What schools teach must reflect the needs of society, the needs of the learner, and the recommendations of scholars in various academic fields. NCLB focuses heavily on using reading and mathematics test scores to determine whether schools are making progress in reducing achievement gaps among various subgroups of students.
Development of Administrative Theory
Chapter 1: Development of Administrative TheoryPages 20-26Educational Administration Concepts and Practices 6 thEdition by Fred C. Lunenburg & Allan C. Ornstein ANTWUAN STINSON ILP 510: Foundations of Instructional Leadership ALABAMA STATE UNIVERSITY
Schools as open systemsAll schools are open systems, although the degree of interaction with the external environment may vary.According to this theory schools constantly interact with their external environment.In contrast, closed systems theory views schools as sufficiently independent to solve most of their problems through internal forces, without taking into account forces in the external environment.
What is a system?A system can be defined as an interrelated set of elements functioning as an operating unit.NCLB (NO CHILD LEFT BEHIND) is a good example of an open system. States began to focus their policy on standards, accountability, and the improvement of student achievement Statewide assessment systems were implemented The waiver rewards schools that serve majority white students while is more punitive toward school districts serving low- income students of color. Links: Side Effects of NCLB, Waivers
Open Systems ModelFive basic elementsInputsTransformation processOutputs Environment OrganizationFeedback Inputs Transformation Outputs ProcessThe Environment
InputsSystems such as schools receive four kinds of inputs from the environment: human financial, physical, and information resources 1. Human resources include personnel 2. Financial resources are the capital used by the school/school district to finance both ongoing and long-term operations. 3. Physical resources include supplies, materials, facilities, and equipment. 4. Information resources are knowledge, curricula, data, and other kinds of information utilized by the school/school district.
Transformation ProcessWork of some kind is done in the system to produce output.The system adds value added to the work in process.This transformation process includes the internal operation of the school/school district and its system of operational management.Activities performed by school administrators and other personnel within the organization’s structure will affect the school district’s output.
Outputs In school organizations, outputs are the attainment of the goals or objectives of the school district and are represented by the products, results, outcomes, or accomplishments of the system. Outputs usually include one or more of the following: 1. student achievement 2. teacher performance 3. growth levels of students and teachers 4. student drop out rates 5. employee turnover 6. student and employee absenteeism 7. employee management relations 8. School community relations 9. Student attitudes toward school 10. Employee job satisfaction
FeedbackOutputs provide feedback data to the systemFeedback is crucial to the success of the school operation.Negative feedback, for example, can be used to correct deficiencies in the transformation process or the inputs or both, which in turn will have an effect on the school’s future outputs.
Environment The environment surrounding the school/school district includes the social, political and economic forces that impinge the organization. The environment in the open systems model takes on added significance today in a climate of policy accountability. The social, political, and economic contexts in which school administrators work are marked by pressures at the local, state, and federal levels. Thus, school administrators today find it necessary to manage and develop “internal” operations while concurrently monitoring the environment and anticipating and responding to “external” demand. Organizational Climate, e.g. the day-to-day experience
The Learning OrganizationLearning organization is a strategic commitment to capture and share learning in the organization for the benefit of individuals, teams, and the organizations.Allows opportunity for growth from colleagues.The more defined the structures, systems, and culture are in an organization the less impact sub-cultures and the personalities of individuals will have on day-to-day operationsPeter Senge-Professor at MIT, his best seller The Fifth Discipline where he identifies systems thinking as the pivotal lever in the learning and change process
Senge’s five principles of Learning OrganizationsSystems Thinking A conceptual framework that sees all parts as interrelated and affecting each otherPersonal Mastery A Process of personal commitment to vision, excellence, and lifelong learningShared Vision Sharing an image of the future envisioned togetherTeam Learning The process of learning collectively the idea that two brains are smarter than oneMental Models Deeply ingrained assumptions that that influence personal and organizational views and behaviors. These five disciplines work together to create the learning organization (where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, collective aspiration is set free, people learn how to learn together.
Senge argues in Schools that Learn that teachers, administrators, and stakeholders must learn how to build their own capacity, develop the capacity to learn. He argues that schools can be re-created by embracing the principles of the learning organization.
Senge also believe that children are deficient and schools should fix them, that learning is strictly and intellectual enterprise, that everyone should learn in the same way, that classroom learning is distinctly different from that occurring outside of school, and that some kids are smart, while others are not.Schools are run by specialists that maintain control, that knowledge inherently fragmented, that schools teach some kind of objective truth, and that learning is primarily individualistic and competition accelerates learning.
Karen Watkins and Victoria Marsick developed Seven Action Imperatives of a Learning Organization Create Continuous Learning Opportunities. Promote Inquiry and Dialogue Encourage Collaboration and Team Learning Create Systems to Capture and Share Learning Empower People toward a Collective Vision Connect the Organization to Its Environment Provide Strategic Leadership for Learning
Seven Action Imperatives of a Learning OrganizationCreate Continuous Learning Learning is ongoing, strategically used,Opportunities and grows out of work itselfPromote Inquiry and Dialogue A culture in which people ask questions freely, are willing address difficult issues.Encourage Collaboration and Team Focuses on the spirit of collaborationLearning and the skills that promote teams. Groups are formed but are not used effectivelyCreate Systems to Capture and Technology-based strategies that areShare Learning used for this purpose capture ideas across dispersed teams and divisions
Seven Action Imperatives of a Learning OrganizationEmpower People toward a Collective The degree of alignment throughout theVision organization around the vision, and the degree of participation in creating and implementing the visionConnect the Organization to Its Schools must function at both global andEnvironment local levels; by using benchmarks of other schools and using technology to enable people in schools to move beyond their wallsProvide Strategic Leadership for Leaders who model learning are key to theLearning learning organization. They think strategically about how to move the organization
Pros and Cons Debate: Training School LeadersArgument Pro Argument ConOrganizational theory is generic It would be a dangerous mistake to borrow management theory wholesaleMost organizational theory taught in ed Many aspects of management theory doleadership programs was generated not apply in ed settings. It takes severalfrom industrial structure years to adapt management theory into ed admin settingsBusiness and school leaders need to Relationships between industry andwork more closely to improve collegial educators are no more important thanrelationships parents, colleges, and civic agencies.Management training is current and Management training is behavior andtested. Industry has invested heavily in outcome-driven but does not considerthe development of management- the social and psychological needs oftraining programs, the teachersManagement trainers understand Management trainers understandorganizational theory well and can profit-driven organizations but do notteach adult learners in all types of understand the norms values oforganizations to apply theory to settings educators.
SummarySystems theory is usually discussed in terms of inputs, a transformation process, outputs, feedback, and environment.In this section the learning organization concept has received much attention since the publication of Peter Senge’s book. Senge provides five interacting principles that constitute a learning organization: systems thinking, personal mastery, shared vision, team learning, and mental models.
Key Terms Theory X and Theory Y (DouglasScientific method McGregor) Classical organizational theoryHypothesis Hawthorne studies (Elton Mayo)Meta-analysisScientific management Contingency theories(Frederick Taylor)Fusion process (E. Wright Situational leadership theoryBakke) (Hersey and Blanchard) Transformational leadershipNomothetic dimension (Bernard Bass)Idiographic dimension Systems 1-4 (Rensis Likert)Need hierachy (Maslow) Open systems theoryManagerial grid (Robert Blake Hygiene factors (Frederick& Jane Mouton) Herzberg)
Key TermsPositivism: is a view of knowledge as objective, absolutely true, and independent of other conditions such as time, circumstances, societies, cultures, communities, and geographyOpen System Theory: schools constantly interact with their external environmentLearning Organization: is a strategic commitment to capture and share learning in the organization for the benefit of individuals, teams, and the organization
Discussion QuestionsHow can open systems theory be used to diagnose problems in school operation?How can the learning organization be used to achieve school success?Why do you think so much pressure is placed on the administrator to improve schools?