UNDAF Inside


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

UNDAF Inside

  1. 1. The United Nations Development Assistance Framework in the Philippines (2005-2009) 2004
  2. 2. 2 The United Nations Development Assistance Framework in the Philippines
  3. 3. (2005-2009) 3 Table of Contents Message of the United Nations 4 Message of the National Economic and Development Authority 5 Government of the Philippines and United Nations Joint Declaration of Commitment 6 United Nations Declaraton of Commitment 7 Executive Summary 9 I. Introduction 10 II. Results 12 2.1 National Development Goals, Strategies and Priorities 12 2.2 Strategic Areas of Development Cooperation 12 2.3 Expected Outcomes 14 2.3.1 Macroeconomic Stability, Broad-Based and Equitable Development 14 2.3.2 Basic Social Services 15 2.3.3 Good Governance 16 2.3.4 Environmental Sustainability 17 2.3.5 Conflict Prevention and Peace Building 18 2.4 Cooperation Strategies 19 III. Estimated Resource Requirements 20 IV. Implementation 20 4.1 Focus on MDGs, Rights and Gender Equality 21 4.2 Harmonisation of Programme Cycles 21 4.3 Development Coordination Mechanisms 22 V. Monitoring and Evaluation 22 5.1 Internal Reviews 22 5.2 Joint and External Reviews 23 UNDAF Results Matrix 24 Monitoring and Evaluation Framework 33 Monitoring and Evaluation Programme for Cycle Calendar 64 Programme Resources Framework 65 Acronyms 66 List of References 69
  4. 4. 4 The United Nations Development Assistance Framework in the Philippines United Nations Message T HE United Nations Secretary-General, Mr. Kofi Annan, has given the United Nations a renewed purpose and energy through his reform agenda. Now in its second generation, this agenda points the way towards a stronger, more focused United Nations, better placed to support national partners in achieving their own development goals. As part of this reform, the United Nations system at the country level now prepares a Common Country Assessment (CCA) of the development challenges of a country in full consultation with its key stakeholders. A United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) is then proposed to spell out how the United Nations believes it can best contribute to supporting progress on the issues identified in the Common Country Assessment. The United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) is the United Nations’ covenant with the government and people of the Philippines. It holds the United Nations sys- tems accountable for certain development outcomes resulting from the individual efforts of United Nations organizations and equally important, the synergy of the various United Nations organizations working together as a team. Stemming from the analysis of the Common Country Assessment, the United Nations De- velopment Assistance Framework (UNDAF) for the Philippines 2005-2009 has identified five key strategic areas to which the United Nations in the Philippines believes it can contribute: macroeconomic stability, broad-based and equitable development; basic social services; good governance; environmental sustainability; and conflict prevention and peace-building. Coordination and partnerships will continue to be the hallmarks of United Nations work in the country going forward, focusing on assisting the Government of the Philippines in meeting the Millennium Development Goals. The United Nations is deeply committed to the Government and people of the Philippines and looks forward to continuing its support to the country in the years ahead. DEBORAH LANDEY United Nations Resident Coordinator
  5. 5. (2005-2009) 5 National Economic and Development Authority Message O N behalf of the Philippine Government, I would like to congratulate the UN Country Team under the leadership of UN Resident Coordinator Deborah Landey for coming up with the UN Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) 2005-2009, which takes off from a Com- mon Country Assessment (CCA). I laud the men and women comprising the UN Country Team for taking on the task of assist- ing the Philippine Government in fighting poverty through this UNDAF. I am well aware that this framework was completed through a broad participatory consultation process. The UNDAF will surely help realize our aspirations for a better quality of life for all Filipinos, linked as it is to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the priorities of the Philippine Government. The adoption of a common framework such as the UNDAF gives greater meaning to the partnership among the UN agencies, the Philippine Government, civil society, private sector and other stakeholders. Forging this kind of partnership is critical to enhancing development effectiveness and efficiency. Moreover, I believe a knowledge partnership must be in place so that such intellectual capital is maximized and shared for the improvement of productivity and income. Let me invite the entire UN Family along with other donor agencies and stakeholders to establish a knowledge partnership at NEDA. The task at hand is to make UNDAF useful and meaningful. Thus, there is a need to set up necessary structural systems for knowledge to reach the poor. Together, let us realize this commitment. Again, I commend the efforts of those who were involved in coming up with this document. May your dedication and zeal inspire other organizations and sectors of society to work coop- eratively in uplifting the lives of the Filipino people. ROMULO L. NERI Socioeconomic Planning Secretary and NEDA Director-General
  6. 6. 6 The United Nations Development Assistance Framework in the Philippines Government of the Republic of the Philippines and United Nations Joint Declaration of Commitment T he United Nations Country Team, and Government of the Republic of the Philippines, are committed to support the national goals of the country and international human develop- ment commitments. Putting people first, our overriding mission is to help Filipinos achieve their full potential through expanding choices and enlarging opportunities, especially for poor and vulnerable com- munities, families and individuals. We will strive to develop national capacity and provide quality services to promote development objectives and further policy dialogue complementary to the Millennium Declaration, the Millennium Development Goals and other international commit- ments and treaties. In order to enhance the impact of our initiatives, the United Nations shall work together, fostering cooperation and coordination with government agencies and other stakeholders so as to enhance the performance and impact of development assistance in the country. To advance the cause of humanity, to respond to the multifaceted challenges faced by the Philippines, and to execute development strategies, we the United Nations and the Govern- ment of the Republic of the Philippines commit to effectively implement this United Nations Development Assistance Framework, 2005-2009. MR. ROMULO NERI MS. DEBORAH LANDEY Director- General Resident Coordinator National Economic and Development Authority United Nations
  7. 7. (2005-2009) 7 United Nations Declaration of Commitment W e, the United Nations Country Team, are determined to support the national development goal of eradicating mass poverty through sustainable, equitable and broad based socio- economic development; improved access to quality basic social services; enhanced sustain- able use of natural resources; preservation of cultural heritage; and promotion of peace, hu- man rights, gender equality and good governance. Guided by the national development needs and priorities, the global Millennium Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals, and principles embodied in the UN Charter and other fun- damental UN instruments, we will strive to provide the best assistance and strengthen national institutional and human resource capacities. We will target our assistance to the most vulner- able and poor, in particular women, children and youth, Indigenous Peoples, the informal sector and the rural population. While supporting the Philippines’ development goals, we are committed to implementing the UN Development Assistance Framework, 2005-2009, with emphasis on forging partnerships among the government, civil society, and the private sector. Respecting the specific identities and mandates of our organisations, we aim to improve our coordination, effectiveness and efficiency, to reinforce the impact of our assistance, and to provide the best possible service to the Government and the Filipinos.
  8. 8. 8 The United Nations Development Assistance Framework in the Philippines Kariya Mei Werner Konrad Blenk FAO Representative ILO Sub-regional Director Kyo Naka Dr. Zahidul A. Huque UNDP Deputy Resident Representative UNFPA Country Representative Dr. Nicholas K. Alipui Dr. Raffaello Tarroni UNICEF Country Representative UNIDO Country Representative Thamrongsak Meechubot Dr. Jean Marc J. Olive UNHCR Representative WHO Country Representative Dr. Ma. Elena F. Borromeo Lowie C. Rosales UNAIDS Country Coordinator UN-Habitat Country Coordinator Sylvia Olive-Inciong Atty. Brenda Pimentel UNIC National Information Officer IMO Regional Coordinator Deborah Landey UN Resident Coordinator
  9. 9. (2005-2009) 9 Executive Summary T he United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF) is the result of an ongoing consultative process intended to provide an analysis of how the United Nations System can respond to national priorities and needs. The UNDAF is guided by the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration of 2000, signed by the Government of the Philippines, and the detailed national priorities of the Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan 2001- 2004. The UNDAF translates these into a common operational framework for development activities upon which the individual United Nations Agencies, Funds and Programmes will formulate their actions for the period 2005-2009. The UNDAF thus frames the United Nations System’s assistance to the people and Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP). Five inter-related areas of cooperation have emerged as particularly critical for the United Nations System’s support between 2005 and 2009: macroeconomic stability, broad-based and equitable development; basic social services; good governance; environmental sustainability; and conflict prevention and peace- building.
  10. 10. 10 The United Nations Development Assistance Framework in the Philippines Section 1: Introduction H uman development is likeliest to improve when Governments, civil society, United Nations organisations and development part- ners concentrate their human and financial re- sources –- and their efforts –- toward realising a set of clearly articulated goals. Such objec- tives are embodied in the Millennium Declara- tion and the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for 2015, which are universally accepted goals for improved quality of life for the Earth’s 6 billion people. Each goal ad- dresses an aspect of human rights and the most compelling of human desires –- a world free of poverty and the misery that poverty breeds. Multisectoral responses that tackle these goals simultaneously are required. To assist the Government of the Republic of the Philippines (GRP) in meeting these glo- bal goals as well as national priorities, the United Nations System will draw upon its unique diversity and better coordinate its ef- forts at the country level through this United Nations Development Assistance Framework 2005-2009, or UNDAF. Keeping in mind the the Philippines’ multiethnic society, encour- United Nations Agencies’ own distinct man- aging social inclusion through active public dates, competencies and resources, the participation and partnership, and will pay par- UNDAF provides the basis for individual orga- ticular attention to the social dimensions of nizations’ Country Programmes, which sup- the country’s efforts toward poverty reduc- port expected UNDAF Outcomes. tion and sustainable growth. Human security and human development Coordinated action is particularly needed will be the comprehensive focus, including for a country such as the Philippines, which protecting people’s lives from poverty as well confronts extraordinary constraints and un- as from conflict. In particular, people who certainties despite much progress in imple- face critical and pervasive threats –– poor and menting complex reforms. As analysed in the vulnerable groups –– will be at the center of Common Country Assessment (CCA), the the development agenda. In all of these ef- key underlying causes of poverty and exclu- forts, the United Nations System, with the sion in the country are rooted in three broad GRP, will promote increasing participation of themes: inequitable economic growth and
  11. 11. (2005-2009) 11 ownership of assets; severely unequal ac- that of any other Asian country. Total popula- cess to opportunities and basic social ser- tion is estimated at 82 million, growing at an vices; and inability of key change agents, annual rate of 2.36 percent, one of Asia’s high- particularly women, to play an active role in est. Had the population grown only at the same improving their lives and those of others. All rate as Thailand’s, where the fertility rate is have significantly undermined rights-based 1.8, it has been estimated that per-capita GDP development, and all may be widened further would have been 50 percent higher than it now by the effects of globalisation, even as the stands. In addition, about 172 women for ev- Philippines advocates for a more equitable ery 100,000 livebirths in the Philippines die global trade regime. from maternal causes. Nearly 1 in 5 children Based on the national per-capita poverty aged 5 to 17 is working, many in hazardous threshold of PhP11,605 (USD264), income and exploitative conditions. Only 40 percent poverty has been reported as remaining much of members of groups at high risk of contract- higher in the Philippines than in any other na- ing HIV consistently use condoms –– posing tion in Southeast Asia–at 34 percent (2000 a serious threat despite the current low preva- poverty incidence of population), even higher lence rate –– while tuberculosis is the sixth- than during the 1997-98 Asian financial cri- leading cause of mortality and malaria the sis. The most prosperous third of the popu- eighth-leading cause of morbidity. lation earns two-thirds of total national in- Ensuring that the benefits of growth and come, the poorest third only 7.9 percent. development are equitably shared among citi- Moreover, nearly two-thirds of the poor live in zens is particularly daunting. Poor and vulner- rural areas–where more than 7 in 10 farm- able groups include the rural and urban poor; ers do not own the land they cultivate–and in working children, children without primary certain regions, such as those with large caregivers; abused/trafficked women; dis- populations of Indigenous Peoples, located placed persons; children caught in armed con- in 50 out of 78 provinces, representing 8.2 flicts; and Indigenous Peoples. To achieve the percent of the population. MDGs by 2015 or earlier –– as well as to un- But there is more: The Philippines’ total fer- derscore the UNDAF’s continuing relevance tility rate is 3.5 children per woman, well above –– the United Nations Country Team (UNCT) has emphasised the creation of an enabling environment that enhances Government’s Based on the national per-capita ability to formulate rights-based and pro-poor poverty threshold of PhP 11,605 policies as well as to build capacities to pur- (US$264), income poverty has been sue and institutionalise political, economic and reported as remaining much higher social reforms. In addition, the UNDAF is a liv- ing document and has been designed to be in the Philippines than in any other flexible enough to reflect the priorities/platform nation in Southeast Asia–at 34 percent. of the administration after the 2004 elections.
  12. 12. 12 The United Nations Development Assistance Framework in the Philippines Section 2: Results 2.1 National Development Goals, Strategies and Priorities In its quest to become a modern and pros- perous nation, the Philippines has focused its development agenda on four areas: (1) mac- roeconomic stability with equitable growth based on free enterprise; (2) agriculture and fisheries modernisation with social equity; (3) comprehensive human development and protec- tion of the vulnerable; and (4) good governance and the rule of law. These priori- ties are reflected in the Me- dium-Term Philippine Devel- opment Plan (MTPDP) 2001- 2004. The MTPDP is supported by the Government’s banner programme for poverty re- duction, the Kapit-Bisig Laban sa Kahirapan (KALAHI), a compre- hensive and inte- grated conver- gence strategy to deliver services to the poorest areas of the country through local 2.2 Strategic Areas of Development government units (LGUs), improvement of ef- Cooperation ficiency and effectiveness of the use of public Not only does the UNDAF provide a frame- funds and the involvement of the private sec- work for future collaboration, but it also results tor. The Philippines signed the Millennium Dec- from a comprehensive, dynamic and partici- laration in 2000, committing itself to interna- patory process that ensures learning from tional peace and security, development and past performance. Preparations for the Com- poverty eradication through achievement of mon Country Assessment (CCA) and UNDAF the MDGs, and attendance to the needs of the exercises began in late 2002 with trainings on most vulnerable, while promoting human the rights-based approach to development and rights, democracy and good governance. the conduct of a gender assessment of de-
  13. 13. (2005-2009) 13 velopment trends, challenges and outcomes The priority areas are: in the country. • Macroeconomic stability, broad-based Following development of an initial CCA and equitable development framework, the Executive Committee Agen- • Basic social services cies (UNDP, UNICEF, UNFPA) conducted in- • Good governance dividual assessments of the national develop- • Environmental sustainability ment situation, involving causality and SWOT • Conflict prevention and peace building analysis, clustering of issues and scenario- In all five areas, the United Nations Sys- building. A multisectoral workshop with Gov- tem offers comparative advantages with re- ernment and civil society analysed national gard to achieving tangible progress toward the priorities, the Millennium Declaration and MDGs, drawing on its values, its successful MDGs and developed six themes for further global knowledge base, best practices and consideration. Thematic Working Groups then lessons learned; its strong normative man- conducted individual in-depth workshops for date; its neutrality; and its ability to encourage each theme, which led to a further plenary efficient coordination and facilitate account- session with key partners where the concep- ability among donors. The United Nations Sys- tual analysis of the final CCA was developed. tem is well placed to advocate broad policy, Throughout these efforts, the CCA Core Group legislative and administrative reforms, for ex- of senior United Nations programme officers ample, by supporting the voices of the under- and experts in individual thematic areas was represented, and investing in capacity build- active. At an UNDAF prioritisation workshop ing. The United Nations System likewise can in October 2003, the CCA findings were re- nurture community-based initiatives that aim fined in line with national priorities, the Millen- to enhance the participation of individuals in nium Declaration and the MDGs, and consen- their own development. Furthermore, the sus was reached on five priority areas of United Nations System can help formulate tar- UNDAF cooperation. geted interventions and providing technical In all five areas, the United Nations System offers comparative advantages with regard to achieving tangible progress toward the MDGs, drawing on its values, its successful global knowledge base, best practices and lessons learned; its strong normative mandate; its neutrality; and its ability to encourage efficient coordination and facilitate accountability among donors.
  14. 14. 14 The United Nations Development Assistance Framework in the Philippines assistance in support of data collected and ria: (a) if the issue is addressed, it will solve analysed that will inform the extent of the plight most, if not all, of the other issues; (b) suc- of the poor and vulnerable. cesses and best practices have occurred in All five areas are interlinked and mutually the past and will need to continue in address- affect one another, yet are being exacerbated ing the issue; (c) the issue has reached an by the wide disparities existing in the country alarming situation and needs immediate at- with regard to ownership, access and partici- tention; (d) it is critical to the achievement of pation and decision-making power. Maintain- the MDGs; and (e) there is potential for longer- ing broad-based and equitable economic term impact on national goals and priorities. growth at higher levels is an imperative for In addition, these issues focus on the key ar- poverty reduction. Even so, no country has eas of competence and comparative advan- done well in reducing poverty without also pro- tage of the United Nations System in the Phil- viding widespread basic education, health and ippines. Other key development challenges social protection services. Improving the en- noted in the CCA either do not fall under these vironment and strengthening the national re- categories or are being addressed primarily sponse to natural disasters will contribute to through other members of the donor commu- better health, education and social protection nity. as well as lessen vulnerability. Good gover- Based on national priorities contained in the nance and participatory development will be Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan the mechanisms through which an effective 2001-2004, the United Nations has, in each coalition of the state, civil society, the private area of cooperation, identified Country sector, the donor community, the media and Programme Outcomes to be achieved during the United Nations System can deliver the citi- 2005-2009, Country Programme Outputs, the zens of the Philippines out of poverty. Finally, Role of Partners and Resource Mobilisation the root causes of conflict often involve issues Targets. Details are described in the UNDAF of governance, poverty, inequality and environ- Results Matrix. ment, which also must be seen through the “lens” of peace-building. 2.3.1 Macroeconomic Stability, Broad- Under its global mandate, the United Na- Based and Equitable Development tions also has identified a series of fundamen- Sustainable economic growth that brings tal crosscutting issues that will be highlighted improvements in standards of living to all seg- and addressed in all five areas of coopera- ments of the population is the continuing eco- tion, including respect for human rights, gen- nomic challenge confronting the Philippines. der equality, access to information and ser- As noted above, some one-third of the vices, population and development, and youth country’s population –- nearly 26 million people and adolescents. These have been consid- -– lives below the annual per-capita poverty ered in selecting programme priorities, estab- threshold of PhP 11,605. The transient poor, lishing rights standards, identifying duty-bear- who are vulnerable to economic, political, en- ers and claims-holders, and establishing vironmental and other “shocks,” raise num- mechanisms for redress. bers even higher. The Gini ratio in 2000 was It should be noted that lack of inclusion as 0.48 –- with no notable improvement over the a collaborative priority in the UNDAF in no way past nine years at 0.47 in 1991. precludes other themes from receiving sup- Unemployment has steadily increased, port from individual United Nations reaching 10.2 percent during the third quarter organisations. Overall, however, the goal is swift of 2002, while underemployment is chronic convergence in planning –- designing certain and widespread at 15.3 percent during the United Nations activities collaboratively and same period. Furthermore, nearly half of the sharing these plans as an integrated whole. working population is engaged in informal-sec- tor jobs that are easy to find but are low in 2.3 Expected Outcomes both productivity and pay. In particular, the Arising from the CCA analysis, common agricultural sector is undeveloped and with low United Nations development issues have been productivity, having grown at an average of only determined by their impact on the poorest and 1 percent annually in the 1980s and 1.5 per- most vulnerable, based on the following crite- cent in the 1990s. Investor confidence is weak,
  15. 15. (2005-2009) 15 2.3.2 Basic Social Services Attainment of the highest standard of health, nutrition, education and social protec- tion services is a fundamental right of every human being. At the same time, the Philip- pines’ decentralised system of governance –- despite many breakthroughs that have ben- efited the poor and vulnerable –- has also re- sulted in divisions of labor and financial re- sponsibility that give rise to serious weak- nesses in local Governments’ ability to deliver adequate basic services to their constituen- cies. Social services expenditures as a share of GDP fell from 5.46 percent in 1997 to 4.25 percent in 2003. In health, major gaps in women’s health care and nutrition arise from at about 20 percent of GDP compared to a women’s poor health-seeking behavior; lack norm of 30-35 percent of other newly of empowerment, which results in widespread industrialised countries. The fiscal deficit is un- gender-based violence; and health service sustainable at its high level of more than 37 delivery that often does not comply with pre- percent of total revenue, or PhP210.7 billion scribed medical standards. Wide disparities (US$4.1 billion, 2002). also exist across regions in the nutritional sta- While the level of economic growth is im- tus of children. At the same time, reported HIV portant, it is the pattern of growth, however infections among high-risk groups have been that will determine its sustainability: The more rising and now stand at more than 100 cases equitable the growth, the more widely will the per year –– a comparatively low though alarm- fruits of economic expansion be distributed, ing figure, considering that only 19 percent of especially to the poor, and the greater the like- 15- to 24-year-olds could correctly identify lihood of social stability. Interventions of the ways of preventing the sexual transmission United Nations System will focus on support of HIV. Levels of tuberculosis, malaria and den- to formulation of propoor policies and strength- gue are very high, requiring accelerated and ening management and planning capacities coordinated interventions. In education, signifi- for vulnerable groups. cant issues include wide disparities in retain- In this priority area, the United Nations Sys- ing children in the secondary level, between tem anticipates the following outcome of its urban and rural areas, rich and poor regions; development assistance: low quality, arising from unwieldy class sizes and congested curriculum; and poor access UNDAF Outcome 1: By 2009, increased in- to and quality of early childhood care and de- comes for both women and men among pov- velopment services, with at least two-thirds erty groups in XX priority areas through en- of 3- to 5-year-olds not enrolled. Lastly, de- abling policies, public-private partnerships and mand for safe drinking water needs to be in- assets reform measures that lead to expan- creased, given that 36 percent of water for sion of sustainable livelihoods, community urban slum dwellers is contaminated at the enterprises and Decent Work, increased pro- point of consumption, while another 17 per- ductivity and managed population growth cent is contaminated at the source because Country Programme outcomes adopted of improper transport, handling and storage. under this UNDAF Outcome include: United Nations concerns under this area • By 2009, the policy and planning frame- of cooperation are focused both on demand work in the country more extensively incorpo- and delivery for health, education, and social rates effective, people-centered approaches protection/social security. For quality health to development planning, budgeting and moni- care, the United Nations System will support toring, with a special focus on women, chil- maternal health, reproductive health and child dren and vulnerable groups health in particular, with strategic approaches
  16. 16. 16 The United Nations Development Assistance Framework in the Philippines directed toward adolescents and youth and to- resolve disputes in legal interpretations; inad- ward increasing the involvement of parents, equate capacities or resistance within the bu- caregivers and families in monitoring the reaucracy to implement reforms and progress of children’s growth and develop- modernise systems; pervasive graft and cor- ment. Improvements in quality of education will ruption; and intense partisan politics and po- focus on building a strong foundation for inte- litical disruptions. To cite an example, out of a grated early childhood care, transforming total national budget of PhP781 billion (2001), schools into child-friendly institutions, devel- PhP100 billion, or 13 percent, was at risk of oping alternative delivery schemes for particu- being lost to corruption. lar groups, and reaching out to national prior- Other serious concerns in implementing ity areas. good governance in the country, as identified In this priority area, the United Nations Sys- in the CCA, include weak fiscal management, tem anticipates the following outcome of its with the outstanding national debt more than development assistance: doubling from 1997 to 2003, standing at PhP4.1 trillion; challenges to decentralisation, UNDAF Outcome 2: By 2009, increased and with 90 percent of Local Governments con- more equitable access to and utilisation of tinuing to depend on the National quality, integrated and sustainable basic so- Government’s Internal Revenue Allotment de- cial services by the poor and vulnerable spite legal provisions allowing them to gener- Country Programme Outcomes adopted ate resources from local taxes and other forms under this UNDAF Outcome include: of resource mobilisation; the inefficient bu- • By 2009, more Filipinos, especially chil- reaucracy noted earlier; numerous questions dren, adolescents and women, are aware of about the reliability and competency of the ju- their rights, including reproductive rights, and dicial system; and deficiencies in the political are empowered to claim their rights to health and electoral system that undermine public and education confidence in election outcomes because of • By 2009, key policies, plans and widely alleged irregularities. Relevant MDGs programmes on comprehensive, quality, and other development commitments will not rights-based and culturally sensitive educa- be possible if there is no substantial progress tion, health, nutrition, food and social protec- to curb graft and corruption, improve respon- tion and security services for poor and vulner- siveness and effectiveness of all branches of able groups are designed, implemented, moni- Government, enhance resource mobilisation tored and evaluated efforts and optimise public expenditure deci- sions. United Nations System interventions will 2.3.3 Good Governance have to focus on justice and human rights, Key national documents all point to the public sector and decentralised governance, centrality of effective and equitable governance and political, electoral and legislative reforms relative to other challenges. Through direct and that facilitate citizen participation. indirect engagement with governance issues, In this priority area, the United Nations Sys- other issues to be advanced include human tem anticipates the following outcome of its security; gender equality; the rights of women development assistance: and children; quality education and health ser- vices, including case detection and treatment, prevention of tuberculosis and malaria; social protection; HIV/AIDS prevention, care and sup- port; and adequate standards of living and working conditions, including access to suffi- cient food, water, decent housing and income. Implementing governance reform in the Philippines, however, has been hampered by many factors, including inadequate budgetary resources; conflicting interpretations or gaps in the implementing rules and regulations of new laws; consequent prolonged litigation to
  17. 17. (2005-2009) 17 UNDAF Outcome 3: By 2009, good gover- floods, landslides, fires, and maritime inci- nance reforms and practices are dents also added to estimated damages of institutionalised by Government, local govern- US$ 46.6 million in 2002. ment units (LGUs), civil society organisations To be sustainable, economic growth can- and the private sector in a manner that con- not be achieved at the cost of environmental tributes substantively to poverty reduction, pro- degradation. Indeed, such degradation repre- tection of rights, sustainable human develop- sents a manifestation of deeper causes rela- ment and promotion of gender equality tive to weak institutions, conflicting and unequal Country Programme Outcomes adopted access to ownership, poverty, population pres- under this UNDAF Outcome include the fol- sures, urbanisation and insufficient training in lowing: good environmental management. The United • By 2009, public and private institutions Nations System has identified its role in sup- adhere better to the rule of law, human rights porting the Government to achieve national and and gender equality, toward greater access global environmental goals and better natural to justice and human security by poor and disaster response through a stronger policy en- vulnerable groups vironment and local capacity building; access • By 2009, national, subnational and local to services also will be highlighted. institutions promote and practice transpar- In this priority area, the United Nations Sys- ency, accountability, gender equity and partici- tem anticipates the following outcome of its patory governance for greater accessibility and development assistance: cost-effectiveness in the delivery of programmes and services toward improved human development, especially for poor and vulnerable groups • By 2009, governance institutions pursue and institutionalize reforms in the political, elec- toral and legislative systems for greater citi- zens’ participation, especially among poor and vulnerable groups, toward meaningful democratisation of governance at all levels 2.3.4 Environmental Sustainability The Philippines continues to be highly vul- nerable to environmental damage that threat- ens the nation as well as the planet, given that two-thirds of the poor remain dependent on UNDAF Outcome 4: By 2009, increased ca- natural resources for income and sustenance. pacity of stakeholders to protect/enhance the In particular, Indigenous Peoples are mostly quality of the environment and sustainably located in remote but resource-rich areas, manage natural resources. many in protected and ecologically fragile sites. Country Programme Outcomes adopted The coastal and marine environment, on under this UNDAF Outcome include the fol- which millions of Filipinos depend, deserves lowing: special mention; island ecosystems are prone • By 2009, sustainable environmental poli- to human-induced disruptions. Some 98 per- cies, especially with regard to agriculture and cent of coral reefs in the country have been industrial development, are in place and damaged by human-related activities. At the phases of implementation are specified same time, water, air and soil pollution are in- • By 2009, key stakeholders are better able creasing in many parts of the country, bring- to manage population, environmental and ing serious consequences for health. Natural natural resources, use sustainable energy and disasters also are confronted on a recurrent maintain sustainable development basis. The Philippines is located in an active • By 2009, the poor and vulnerable groups, part of the Earth characterised by an ocean- especially women and children, are able to circling belt of active volcanoes and earthquake prepare for and cope with the impacts of envi- fault lines. Major disasters, such as typhoons, ronmental emergencies
  18. 18. 18 The United Nations Development Assistance Framework in the Philippines 2.3.5 Conflict Prevention and Peace- Building Highlighting the interconnectedness of what Secretary-General Kofi Annan has iden- tified as “freedom from fear” and “freedom from want,” human security examines the underly- ing political, economic and social factors that promote or hinder people’s security in a com- prehensive sense and addresses problems of socially excluded groups. As identified in the CCA, root causes of human insecurity in the Philippines–and thus, threats to overall peace and development–include conditions of ineq- uity, with an elite few controlling power and eco- nomic resources; abject poverty; poor gover- nance; injustice, abuse of authority and viola- tions of human rights; and marginalisation of minority groups, especially Indigenous Peoples. A rights-based approach provides an overarching strategy to hold both states and people accountable for safeguarding human lives and providing a framework for making nonstate actors accountable. In addressing threats to human security, the rights-based approach of protection and empowerment pro- vides a conceptual link between the domains dressing such issues as those at the basis of of conflict and poverty. all peace and development issues –- gover- Perhaps in no way do the poor suffer more nance, justice, poverty, environment –- must than during a conflict situation, where their take into account the long-term peace build- vulnerability, lack of opportunities and formal ing “lens” noted above, recognising that dia- powerlessness come to the forefront. The logue can triumph over discord. The impor- primary challenge to peace, development and tance of realising a peaceful and secure soci- human security in the Philippines today is the ety is reflected in the Millennium Declaration. armed conflict that has lasted for 35 years, United Nations interventions are focused on mainly involving a communist insurgency and strengthening the policy environment; building secessionist rebellion. The effects of armed capacity for Government, civil society, former conflict are most apparent in certain areas of combatants and communities; and ensuring Mindanao, especially in the provinces of the the rights of those affected by armed conflict. Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao In this priority area, the United Nations Sys- (ARMM). Given that Mindanao is a primary re- tem anticipates the following outcome of its source base of the Philippine economy, the development assistance: conflict most likely affects the nation’s GDP. In particular, the plight of children and women UNDAF Outcome 5: By 2009, the level of vio- in situations of armed conflict renders them lent conflict has been reduced, and human vulnerable to physical abuse and exploitation. security and the culture of peace have been Children are estimated to comprise up to 13 promoted nationwide. percent of the total rebel population. Indigenous Country Programme Outcomes adopted Peoples also are often violently displaced so under this UNDAF Outcome include the fol- that armed combatants can use their com- lowing: munities as “safe havens.” • By 2009, the peace-building dimension Development efforts must be used strate- of development cooperation is better estab- gically, not just to prevent and settle conflicts, lished, based on a common understanding but also to consolidate peace when settle- with civil society, and is mainstreamed into ments have been reached. In so doing, ad- policies and practices
  19. 19. (2005-2009) 19 vices and participation in governance It should be noted that the United Nations System already has joint programming oper- ating under this area of cooperation. Since 2001, five United Nations Agencies (UNDP, UNFPA, UNESCO, FAO, ILO), supported by four more Agencies (UNICEF, WHO, UNIDO, UNHCR), have engaged in a joint programme in conflict areas of the ARMM to strengthen lasting peace and development in the prov- ince and to assist former rebels in reintegrat- ing into society. The United Nations System will continue to support future peace-building in Mindanao. 2.4 Cooperation Strategies Clearly, the needs and expectations for sustainable human development in the Phil- ippines and for achieving global goals, tar- gets and principles call for multidimensional partnerships, with the Government, among United Nations Agencies, and with other de- velopment partners, including civil society. The United Nations will pursue complemen- tary and collaborative strategies in the inter- • By 2009, key actors are better able to est of furthering concerted efforts toward prevent, manage and resolve conflict and to national priorities, particularly including a part- build peace and security nership strategy that involves joint dialogue • By 2009, individuals and communities and maintaining a high-quality environment affected by armed conflict have improved ac- for the state, civil society organisations and cess to increased incomes, basic social ser- the private sector. Through policy dialogue, the United Na- tions System will facilitate a comprehensive approach to aid coordination, linking such co- ordination to the evolution of the institutional, legal and administrative sectors. The United Nations System will exert efforts to strengthen capacities of institutions and organisations at all level, enabling them to bet- ter deal with major challenges arising from the urgent need to reduce wide disparities among the population. Lastly, through in- creased advocacy, the United Nations Sys- tem will support policy makers on specific is- sues that it considers as priorities. These strategies will be further refined dur- ing UNDAF implementation through the coor- dination mechanisms discussed in Section 5. Some may require collaborative programming or funding; others will be a matter of concerted facilitation of access to data and research. The Government and people of the Philippines must work together in delivering assistance effectively.
  20. 20. 20 The United Nations Development Assistance Framework in the Philippines Section 3: Estimated Resource Section 4: Requirements Implementation T he estimated financial resources required by the United Nations System for its con- tribution to the achievement of each expected T he United Nations System, through the United Nations Country Team (UNCT) and the Resident Coordinator, will be UNDAF Outcome are presented in the responsible for effective United Nations Programme Resources Framework. These activities, especially in cases where re- contributions include (1) the financial alloca- sources are combined. UNDAF Technical tions by each participating United Nations Working Groups will meet regularly and will organisation, or direct resources; and (2) re- serve as the main mechanism for imple- sources that organisations expect to mobilise menting and monitoring the UNDAF, under during the UNDAF cycle in addition to their di- the oversight of the UNCT. The following rect resources. The table presents a break- strategies will be employed: down of targets by organisation and area of • Selection of lead Agencies for each concentration; the breakdown of the latter focus area of collaboration, if such do not should be seen as indicative only. already exist. The total anticipated resources to be • Development of individual Working mobilised in support of UNDAF strategies Group workplans on collaborative activities amount to USD107.755 million. About 23 per- with clear goals and objectives, to be cent of the total resources will be spent on the integrated into the Annual Report and focus area of Macroeconomic Stability, Broad- Workplan of the Resident Coordinator. Based and Equitable Development, 35 per- At the same time, it has long been cent on Basic Social Services, 13 percent on recognised that a number of development Good Governance, 18 percent on Environ- challenges faced as a System require mental Sustainability and 11 percent on Con- strong partnerships with the specialised flict Prevention and Peace-Building. This dis- United Nations Agencies, including nonresi- tribution reflects UNCT priorities and national dent organisations, some of whom do not development needs, as well as provides for include participation in the UNDAF in their aligning United Nations cooperation with overall development assistance. It should be noted that resource commit- ments are made not through the UNDAF, but rather through in-country programmes or project documents, according to the proce- dures and approved mechanisms of each organisation. Given the differences in budget- ing approaches of United Nations Agencies, the time frame of each programme varies as well.
  21. 21. (2005-2009) 21 mandate. The UNCT will develop a mecha- gender responsiveness into the work of the nism to engage the valuable knowledge and United Nations System is represented by inputs of these specialised Agencies in order this UNDAF and the CCA. to further catalyze the full UNDAF implemen- Throughout implementation of the tation. Regional cooperation will also be UNDAF, the United Nations System will supported and encouraged with Govern- focus on the most vulnerable groups in ment, particularly in discussions on commit- society, with explicit provisions for ensur- ments to international treaties and United ing their active and meaningful participa- Nations instruments. tion in decision-making. Moreover, to contribute to the reduction of regional 4.1 Focus on MDGs, Rights and disparities that underlie much of the Gender Equality poverty in the Philippines, the United A human rights-based and gender-respon- Nations System will target poor regions sive approach –- bringing human rights and and specific impoverished groups. Effec- gender-responsive standards and values to tive links and relationships among the the core of everything the United Nations state, civil society, and private sector shall does –- offers the best prospect of achieving be a priority consideration. the MDGs and institutionalising the values of the Millennium Declaration. Likewise, it can 4.2 Harmonisation of Programme leverage the organisation’s influence to Cycles empower the Filipino people to advance their UNDP, UNFPA and UNICEF already own claims, to prevent discrimination and have harmonised programme cycles that marginalisation, and to bridge the account- coincide with the UNDAF cycle of 2005- ability deficits that have chronically hampered 2009. The duration of cycles varies among development progress. The principal frame- other Agencies, however, with most work- work for integration of human rights and ing on a biennial basis.
  22. 22. 22 The United Nations Development Assistance Framework in the Philippines Provisions of the UNDAF will be imple- mented through the country cooperation frameworks and programmes agreed to by partner organisations. Selection and defini- tion of individual Agencies’ goals, objectives and strategies will be fully consistent with the UNDAF. Individual Country Programmes and project documents will also specify how they contribute to UNDAF objectives and cooperation strategies. 4.3 Development Coordination Section 5: Mechanisms A number of coordination forums at different levels allow for enhanced coopera- Monitoring and tion between multilateral and bilateral fund- ing agencies. The annual Consultative Group meetings, under the leadership of the Government and World Bank, provide the overall framework for coordination support. Within this larger context, donor working groups meet in a number of key areas, such as Mindanao. Aid coordination meetings are also held to discuss development assis- tance for specific issues and concerns, P rovisions for follow-up and review of the UNDAF are based on the principle that the UNDAF is a living document. Because devel- such as the health sector reform agenda, opment is a process, the UNDAF may have tuberculosis and malaria and HIV/AIDS. to be adapted to respond to changes in the Such meetings offer opportunities for coop- Philippines’ economic, political or social situ- eration at the operational level and help ations. The UNCT will establish continuous avoid duplication of efforts. Within the United monitoring and evaluation mechanisms that Nations System, there are also a number of rely on a results-based management ap- working groups. proach. A set of indicators has been formu- The United Nations System will continue lated for each Country Programme Outcome to facilitate dialogue between the Govern- under each of the five priority areas of coop- ment and the donor community on issues eration. [See the Monitoring and Evaluation of common interest. It will encourage Framework for comprehensive monitoring and improved coordination among the develop- evaluation indicators to be used.] A clear moni- ment community through greater exchange toring and evaluation workplan also will be of information and enhanced collaboration developed. as an active participant in specific donor working groups. 5.1 Internal Reviews In addition, the United Nations System During the UNDAF cycle, each Technical will continue its collaborative efforts in the Working Group will undertake an annual inter- area of common premises and services. nal review in order to assess the progress of United Nations Agencies, through the Com- implementation and the opportunities and con- mon Premises Working Group, are working straints still faced. These reviews will involve collectively to arrange to shift the United partner agencies in Government, whenever Nations House to a new building and have appropriate, as well as other donor agencies undertaken a pilot programme for common that are members of the groups. Annual re- provision of travel and courier services. The views will also allow adjustments in Country Security Management Team is extremely Programme Outcomes and Outputs, if nec- active and the Disaster Management Team essary. At the same time, the Working Groups increasingly so, both of which include World will establish a linkage between the indicators Bank and Asian Development Bank. established to measure UNDAF outputs and
  23. 23. (2005-2009) 23 Evaluation the contribution of these outputs to the achieve- tive inter-Agency collaboration will be included ment of the MDGs. Joint field assessments in all Agency workplans and reviews. and monitoring will be promoted. In addition to the Annual Report of the Resi- 5.2 Joint and External Reviews dent Coordinator, the Millennium Development A joint mid-term evaluation by the Govern- Goals Report for the Philippines will serve as ment, United Nations System and other part- an important means for reporting on and ad- ners will be conducted at the midpoint of the justing UNDAF activities. Overall, the UNCT, UNDAF period (2005-2009), synchronised as under the leadership of the Resident Coordi- much as possible with respective Agencies’ nator, will be responsible for the review and mid-term country programme reviews. This validation of the cooperation between will provide the opportunity for any mid-course organisations on the UNDAF priority areas in adjustments to ensure that United Nations ef- order to ensure that individual Agencies’ coun- forts remain focused on national priorities. try programme documents reflect such objec- During this review, it will be particularly impor- tives as appropriate. It will also ensure the ef- tant to re-examine the Programme Resources fective functioning of the Technical Working Framework. Groups. Regular UNCT meetings will estab- Similarly, a joint end-of-cycle evaluation of lish an ongoing, high level of information ex- the UNDAF will be undertaken, with the objec- change and strengthen partnerships, as well tive of obtaining substantive feedback on as improve coordination and collaboration of progress toward stated UNDAF outcomes in the United Nations System as a whole. Effec- each priority area. It will focus on (1) the con- tribution of the Agencies toward achieving the outcome, specifically, how complementary A joint mid-term evaluation by the and collaborative programming has enhanced the effectiveness of the United Nations Sys- Government, the UN System and tem; and (2) how much associated outcomes other partners will provide the together have, or have not, contributed to opportunity for any mid-course achieving the desired impact, particularly adjustments to ensure that UN through the MDGs. Achievements, lessons learned and best practices will be dissemi- efforts remain focused on national nated, as will constraints encountered, to in- priorities. form the design of the next UNDAF.