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From Loving the Hero to Despising the Villain: Sports Fans, Facebook, and Social Identity Threats
 

From Loving the Hero to Despising the Villain: Sports Fans, Facebook, and Social Identity Threats

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    From Loving the Hero to Despising the Villain: Sports Fans, Facebook, and Social Identity Threats From Loving the Hero to Despising the Villain: Sports Fans, Facebook, and Social Identity Threats Presentation Transcript

    • From Loving the Hero to Despising From Loving the Hero to Despising the Villain: Sports Fans, Facebook, the Villain: Sports Fans, Facebook, and Social Identity Threats and Social Identity Threats Jimmy Sanderson Jimmy Sanderson Department of Communication Studies Department of Communication Studies Clemson University Clemson University
    • Outline I. Introduction I. Introduction II. Review of Literature II. Review of Literature III. Methodology III. Methodology IV. Result IV. Result V. Discussion V. Discussion VI. Conclusion VI. Conclusion
    • Introduction Introduction A. Abstract A. Abstract B. Background B. Background
    • A. Abstract A. Abstract This research explored how University of Cincinnati football fans used Facebook to manage a social identity threat by conducting thematic analysis of wall postings in the ‘‘Get Out of Our City Brian Kelly’’ Facebook group. Results revealed that fans’ responses to this threat include (a) rallying, (b) stigmatizing, (c) victimization, (d) intimidation, and (e) degradation.
    • B. Background B. Background The football coach Brian Kelly who had brought unprecedented success to Cincinnati resigned the team suddenly to become the head coach of the university of Notre Dame Brian Kelly’s departure bring the social identity threat to the Cincinnati as a results the Cincinnati fans made a Facebook page “Get Out of Our City Brian Kelly” to manage such social identity threat.
    • II. Review of Literature II. Review of Literature A. Sports Fans and Identification B. Social Media Sites and Sports Fans C. Social Identity Threats and Sports Fans
    • A. Sports Fans and Identification A. Sports Fans and Identification Identification occurs when media users perceive that they share similarities with a celebrity (Fraser & Brown, 2002; Soukup, 2006). When athletes and teams are successful, fans more overtly express their identification with ‘‘winners,’’ whereas they invoke distance when athletes and teams are unsuccessful (Partridge, Wann, & Elison, 2010). Identification creates interpersonal connections and initiates social life satisfaction
    • A. Sports Fans and Identification (Conti.) A. Sports Fans and Identification (Conti.) Highly identified fans are more likely to behave abnormally at sporting events and are heavy consumers of confrontational sports media (Wakefield & Wann, 2006). Sports fans’ presence on social media is not lost on sports teams, who use these channels to engage and cultivate relationships with fans (Waters, Burke, Jackson, & Buning, 2011).
    • B. Social Media Sites and Sports Fans B. Social Media Sites and Sports Fans Social media are designed to support multi-purposes participation. •Community Peer-to-peer conversation Collaboration (Meraz, 2009)
    • B. Social Media Sites and Sports Fans (Conti) B. Social Media Sites and Sports Fans (Conti) Athletes and sports figures are using social media to encourage interaction with fans. (Sanderson, 2011) Social media are channels where fans can distribute community, connect with other fans, and interact with athletes and sports figures -when social identity threats occur.(ibid)
    • C. Social Identity Threats and Sports Fans C. Social Identity Threats and Sports Fans Social Identity Threats represents instances in which individuals feel the collectives to which they belong have been evaluated negatively. (Tajfel & Tuner, 1986) Social Identity Threats can include: •Value threats •Distinctiveness threats (Branscombe, Ellemers, Spears & Doosje, 1999)
    • C. Social Identity Threats and Sports Fans (Conti) C. Social Identity Threats and Sports Fans (Conti) Social Identity Threats classified Value threat Distinctiveness threats
    • C. Social Identity Threats and Sports Fans (Conti) C. Social Identity Threats and Sports Fans (Conti) Strategies used to manage social identity threats: a)Individual mobility b)Social creativity c)Social competition (Tajfel & Turner, 1979) Highly identified members tend to incite conflict between in-group and out-group ,and accept negative reactions from their peers as to preserve uniqueness.
    • III. Methodology III. Methodology A. Data Collection A. Data Collection B. Data Analysis B. Data Analysis
    • A. Data Collection A. Data Collection Data were obtained from wall postings in the ‘‘Get Out of Our City Brian Kelly’’ Facebook group. There were several reasons this particular group was selected. a. The most popular social media site b. Sizeable membership c. The group and the language used
    • B. Data Analysis B. Data Analysis Thematic Analysis A qualitative analytic method for: ‘identifying, analyzing and reporting patterns (themes) within data. It minimally organizes and describes your data set in (rich) detail. However, frequently it goes further than this, and interprets various aspects of the research topic.’Braun and Clarke, 2006, p.79
    • B. Data Analysis (Conti.) B. Data Analysis (Conti.) Analyzing Data The postings were micro-analyzed and classified into emergent categories based on the ways that participants were reacting to this social identity threat. Themes were summarized and compared to ascertain similarity, and the author compared and reduced themes as much as possible while still preserving meaning.
    • IV. Result IV. Result A. Rallying A. Rallying B. Stigmatizing B. Stigmatizing C. Victimization C. Victimization D. Intimidation D. Intimidation
    • A. Rallying A. Rallying Rallying (Fans with optimistic reaction) - Perceive the coach’s departure as a motivation, not a threat. - Encourage collective strength. (Cohesion between fans and team) - Convey support for the players who showed dissatisfaction towards the coach’s resignation announcement.
    • A. Rallying (Conti.) A. Rallying (Conti.) Example 1. ‘‘I hope the players use this as motivation and beat Florida and show the country that it is the players not the coaches who make the difference’’ (606) 2. ‘‘Let’s show him the mistake he made and CHOMP THE GATORS’’ (570) 3. ‘‘were gunna win the sugar bowl and show him we dnt need his sorry ass’’ (244).
    • B. Stigmatizing B. Stigmatizing (Fans who devalue ND team and elevate Cincinnati team) •Emphasize Cincinnati’s superiority •Ridicule Notre Dame •Position Notre Dame as the extreme opposite of Cincinnati •Say that Kelly’s resignation is his downhill in career life.
    • B. Stigmatizing (Conti.) B. Stigmatizing (Conti.) Example 1. ‘‘notre dame has a dead football program its not coming back and UC is here to stay. fighting irish my butt, they’re fighting for one win these days’’ (100) 2. ‘‘notre dameผa bad football team and cincinnatiผa good one. oh wait, that’s not an analogy . . . it’s reality’’ (987)
    • C. Victimization C. Victimization (Fans who feel victimized) •Being betrayed and abandoned because of Brian Kelly’s departure. •Being disappointed and hurt. •Has their expectations violated. •Traumatized by Brian Kelly’s leave.
    • C. Victimization (Conti.) C. Victimization (Conti.) Example 1. ‘‘Brian Kelly, you have betrayed us’’ (141) 2. ‘‘BK lied to the players and lied to the city’’ (41) 3. ‘‘Brian Kelly is a traitor, you let everyone down’’ (219). 4. “Kelly was also labeled as ‘‘benedict kelly’’ (523) 5. ‘‘sellout’’ (45, 107)
    • D. Intimidation D. Intimidation (Fans who are highly identified with the team) •Derogate Kelly by using aggressive words. •Tend to instigate physical confrontation.
    • D. Intimidation (Conti.) D. Intimidation (Conti.) Example 1. ‘‘fuck brian kelly’’ (42) 2. ‘‘FUCK YOU BRIAN KELLY’’ (664) 3. ‘‘wow kelly ur an ass hole’’ (621) 4. ‘‘Brian Kelly can eat shit and die’’ (195) 5. ‘‘brian kelly is a piece of SHIT!’’ (1023)
    • E. Degradation E. Degradation (Fans who have lost self-respect and respect of others) •Use misogynistic terms. •Use Homophobic slurs.
    • E. Degradation (Conti) E. Degradation (Conti) Example 1. “a bitch” (156) 2. ‘‘a fucking dick’’ (14) 3. ‘‘i fucking hate you COCKSUCKER’’ (823) 4. ‘‘HEY BRIAN KELLY EAT A BAG OF DICKS AND CHOKE ON A GIANT BLACK DILDO YOU PIECE OF SHIT’’ (28) 5. ‘‘Brian Kelly you are a fucking douchebag liar fat fuck!!!!!!’’ (821)
    • Discussion Discussion General Comment General Comment Limitation Limitation Future Research Future Research
    • Discussion Discussion Social identity theory’s utility in understanding fan behavior. Fans’ social identity extends beyond the game and encompasses personnel decisions. Fans’ social identity extends beyond the game and encompasses personnel decisions. How group communication norms incite and reinforce derogatory communication.
    • Discussion Discussion Social media intensifies rather than reduces anger. Social media provides a populated forum for ideologies of masculinity in sport to perpetuate. Social media is a venue where fans selectively selfpresent their social identity after it has been threatened. Fans ameliorated social identity by subjugating any possible internal reasons for Kelly’s departure.
    • Limitations Limitations - Explored only one social media forum in response to one sport personality leaving a team. - Did not indicate that community members with opposing views on Kelly’s departure interacted with one another to persuade others to adopt their response. The communication was overwhelmingly critical of Kelly.
    • Future Research Future Research - incorporate responses from multiple social media platforms which may contain divergent messages. - Examine how group dialogue influences social identity threat response. - Question if there are certain sport figures who fans correlate with their social identity more than others, and whose departures are more problematic? - Look at other behavior by sport figures that constitute social identity threats for fans.
    • VI. Conclusion VI. Conclusion Social media will continue to blossom as a channel for sports fans to communicate with one another and sports figures. Also, it has become the prime avenue for expressing social identity and mitigating social identity threats. Identification with sports teams is indeed intense, blinding fans’ better judgment, which speaks to the importance of continuing this line of research.
    • Q&A
    • Thank You Thank You Phra somchai Phra somchai Natthawut Natthawut Kaapkaew Kaapkaew Naphatchanan Naphatchanan Poovorn 5510811014 Poovorn 5510811014 Promtara 5510811010 Promtara 5510811010 Suksawad 5510811017 Suksawad 5510811017 Kingsakun 5520811003 Kingsakun 5520811003