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Introduction to  paragraphs conclusion
Introduction to  paragraphs conclusion
Introduction to  paragraphs conclusion
Introduction to  paragraphs conclusion
Introduction to  paragraphs conclusion
Introduction to  paragraphs conclusion
Introduction to  paragraphs conclusion
Introduction to  paragraphs conclusion
Introduction to  paragraphs conclusion
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Introduction to paragraphs conclusion

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  • 1. Essay Writing:Introduction, Paragraphs and Conclusions Institute of Lifelong Learning
  • 2. Writing an effective introduction The introduction is a signpost for your reader, showing how you intend to answer the question. You will need to show your understanding of the key issues and indicate the main areas your assignment will cover. One possible structure for an introduction could be: • begin with a general point about the central issue; • use the words of the title to show your understanding of the question; • show what the structure of the assignment will be; • make a link to the first point.
  • 3. Using paragraphs effectively A Paragraph Plan • Introduce the main idea - topic sentence • Explain the idea - amplify the topic sentence • Present supporting evidence or examples - quotation, study, expert opinion or report • Comment on the evidence - show how it relates to the main idea • Conclude the main idea - link to question or link to next point. Adapted from: Williams, K. (1995) Writing Essays: Developing Writing. Oxford: OCSD
  • 4. A key issue in the staffing problem is the poor career image of the hospitality industry. It is perceived as having low rates of pay which contributes to the poor image of the industry. This means that the industry is at a disadvantage in attracting and retaining good staff. In a report entitled, ‘Tomorrow's Workforce’ (HCTC, 1996), results of a survey showed that ‘jobs in the industry are commonly rated by students as having lower status than jobs requiring similar skills and qualifications in other industries’. It is reasonable to assume that this poor image can have a long term impact on recruitment of new staff. There is currently little evidence that the industry is making significant efforts to combat this perception. The HCTC identified the need for better careers information for students and young people as an important first step in combating this poor image. However, the image of the industry must be considered along side other key factors which contribute towards the current staffing problems. Introduce Explain Present Comment Conclude Adapted from: Williams, K. (1995) Writing Essays: Developing Writing. Oxford: OCSD Paragraph structure: example
  • 5. Reader Writer Reader Writer Reader Writer Reader Writer Reader Writer ? This is my idea.... I see. Tell me more Let me explain I see. What evidence do you base this on? Here’s my evidence....this study shows... I see. How does this connect with your point? Like this....the evidence suggests that.... Ok, so what next? I’ve shown how the point I started with is important because....the next thing to consider is.... (Introduce) (Explain) (Present) (Comment) (Conclude) Adapted from: Williams, K. (1995) Writing Essays: Developing Writing. Oxford: OCSD Structuring paragraphs for the reader
  • 6. Writing an effective conclusion The conclusion is another signpost to your reader. It gives you the opportunity to: • use the words of the title to show you have answered the question; • remind the reader of what has been covered; • show the overall significance of the material; • provide an overall assessment of theories or arguments, summarising your own viewpoint.
  • 7. Reviewing your work I Content and structure • Summarise the content of each paragraph to get an overview. • Refer to your essay plan or rewrite your essay plan. Clarity of expression • Take each paragraph in turn and look for a clear paragraph structure. • Read each paragraph out loud to check your sentence structure
  • 8. Reviewing your work II Typical errors of expression • Refer to past essays for typical errors. • Make a list of the types of errors you tend to make. • Read your essay looking for those particular errors. • Use, but don’t rely on the spell check. • If necessary, seek advice to improve your writing. Referencing and bibliography • Check all references and ensure the bibliography is presented according to departmental guidelines.
  • 9. Essay Writing:Introduction, Paragraphs and Conclusions Institute of Lifelong Learning

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