O
ORIENTATION S SS ON
    N    ON SESSION
HIV/AIDS in the UN
    Workplace
    W k l
AIDS Orientation Sessions will help UN staff:
• Know the essential facts about HIV and AIDS
• Protect oneself and families...
Outline of morning session
                 g

1.   Basic Facts about HIV and AIDS

2.   Global, regional and national HIV...
Outline of afternoon session
1.   Stigma and discrimination, UN Plus
        g                     ,

2.   UN Personnel Po...
Beyond the basics

  Sex and sexuality
  Supportive work environment
  Drugs and alcohol
  Gender
  Love and trust
  Death
Know the
BASIC FACTS
 about
HIV and AIDS
H   Human        Can only infect human beings



    Immuno-
    Immuno       Attacks the bod ’s imm ne
                  ...
Transmitted from person to person.
A   Acquired
      q          Not hereditary.
                              y
         ...
How can you tell if someone has HIV or AIDS?




Because of the way they act?        Knowing their sexual orientation?
   ...
How can you tell if someone has HIV or AIDS?




       Looking tired and ill?
                                Slide court...
How can you tell if someone has HIV or AIDS?




                             No way of
                             knowi...
Infection History
1.   Exposure and successful entry of the virus
2.   Window Period - 6 weeks to 6 months
3.   HIV infect...
How is HIV
transmitted?
Can you get HIV infection from…




  Using Public Swimming                          Using Public
  Pool
  P l?           ...
Can you get HIV infection from…


                                INSECT Bites?


                                Yes
    ...
CAN YOU GET HIV INFECTION FROM…




        KISSING   ?      SHARING UTENSILS ?
                       Slide courtesy of D...
CAN YOU GET HIV INFECTION from…




      Handshake
      H d h k ?        Hugging ?
Which protects you most against HIV infection?

–    Condom
–    Contraceptive pill
–    Spermicide jelly
–    Female Cond...
Requisites of HIV Infection
  q
   • Body fluid with adequate infectious load
     (blood,
     (bl d semen, cervical and ...
How is HIV transmitted?

  1. Unprotected p
       p         penetrative sexual intercourse:
  – Infected semen and vagina...
How is HIV transmitted?
     2. Infected blood and blood products:




Blood transfusion    Organ transplant              ...
How is HIV transmitted?
  3. Perinatal Transmission:




 Placental entry   During delivery                    Breast feed...
WHO ARE AT RISK?




Recipients f
R i i t of contaminated
                t i t d           Multiple
                     ...
WHO ARE AT RISK?




Sexual partners of infected                   Injecting drug users who
persons                       ...
WHO ARE AT RISK?




Mother living with HIV            Men having sex with men
breastfeeding her baby            without c...
Sexual transmission of HIV
• High risk through vaginal sex
    g             g    g
• Anal sex – 10 times higher risk than...
Blood transfusions and sharing of
  infected syringes and needles
            y g
• More than 90% risk of acquiring HIV
  ...
Mother to child (during p g
                 (     g pregnancy,
                                  y,
 child delivery or br...
One CANNOT get HIV through:
•   Hugging and kissing
•   Eating and drinking with people with HIV
•   Shaking hands
•   Sha...
Prevention
• Sexual transmission of HIV can be prevented by:
                                     p         y
    abstinence
    mutu...
• Mother to child transmission can be prevented by:
    Treatment
    Caesarian section
     Avoid breastfeeding
     A id...
• Transmission in healthcare settings can be
                                   g
  prevented by:
    Universal precaution...
Treatment
• There are treatments that slow the progression of
  HIV infection and allow people infected with virus
  to live healthi...
IS EVERYONE’S C NCE N
   E E Y NE’S CONCERN
HIV PEP -kits

(
(Post- p
(Post-Exposure
  Prophylaxis)
•   UN PEP Starter Kits are provided to facilitate prompt
    access to medication in case of potential exposure to
      ...
• Not 100% effective in preventing HIV infection
• PEP is available to all individuals with a UN
  agency contract and the...
Where to get the PEP Kit?
Wh    t    t th

             Regional Medical Service
             World Health Organization
  ...
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UN Cares HIV/AIDS in the UN Workplace

  1. 1. O ORIENTATION S SS ON N ON SESSION HIV/AIDS in the UN Workplace W k l
  2. 2. AIDS Orientation Sessions will help UN staff: • Know the essential facts about HIV and AIDS • Protect oneself and families from HIV infection • Live Positively with HIV • Contribute to a tolerant, equitable and compassionate UN-system Workplace p y p • Understand the UN Personnel Policy on HIV/AIDS • Know global, regional and Philippines AIDS epidemic • Learn about UN Cares
  3. 3. Outline of morning session g 1. Basic Facts about HIV and AIDS 2. Global, regional and national HIV epidemic 3. Condom education
  4. 4. Outline of afternoon session 1. Stigma and discrimination, UN Plus g , 2. UN Personnel Policy on HIV, UN Cares 3. PEP kits 4. Voluntary Testing and Counseling
  5. 5. Beyond the basics Sex and sexuality Supportive work environment Drugs and alcohol Gender Love and trust Death
  6. 6. Know the BASIC FACTS about HIV and AIDS
  7. 7. H Human Can only infect human beings Immuno- Immuno Attacks the bod ’s imm ne body’s immune I Deficiency system by weakening its defenses against diseases/infections V Virus An organism, a characteristic of which is that it reproduces itself, taking over the machinery of the human cell
  8. 8. Transmitted from person to person. A Acquired q Not hereditary. y It affects the body's immune system, I Immune- Immune part of the body which usually works to fight off germs such as bacteria and viruses. D Deficiency It makes the immune system work improperly. Someone with AIDS may experience S Syndrome a wide range of different diseases and opportunistic infections infections.
  9. 9. How can you tell if someone has HIV or AIDS? Because of the way they act? Knowing their sexual orientation? Slide courtesy of Dr Cherry Abrenica, San Lazaro Hospitla, Philippines
  10. 10. How can you tell if someone has HIV or AIDS? Looking tired and ill? Slide courtesy of Dr Cherry Abrenica, San Lazaro Hospitla, Philippines
  11. 11. How can you tell if someone has HIV or AIDS? No way of knowing
  12. 12. Infection History 1. Exposure and successful entry of the virus 2. Window Period - 6 weeks to 6 months 3. HIV infection - asymptomatic stage, 8 to 10 years (Philippines, average 5 years) • People with HIV look and act just like anyone without HIV infection 4. AIDS - 6 months t 2 years th to 5. Death
  13. 13. How is HIV transmitted?
  14. 14. Can you get HIV infection from… Using Public Swimming Using Public Pool P l? Toilet T il t ? Slide courtesy of Dr Cherry Abrenica, San Lazaro Hospitla, Philippines
  15. 15. Can you get HIV infection from… INSECT Bites? Yes No Only from female mosquitoes Slide courtesy of Dr Cherry Abrenica, San Lazaro Hospitla, Philippines
  16. 16. CAN YOU GET HIV INFECTION FROM… KISSING ? SHARING UTENSILS ? Slide courtesy of Dr Cherry Abrenica, San Lazaro Hospitla, Philippines
  17. 17. CAN YOU GET HIV INFECTION from… Handshake H d h k ? Hugging ?
  18. 18. Which protects you most against HIV infection? – Condom – Contraceptive pill – Spermicide jelly – Female Condom – Vaccine – Antibiotics
  19. 19. Requisites of HIV Infection q • Body fluid with adequate infectious load (blood, (bl d semen, cervical and vaginal i l d i l secretions and breast milk) • Portal of entry of the virus into the bloodstream
  20. 20. How is HIV transmitted? 1. Unprotected p p penetrative sexual intercourse: – Infected semen and vaginal fluid through sexual contacts whether vaginal, anal – or oral (biologically and epidemiologically less reasonable). Slide courtesy of Dr Cherry Abrenica, San Lazaro Hospitla, Philippines
  21. 21. How is HIV transmitted? 2. Infected blood and blood products: Blood transfusion Organ transplant Sharing of contaminated needles and syringes Slide courtesy of Dr Cherry Abrenica, San Lazaro Hospitla, Philippines
  22. 22. How is HIV transmitted? 3. Perinatal Transmission: Placental entry During delivery Breast feeding Slide courtesy of Dr Cherry Abrenica, San Lazaro Hospitla, Philippines
  23. 23. WHO ARE AT RISK? Recipients f R i i t of contaminated t i t d Multiple M lti l sexual partners l t blood and blood products without condoms Slide courtesy of Dr Cherry Abrenica, San Lazaro Hospitla, Philippines
  24. 24. WHO ARE AT RISK? Sexual partners of infected Injecting drug users who persons share needles Slide courtesy of Dr Cherry Abrenica, San Lazaro Hospitla, Philippines
  25. 25. WHO ARE AT RISK? Mother living with HIV Men having sex with men breastfeeding her baby without condom Slide courtesy of Dr Cherry Abrenica, San Lazaro Hospitla, Philippines
  26. 26. Sexual transmission of HIV • High risk through vaginal sex g g g • Anal sex – 10 times higher risk than vaginal sex • Oral sex regarded as a low-risk sexual activity, g y, but risk of HIV transmission increases if there are cuts or sores in or around the mouth of “recipient” A person with untreated sexually transmitted infection, particularly with ulcers or discharge i f ti ti l l ith l di h - 6 to 10 times more likely to pass on or acquire HIV during sex. q g
  27. 27. Blood transfusions and sharing of infected syringes and needles y g • More than 90% risk of acquiring HIV through transfusion of infected blood g and blood products. • Re-using or sharing needles or g g syringes in health care settings and through drug injection is a highly efficient way of transmitting HIV. ffi i t ft itti HIV
  28. 28. Mother to child (during p g ( g pregnancy, y, child delivery or breastfeeding) • G Generally, 15–30% risk of % f transmission from mother to child before and during delivery delivery. • Breastfeeding increases the risk of transmission by 10–15%. 10 15%.
  29. 29. One CANNOT get HIV through: • Hugging and kissing • Eating and drinking with people with HIV • Shaking hands • Sharing utensils • Living and working with someone with HIV • Coughing and sneezing • Mosquito and other insect bites • Swimming in a pool • Sharing toilet seats
  30. 30. Prevention
  31. 31. • Sexual transmission of HIV can be prevented by: p y abstinence mutually monogamous relations between y g uninfected partners non-penetrative sex consistent and correct use of condoms
  32. 32. • Mother to child transmission can be prevented by: Treatment Caesarian section Avoid breastfeeding A id b tf di • Always use new needles and syringes that are disposable or those that are properly sterilized before reuse. • Ensure that blood and blood products are tested for HIV and that blood safety standards are implemented.
  33. 33. • Transmission in healthcare settings can be g prevented by: Universal precautions p Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP)
  34. 34. Treatment
  35. 35. • There are treatments that slow the progression of HIV infection and allow people infected with virus to live healthily and productively for many years • Combination anti-HIV therapy is known as antiretroviral therapy, ART or ARV (or HAART) • Although effective in slowing the progression of HIV-related disease, ART is not a cure. • Therapies also exist to prevent and /or treat many HIV related opportunistic infections.
  36. 36. IS EVERYONE’S C NCE N E E Y NE’S CONCERN
  37. 37. HIV PEP -kits ( (Post- p (Post-Exposure Prophylaxis)
  38. 38. • UN PEP Starter Kits are provided to facilitate prompt access to medication in case of potential exposure to p p HIV. • PEP should be started as soon as possible after exposure, exposure ideally within the next few hours and no later hours, than 72 hours post exposure. • PEP kits include: 1. Five days’ of a two-drug anti-retroviral treatment (full course 28-days) 2. Emergency oral contraception (“morning after pill”) 3. Pregnancy test kit
  39. 39. • Not 100% effective in preventing HIV infection • PEP is available to all individuals with a UN agency contract and their spouses and dependant children in the case of: p 1. Sexual assault 2. Occupational e posu e Occupat o a exposure 3. An accident, criminal assault or security incident • In principle not intended for individuals who through voluntary activities outside work expose themselves to HIV (however….)
  40. 40. Where to get the PEP Kit? Wh t t th Regional Medical Service World Health Organization g United Nations Avenue Manila 1000 Philippines Who are the 24/24h PEP Starter Kits custodians in the Philippines? Ms Zenaida V Cariaga Clinical Nurse, WHO/WPRO e-mail: cariagaz@wpro.who.int Dr Marie Yvette Jaramillo Regional Staff Physician, WHO/WPRO e-mail: jaramillom@wpro.who.int
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