Differentiated Instruction and Effective Strategies
CLASSROOM MANAGEMENTCOMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR TEACHERSEffective Instruction UsingStrategies
Preparations1. Focus on Whats Most Important2. Provide Clear Expectations3. Grade Objectively4. Effective Student Self-Evaluation5. Track Progress A teaching method used to meet the diverse needsof learners. Provides instruction for individuals or groups ofstudents who find academic concepts difficult
Consider Diverse Learners• IEP• IDEA• BBSST• Accommodations• Modifications• Supplementary aids and Services• DIBELS (Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early LiteracySkills)
Elements of InstructionDecide: What skills, concepts or facts do you wantstudent to understand at the end of the assignment?Let the students know exactly what they are expectedto learn and/or doGive them a target to aim towardModify instruction when neededStudents can use the rubric to assess their own work,resulting in a better understanding of what they haveaccomplished and what they can work on for nexttimePeer tutoring
Instruction, remediation, and EnrichmentPlan, match, teachDevise a plan of instruction and specify supportinglearning activitiesAdjust the plan to offer differing levels of difficultyand match students to it“I do”, “We do”, “You do”Teach, Reteach, AssessmentBefore, During, and After
Methods of InstructionBuilding background knowledge strengthensstudents’ comprehension skillsStruggling learners need guided, step-by-stepscaffolding and instructionPromoting student self-advocacy is empowering,replicable, and transferable
Anchor Activities Curriculum Compacting Beneficial for classroommanagement as well asinstruction Designed for students to workon either immediately at thebeginning of class time or aftertheir class work has beencompleted, so that theirinstructional time is maximized Intended to extend or deepenunderstanding of a concept orskill, not just to be busy work Used for individual or smallgroups of students withadvanced knowledge of theconcepts or skills to be studied Identify the skills or aspects ofthe concepts with which thestudents are already proficient.Spend less time on those partsof the curriculum, allowing thestudents to focus on what thereally need to learn andunderstand.Instructional Strategies
KWL Charts Learning Contracts Columns: "What I Know,""What I Want to Know," and"What I Learned" Can be used at the beginning ofa unit to assess studentsbackground knowledge andinterest in the topic, or it can beused at various pointsthroughout the unit to assessstudent progress Works well with individualstudents Detailed list of directions andassignments for the student tocomplete within a set period oftime. Teacher and studentwork together to establishcontract requirements and duedates. Can be effectively usedto develop goal-setting.Instructional Strategies
Menus (or Agendas) Question Choices List of assignments, activities,or projects a student will workon during a set amount of time(i.e. one class period, one week,one unit). Students may choosethe order which they completethe work. During whole groupdiscussions, include questionsthat everyone in the class isable to answer, as well as morecomplex questions that only afew students may be able toanswer. Adjust the difficulty ofthe questions depending onwhich student will be called onto respond.Instructional Strategies
Reading Buddies Reflection and Response Pair each student with anotherof a different reading level (lowwith medium, medium withhigh) for partner reading anddiscussion Also, pairing upper gradestudents with lower gradestudents, such as having afourth grade class buddy upwith a first grade class,provides reading practice for allstudents and can be motivatingfor both groups.Provide opportunityfor students to respondand reflect on day’slearning. Helps you toknow where they standfor planning nextlessons.Instructional Strategies
Scaffolding Think-Tac-Toe Works well with individualsand small groups when workingon instruction of specific skills Identify specific levels ofcomplexity within thedevelopment of a particularskill. Match students, byability, with the appropriatelevel of skill. The goal is tohave each student move up atleast one level. Nine commands or questions,arranged like a tic-tac-toeboard. Students choose threeto complete, creating a rowvertically, horizontally, ordiagonally. Student choice allows fordifferentiation by interestand/or learning style. Think-tac-toe boards for differentlevels of readiness can also becreated and given to differentgroups of students.Instructional Strategies
Tiered ActivitiesInstructions for TieredActivities 3-4 different activities ofdifferent levels of complexityand difficulty, but with acommon goal or end result.For example, different groupsof students may be working onscience experiments of differentlevels of difficulty, but all withthe intention of learning aboutelectric circuits. 1st - Begin by planning themid-level activity, what youmight normally plan for yourwhole class. 2nd - Then add a level ofdifficulty or complexity to makethe same lesson morechallenging for higher-levelstudents. 3rd - Simplify or add resourcesto the original activity to bettermeet the needs and fill in anylearning gaps for lower-levelInstructional Strategies
Tiered Rubrics Varied Organizers2-3 rubrics are developedfor one project, and givento students based onreadiness. This providesall students withappropriate skills to focuson and a chance to besuccessful. Provide 2-3 organizers of differingcomplexity. For example, students needingmore guidance may be given anorganizer with blanks for them tofill in. Students ready for moreindependence may be given anincomplete organizer that requiresthem to fill in blanks as well asadding detail. More advancedstudents may be given only a basicframework for the organizer whichthey complete on their own.Instructional Strategies
Think Aloud 3-2-1The teacher would reada few sentences in thetext or word problem, “Think” out loud,Show the studentswhat they are thinkingas they read or workout the problemCan be used afterreading, at the end ofclass, or toward theend3 facts the studentslearned from a reading2 questions they had asthey read1 thing that they foundinterestingInstructional Strategies
Graphic OrganizersGRASP(Guided Reading andSummarizing Procedure)Easy way to havestudents reflect onwhat they read andsynthesize theirthinkingStudents read the textand try to remember asmany important factsas possibleStudents categorize, ororganize the listStudents write asummary using theirpersonal notesInstructional Strategies
“How – To” Poem ChunkingInstead of listingdirections, havestudents write a “howto” poem“How to be a Tornado”“How to Clean YourInstrument”“How to write change atire”A strategy used to improvememory performance bysplitting concepts into smallpieces or "chunks" of tomake reading andunderstanding faster andeasier.Instructional Strategies
Instructional Components Pre-instructional activities Motivating/gaining attention Informing learner of objectives/purposes Telling them what they already need to know Content Presentation Presenting the content Guiding the learning Learner Participation Giving the learner opportunities to practice Giving feedback Assessment Follow-through activities
Some Good Design Advice Know your audience What they know What motivates them Identify your learning objectiveand use it constantly to steeryour design. Be clear and honest (first toyourself and then youraudience) as to the learningoutcome of your learningobjective?
Learning Componentsof Instructional StrategiesGagne’s nine events1. Gaining attention2. Informing learner of the objective3. Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning4. Presenting the stimulus material5. Providing learning guidance6. Eliciting the performance7. Providing feedback about performance correctness8. Assessing the performance9. Enhancing retention and transfer
Components Selection of Delivery System Instructional Strategies Selection of Media
Selection of Delivery System1. Consider the goal, learner characteristics, the learning andperformance contexts, objectives and assessment requirements.2. Review the instructional analysis and identify logical groupings ofobjectives that will be taught in appropriate sequences.3. Plan the learning components that will be used in the instruction.4. Choose the most effective student grouping.5. Specify effective media and materials that are within the range ofcost, convenience, and practicality for the learning context.6. Select or develop a delivery system that best accommodates theconsiderations in step 1 and the decisions made in steps 2-5.
Instructional StrategiesInstructional strategies are used generally tocover the various aspects of sequencing andorganizing the content, specifying learningactivities, and deciding how to deliver the contentand activities.
The first step in developing an instructional strategyis identifying a teaching sequence and manageablegroupings of content.What sequence should you follow in presentingcontent to the learner?It depends on your instructional analysisContent Sequence
Clustering InstructionThe consideration of how to determine the amount ofinformation to be presented. The age level of your learners The complexity of material The type of learning taking place Whether the activity can be varied, thereby focusingattention on the task The amount of time required to include all theevents
Learning componentsfor various learning outcomesThe basic learning components of an instructionalstrategy are the same regardless of whether you aredesigning instruction for an intellectual skill, verbalinformation, a motor skill, or an attitude.However, there are distinctions you should considerfor each type of learning outcome.
The strategy should provide ways in which the learner canlink new content to existing prerequisite knowledge inmemory.Considerations: The congruence of practice to the conditions and behaviorsprescribed in the objectives and covered in the instruction. The link between prerequisite knowledge and new skillsand progressing from less difficult to more complexproblems.Intellectual Skill
Verbal Information Elaboration: strategies that link new information toknowledge currently stored in memory. Organization: strategies that present similarinformation in subsets and provide direct instructionon the relationship among items in the subsets andamong different subsets. Mnemonic: when information is entirely new andunrelated to prior learning, then the strategy shouldinclude a memory device.
Motor SkillsThe requirement of some form of visual presentationof the skill. The categories of content and examples in a strategyusually take the form of a verbal description of theskill followed by an illustration. Practice and feedback are the hallmarks ofpsychomotor skills.
Attitudes Attitude consist of three components: feelings,behaviors, and cognitive understandings. The content and example portion of the strategy shouldbe delivered by someone or by an imaginary characterwho is respective and admired by the learners (humanmodel). The most important consideration in the instructionalstrategy for teaching an attitude is the adequacy of thecomponents that will promote transfer.
Student GroupingThe type of studentgrouping (individual, pairs,small group, large group)depends on specific socialinteraction requirementsand is often mixed withinand among the learningcomponents in a lesson orunit.
Dick, Carey, & Carey’s Advice on Developing anInstructional Strategy1. Indicate the sequence of objectives and how you will cluster themfor instruction.2. Indicate what you will do with regard to preinstructional activities,assessment, and follow-through.3. Indicate the content to be presented and student participationactivities for each objective or cluster of objectives.4. Review your sequence and clusters of objectives, preinstructionalactivities, assessment, content presentation, student participationstrategies, and student groupings and media selections.5. Review the entire strategy again to consolidate your mediaselection.
Selection of Media and Delivery SystemClark’s (1983) review ofresearch established the basicargument that it is the designof instruction, rather than themedium used to deliverinstruction, that determinesstudent learning.
Selection of Media and Delivery SystemGagne, Briggs & Wager (1992) provide a summary of selection criteria of mediabased on the type of learning outcome.Learning Outcome Exclusions SelectionsIntellectual Skills Media that has no interactive featurePrinted discourse for nonreadersMedia providing feedback to learnerresponsesAudio and visual features for nonreadersCognitiveStrategiesExclusions same as forintellectual skillsMedia with same features as those forintellectual skills.DeclarativeKnowledgeExclude only real equipment orsimulator with no verbalaccompaniments. Exclude complexprose for nonreaders.Media able to present verbal messagesand elaborations. Also, select audio andpictorial features for nonreaders.Attitude Exclusions same as for verbalinformationMedia able to present realistic picturesof human model and the model’smessagePsychomotor Media having no provision for learnerresponse and feedback.Media making possible direct practice ofskill, with informative feedback.