly formal authority system is in place, directive leadership can again reduce workers' satisfaction.     - When subordinates are in a team environment that offers great social support, the supportive leadership style becomes less necessary.<br />
  • 99.
  • 100. DEVELOPED BY VROOM AND YETTON <br />Provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.<br />This model is often too complicated for managers/leaders to actually put into place in organizations.<br />LEADER-PARTICIPATION MODEL<br />
  • 101. DAVID NEELEMAN-CEO JETBLUE AIRLINES<br />
  • 102. Leaders usually are the members of an organization who provide the direction towards goal attainment.<br />Traits - Generally speaking, individuals who are ambitious; have high energy, a desire to lead, self-confidence, intelligence, and are flexible are more likely to succeed as leaders than those without these traits.<br />No particular style (behavioral theories) is effective in all situations<br />Contingency models help us better understand leadership. Consider…..Task structure of the job, level of situational stress, group support, leader intelligence and experience, and follower characteristics (personality, experience, ability and motivation)<br />CONCLUSION<br />
  • 103. BOOK<br />ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR BY STEPHEN ROBBINS AND TIMOTHY A JUDGE<br />WEB<br />WWW.WIKIPEDIA.ORG<br />WWW.CHANGINGMINDS.ORG<br />BIBLIOGRAPHY<br />
  • 104. THANK YOU<br />
  • 105. PRESENTED BY:<br />AUDUMBAR CHAUGULE-08030122003<br />UPLAKSH GUPTA-<br />08030122122<br />VISHALPATHAK-<br />08030122141<br />AMEY MAIRAL-<br />08030122048<br />

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