Instructional Leadership: Situational Leadership


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Chapter 5 pages 117 126 leadership

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Instructional Leadership: Situational Leadership

  1. 1. ANTWUAN STINSONILP 510: Foundations of Instructional LeadershipALABAMA STATE UNIVERSITYDR. KINGChapter 5: LeadershipPages 117-126Educational Administration Concepts and Practices 6thEdition by Fred C. Lunenburg & Allan C. Ornstein
  2. 2. Intro VideoDinner with Mary and WatsonSherlock Holmes meets Prof Moriaty
  3. 3. Overview: Section Organization
  4. 4. Leadership StylesClassic LeadershipTraitBehaviorContingency TheoriesBoss-centered leadershipSubordinate-centered leadershipClick here for VideoPage 117
  5. 5. Boss-Centered LeadershipManagermakes andannouncesdecisionsManagersellsdecisionManagerpresentsideas andinvitesquestionsManagerpresentstentativedecisionsubject tochangeManagerpresentsproblem,getssuggestions andmakesdecisionManagerdefineslimits andasks groupto makedecisionManagerpermitssubordinates tofunctionwithin limitsdefined bysuperiorUse of Authority by themanagerArea of Freedom forSubordinatesSubordinate-Centered LeadershipPage 117
  6. 6. Leadership BehaviorsTelling – The leader identifies a problem, considersalternative solutions, choose, and then tells subordinateswhat they are to do.Selling – The leader makes the decision but tries topersuade the group members to accept it. The leader pointsout how she has considered organizational goals and theinterests of group members, and then states how themembers will benefit.Testing – The leader identifies a problems and proposesa tentative solution, asking for the reaction of those whowill implement it, but making the final decision.Page 117
  7. 7. Leadership Behaviors (cont.)Consulting – The group members have a chance toinfluence the decision from the beginning. The leaderpresents a problem and relevant background information.The group is invited to increase the number of alternativeactions to be considered.Joining – The leader participates in the discussion as amember and agrees in advance to carry out whateverdecision the group makes.Page 117
  8. 8. Influences on the LeaderForces in the Leader Value system: how strongly the leader feels that individualsshould have a share in making the decisions Confidence in the group members: leaders may have moreconfidence in his own capabilities than group membersForces in the Category Leaders may want to remember that each member isinfluenced by many personality variables and expectationsForces in the Situation Do the members have the needed knowledge Does the complexity of the problem require special experienceor a one-person solutionPage 118
  9. 9. Influences on the Leader (cont.)Long-run Objectives and Strategy Leaders work on daily problems, their choice of leadershippatterns by: Raising the level of member motivations Improving the quality of all decisions Developing teamwork and morale Furthering the individual development of members Increasing the readiness to accept changeImplications for Practice The Tannenbaum-Schmidt model makes intuitive sense andcan be used to identify alternative leadership behaviorsPage 118
  10. 10. Three-Dimensional Leadership StylesDeveloped by William ReddinThe model (left) integrates theconcepts of leadership style withthe situational demands of aspecific environment.Effective – when the style isappropriate to a given situationIneffective – when the style isinappropriate to a givensituationPage 119
  11. 11.  He developed the first relatively simple method of measuring what hecalled “situational demands” – i.e. the things that dictate how amanager must operate to be most effective. Reddin’s model was based on the two basic dimensions of leadershipidentified by the Ohio State studies. He called them Task-orientationand Relationships-orientation. However he introduced what he called athird dimension – Effectiveness. Effectiveness was what resulted whenone used the right style of leadership for the particular situation. Reddin identified four major leadership styles on the high effectivenessplane and four corresponding styles on the low effectiveness plane,effectiveness being where the leadership style matched the demands ofthe situation.
  12. 12. So a manager who demonstrated a high level oftask-orientation and low relationships orientationwhere it was the style that was required was calleda Benevolent Autocrat.The real theoretical breakthrough with Reddin’s 3-D model was the idea that one could assess thesituation and identify what behavior was mostappropriate. His model relates the level ofmanagerial effectiveness to the most appropriateuse of each of these styles.
  13. 13. Effective StylesDeveloper – A leader gives maximum concern to relationships andminimum concern to tasks. Leader has implicit trust in people and isconcerned about them developing.Executive – A leader gives great concern for both tasks andrelationships. Leader is seen as a good motivator setting highstandards, recognizing individual differences and using teammanagementBureaucrat – A leader gives concern to both tasks and relationships.The leader is seen as conscientious and is interested mainly in rules andwants to maintain and control the situation by the rulesBenevolent Autocrat – A leader gives maximum concern to tasks andminimum concern to relationships. The leader is seen as knowingexactly what she wants and how to get it without causing resentment.Page 120
  14. 14. Ineffective StylesMissionary – A leader using this style gives maximumconcern to people and relationships and minimum concernto tasks in a situation in which such behavior isinappropriate. The leader is seen as a “do-gooder” whovalues harmony as an end in itself.Compromiser – A leader using this style gives a greatdeal of concern to both tasks and relationships in asituation that requires emphasis on only one or on neither.The leader is seen as a poor decision maker, easily affectedby pressure.Page 120
  15. 15. Ineffective Styles (cont.)Deserter – A leader using this style gives minimumconcern to tasks and relationships in a situation where suchbehavior is inappropriate. The leader is seen as uninvolvedand passiveAutocrat – A leader using this style gives minimumconcern to tasks and minimum concern to relationships ina situation in which such behavior is inappropriate. Theleader is seen as having no confidence in others, asunpleasant, and as interested only in the immediate jobPage 120
  16. 16. Implication for PracticeReddin’s model incorporates three theoretical basesdiscussed previously, namely leader traits andbehaviors, groups, and situational factors. Reddin’smodel has not been the object of much empiricalresearch. Instead it has become a popular techniquefor use in training administrators in numerousorganizational contexts.His model is a 64-item questionnaireReddin’s approach makes participants cognizant ofvarious leadership styles that can be adapted tovarious situations.Page 120
  17. 17. Another well-known and useful framework for analyzingleadership behavior is Paul Hersey and KennethBlanchard’s situational leadership theory. It is anextension of Tannenbaum and Schmidt’s leadershipcontinuum, Blake and Mouton’s managerial grid, andReddin’s three-dimensional leadership styles. Followingthe lead of the earlier Ohio State leadership studies, andlike the three-dimensional frameworks, situationalleadership theory identifies two key leadershipbehaviors: task behavior and relationship behaviorSituational Leadership StylesPage 120
  18. 18.  Task Behavior – The leader engages in one waycommunication by explaining that eachsubordinate is to do, as well as when, where, andhow tasks are to be performed. Relationship Behavior – The leader engages intwo-way communication by providing socio-emotional support, “psychological strokes,” and“facilitating behaviors.Page 120
  19. 19. Situational Factor: Readiness ofFollowersTaking the lead from Fiedler’s contingency factors, Herseyand Blanchard incorporated the readiness of followers as akey situational variable in their model. Hersey andBlanchard see two types of readiness as particularlyimportant: willingness and ability. Willingness is a combination of the varying degrees ofconfidence, commitment, and motivation. Any one of thesevariables can be prepotent; that is, a person may becompletely committed to the job, quality and theorganization. Ability is determined by the amount of knowledge,experience, and demonstrated skill the follower brings tothe task.Page 120
  20. 20. Leadership StylesThe key for leadership effectiveness in Hersey and Blanchard’smodel is to match the situation with the appropriate leadershipstyle. Four basic leadership styles are in the model: telling, selling,participating, and delegating.Telling Style –this is a high-task, low-relationship style and iseffective when subordinates are low in motivation and ability.Selling Style - this is a high-task, high relationship style and iseffective when subordinates have adequate motivation but lowability.Participating Style –this is a low-task, low-relationship styleand is effective when subordinates have adequate ability but lowmotivation.Delegating Style - this is a low-task, low-relationship style andis effective when subordinates are very high in ability andmotivation.Page 121
  21. 21. The Hersey-Situational Leadership Model, 2006Page 121
  22. 22. HighRelationship andLow TaskHigh Taskand HighRelationshipLowRelationshipand LowTaskHigh Task andLowRelationshipParticipatingSellingTellingDelegatingLow Task Behavior HighDirective BehaviorHIGH MODERATE LOWR4 R3 R2 R1Able andConfidentandWillingAble butInsecureorUnwillingUnable butConfidentor WillingUnableandInsecureorUnwillingPerformance ReadinessSituational LeadershipInfluence Behaviors
  23. 23. Administrative Advice 5-2Applying Situational LeadershipTelling Style – Give specific instructions and supervise staff members closely.This leadership style is primarily for first year teachers who need a lot ofinstruction and supervision.Selling Style – Explain decisions and solicit suggestions from followers butcontinue to direct tasks. This leadership style works especially well with non-tenured teachers, who are in their second or third year on the job. They’re gainingconfidence and competence, but they’re still getting their feet on the ground.Participating Style – Make decisions together with staff members and supporttheir efforts toward performing tasks. The leadership style works with highlycreative teachers. Applying this style can take the form of supporting teacherswhen they come up with excellent ideas and helping them to bring those ideas tofruition.Delegating Style – Turn over decisions and responsibility for implementing themto the staff members. This leadership style works with people who go above andbeyond their instructions.Page 122
  24. 24. Implications to PracticeThe Hersey – Situational Leadership Model is useful because itbuilds on other explanations of leadership that emphasize the roleof task and relationship behaviors.As a result, it is widely used for leadership training anddevelopment in a wide variety of organizational things.School administrators can benefit from this model by attemptingto diagnose the readiness of followers before choosing the rightleadership style.Until recently, there was almost no empirical research evidenceto support the validity of the Hersey-Blanchard model. However,one study in a school setting provides partial support for thismodel.Page 122
  25. 25. Implications for PracticeThe study consist of Elementary school principals from one largeurban school district who received training using the Hersey andBlanchard’s framework. Pretests and posttests were administeredto the principal and a sample of their teachers before and aftertraining to determine the effects of training on principals’leadership effectiveness and style range.The study found that principals were perceived as more effectivethree years after training than before training. However, nosignificant changes or differences were found in principals’effectiveness immediately after or before training, nor were theprincipals leadership style range.Page 122
  26. 26. Other Contemporary PerspectivesModernist theories in leadership were traditionally dominated bymasculine incorporation and lacked feminine presence indevelopment of language.Page 123
  27. 27. Synergistic Leadership TheorySynergistic Leadership Theory (SLT), developed byIrby and colleagues, seeks to explicate the need for apostmodernist leadership theory by providing analternative to, and not a replacement for, traditionaltheories. The SLT includes issues concerning diversityand the inclusion of the female voice in the theory. In atetrahedron model, the theory uses four factors todemonstrate aspects not only of the leadership but iteffects on various institutions and positions. The factorsare 1) beliefs, attitudes, and values; 2) leadershipbehavior; 3) external forces; and 4) organizationalstructure.Page 123
  28. 28. Synergistic Leadership Theory Factor 1: Beliefs, Attitudes, and Values – beliefs, attitudes, and values are depicted asdichotomous, as an individual or group would either adhere or not adhere to specificbeliefs, attitudes, or values at a certain point in time. Factor 2: Leadership Behavior- derives directly from the literature on male andfemale leadership behaviors and is depicted as a range of behaviors fromautocratic to nurturer. Factor 3: External Forces – influences outside the control of the organization orleader that interact with them and that inherently embody a set of beliefs,attitudes, and values. Factor 4: Organizational Structure-refers to characteristics of the organizationsand how they operate.Implications for Practice – The synergistic leadership theory provides aframework for describing interactions and dynamic tensions among beliefs,attitudes, and values.Page 123
  29. 29. Beliefs, Attitudes, ValuesImportance of professional growthOpenness to change/diversityAdherence to traditionCollegial trust/SupportImportance of character, ethics,integrityImportance of programs for at-risk/gifted studentsRole of teachers/learnersPurpose of schoolRole of teachers/administratorsImportance of employee well-beingLeadershipBehaviorAutocraticDelegatorCollaboratorCommunicatorTask-orientedRisk-takerRelationalNurturerControllerStabilizerIntuitiveExternalForcesPerceptions/expectations ofSupervisor/colleaguesPerceptions/expectations ofcommunityLocal, state andnationalRegulationsResourcesLocationCulture ofcommunitySocio-economicstatusLanguage/ethnicgroupsPolitical/specialinterest groupsOrganizational StructureRotates leadership, use expertise of members , not rank, has consensually derivedgoals, values members, rewards professional development, relies on informalcommunication, disperses power, promotesCommunity, promotes nurturing and caring, promotes empowerment, has manyrules, has separate tasks and roles maintains a tall hierarchy and initiates fewchangesPage 124
  30. 30. Leader-Member Exchange TheoryFocuses on a dyad, therelationship between aleader and eachsubordinateEach relationship differs centered on theinteractions between aleader and subordinatesTheVerticalDyadVerticalDyadsPage 124
  31. 31. LMXTwo kinds of relationships that each follower falls into basedon how well they work with the leader and how well theleader works with them. Personality and other personalcharacteristics are also related to this process.In groups – based on expanded and negotiated roleresponsibilities. Followers go far beyond their formal jobdescription, and the leader in turn does more for thesefollowers.Out group – based on the formal employment contract.Followers are not interested in taking on new and differentjob responsibilities.Page 125
  32. 32. Leader Member ExchangeS SubordinateIn-GroupOut-GroupLeaderSSSS SSSS SSSSIn-Groupmore information,influence, confidence& concern fromLeader moredependable, highlyinvolved &communicative thanout-groupOut-Groupless compatiblewith leader usuallyjust come to work,do their job & gohomePage 125
  33. 33. How does LMX theory work?Best understood within the Leadership Making Model(Graen & Uhl-Bien, 1995) Leader forms special relationships with all subordinates early Leader should offer each subordinate an opportunity for newroles/responsibilities in a non-contractual exchange Leader should nurture high-quality exchanges with allsubordinates Rather than concentrating on differences, leader focuses onways to build trust & respect with all subordinates – resultingin entire work group becoming an in-group Out-group are supervised narrowly by an implicit contractPage 125
  34. 34. In Group Out-Group Enjoy the benefits of job latitude Have higher productivity, jobsatisfaction, motivation, andcollegial relationships Less employee turnover More positive performanceevaluations, higher frequency ofpromotions, greater organizationalcommitment, more desirable workassignments, and better jobattitudes Do what they must and littlebeyond They are considered hired-hands They are influenced by legitimateauthority rather than trueleadership Support is provided due to themandated dutyHow does LMX theory work?Page 125
  35. 35. Reciprocal Influence TheoryCertain leaders behaviors cause subordinatebehaviorsThe leader may be fearful of reactions fromsubordinatesThe subordinates may exert more control on theleader than the leader on the subordinatePage 126
  36. 36. StrengthsLMX theory validates our experience of how peoplewithin organizations relate to each other and the leaderLMX theory is the only leadership approach that makesthe dyadic relationship the centerpiece of theleadership processLMX theory directs our attention to the importanceof communication in leadershipSolid research foundation on how the practice of LMXtheory is related to positive organizational outcomesPage 126
  37. 37. Discussion