Wildland Fires and Ecosystem Services:

The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing
 Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and
                             Secondary Dis...
The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and
                             Secondary Dis...
The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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Southeast       Number of   Burned area   Damages
Year     European/Caucasus     fires         ha           €
            ...
The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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Bosnia and Herzegovina
        Federacija Bosna - 140 000 ha (forest and forest land)
        Republika Srpska - 80 000 ha...
The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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Accidental fire in an African rural Environment
The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary
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The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and
                             Secondary Dis...
The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and
                             Secondary Dis...
The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and
                             Secondary Dis...
The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and
                             Secondary Dis...
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3 anja hoffmann et al pedrr workshop session 2 [compatibility mode]

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3 anja hoffmann et al pedrr workshop session 2 [compatibility mode]

  1. 1. Wildland Fires and Ecosystem Services: The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Anja A. Hoffmann, Sundar P. Sharma, Nikola Nikolov, Alex Held Global Fire Monitoring Center (GFMC) / United Nations University UNISDR) Global Wildland Fire Network and Wildland Fire Advisory Group GOFC-GOLD Fire Implementation Team
  2. 2. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters The Different Faces of Fire – Fire is not just Fire The annual area burned globally ~ 366 Million hectare of vegetation Fire continent Africa ~ 175 million ha annually, 37% of biomass worldwide Fire is ecological change agent in many fire dependent eco-systems Fire is an negative disturbance in fire independent eco-systems Fire is a forest management tool (prescribed burning) Fire is the primary land management tool mainly in tropical and subtropical countries The timing of fire has a significant effect on the impact Anja A. Hoffmann, Alex C. Held, Nikola Nikolov, Sundar P. Sharma
  3. 3. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Nikola Nikolov: Land-use change by rural Sundar P. Sharma: Increasing fragility, exodus affecting sustainable land use, vulnerability and fire susceptibility of forestry and forest protection in the Himalaya mountain ecosystems to fire in Balkan region Nepal and neighbours Alexander Held: Fire dependent Anja A. Hoffmann: Rain forest and peat- ecosystems, degradation and fire use swamp biome through rural livelihoods by fire in degradation, ecological, climate and Southern Africa humanitarian consequences in Indonesia Anja A. Hoffmann, Alex C. Held, Nikola Nikolov, Sundar P. Sharma
  4. 4. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Rain Forest and peat-swamp biome degradation, ecological, climate and humanitarian consequences in Indonesia • Major fire events in 1982/83, 87, 91/92, 94/95, 97/98, 2006 • Economic damage was estimated to be US $ 9 billion (Tacconi 2003) • Carbon release puts Indonesia at third rank Alos PalSAR 50m Mosaic 2008 (R: HH, G: HV, B: Ratio) ©Jaxa, Google Earth; http://www.eorc.jaxa.jp/ALOS/en/kc_mosaic/kc_mosaic.htm Anja A. Hoffmann - Rain forest and peat-swamp biome degradation, ecological, climate and humanitarian consequences in Indonesia
  5. 5. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Underlying causes and impacts • Small and large scale land use management tool • Hunting, fishing • Clearance of vegetation, access to and improvement of natural smoke haze resources • Arson and accidents Vegetation type Sumatra Java Kalimantan Sulawesi West Papua Total Mountain Forest 213194 100000 313.194 Lowland Forest 383000 25000 2690880 200000 300000 3.598.880 Wetland/ swamp Forest 624000 1100000 400000 2.124.000 Grass/shrubland 263000 25000 375000 100000 763.000 Plantation Forest 72000 883988 955.988 Estate Crop 60000 382509 1000 3000 446.509 Agriculture 669000 50000 2481808 199000 97000 3.496.808 Total Sundar P. Sharma - Increasing100.000 8.127379 fire susceptibility of Himalaya 2.071000 fragility, vulnerability and 400.000 1.000000 11.698379 mountain ecosystems to fire in Nepal and neighbours (Tacconi et al. 2003)
  6. 6. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Fire Impacts Economic & Ecological Smoke & Haze Transport Courtesy B.Sanders Health firefighting costs, losses of agricultural and Courtesy G. Frederiksson plantation crops, short-term health damages,Frederiksson Courtesy G. losses in tourism and transportation revenues, losses in the forestry sector. Anja A. Hoffmann - not include long-term health costs, reduction Rain forest and peat-swamp biome degradation, ecological, climate and in ecological services, or biodiversity losses humanitarian consequences in Indonesia
  7. 7. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters GHG Emissions and Climate Consequences Deforestation, forest degradation, peat drainage and burning is 85% of Indonesia’s greenhouse gas emissions (2,563 million t CO2 per year) Greenhouse Gas emissions in Energy Indonesia (3,014 Mt CO2/yr) 10% Agriculture Deforestati 4% on & degradatio Waste n 1% Landsat TM 47% Peat land Indonesia ranks as third largest GHG producer drainage and primarily due to its high deforestation rate - about burning 85 percent result from fires and forest clearing. 38% Source: Study released by the World Bank and the British government, 2007 Anja A. Hoffmann - Rain forest and peat-swamp biome degradation, ecological, climate and humanitarian consequences in Indonesia
  8. 8. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Humanitarian Consequences Direct impact on crops Livelihood changes from forest products to rice (sonor) to migratory labor (Chokkalingam 2009) Fire remains still only affordable land management tool for communities Need to improve community welfare, provision of alternaitve sustainable livelihoods outside wetlands Improve fire use and prevention of escapes fires of communities (CBFiM) Review of large-scale land use developments on wetland areas Anja A. Hoffmann - Rain forest and peat-swamp biome degradation, ecological, climate and humanitarian consequences in Indonesia
  9. 9. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Existing (Fire) Monitoring System – Tools Active Fire monitoring: MODIS, MSG Burned Area: MODIS, Landsat, Spot, RapidEye Fire Radiative Power: MODIS, MSG Deforestation & Degradation (Change of Carbon stock, Baseline Map): LIDAR, RapidEye, Landsat, Combination of various satellite sensors Fire Early Warning based on weather/satellite data Anja A. Hoffmann - Rain forest and peat-swamp biome degradation, ecological, climate and humanitarian consequences in Indonesia
  10. 10. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters COMMUNITY-BASED APPROACH TO WILDFIRE DRR IN NEPAL Regional South Asia Wildland Fire Network Sundar P. Sharma - Increasing fragility, vulnerability and fire susceptibility of Himalaya mountain ecosystems to fire in Nepal and neighbours
  11. 11. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Increasing fragility, vulnerability and fire susceptibility of Himalaya mountain ecosystems to fire in Nepal March 2009 12 and neighbours 141 Fires in past 24 hours Sundar P. Sharma - Increasing fragility, vulnerability and fire susceptibility of Himalaya mountain ecosystems to fire in Nepal and neighbours NASA’s Earth Observatory (MODIS Aqua), 12 March 2009
  12. 12. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Community-based Fire Management Training Course (Nepal) • participatory approach • aimed at a Community Forest User´s Group (CFUG) • action planning • fire risk map • replication principles Sundar P. Sharma - Increasing fragility, vulnerability and fire susceptibility of Himalaya mountain ecosystems to fire in Nepal and neighbours
  13. 13. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Community-based Fire Management Training Course (Nepal) • Local expertise in CBFiM - taking a global leadership • Formation of “Volunteer Fire Management Group” Sundar P. Sharma - Increasing fragility, vulnerability and fire susceptibility of Himalaya mountain ecosystems to fire in Nepal and neighbours
  14. 14. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Community-based Fire Management Planning (Model, Nepal) Principles • include the perspectives of all interest groups (inclusive and gender balance) • recognize indigenous technical knowledge on fire management Sundar P. Sharma - Increasing fragility, vulnerability and fire susceptibility of Himalaya mountain ecosystems to fire in Nepal and neighbours
  15. 15. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Community-based Fire Management Planning Aims (Model, Nepal) • identify users, expectations (needs) of users and planning area • identify physical features, conditions, zones, changes and contrasts in the village environment (tool: transect walk) • present and analyse information on land use, forests, water and other resources and risk zones (tool: participatory resource mapping) • prepare 5-years action plan Sundar P. Sharma - Increasing fragility, vulnerability and fire susceptibility of Himalaya 15 mountain ecosystems to fire in Nepal and neighbours
  16. 16. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Conclusion Wildland Fire Management involving local communities (CBFiM approach) at Forest User’s Group level could be a best strategy to: increase resilience to community to wildfire disaster and its secondary consequences like secondary disasters (soil erosion, landslides, flooding, regional climate change due to Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC) etc.) Optimize ecosystem services (support livelihoods to local communities) through wise use of fires establish linkages of ecosystem services with wildland fires management Sundar P. Sharma - Increasing fragility, vulnerability and fire susceptibility of Himalaya mountain ecosystems to fire in Nepal and neighbours
  17. 17. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Land-use change by rural exodus affecting sustainable land use, forestry and forest protection in the Balkan region Macedonia Croatia Serbia Caucasus Nikola Nikolov - Land-use change by rural exodus affecting sustainable land use, forestry and forest protection in the Balkan region -
  18. 18. Southeast Number of Burned area Damages Year European/Caucasus fires ha € Region 2007 Total 12 544 457 568,42 3-5 billion
  19. 19. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Nikola Nikolov - Land-use change by rural exodus affecting sustainable land use, forestry and forest protection in the Balkan region -
  20. 20. Bosnia and Herzegovina Federacija Bosna - 140 000 ha (forest and forest land) Republika Srpska - 80 000 ha Total: 220 000 ha Mine situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina Unexploded ordnance situation in Mine situation in Croatia Macedonia ( First World War) Croatia - 954,5 km2 of mine suspected area The situation with land mines in the region of the Caucasus countries is very complicated, as well. Macedonia - about 100 km2 of contaminated area
  21. 21. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Nikola Nikolov - Land-use change by rural exodus affecting sustainable land use, forestry and forest protection in the Balkan region -
  22. 22. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Conclusion To develop and introduce fire management practices in the abandoned and UXO/land mine contaminated ecosystems. It must be in agreement with the socioeconomic situation of the region and to increase resilience of these ecosystems. Nikola Nikolov - Land-use change by rural exodus affecting sustainable land use, forestry and forest protection in the Balkan region -
  23. 23. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Southern Africa: Fire dependent ecosystems, degradation and fire use through rural livelihoods • Distinctive wet and dry seasons • Nearly all vegetation types are fire adapted or fire depended • Use of fire as a tool is a widespread phenomenon “…burning is our tradition” MODIS fire data Alexander Held - Fire dependent ecosystems, degradation and fire use through rural livelihoods in Southern Africa
  24. 24. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Early Season Fires vs Late Season fires Early Season Fires Low intensity High frequency – low fuel load Resulting in stable healthy ecosystem(Except Fynbos, Rain Forest) Late Season Fires High Intensity Low frequency – high fuel load Degrading soil fertility, loss of trees Knock-on effects Alexander Held - Fire dependent ecosystems, degradation and fire use through rural livelihoods in Southern Africa
  25. 25. Accidental fire in an African rural Environment
  26. 26. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Fire Management Challenges resulting from loss of traditional fire knowledge, poverty, armed conflict, HIV-AIDS, lack of capacity, resources, information and technical skills. Alexander Held - Fire dependent ecosystems, degradation and fire use through rural livelihoods in Southern Africa
  27. 27. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Objectives of a “FireWise Africa” initiative Reduce Wildfire Hazard Protect Life and Property Maintain and enhance land use, tourism, hunting, forestry, farming… • Maintain and enhance ecosystems services Alexander Held - Fire dependent ecosystems, degradation and fire use through rural livelihoods in Southern Africa
  28. 28. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters SAFNET, AFIS, AfriFireNEt, Working on Fire WoF, FireWise Africa, SADC Fire Management Plan, Wildfire 2011, RFCC Africa…..UN ISDR, FAO, UNDP, OCHA, UNEP, USAID, ITTO, GTZ, t.b.c….. Only a few initiatives produce results and progress….there is light at the end of a very dark tunnel. Fire Management is no rocket science and could be applied at large scale with reasonable costs and greatest benefits for livelihoods, ecosystems and climate. Where is the mistake? Alexander Held - Fire dependent ecosystems, degradation and fire use through rural livelihoods in Southern Africa
  29. 29. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters See you at the next Forum of the UNISDR Global Wildland Fire Network Come to Africa! 9-13 May 2011, Pilanesberg National Park – Sun City South Africa http://www.wildfire2011.org/ Anja A. Hoffmann, Alex C. Held, Nikola Nikolov, Sundar P. Sharma
  30. 30. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Thank You for Your Attention GFMC / UNISDR WFAG / GOFC-GOLD Fire Team Anja A. Hoffmann, Alex C. Held, Nikola Nikolov, Sundar P. Sharma
  31. 31. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Linkages between Climate, Vegetation, Livelihoods and Fire Change in GHG CLIMATE CHANGE emissions Natural ignition sources Regional weather (e.g. lightening) patterns Vegetation types Livelihood opportunities Land management Fuel conditions practices FIRE FREQUENCY, SEVERITY AND BEHAVIOUR Anja A. Hoffmann, Alex C. Held, Nikola Nikolov, Sundar P. Sharma
  32. 32. The Role of Fire Management in Stabilizing Ecosystems and Reducing Wildfire and Secondary Disasters Fire! Don’t fight it, manage it! 5 Fire Management elements Analysis Rehabilitation • Analysis/Collection of data • Prevention Prevention Response • Preparedness • Response/suppression Preparedness • Rehabilitation Stakeholders involved are fire mandated governmental departments at all admin. levels, local communities, private sector & others Anja A. Hoffmann, Alex C. Held, Nikola Nikolov, Sundar P. Sharma

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