Easily Frustrated by error messages\nDespite help, still has errors\nSeems almost angry when she struggles\nSeems uncomfortable with problems she doesn&#x2019;t understand\nWhen paired with an able partner, lets the partner do most of the work\nObject is to COMPLETE the exercise and get the mark, even is she doesn&#x2019;t learn much in the process\n
Gordon was high attainer at school and expected to excel at uni.\nHis first few tests were poor and he barely scraped a pass.\nHowever, instead of quitting, he dug his heels in and engaged with reading and homework\nHe asked questions and when he got compiler errors, calmly and deliberately engaged with each one\nAccepted help when studying and when paired with more able students, asked about process of getting result rather than letting partner answer for both.\n
Both of these characters are fictional - but they each represent a fundamentally opposing world view.\n
By definition a challenge is hard - so rather than risking failing and impacting their self-image, they may avoid challenges and stick to what they KNOW they can do well.\nThey IGNORE or GET ANGRY when receiving negative feedback - fixed mindset means any criticism is a CRITICISM OF YOU\nSuccess is seen as a benchmark by which they may not look good\nThey may look for ways of putting other person down &#x201C;ah, but did you know THIS?&#x201D;\nJealousy of students who are fast\n
You know you&#x2019;ll come out stronger after facing a challenge\nSelf image is not tied to success - failure is an opportunity to learn\nWhere effort is a sign of weakness to fixed, it is fundamental and necessary for success in growth\nCriticism and feedback are useful sources of information\nwhich doesn&#x2019;t mean they never get offended when criticised\nrather that the feedback isn&#x2019;t about THEM AS A PERSON - but their current abilities\nSuccess is not a zero-sum game - and is a source of inspiration and information\n
Important to notice\nThis IS NOT about ability \nAchievement is instead tied to a way of believing HOW THINGS WORK\n
Performance is tied to effort rather than intelligence\n
This earlier finding holds across socio-economic groups.\nThey performed an intervention that encouraged the view that intelligence is malleable.\n3 sessions advocating this view in their intervention.\nWere able to create an &#x201C;Enduring and beneficial change in their own attitudes about intelligence. This change improved their academic performance to a significant degree&#x201D;\n
Study 1 - a malleable view predicted an upward trajectory in grades over 2 years where a belief that intelligence is fixed predicted a flat trajectory.\nStudy 2 - intervention - taught a growth mindset. Experimental group showed an upward trajectory - control group a downward trajectory.\n
Found that women were more likely to identify with a fixed ability mindset. \nWomen more emphasis on extrinsic factors of success\nThis belief was associated with poorer performance AND a tendency to drop classes when faced with difficulty.\n
Mindset Training 1 - what are growth and fixed mindsets
Meet the Students• Faith and Gordon are both programming students in ﬁrst year.
World View• Fixed mindset Faith• Growth mindset Gordon
Fixed Mindset Faith• Faith is an example of someone who has a Fixed Mindset
Fixed Mindset• Believe that intelligence is static • you ‘are the way you are’• Still desire a positive self image • but they have a different approach to achieving that than the Gordon’s• Motivated to ‘get a good mark’ over improving one’s abilities
Fixed Mindset• Avoid challenges• Easily give up when facing obstacles• Dislike criticism• Threatened by success of others
Fixed Mindset• Ultimately - a person with a ﬁxed mindset may plateau in ability early
Growth Mindset Gordon• Gordon is an example of someone with a Growth Mindset
Growth Mindset• Believe that intelligence can be developed• The brain is like a muscle that can be trained• abilities reﬂect time and effort• motivated to improve abilities over ‘getting a good mark’
Growth Mindset• Challenges are embraced• Obstacles do not discourage• Effort is the path to success• Criticism and feedback welcome• Less jealous of success
Growth Mindset• Ultimately, people with a growth mindset achieve more over the long term because they continuously improve
Mindset• That’s why the terms are Growth and Fixed MINDSET• The way you intrinsically believe the world works (the human works) determines your behaviour.
Example 1• 2001 study by Aronson et al• Earlier research showed that negative stereotypes impugning black students’ intellectual ability is tied to underperformance when compared to white students.
Example 2• Blackwell, Trzesniewski and Dweck, 2007• Two studies looking at the role of implicit theories of intelligence in adolescents• Study 1 - 373 7th graders observed over 2 years• Study 2 - intervention with 48 7th graders (control = 43)
Example 3• Heyman, G.D., Martyna, B. and Bhatia, S., 2002• 238 college engineering students - looking at gender differences
The Big Picture• A belief that intelligence can grow, and is malleable, that performance is the result of hard work, will behave in a way that results in greater effort being applied and ultimately will achieve higher - throughout a whole academic career and beyond.
The Big Picture• A belief that intelligence is ultimately ﬁxed and that you are good at what you are good at will lead to behaviours consistent with that - avoiding obstacles and ultimately failing to engage in hard work which can lead to a lower attainment.
The Good News!• It is possible (although perhaps, not easy) to change one’s mindset.