Case Study: Understanding
Human Factors and Materials
Matching in selection of Slitters
Image obtained from
http://www.goo...
Presentation Outline
 Definition of Slitting
 Slitting Technologies: A comparison between
Razor, Crush/Score and Shear S...
Slitting technologies
Terms and Definitions

Stefan Choo

3
Definition of Slitting
(From Oxford Dictionary Online)

(From Colins Dictionary Online)

noun

noun

 a long, narrow cut ...
Stefan Choo

‹#›
Razor Slitting: An Overview
 4 Key factors to
consider
1. Safety
2. Principles of
separation
3. Installation
Parameters
4...
Score Slitting: An Overview
 5 Key factors to consider
1. The web
2. Nip force
3. Blade profile
4. Metallurgy
5. Mounting...
Score Slitting: Matching blade to
materials
 Do suppliers have range
of blades for different
applications?

 Smaller Rad...
Profiles of materials cut using
score slitting
A.

Clay-coated paperboard
(0.45mm). Ridge formation
due to blade displacem...
Shear Slitting: An Overview

Stefan Choo

10
Match Material Properties to
Blade Profiles & Parameters:
Shear Slitting
t

σUTS

ρ
μ

δ

k

Stefan Choo

σyc

Source: Sli...
Key Criterion- Slitting Selection
1. Identify most important characteristics of each slitting
method.

2. Identify charact...
Cross Comparison of Slitting
Technologies
Blade Life

Longest Blade Life (~1015X Shear)

Shortest Blade Life

Intermediate...
Start

Materials Based
Selection of Slitting Process
Is material thin
≤25μm

Material needs to
stretch significantly Yes
i...
Technology Value ChainSlitting Suppliers
Technology

Post Processing

Machine
Raw Materials

Knife holder
Tension Control
...
Impacts on Knife holder on
Slitting V.C.
Rigidity, Compliance and Vibration

Can’t Angle
Adj/
Safety- Blade
Changing and
A...
What to look out for during
supplier visit:
Safety-control mechanisms

Are they1. Present?
2. Clearly visible
3. Adhered t...
Survey Results- What
influences Suppliers to
purchase
56%

48%
38%

Upgradability of Machines

Differential winding- Align...
Wherein lies the margin for
supplier innovation?
To retrofit machine &
upgrade Knifeholder?

To buy a new machine
to upgra...
Conclusion:
What matters most
Use the right
method of cut
for the right
material and
right cut!
Tidland Corp

Stefan Choo
...
Q&A/ Objections?
 “It’s much cheaper, easier and saves time to
choose a slitter who has machines that run at fast
speeds ...
Outsourcing: Why outsource?
A creative conundrum

Slower time
to market,

↓ Costs

Lower costs
(but really so
in the long
...
Glossary of terms
 Converting companies are companies that specialize in combining raw
materials such as polyesters, adhe...
Bibliography


Bentley Jr, D. J. (2005). Razor, Crush, And Shear Slitting Principles: Advantages And Disadvantages For Fi...
Biblography


Shea, B., & Benson, G. (1999). Is your slitting system cutting into your profits? Paper, Film and Foil Conv...
Additional Information

Stefan Choo

27
Schematic overview of Slitting
Machines
Blade
oscillation
system for
razor
slitting

Shear
Knives

Razor Slitting
Blade

S...
Key Constraints of Machining
Methods
Razor
Slitting
Safety

Crush/
Score
Slitting

Shear
Slitting
Blade Wear

Blade Life

...
Improvements to slitting
processes/ designs
“Having the right machine for the job is the biggest cost savings a converter
...
How issues can be addressed by
slitters
Razor
Slitting

Crush/
Score
Slitting

Shear
Slitting

Lineal Die Ultrasonic
Slitt...
Improvements to slitting
processes
Issues

Possible
solutions

Affects

Impact to
Company &
3M

Competitive
Advantage

Dow...
Improvement to slitting
processes
Issues

Improvemen
ts

Affects

Impact to
Company &
3M

Competitive
Advantage

Downsides...
Quality of Slits

Stefan Choo

34
Common problems with
Slitting & Proposed Solutions
Method of slitting

Shear
Slitting
Scoring
Scoring
Stefan Choo

Excessi...
Common problems with
Slitting & Proposed Solutions
Method of slitting

Scoring
Excessive
Dusting

Shear
Shear/
Scoring
Ste...
Knife holder types and
capabilities

Additional Information can be
accessed at
http://tidland.maxcessintl.com/slittin
g/ti...
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Case study: Understanding Human Factors and Materials in selection of Slitters (A project undertaken as an Intern)

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Manufacturing speeds, flexibility and capabilities, and costs of outsource slitters are far often key determinants in traditional supplier selection for manufacturing. While these factors are important, they often overlook the operating competences and areas of innovation that can benefit the supplier-vendor relationship.

This project emphasises other aspects crucial in the evaluation of outsource slitters- human factors and materials management processes. These factors have a substantial impact in the operating competencies of the supplier. Without looking into these factors, the client often has to deal with quality and delivery issues due to manufacturing defects and downtime that would have offset upfront cost savings.

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  • -----***Supplier info***
  • 1. Polypropylene is stiffer than polyethylene.
  • -Range of applications***
  • BTS industries= $133k USD- Knifeholder- $20k What affects slitting precision and quality-Knifeholder design:Vibration Tool Change
  • Relevance-tell tale signs
  • Cost Structures of Capital Outlay of Slitters- *Additional references from Market Reports documented in separate document
  • Pictures, Diagrams to compare output differencesSEM images for various cut profiles
  • Pictures, Diagrams to compare output differencesSEM images for various cut profiles
  • - Possible solutions
  • Case study: Understanding Human Factors and Materials in selection of Slitters (A project undertaken as an Intern)

    1. 1. Case Study: Understanding Human Factors and Materials Matching in selection of Slitters Image obtained from http://www.google.com/imgres?biw=1366&bih =587&tbm=isch&tbnid=KHFSNVzpOAAfrM: &imgrefurl=http://www.rasmart.co.uk/rasmart-to-supply-new-transmatic-machines-for2012/&docid=HCDS5dxh8j7hmM&imgurl=htt p://www.rasmart.co.uk/wpcontent/uploads/2011/12/TRANSMATICSONIC-SLITTINGMACHINE.jpg&w=450&h=469&ei=YiGTUf7 1JPb84APn9YG4BQ&zoom=1&iact=rc&dur= 312&page=1&tbnh=146&tbnw=149&start=0& ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:10,s:0,i:110&tx=89&ty =98 Stefan Choo 1
    2. 2. Presentation Outline  Definition of Slitting  Slitting Technologies: A comparison between Razor, Crush/Score and Shear Slitting  Selecting the right methods of cut for the right material and the right cut.  Technology Value Chain & Identification of Core Technology Differentiators  Innovation approach  Conclusion Stefan Choo 2
    3. 3. Slitting technologies Terms and Definitions Stefan Choo 3
    4. 4. Definition of Slitting (From Oxford Dictionary Online) (From Colins Dictionary Online) noun noun  a long, narrow cut or opening: make a slit • in the stem under a bud arrow slits • a long narrow cut a long narrow opening verb (slits, slitting, slit)  [with object] make a long, narrow cut in: give me the truth or I will slit your throat [with object and complement]:he slit open the envelope  cut (something) into strips: a wide recording head magnetizes the tape before it is slit to domestic size Stefan Choo verb • Word forms: slits, slitting, slit • tr to make a straight long incision in; split open • to cut into strips lengthwise • to sever 4
    5. 5. Stefan Choo ‹#›
    6. 6. Razor Slitting: An Overview  4 Key factors to consider 1. Safety 2. Principles of separation 3. Installation Parameters 4. Blade Parameters Stefan Choo 6
    7. 7. Score Slitting: An Overview  5 Key factors to consider 1. The web 2. Nip force 3. Blade profile 4. Metallurgy 5. Mounting Geometry Stefan Choo 7
    8. 8. Score Slitting: Matching blade to materials  Do suppliers have range of blades for different applications?  Smaller Radius Less energy required Rapid tip fracture & Anvil Roll Grooving Larger tips radii Higher force & energy consumption Tools dull/ break easily Stefan Choo 8
    9. 9. Profiles of materials cut using score slitting A. Clay-coated paperboard (0.45mm). Ridge formation due to blade displacement. B. Polyethylene (0.1mm). Flaky edges. Edge extrusion by blade. C. Polypropylene (0.07mm). No material defects, but slitter dust leftover1. D. Paper towel. Effectively and cleanly crushed. E. Nonwoven towel. Flakes of resin deposited during scoring. Stefan Choo Images obtained from Tidland (2003) Image Obtained from Schaber, R (1993) e 9
    10. 10. Shear Slitting: An Overview Stefan Choo 10
    11. 11. Match Material Properties to Blade Profiles & Parameters: Shear Slitting t σUTS ρ μ δ k Stefan Choo σyc Source: Slitting Techniques (2002) 11
    12. 12. Key Criterion- Slitting Selection 1. Identify most important characteristics of each slitting method. 2. Identify characteristics of materials to be slit. 3. Match materials to best method. 4. Value Added Services to Buyer. (Stuarda) Stefan Choo 12
    13. 13. Cross Comparison of Slitting Technologies Blade Life Longest Blade Life (~1015X Shear) Shortest Blade Life Intermediate Blade Life (15X > Crush) Razor Slitting **Generally Best for Advantages Weaknesses Prescribed thickness Speed Crush/ Score Slitting Shear Slitting • Thin film products • Adhesives • Any flexi-web material • - Simplest - Least Expensive • - Works well for thin edge trim - Ease of blade cleaning • - Uneven thickness (Flow distortion) - Permanent distortion (Entrapped air) - Low tolerance • ≤25 microns • <1000ft/min • - Dusty, largest amount of dust - Poorest Edge Quality - Not for stiff products or tensile plastic films • >25 microns • Unstated. Slow. • - Customizable - Fast - Min amount of slitting dust • Complex -Tacit knowledge of operators • >25 microns • >1000ft/min Cost Stefan Choo 13 Source: Wolf, M (2005), Rowe, R(2001), Bentley DJ (2005)
    14. 14. Start Materials Based Selection of Slitting Process Is material thin ≤25μm Material needs to stretch significantly Yes in direction of applied force before breaking? Yes No Material pulls apart easily without brittle breaking. No/ Variable Thickness No Does material soften Yes (Tg) at machining temperature? No Knowledge & competency of manpower in Machine Setup and Customization No Ease of Blade Penetration into material? No Does material deposit on/ stick to blade easily? Yes No No Yes Is material sufficiently flexible? Yes No Safety procedures & handling Yes Good interlayer bond strength Yes No Yes Yes Material recoverable from compression? Ok Yes Speed/ Quality Critical? Assumption: - Uniform material across single layer. Exclusions: - Fibers - Aligned composite materials Appropriate Roll Handling & Tension Control No Shear Slitting Crush/ Score Slitting Yes Razor Slitting Includes exception: woven materials No Stefan Choo Speed Critical? 14
    15. 15. Technology Value ChainSlitting Suppliers Technology Post Processing Machine Raw Materials Knife holder Tension Control Engineering Value Added Services Technical Know-How Material-Blade Selection Equipment and Supply Vendors Machine Parameters Manpower - Skilled Labor Stefan Choo Packaging 3M - Us Freight 15
    16. 16. Impacts on Knife holder on Slitting V.C. Rigidity, Compliance and Vibration Can’t Angle Adj/ Safety- Blade Changing and Adjustment Safety Load Regulation Productivity (Manpower) & Quality (Output) Engage/DisSequencing Setup and Repositionability Stefan Choo Source: Tidland (2002) 16
    17. 17. What to look out for during supplier visit: Safety-control mechanisms Are they1. Present? 2. Clearly visible 3. Adhered to? Stefan Choo 17
    18. 18. Survey Results- What influences Suppliers to purchase 56% 48% 38% Upgradability of Machines Differential winding- Aligns rolls of different thicknesses with precision (Differential Winding) # Able to slit in register with applied coatings 36% Controls for specific features 31% Diagnostic and Troubleshooting Image copied from “Slitting Survey: Results Let Us Hear Reader’s Voices 19% **Automation Stefan Choo -Budget shrinking for Suppliers  Frugal Innovations that improve converter output will be useful. 18
    19. 19. Wherein lies the margin for supplier innovation? To retrofit machine & upgrade Knifeholder? To buy a new machine to upgrade from score to razor slitting/ shear slitting? New: USD$1,400 Used: USD $795 Source: BTS industries website Source: http://stores.margot.com/Manufacturing_Process_Equipme nt/Web_Handling_and_Process_Equipment/Knives_and_K nife_Holders/Slitter_Knife_Holders/Used_Tidland_Class_II _Shear_Knife_Holder_5_RH_p157.html Stefan Choo 19
    20. 20. Conclusion: What matters most Use the right method of cut for the right material and right cut! Tidland Corp Stefan Choo 21
    21. 21. Q&A/ Objections?  “It’s much cheaper, easier and saves time to choose a slitter who has machines that run at fast speeds and promise to slit across most materials.”  “We outsourced to them since it’s not our core capability, they should serve us accordingly. I don’t see any point in investing more time and resources to study their processes” Stefan Choo 22
    22. 22. Outsourcing: Why outsource? A creative conundrum Slower time to market, ↓ Costs Lower costs (but really so in the long term?) Operate Faster Time To Market Improving Innovation Capability Better Products Innovate Present/ Past • Cost • Economy of Scale • Lower Wages • Redistribute resources from non-core to innovation activities • Access to new, noncore Competencies Capacity • Loss of Knowledge Architecture • Loss of Process Architecture • Acquisition of Product and Process Architecture • Development of Knowledge Architecture Stefan Choo Source: Bengstsson, L (2009) 23
    23. 23. Glossary of terms  Converting companies are companies that specialize in combining raw materials such as polyesters, adhesives, silicones, tapes, foams, plastics, felts, rubbers, liners and metals, as well as other materials, to create new products. (Source: Wikipedia)  Web speed: (inferred) Feed speed of the substrate material that is to be processed. The web is usually a long thin flexible material passed over rollers.  * Web handling is the art and science of getting a web through a machine with maximum productivity and minimum waste.  Differential core technologies:  Technology that allows for uneven cuts to be processed by the slitter  Slit Edge: The edge of a coil or sheet after being fed through a highly tempered knives located on the slitter head. The edge of slit coils has tighter tolerances than normal mill run edges. Nip: a pinching force between two surfaces. In manufacturing, Stefan Choo 24
    24. 24. Bibliography  Bentley Jr, D. J. (2005). Razor, Crush, And Shear Slitting Principles: Advantages And Disadvantages For Film And Foil Applications. Paper, Film and Foil Converter, 79(5), 67. Retrieved from http://libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/211371591?accountid=13876  Egeröd, J., & Nordling, E. (2010). Strategic Supplier Evaluation-Considering environmental aspects. Linköping.  Hamilton. (2005). Principles of Shear Slitting. Hamilton, OH. Retrieved from http://www.hamiltonknife.com/educational_materials.htm  Hawkins, W. E. (1999a). Slitting technology - part I: A look at razor slitting. Paper, Film and Foil Converter, 73(5), 28. Retrieved from http://libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/211390590?accountid=13876  Hawkins, W. E. (1999b). Slitting technology--part II: Razor slitting continued. Paper, Film and Foil Converter, 73(6), 26. Retrieved from http://libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/211407551?accountid=13876  Lowe, R. (2001). Slitting survey. Paper, Film and Foil Converter, 75(8), 45. Retrieved from http://libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/211397925?accountid=13876  Schable, R. (1993). Slitting Solutions. Paper, Film and Foil Converter. Retrieved May 29, 2013, from http://tidland.maxcessintl.com/slitting/slitting-materials-technical-articles  Schable, R. (2003). A guide to slitting. Converting Magazine. Retrieved from http://tidland.maxcessintl.com/slitting/selecting-slittingmethod-technical-articles Stefan Choo 25
    25. 25. Biblography  Shea, B., & Benson, G. (1999). Is your slitting system cutting into your profits? Paper, Film and Foil Converter, 73(6), 64. Retrieved from http://libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/211376630?accountid=13876  Slitting Techniques, Choosing the best Method. (1998). Chicago, United States, Chicago. Slitting Technology. (2002).The Plastic Film and Foil Web Handling Guide. CRC Press. doi:doi:10.1201/9781420031782.sec2  Spaulding, M. (2008). Outsourcing speeds “time to market”. Converting Magazine, 26(8), 50–n/a. Retrieved from http://libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/200120945?accountid=13876  Stundza, T. B. T.-P. (2005). Buyers want more than what is being offered: service centers offer metal processing, on-time deliveries; buyers want market research, customer analysis. Purchasing, 134(18), 32B1+. Retrieved from http://go.galegroup.com/ps/i.do?id=GALE|A138755671&v=2.1&u=nuslib&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w  Troubleshooting Webhandling Problems. (2002).The Plastic Film and Foil Web Handling Guide. CRC Press. doi:doi:10.1201/9781420031782.sec3  Web Stability. (2002).The Plastic Film and Foil Web Handling Guide. CRC Press. doi:doi:10.1201/9781420031782.sec1  Wolf, M. (2005). Choosing the Right Equipment: A Hair-Slitting Ordeal. PackagePrinting, 52(2), 22–27. Retrieved from http://libproxy1.nus.edu.sg/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/224560827?accountid=13876  Zelt, A. (2006). How to avoid slit-in coil slitting problems. TheFabricator.com. Retrieved May 29, 2013, from http://www.thefabricator.com/article/coilprocessing/how-to-avoid-slit-in-coil-slitting-problems Stefan Choo 26
    26. 26. Additional Information Stefan Choo 27
    27. 27. Schematic overview of Slitting Machines Blade oscillation system for razor slitting Shear Knives Razor Slitting Blade Shear Slitting Stefan Choo Roll Setup for Basic Razor Slitting Schematic Setup for Automated Shear Slitting Sourced from Hawkins, WE (1999) 28
    28. 28. Key Constraints of Machining Methods Razor Slitting Safety Crush/ Score Slitting Shear Slitting Blade Wear Blade Life Difficult to customize various slit widths for various products Slit Edge Quality: Tension Control Slit Edge Quality Precision of slit configuration• 1. Operator skill • 2. Knifeholder design Blade Life Slitting Speed Stefan Choo Safety 29 Source: Slitting Techniques, Solutions (2002)
    29. 29. Improvements to slitting processes/ designs “Having the right machine for the job is the biggest cost savings a converter can have”-------- Megan Wolf, Package Printing (2005) Stefan Choo 30
    30. 30. How issues can be addressed by slitters Razor Slitting Crush/ Score Slitting Shear Slitting Lineal Die Ultrasonic Slitting Slitting Blade Wear Blade Life Use premium blades against wear Difficult to customize various slit widths for various products Slit Edge Quality Precision of slit configuration- Better holder and tool design such that manual changes are less needed • 1. Operator skill • 2. Knifeholder design Slitting Speed Safety Stefan Choo 31 Source: Slitting Techniques, Solutions (2002)
    31. 31. Improvements to slitting processes Issues Possible solutions Affects Impact to Company & 3M Competitive Advantage Downsides to Company/ 3M Downtime due to manual blade changes (number + frequency) Automatic set-up to the slitter bladed carriers Frequency of tool change ↓ manual labor & production downtime Outpaces, ↓ competition -Expensive -Initial cost of equipment purchase is passed on to 3M Long setup time for specific configuration s CAD integration Localization of services to the user + Differentiation point (Supplier has more bargaining power) Supplier competes in niched marker, Limits choices to 3M Stefan Choo Responsiven ess to user needs. Design automation & Configuration integration & Design with changes manufacturin g outputs Complementa ry operations ↑ Range of outputs to the user 32
    32. 32. Improvement to slitting processes Issues Improvemen ts Affects Impact to Company & 3M Competitive Advantage Downsides to Company/ 3M Score slitters fitted on old machines - Cheap to supplier, resistant to change Retrofit old machines using score slitters with shear slitters Frequency and tools of production ↓ labor cost ↑ capacity of service to customer ↑setup costs. Quick Eliminates change knife downtime holder cartridge ↓↓ or x manual labor ↑↑Quality ↑↑Safety ↓Lead time & TTM Sequential air Prevents valving blade impact and damage ↓ replacement of blades ↑Quality Clear & Consistent Shear Angle ↑ Yield ↓ Defects/ Damage ↑Quality Stefan Choo Cut quality & Productivity 33
    33. 33. Quality of Slits Stefan Choo 34
    34. 34. Common problems with Slitting & Proposed Solutions Method of slitting Shear Slitting Scoring Scoring Stefan Choo Excessive Dusting Tearing/ Dusting of Non-woven fabrics Carbonless paper ↑ Grind Angle Use tougher blade material ↓ Blade Overlap ↑Slitter Overspeed ↓ Blade Overlap Correct the Blade Mounting Blade wear 35
    35. 35. Common problems with Slitting & Proposed Solutions Method of slitting Scoring Excessive Dusting Shear Shear/ Scoring Stefan Choo Tearing/ Dusting of Tissues Laminates ↑ Grind Angle Use tougher blade material ↓ Blade Overlap ↑Slitter Overspeed Tailor specific grind angles ↑Slitter Overspeed 36
    36. 36. Knife holder types and capabilities Additional Information can be accessed at http://tidland.maxcessintl.com/slittin g/tidland-e-knifeholder Stefan Choo 37

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