World View• Fixed mindset Faith• Growth mindset Gordon
Fixed Mindset Faith• Faith is an example of someone who has a Fixed Mindset
Fixed Mindset• Believe that intelligence is static • you ‘are the way you are’• Still desire a positive self image • but they have a different approach to achieving that than the Gordon’s• Motivated to ‘get a good mark’ over improving one’s abilities
Fixed Mindset• Avoid challenges• Easily give up when facing obstacles• Dislike criticism• Threatened by success of others
Fixed Mindset• Ultimately - a person with a ﬁxed mindset may plateau in ability early
Growth Mindset Gordon• Gordon is an example of someone with a Growth Mindset
Growth Mindset• Believe that intelligence can be developed• The brain is like a muscle that can be trained• abilities reﬂect time and effort• motivated to improve abilities over ‘getting a good mark’
Growth Mindset• Challenges are embraced• Obstacles do not discourage• Effort is the path to success• Criticism and feedback welcome• Less jealous of success
Growth Mindset• Ultimately, people with a growth mindset achieve more over the long term because they continuously improve
Mindset• That’s why the terms are Growth and Fixed MINDSET• The way you intrinsically believe the world works (the human works) determines your behaviour.
Example 1• 2001 study by Aronson et al• Earlier research showed that negative stereotypes impugning black students’ intellectual ability is tied to underperformance when compared to white students.
Example 2• Blackwell, Trzesniewski and Dweck, 2007• Two studies looking at the role of implicit theories of intelligence in adolescents• Study 1 - 373 7th graders observed over 2 years• Study 2 - intervention with 48 7th graders (control = 43)
Example 3• Heyman, G.D., Martyna, B. and Bhatia, S., 2002• 238 college engineering students - looking at gender differences
Double Edged Sword• It isn’t as simple as ‘teach growth mindset and students improve’• It is possible for courses to foster a ﬁxed mindset by default!
• Cutts et al (2010) and Rogerson & Scott (2010) both show evidence that the nature of programming courses can actual reduce growth mindset.• That is - over time - students (as a body) trend towards having a ﬁxed mindset when studying introductory programming.
Cutts (2010)• Particularly interesting• 3 interventions intending to promote a growth mindset in 1st year students• By week 6, showed enough of an impact to roll out across entire student body• Needed to be taught but ALSO REINFORCED
• A belief that intelligence can grow, and is malleable, that performance is the result of hard work, will behave in a way that results in greater effort being applied and ultimately will achieve higher - throughout a whole academic career and beyond.
• A belief that intelligence is ultimately ﬁxed and that you are good at what you are good at will lead to behaviours consistent with that - avoiding obstacles and ultimately failing to engage in hard work which can lead to a lower attainment.
• It is possible (although perhaps, not easy) to change one’s mindset.
Jesper Juul• Examined role of failure in games • Found it NECESSARY to enjoyment • Players preferred to feel responsible• Growth is ‘the core attraction of videogames’
Huizinga• Magic Circle • What happens in the game stays in the game. • By deﬁnition, play is ‘outside’ the real world.
Affective impact of GBL• Play may be a state of mind - that shares characteristics with a growth mindset.• On of the beneﬁts of using GBL may be that is promotes this state of mind.• This is something Im planning on exploring further.
References• Aronson, J., Fried, C.B., & Good, C. ‘Reducing stereotype threat and boosting academic achievement of African- American students: The role of conceptions of intelligence’, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 113-125, 2002.• Blackwell, L.S., Trzesniewski, C.H., Dweck, C.S. Implicit Theories of Intelligence Predict Intelligence across an Adolescent Transition: a Longitudinal Study and an Intervention, Child Development, 78(1), 246-263, 2007.• Heyman, G.D., Martyna, B. and Bhatia, S. Gender and Achievement-related beliefs among engineering students. Journal of Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, 8:41-52, 2002.• Cutts, Quintin, Emily Cutts, Stephen Draper, Patrick O’Donnell, and Peter Saffrey. “Manipulating mindset to positively inﬂuence introductory programming performance.” In Proceedings of the 41st ACM technical symposium on Computer science education, 431–435. SIGCSE ’10. New York, NY, USA: ACM, 2010.• Rogerson, C., and E. Scott. “The Fear Factor: How It Affects Students Learning to Program in a Tertiary Environment.” Journal of Information Technology Education 9 (2010).• Juul, J. âFear of Failing? The Many Meanings of Difﬁculty in Video Games. In The Video Game Theory Reader 2, edited by Mark J P Wolf and Bernard Perron, 2:237-252. New York, USA: Routledge, 2009• Huizinga, Johan. Homo Ludens: a study of the play element in culture. The Beacon Press, 1950.