MDGs Provincial Status Report 2010 Philippines Eastern Samar

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  • 1. Province of EASTERN SAMAR 1 Philippines Fourth Progress Report on the Millennium Development Goals using CBMS Data - Province of Province of Marinduque
  • 2. Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 3. Foreword We must admit that tracking the progress of the province vis-a-vis the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is no mean feat. This Provincial Report initially attempted to utilize several sources of data so as to assess its progress on the eight Millennium Development Goals but the authors later discovered that different data sources used definitions of indicators that were mostly not congruent with the definitions used for the Community-Based Monitoring System (CBMS) indicators. Hence, a decision was made to turn this into a baseline report using the results of the first CBMS survey done in 2005-2006 on 22 municipalities and one city in Eastern Samar. After all, changes in progress (or regress, for that matter) would be next to impossible to track without baseline data. Therefore, the value of this report lies in its utility as a basis for comparison with results of later surveys done using the CBMS tool. The province has, in fact, launched its second round of province-wide CBMS surveys in 2009 and is in process of encoding the data gathered. The importance of other sources of data cannot be discounted. While the CBMS is the main source of data in this report, we also turned to other sources to get a richer and deeper understanding of the circumstances of the people covered by this study. The worthiness of CBMS lies in the fact that it can identify who the poor are, where they are and what kinds of interventions are most appropriate given their situations on the 13+1 indicators. Comparisons across municipalities, barangays and urban/rural populations and between genders are possible with CBMS but may not be possible with other data sources. As a management tool, the CBMS survey has already proven itself very helpful, especially when used hand-in-hand with other data sources in planning developmental strategies for the most disadvantaged and marginalized sectors. Overseas development agencies and other funding donors have learned to appreciate the value of CBMS and therefore used its results as bases for the level of assistance they would extend . Since the province of Eastern Samar first conducted its CBMS survey in 2006---16 years after the MDG reference year of 1990---it has to contend with the urgency of having to reach the MDG goals in five years (2015). Keeping track of the progress using the CBMS survey will entail commitment on the part of local chief executives to support and utilize purposively the results of the CBMS data. 2 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 4. Message The preparation of provincial MDGs reports is a critical step that Local Government Units (LGUs) have taken in the overall effort to localize the MDGs. As it is often said, the MDGs will be ‘won or lost’ at the local level given the conditions of uneven progress and disparities across regions and provinces in the country. Beyond the national averages, one can see wide disparities on the gains in poverty reduction, universal education, child mortality and maternal health. This situa- tion reinforces the notion that the progress of each province is just as important as the achievements of the country as a whole. After all, the Philippines’ progress towards the MDGs, is the sum of the efforts and gains of all LGUs. By preparing provincial reports, LGUs are provided vital information on the status of the MDGs in their areas of influence. These reports are important sources of information for planning, resource allocation and priority setting that LGUs are tasked under their mandate of effective local governance. Likewise, in the course of the preparation of the reports, the capacity of LGUs to collect, monitor and use data for decision making has been greatly enhanced. The reports also show how far the Community Based Monitoring System (CBMS) that UNDP has supported can go in terms of its use. Against the backdrop of renewed optimism emanating from the new political leadership, this first set of nine Provincial Reports on the MDGs is a timely and important milestone. The reports provide crucial insights on how to overcome the constraints in achieving the MDGs locally as the country gears towards the last stretch to attain the eight goals by 2015. They also emphasize the important role of active collaboration of political leaders, stakeholders, and donors in achieving the MDGs. I wish to commend the nineProvincial Governments that prepared their reports – the Agusan del Norte, Agusan del Sur, Biliran, Camarines Norte, Eastern Samar, Marinduque, Romblon, Sa- rangani, and Siquijor Province – the Community-Based Monitoring System (CBMS) Network and the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) for working together in bringing about this important accomplishment. With this initiative, it is hoped that other provinces will follow suit to attain nationwide support for the need to accelerate the pace of the achievement of the MDGs by 2015. y Dr. Jacqueline Badcock UN Resident Coordinator and UNDP Resident Representative 3 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 5. Message Republic of the Philippines PROVINCE OF EASTERN SAMAR Borongan OFFICE OF THE GOVERNOR As the newly elected Local Chief Executive of the Province of Eastern Samar, the publication of this report is timely and is very much appreciated. It is a rich source of information that provides a realistic picture of the situation of the province and its constituents. Having been a local chief executive for 24 years, I have learned to appreciate the importance of monitoring tools, among others, in public administration. The value of the Community Based Monitoring System (CBMS) is its unique characteristic of being able to locate specifically who the poor are, where they are and what their specific needs are. This is very important in planning and deciding pro-poor development interventions that are demand driven and relevant to the circumstances of our constituents. I am fortunate that the completion of the second round of the CBMS survey happens during my administration. The results will help us track changes and assess how much we have accomplished and what more we need to do so that MDG goals and targets will be reached, if not approximated, by 2015. My administration will see to it that CBMS will play a major role in the attainment of the vision and mission of uplifting the quality of life in this province. And hopefully this will contribute, no matter how minimal, to the global design of a poverty free world. Mabuhay tayong lahat! HON. CONRADO B. NICART, JR. CONRADO D Governor 4 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 6. Message The formulation of the Provincial MDG Report is very helpful in tracking our progress in relation to our commitment to attain the global goals and targets. It drives us to be more conscious of the status of various MDG indicators so that appropriate strategies and interventions will be implemented to respond to areas with low probability of attainment and to sustain those that have already been attained. It is incumbent upon local chief executives and development planners to utilize wisely the results of the Community-Based Monitoring System (CBMS) survey, together with other sources of information. Development issues are complex in nature that need collaboration in terms of data collection, analysis, and utilization. Best decisions and choices are made by those who are well-informed. The preparation of this Provincial Report on the MDGs based on the 2005-2006 CBMS results was made possible through a technical collaboration with the United Nations Development Programme through NEDA-SDS and the PEP-CBMS Network Coordinat- ing Team. Now on its second round, we will be able to better assess the developments in the lives of our constituents and thereby identify the means by which our vision for an improved quality of life can be fully attained. We are grateful to the PEP-CBMS Network Team for their technical support in the making of this report and to United Nations Development Program (UNDP) for the funding assistance through the Social Development Staff (SDS) of the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) for their technical assistance and support. We also thank the other provinces who went through the process of crafting the same report and provided the inspiration and motivation so that the seemingly enormous task became more manageable. HON. BEN P. EVARD . BEN EVARDONE E Representative, Eastern Samar 5 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 7. Preface As one of the 189 countries that committed themselves to the United Nations’ Millen- nium Declaration to combat poverty, hunger, diseases, illiteracy, and environmental degradation worldwide, the Philippines must keep its promise of reaching the goals and targets set forth in this declaration by year 2015. Thus, it is essential that the performance vis-à-vis these goals and targets be monitored periodically and declared. We keep track of where we are and how much more we have to do, what resources are needed, and how much are needed so that the desired quality of life will be achieved. The implementation of the Community-Based Monitoring System (CBMS) in Eastern Samar in 2006 has facilitated the monitoring of its progress on the Millennium Develop- ment Goals (MDGs) and targets. In 2009, the CBMS was updated province-wide, and results are now in the process of being encoded. With this, a progress report can be formulated. Until then, the results of the first round of CBMS (2005-2006) will serve as baseline data upon which all other results can be compared. The preparation of this Provincial Report on the MDGs based on the 2005- 2006 CBMS results was made possible with financial assistance from the United Nations Develop- ment Program through NEDA-SDS and technical assistance from the CBMS Network Coordinating Team. Nine other provinces who took the same challenge of coming up with their provincial reports on the MDGs based on the CBMS stood as source of inspiration and wisdom. We also thank the stakeholders and partners from the provincial government, national government, the nongovernment organizations, faith communities, the academe, the media and the local and overseas development agencies such as United Nations Fund for Population Activities, the European Commission (EC), United Nations Children’s Fund, PLAN Philippines, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit or German Technical Cooperation (GTZ) Philippine National Red Cross (PNRC), Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO), World Bank, World Heath Organization, International Labor Organi- zation (ILO), Asian Development Bank (ADB) and Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) who are contributing to the attainment of the Province’s MDGs and targets. 6 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 8. Table of Contents Foreword ....................................................................................................... 2 Messages UN Resident Coordinator Dr. Jacqueline Badcock ........................ 3 Governor Conrado B. Nicart ........................................................... 4 Representative Ben P. Evardone ....................................................... 5 Preface .......................................................................................................... 6 Table of Contents ............................................................................................. 7 List of Acronyms .............................................................................................. 9 List of Tables ................................................................................................... 11 List of Figures .................................................................................................. 12 List of Maps .................................................................................................... 13 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................. 14 Part 1. Provincial Profile A. History ....................................................................................... 18 B. Geo-physical Environment ............................................................ 19 C. Population and Social Environment ............................................... 20 D. Local Economy ............................................................................. 22 E. Infrastructure/Utilities/Facilities ....................................................... 23 F. Local Institutional Capability .......................................................... 25 Part 2. Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Goal 1 - Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger ................................................... 27 Goal 2 - Achieve Universal Primary Education ...................................................... 39 Goal 3 - Promote Gender Equality ...................................................................... 46 Goal 4 - Reduce Child Mortality ......................................................................... 51 7 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 9. Table of Contents Goal 5 - Improve Maternal Health .................................................................. 57 Goal 6 - Combat HIV / AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases ................................. 65 Goal 7 - Ensure Environmental Sustainability ................................................... 70 Goal 8 - Develop a Global Partnership for Development .................................. 77 Part 3. Meeting the 2015 Challenge Priority Programs and Policy Responses ................................................ 80 Financing the MDGs .......................................................................... 82 Monitoring Progress Toward the Attainment of the MDGs ........................ 83 Part 4. Conclusion and Recommendations .......................................... 84 Explanatory Text ..................................................................................... 88 8 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 10. List of Acronyms ADB Asian Development Bank ARCP Agrarian Reform Community Projects BEONC Basic Essential Obstetrics and Neonatal Care BEmONC Basic Emergency Obstetrics and Newborn Care BHERT Barangay Health Emergency Response Team BHS Barangay Health Station BJMP Bureau of Jail Management and Penology CBMIS Community Based Management Information System CBMS Community Based Monitoring System CEmONC Comprehensive Emergency Obstetrics and Newborn Care DA Department of Agriculture DepEd Department of Education DOH Department of Health DOTS Directly Observed Treatment for Short Course Chemotherapy DSWD Department of Social Welfare and Development ECCD Early Childhood Care and Development ESPH Eastern Samar Provincial Hospital FAMH Felipe Abrigo Memorial Hospital FHSIS Field Health Service Information System GAD Gender and Development GIDA Geographically Isolated and Depressed Areas GOs Government Organizations GTZ Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit ILHZ Inter-Local Health Zone IMCI Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses InFRES Infrastructure for Rural Productivity Enhancement Sector JPMNH Joint Program for Maternal and Neonatal Health KALAHI–CIDSS Kapit-Bisig Laban sa Kahirapan-Comprehensive and Integrated Delivery of Social Services MDG Millennium Development Goals MOVE Men Opposed to Violence Everywhere 9 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 11. List of Acronyms MSWDO Municipal Social Welfare and Development Office NAPC National Anti-Poverty Commission NDCC National Disaster Coordinating Council NDHS National Demographic and Health Survey NSCB National Statistical Coordination Board NSO National Statistics Office OPT Operation Timbang PNP Philippine National Police PNRC Philippine National Red Cross RHU Rural Health Unit TESDA Technical Education and Skills Development Authority UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNICEF United Nations ChildrenÊs Emergency Fund USAID United States Agency for International Development VAWC Violence Against Women and Children VAW Violence Against Women VSO Voluntary Service Overseas WASH Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Program WCPU Women and Child Protection Unit WHO World Health Organization WHT WomenÊs Health Team 10 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 12. List of Tables Table 1 Summary Table of MDG and CBMS Indicators (Eastern Samar) Table 2 Distribution of Barangays by Municipality: 2003 Table 3 Population by Municipality: CBMS 2005 - 2006 Table 4 Number and Size of Households by Municipality: CBMS 2005 -2006 Table 5 Proportion of Households / Population Below the Poverty Threshold by Sex, by Urban/Rural Table 6 Magnitude and Proportion of Households / Population Living Below Food Threshold Table 7 Population Poverty Gap Ratio by Urban /Rural Table 8 Employment Rate of Population by Sex, by Urban/Rrural (CBMS) Table 9 Proportion of Households / Population Who Experienced Food Shortage Table 10 Prevalence of Underweight Children Under 5 Years of Age Table 11 Proportion of Children Aged 6 -12 Years Old Enrolled in Elementary Education Table 12 Proportion of Children Aged 13 – 16 Years Old Enrolled in High School Table 13 Proportion of Children Aged 6 – 16 years Old Enrolled in School Table 14 Literacy Rate of 15-24-Year-Olds by Sex and by Rural / Urban Table 15 Ratio of Girls to Boys in Education by Urban / Rural Table 16 Proportion of Children Aged 0 to Less Than 5 Years Old Who Died Table 17 Proportion of Infants Who Died by Urban / Rural Table 18 Proportion of Children Aged 1 to Less than 5 Years Old Who Died Table 19 Proportion of Women Deaths Due to Pregnancy-Related Causes Table 20 Contraceptive Prevalence Rate Table 21 Death Rates Associated with Tuberculosis Table 22 Proportion of Population with Access to Safe Drinking Water Table 23 Proportion of Households/Population With Access to Sanitary Ttoilet Facility Table 24 Proportion of Households/Population Who Are Informal Settlers Table 25 Proportion of Population who are Living in Makeshift Housing Table 26 Proportion of Households/Population Living in Inadequate Living Conditions Table 27 Proportion of Households with Cellphones by Urban/Rural Table 28 Proportion of Population with Computers, by Urban/Rural Table 29 The CBMS-MDG Indicators and Their Definition Table 30 Poverty and Food Thresholds 11 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 13. List of Figures Figure 1 Location Map of the Province of Eastern Samar Figure 2 Urban-Rural Population : CBMS 2006 Figure 3. Sex Distribution : CBMS 2006 Figure 4. CBMS Coverage in the Philippines (as of May 12, 2010) 12 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 14. List of Maps Map 1 Proportion of Population Below Poverty Threshold by Municipality Map 2 Proportion of Population Living Below Food Threshold by Municipality Map 3 Poverty Gap Ratio by Municipality Map 4 Employment Rate by Municipality Map 5 Food Shortage by Municipality Map 6 Prevalence of Underweight Children Under 5 Years of Age Map 7 Children Aged 6 -12 Years Old Enrolled in Elementary Education Map 8 Children Aged 13 - 16 Years Old Enrolled in High School by Municipality Map 9 Proportion of Children Aged 6 – 16 Years Old Enrolled in School Map 10 Literacy Rate of 15- 24 year-Olds Map 11 Ratio of Girls to Boys in Primary Education Map 12 Ratio of Girls to Boys in Secondary Education Map 13 Ratio of Girls to Boys in Tertiary Education Map 14 Ratio of Literate Females to Males Map 15 Proportion of Seats Held by Women in Elected Positions Map 16 Children Aged 0 to Less Than 5 Years Old Who Died Map 17 Proportion of Infants Who Died Map 18 Proportion of Children Aged 1 to Less Than Five Years Old Who Died Map 19 Proportion of Women Deaths Due to Pregnancy Related Causes Map 20 Prevalence and Death Rates Associated with Tuberculosis Map 21 Proportion of Land Area Covered by Forest Map 22 Proportion of Population With Access to Safe Drinking Water Map 23 Proportion of Population with Access to Sanitary Toilet Facility Map 24 Proportion of Population Who Are Informal Settlers Map 25 Proportion of Population Who are Living in Makeshift Housing Map 26 Proportion of Population Living in Inadequate Living Conditions 13 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 15. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Community-Based Monitoring System months prior to the survey was only 0.4 (CBMS) survey, which was conducted percent. province-wide in Eastern Samar during • Proportion of children aged 0 to less the period 2005-2006, indicated a total than 5 who died in the last 12 months prior population of 385,875 consisting of 79,976 to the survey was only 0.9 percent. households, with an average household • Proportion of deaths among children size of five. The results of the survey, as aged 1 to less than 5 was only 0.6 percent. indicated in Table 1, show the status of the • Proportion of the population who are province in relation to the eight Millennium informal settlers was only 2.9 percent. Development Goals (MDGs). • Proportion of the population who are living in makeshift housing was only 2.3 Good News percent. • Around 78.7 percent of the population These results suggest some good news had access to safe drinking water. among the different indicators. Some targets • Proportion of the population with access show promise of being met by 2015 owing to sanitary toilet facilities was 69.5 percent. to the fact that programs and services of the • Employment rate in the province was local government units (LGUs) are focused 77.7 percent. on the needed areas. • Prevalence of underweight children Not-so-Good-News under 5 years of age was only 6.7 percent. • The literacy rate among population There are also not-so-good news as aged 15-24 was 96.6 percent. shown by the relatively poor performance • The ratios of girls to boys in primary, in some of the indicators. These indicators secondary and tertiary education are more also reveal that there is less likelihood of or less equal to 1; either 0.9 or 1.1. meeting some of the targets by 2015. • Proportion of seats held by women in elective positions in municipalities and the • Proportion of the population living below province was 46.5 percent. Majority of the the poverty threshold was 69.5 percent. elected officials in the six (6) municipalities • Proportion of the population living were females. below the food threshold was 59.4 percent. • Death associated with malaria was zero • Poverty gap ratio was 0.4 for the entire (0) since the province is malaria-free. province. • Proportion of women deaths due to • Proportion of the population who experi- pregnancy-related causes in the last 12 enced food shortage in the last 3 months 14 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 16. Table 1. Summary Table of MDG and CBMS Indicators (Eastern Samar) 15 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 17. Table 1. (Continued) prior to the survey was 13.8 percent. • Proportion of infants who died in the • Proportion of children aged 6-12 who last 12 months prior to the survey was 2.5 are not enrolled in elementary education percent. was 23.4 percent. • Death rate associated with tubercu- • Proportion of children aged 13-16 who losis was about 33 per 100,000 popula- are not enrolled in high school was 43.2 tion. percent. • About 45.0 percent of the popula- • Proportion of children aged 6-16 who tion were living in inadequate living were not enrolled in school was 16.5 percent. conditions. 16 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 18. Posing a Great Challenge • More and better quality educational facilities for pre-school, elementary and • Poverty is the biggest cause for high school students must be accessible, concern. The provincial poverty incidence especially for those living in geographically is at 69.5. The challenge therefore is how to isolated areas. provide opportunities for and support family • Information technology and commu- income. nication facilities need to be expanded to • While only 13.8 percent of the include far-flung municipalities. province experiences food shortage, the proportion of those living below food The attainment of the MDG goals and threshold is high at 58.7 percent, indicat- targets depends largely on the political ing that majority are unable to meet the will to carry out the policy directions required food needs. Hunger mitigation and and on the provision of the necessary malnutrition need to be addressed. resources needed in operationalizing the • In the area of health, diseases such policies. For 2010, the province of Eastern as tuberculosis and other endemic diseases Samar has allocated 40.5 percent of its such as filariasis, schistosomiasis and 20-percent Development Fund to social dengue must be contained/controlled. services that include programs, projects • Reduction of maternal and child and activities primarily on health and deaths must be sustained. nutrition, education, water and sanitation, • Provision of basic services such and sports development. For economic as water, sanitation, and adequate living and support infrastructure, 7.1 percent conditions need to be addressed vis-à- and 17.1 percent, respectively, have been vis the need to ensure the protection and allocated. Financial, material and techni- sustainability of the environment and cal resources are expected from local and natural resources. foreign donors . 17 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 19. Part 1. Provincial Profile A. History Llorente, Hernani, Gen. MacArthur, Salce- do, Quinapondan, Giporlos, Balangiga, Brief History of the Province Lawaan, Mercedes, and Guiuan. Eastern Samar became an independent The province has 597 barangays. province by virtue of Republic Act No. 4221, Borongan has the most number of baran- which Congress approved on June 19, 1965 gays with 61, followed by Guiuan with 60 dividing the then old province of Samar into barangays. The municipality with the least three separate provinces, namely: North- number of barangays (12 in all) is Maslog, ern Samar, Western Samar (subsequently followed by Balangiga, Hernani, and renamed Samar), and Eastern Samar. A Jipapad with 13 each. plebiscite held simultaneously with the November 1965 general elections upheld Table 2. Distribution of Barangays By Municipality: 2003 the conversion of Eastern Samar into a separate province. Political Subdivision Eastern Samar, a lone congressional district, is part of Eastern Visayas (Region VIII) together with other five provinces, namely: Leyte, Southern Leyte, Samar, Northern Samar, and Biliran. Local admin- istrative jurisdiction set in the Sangguni- ang Panlalawigan divides the province’s 23 municipalities into two districts, District I and District II. District I is composed of 11 northern municipalities that include the capital town Borongan, San Julian, Sulat Taft, Can-avid, Dolores, Maslog, Oras, Jipapad, San Policarpo, and Arteche. District II is composed of 12 southern municipali- ties, namely: Maydolong, Balangkayan, 18 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 20. Figure 1. Location Map of the Province of Eastern Samar B. Geo-Physical Environment Location and Boundaries Eastern Samar is the third largest province of Region VIII, next only to Leyte and Samar. It is in the eastern part of the island of Samar. The entire east coast of the province faces the Philippine Sea that forms part of the Pacific Ocean. Eastern Samar's other boundaries are: Northern Samar on the north; Samar on the west; and Leyte Gulf that merges farther south with Surigao Strait on the south. Borongan, the provincial capital, is approximately 550 air-kilometers southeast of Manila and around 65 air-kilometers northeast of Tacloban City, the regional capital. Land Area Eastern Samar has a total land area of 4,640.7 square kilometers based on the land area as certified by the Land Manage- ment Bureau to the Department of Budget and Management. The province's land area represents 19.98 percent of Eastern Visayas’ The province is within the Philippine fault total land area of 23,230 square kilometers. zone that averages 16 perceptible seismic shocks per year. The two major faults in Topography the province are located 4 kilometers east The interior part of the province is rough, of Giporlos in the N40 degree W direction, hilly, and covered with dense tropical and Jipapad in the direction of N60 degree vegetation. At the northwestern part are W to San Roque in Northern Samar. mountain ranges and peaks as high as 783 meters above sea level. Narrow ribbons of Slope plains hug most of the coastal areas and in some instances, the banks of major rivers The predominance of land with more than and their tributaries. The southern bank of 18 percent slope indicates the mountainous Dolores River holds the province's widest and hilly terrain of the province. These types contiguous plain. Quinapondan has a of lands make up three-fifths, or a combined smaller area of contiguous plains. 61.3 percent of the entire area of the 19 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 21. province. Approximately 23.3 percent of the Table 3. Population by Municipality: CBMS 2005-2006 total land area or 1,042 square kilometers have slopes of less than 8 percent. Some 697 square kilometers considered as rolling to moderately rolling make up 16.0 percent. Climate Eastern Samar falls under the Type II climate as classified by Coronas, that is, it has no dry season but features a very pronounced maximum rainfall from Novem- ber to January. The northeast monsoon prevails during the rainy months while the westernly winds prevail during the months of less rainfall. C. Population and Social Environment Total Population The total population of Eastern Samar based on the 2007 Census of Popula- tion conducted by the National Statistics Office (NSO) was 405,114 persons, an Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 increase of 29,292 or about 7.8 percent over the 2000 census count of 362,324. This individuals were Maslog (3,707), Jipapad accounted for 10.4 percent of the region’s (5,245) and Mercedes (5,805), which total population of 3,912,936. Borongan accounted for proportions of 0.96 percent, registered the largest population at 59,354 1.3 percent and 1.5 percent, respectively. persons, which accounted for 14.7 percent of the province’s total population. This was Number and Size of Household followed by Guiuan with 43,469 persons According to the CBMS survey in or 10.7 percent; and Dolores with 34,522 2005-2006, the number of households in persons (8.5%). Maslog (4,788) and Eastern Samar reached 79,976, with each Mercedes (5,041) were the municipalities household consisting of an average of with the smallest population size. five persons. Borongan City recorded the Based on the Community-Based Monitor- highest number of households in 2006 with ing System (CBMS) Survey, the total 12,362, followed by Guiuan with 8,268 and population of Eastern Samar in 2006 was Dolores with 7,319. Maslog and Jipapad 385,875. Borongan led with 58,389 individ- each showed a number of households uals (15.1%), followed by Guiuan with that was less than 1,000. The rest of the 39,988 (10.3%) and Dolores with 35,047 18 municipalities had household counts (9.0%). Those with the smallest number of ranging from 1,104 to 6,446. 20 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 22. Table 4. Number and Size of Households by Municipality: CBMS 2005-2006 Figure 2. . Urban-Rural Population : CBMS 2006 In 2006, the CBMS survey revealed that the rural (70.6%) household population still outnumbered the household population in the urban areas (29.4%). Sex Distribution In 2000 report of NSO, there was a slight predominance of men over the women Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 population. Male household population numbered 192,274 or 9,424 more than the Urban-Rural Distribution female household population of 182,850. In 1995, about 30.9 (NS0) percent of the The sex ratio remained the same at 105 province’s household population lived in males for every 100 females from 1995 to urban areas. More than two-thirds, or 69.1 2000. percent, of the total household popula- The province has a relatively young tion constituted the rural population. This population and gradually diminishing distribution was comparable to that of the proportion at successive older ages. In region, where some 69 percent of the total 2000, 65 percent of the total population was household population lived in rural areas. below 30 years old. Of these, 51.6 percent In the last two decades, urban and rural were men and 48.4 percent were women. population grew at an even pace. For the There were more older (60 years old and three census periods 1980, 1990, and 1995, above) women than men. Of those 60 the proportion of population residing in the years old and above in 2000, 52.3 percent urban areas has been constant at 30 percent. were women and 47.7 percent were men. Likewise, the proportion of rural population There were more men than women in remained unchanged at 69 percent. 2006, according to the CBMS survey. The 21 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 23. Figure 3. Sex Distribution : CBMS 2006 of the total population. Males had a higher proportion (48.1%) than the females (25.5%). Urban areas had a higher proportion (38.4%) than that of the rural areas (36.6%). The CBMS survey further indicated an employ- ment rate of 77.7 percent. Males had a significantly higher (83.7%) employment rate than females (65.5%). Employment rate was higher proportion of male population was slightly in the rural (79.0%) than in the urban areas higher (51.7%) than that of the females (74.6%). (48.3%). Poverty Threshold and Incidence D. Local Economy Among the six provinces in Eastern Visayas, Eastern Samar ranked next to the Family Income and Expenditures highest in poverty incidence (42.7%) of The province’s average family income families in 2006, according to the National was estimated at 71,527 pesos in 2000, Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) up by 28.42 percent from the 1997 level of report. From the 36th poorest province in 55,694 pesos, the lowest in Region Vlll. The the whole country in 2003 it dropped to the average family expenditure in 1997 was 23rd ranking in 2006, indicating an increase 47,625 pesos, which increased to 61,742 in poverty incidence. pesos in 2000 (FIES; NSO 1997 and 2000). The CBMS survey showed that the Main Source of Income province had 50,772 households (63.7%) living below the poverty threshold in 2006. More than two-fifth---or 42.6 percent, to This translates to 268,104 persons or 69.5 be exact---of the families in Eastern Samar percent who are classified as poor. A higher derived their income from entrepreneurial or proportion of the males (70.2%) than of the family-operated activities; 24.2 percent from females (68.7%) was below the poverty salaries and wages; and more than one-third threshold. Those in the rural areas had (or 33.2 %) from other sources other than a higher poverty incidence (69.3%) than work such as cash receipts, gifts, pension and those in the urban areas (50.0%). retirement, rental of buildings, spaces and Annual per-capita poverty threshold other properties (FIES; NSO 2000). increased from P11,025 in 2003 to P13,873 in 2006. With this threshold, a family of five Labor Force and Employment members in the province should have a The CBMS survey 2005-2006 indicated a monthly income of P5,773 to meet its food total labor force of 143,530 or 37.1 percent and nonfood requirements. 22 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 24. E. Infrastructure / Utilities / Facilities The province is linked to Metro Manila through the Philippine-Japan Highway that Road Network traverses Western Samar to the ferry termi- The main road network of the province nals in Allen and Alegria, both in Northern runs through the major settlements and Samar. Buses of Silver Star Transport Line, along the coastal areas from Arteche to Eagle Star Transit, and CUL Transport Line barangay Buenavista in Quinapondan, travel this route from Balangiga, Guiuan, where it branches west to Lawaan and Oras, and Borongan. The average travel south to Guiuan. The total road network time from Borongan to Metro Manila is 24 had a length of 1,402.09 kilometers in 2005. hours. A total of 876.645 kilometers (62.52%) were Motorized tricycles are the means of barangay roads. Provincial roads totaled to transportation from the poblacion to the 214.571 kilometers that accounted for 15.2 nearby barangays. Public utility jeepneys percent while national roads extended to are the means of transportation between 311.08765 kilometers. municipalities within the province. The interior municipalities of Jipapad and Bridges Maslog are presently not reached by land A total of 125 bridges with a combined transportation because of the absence length of 5,064.1 linear meters comple- of roads linking them to the existing road mented the province’s road network. network. In 2007, there were 99 bridges along national roads and 26 along provincial Air Transportation roads. Of the national bridges, 80 were There are two existing airports in the concrete/steel modular bridge, 18 bailey, province but as of December 2005, there and one timber while provincial bridges were no scheduled commercial flights to had four concrete, three bailey and only the province. The Guiuan Airport, built 19 timber bridges. by the American Navy during the World Concrete bridges had a combined length War ll period, and the Borongan Airport of 4,528.7 linear meters or 55.32 percent of still cater to light private planes, chartered the total bridge length. Bailey-type bridges cargo planes, and military planes. The totaled 249 linear meters (31.6%) while the most convenient airport is at Tacloban City, timber bridges had a combined length of which is about 200 kilometers by road from 286.4 linear meters (13.2%). Borongan. Land Transportation Water Transportation Passenger buses regularly ply the Taclo- Inter-island shipping lines do not serve ban to Eastern Samar routes with final any Eastern Samar seaport. Commuter destinations in Borongan, Guiuan, Dolores, launches loading both passengers and and Oras. Regular travel time from Taclo- cargoes ply the Tacloban-Guiuan route ban City to Borongan via the Taft-Buray daily. Small vessels load cargoes between Road is approximately four hours, and a Borongan and Oras ports and other ports little over three hours via the South Samar like Tacloban City, Cebu City, and Legaspi coastal route. City. 23 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 25. The province has 10 ports and causeways. Cellular phone services operated by Borongan Port is classified as a sub-port Smart Communications and Globe Commu- while the ports in Oras, Guiuan, Dolores, nications were available province wide and Giporlos are considered municipal since 2003. ports. Other ports or causeways are located in Arteche, San Policarpo, Sulat, Lawaan, Postal and Cargo Forwarding Services Mercedes, Balangiga, and Taft. There were 19 post offices in the province in 2005. These postal offices employed 28 Domestic Water Supply mail carriers. Borongan had three post In 2006 there were a total of 5,345 water offices and four mail carriers while all the systems facilities. Level 1 facilities, consist- other municipalities had only one mail ing of shallow and deep wells, provided the carrier. Four private cargo forwarders, domestic water requirements of majority namely: LBC, JRS Express, Aboitiz Cargo, of households in the province. This type and Western Union had been operating in of water source numbered 5,055---or 94.6 Borongan and handling mails, parcels, and percent---of the total number of water facili- packages. ties. Other households depended on Level ll and Level lll water systems. In 2006, there Radio Stations and Cable TV were 285 Level ll and five level III water Two AM radio stations are based in facilities. Municipalities with level III water Borongan and operate from 5:00 am to systems were Sulat, Hernani, Salcedo, and 9:30 pm. Both the government-owned DYES Maydolong and the city of Borongan, which Radyo ng Bayan and the Catholic Church- extended water connections to about 3,428 controlled DYVW operate on a power of households. 10,000 watts. There are four FM stations based in Borongan, Guiuan, Salcedo, and Irrigation Oras and have a power of 500 watts. There In 2006, there were 136 irrigation systems is no television station, but cable television in the province with a combined service area services are available in 21 municipalities. of 2,619 hectares. Most of the irrigation systems were fully and partially operational. Power The other systems were non-functional Electricity is directly provided by the Eastern and in need of immediate rehabilitation. Samar Electric Cooperative (ESAMELCO), The National Irrigation Administration has which derives most of its power supply from identified 18,723 hectares as potential the National Power Corporation (NPC)- irrigable area. operated Tongonan Geothermal Power Plant in Leyte. The interior towns of Maslog Telephone and Telegraph Facilities and Jipapad are served by solar-powered Three telephone companies operated in generating sets. Eastern Samar as of December 2005. These telephone companies were Innove Commu- As of August 2006, 398 (66.6%) of all nications (Globelines), BayanTel, and the barangays in the province had been government-operated Telecommunications energized to serve a total of 35,797 (49%) Office (TELOF). of all households in the province. As of 24 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 26. December 2009, there was an increase University, has master’s programs in in the number of energized barangays to agriculture, education, and management 463 (77.5%). In terms of households from and doctorate program in educational all municipalities, 45,096 (61.8%) of all management. potential households now have electricity. E. Local Institutional Capability Health Facilities In 2006, the province had 12 government Income hospitals, 10 private hospitals and clinics, The provincial government earned a total 26 municipal health centers, and 104 income of P386,216,737.02 in 2005, which barangay health stations. The government was up by 7.6 percent from its income hospitals include one provincial hospital, level of P359,103,607.82 in 2004. The five district hospitals, and six municipal total amount of income from local sources hospitals. The combined bed capacity amounted to P22,458,807.99, which was 4.9 in government hospitals was 310, while percent of the province’s total income. Tax private hospitals and clinics had 127 beds. revenues accounted for 42.1 percent while The bed-to-population ratio was computed non-tax operating income stood at 57.8 at 1:884. percent. Meanwhile, income from external sources accounted for 95 percent of the Number and Location of Schools total provincial income. Internal Revenue In SY 2005-2006, Eastern Samar had a Allotment estimated at P432,389,658.25 total 469 elementary schools, 458 of which constituted almost all (99.9%) of the exter- were government and seven were private nally source-out income. schools, 66 secondary schools, and eight tertiary schools. Administrative Structure Among the government elementary The provincial government employed schools, 304 were complete elementary a total of 1,101 regular personnel as of and 154 were incomplete elementary and August 2006. Out of this, 47.72 percent primary schools. Incomplete elementary (526) were women and while men comprise schools were usually located in the small the remaining 52.23 percent. The Provincial and hard-to-reach barangays with few Health Office, which has the mandate to enrollees. deliver hospital and primary healthcare services, accounted for 47.8 percent of Courses Offered the total number of provincial govern- The seven vocational schools has courses ment employees. The Provincial Engineer- in agriculture, crafts and home industries, ing Office, the infrastructure arm of the arts and trades, and fisheries. Cours- province, was the second biggest office es in tertiary schools, apart from post- with 167 staff, accounting for 15.17 percent secondary, were baccalaureate degrees of the provincial government employees. in management, education, agriculture, Other big provincial government depart- fisheries, tourism, engineering, nursing ments were the Office of the Provincial and commerce. The lone state college Agricultural Services, General Services in the province, the Eastern Samar State Office, and Sangguniang Panlalawigan. 25 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 27. Elected Officials SP 2nd District: During the period 2004 – 2010 the CABACABA, Gorgonio B. governor of Eastern Samar was Hon. Ben SABULAO, Enerio M. P. Evardone. Hon Leander R. Geli was ABUDA, Jonas B. the vice-governor and acted as presiding BALDONO, Jenny G. officer of the Sangguniang Panlalawigan. REYES, Beatriz L. During the May 2010 elections, Hon. Evardone was elected as Representative for Civil Society the Lone Congressional District of Eastern Nongovernment and people’s organi- Samar. zations complement the efforts of government and business in the devel- The Honorable Conrado B. Nicart, Jr. opment of Eastern Samar. In 2006, 10 won as Governor during the May 2010 nongovernment organizations (NGOs) elections. The newly elected Vice-Governor operated province wide by extending is Hon. Christopher Sheen P. Gonzales. varied development services in educa- Other officials who compose the Sanggu- tion, potable water supply and sanita- niang Panlalawigan (SP) are as follows: tion, and healthcare. A few NGOs served as partners of government in SP 1st District: environmental protection, agricultural MONTALLANA, Joji N. development, and policy advocacy. BALATO, Floro Sr. B. In addition, there were 490 registered AKLAO, Aldwin U. cooperatives. Of these, only 96 (19%) CABATO, Celestino A. were operating in 2006. Services provid- SUYOT, Byron M. ed were credit financing, marketing, transport services, processing and other developmental activities. 26 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 28. Part 2. Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger A. STATUS Poverty Incidence Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and Poverty Incidence is estimated using the 2015, the proportion of people whose proportion of the population who are living income is less than one dollar a day. below the poverty threshold. 27 27 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar Province of Eastern Samar
  • 29. Table 5. Magnitude and Proportion of Households/Population Living Below the Poverty Threshold, by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Eastern Samar, 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 The official poverty threshold used for the reference period 2005. For the refer- depends on the period the CBMS survey ence period of 2006, four municipalities of was conducted in a particular municipality. Balangiga, Balangkayan, General MacAr- Hence, the poverty threshold used in five thur, and Taft had a poverty threshold of municipalities---namely, Maslog, Jipapad, P13,704 for urban areas and P13,257 for San Julian, San Policarpo, and Sulat---was rural areas. P10,443 for urban areas and P11,638 for rural areas, both of which were based on The CBMS survey in 2005-2006 indicates the survey conducted in 2004. Fourteen that there were 50,772 households, repre- municipalities, namely Arteche, Borongan, senting 63.7 percent, in the province that Can-avid, Dolores, Giporlos, Guiuan, were living below the poverty threshold. Hernani, Lawaan, Llorente, Maydolong, Poverty incidence was higher in the rural Mercedes, Oras, Quinapondan, and areas (69.3%) than in the urban areas Salcedo, had a poverty threshold of P11,566 (50.0%). Of the total population in Eastern for urban areas and P12,659 for rural areas Samar, 69.5 percent (or 268,104) were below the poverty threshold. Of the male Map 1. Proportion of Population Below Poverty Threshold by Municipality population, 70.2 percent were below the poverty threshold while 68.7 percent of the female population fell below the poverty threshold. Among the 22 municipalities and one (1) city, poverty incidence was highest in the interior municipalities of Jipapad (86.4%) and Maslog (85.4%), followed by General MacArthur (82.0%), Dolores (81.6%), and Hernani (81.3%). The lowest poverty incidence was in the city of Borongan with 53.1 percent and in the municipalities of Taft (61.2%) and Oras (63.0%). The poverty incidence of the rest of the municipalities ranged from 66.0 percent to 81.6 percent. This indicates that majority of the members are living below the poverty threshold, as Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 evidenced by the provincial estimate of 69.5 percent. 28 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 30. Table 6. Magnitude and Proportion of Households/Population Living Below the Food Threshold, by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Eastern Samar, 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 Subsistence Incidence Municipalities with the highest proportion of their population living below the subsis- Subsistence incidence is estimated using tence level were Jipapad (80.2%), Dolores the proportion of households and the (75.7%), Maslog (75.3%), and Arteche population who are living below the food (75.1%). Borongan, as the capital town and threshold. commercial center, had the lowest propor- tion of residents living below subsistence The food thresholds in five munici- level: 42.3 percent. The other two lowest palities: Maslog, Jipapad, San Julian, were Taft at 50.6 percent; and Oras at San Policarpo, and Sulat for reference 51.1 percent. Other municipalities ranged year 2004 were set at P8,196 for urban over the 50 percent mark, suggesting that areas and P8,352 for rural areas. With majority of the population were below the 2006 as reference year for Balangiga, subsistence level. Balangkayan, General MacArthur, and Taft, the food threshold was at P9,795 for Map 2. Proportion of Population Living Below Food Threshold by Municipality urban areas and P9,813 for rural areas. Finally, for majority (14) of the munici- palities (Arteche, Borongan, Can-avid, Dolores, Giporlos, Guiuan, Hernani, Lawaan, Llorente, Maydolong, Mercedes, Oras, Quinapondan, and Salcedo), food threshold for reference year 2005 was set at P9,078 for urban and P 9,085 for rural areas. The CBMS survey shows that in 2005-2006, majority (52.9%) of households were living below the food threshold. This translates to a poverty rate of 59.4 percent among the population. A higher proportion of the households in the rural areas (57.7%) were living below subsistence level as compared to those in the urban areas (41.4%). Of the total males, 60 percent were below the food threshold while 58.7 percent of the females were considered poor. Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 29 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 31. Poverty Gap Ratio Eight municipalities had the highest poverty gap ratio of 0.5; namely, Jipapad, Poverty gap ratio (based on poverty Dolores, Hernani, Arteche, General MacAr- threshold) is defined as the “mean distance thur, Maslog, Giporlos, and Mercedes. The separating the population from the poverty municipalities of Llorente, Balangiga, Sulat, line (with the nonpoor given the distance Maydolong, Can-avid, and Balangkayan of zero), expressed as a percentage of the had poverty gap ratios of 0.4. This was poverty line.” The poverty gap ratio of the followed by San Julian, Lawaan, Salcedo, province is 0.4 with the urban areas having Guiuan, Taft, Quinapondan and Oras with a lower poverty gap ratio of 0.3 compared 0.3 poverty gap ratios. Those places with to the rural area’s 0.4. the lowest at 0.2 were San Policarpo and Borongan. Table 7. Poverty Gap Ratio by Urban/Rural, Eastern Samar, 2005-2006 Target 1B. Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 including women and young people Employment Rate Considered employed in this study are Map 3. Poverty Gap Ratio by Municipality those who are 15 years old and over as of their last birthday during the reference period and reported as either at work, or with a job but not at work. Employment rate is estimated using the total number of employed persons against the total number of persons in the labor force. In 2005-2006, according to the CBMS survey, the total members of the labor force is 143,530, which is about 37.2 percent of the total population in the province. In 2005-2006, the employment rate in the province was at 77.7 percent, according to the CBMS survey. Males had a higher proportion (83.7%) than the females (65.5%). Surprisingly, the employment rate in the rural areas (79.0%) was higher than in the urban areas (74.6%). Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 Employment rates in 2005-2006 were highest in Quinapondan (87.4%), Can-avid (85.1%), Oras (84.6%), Maydolong 30 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 32. Table 8. Employment Rate by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Eastern Samar 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 Map 4. Employment Rate by Municipality (83.4%), Jipapad (81.2%), San Julian (81.2%), and Guiuan (80.7%). Lowest rates were in Hernani at 61.6 percent, Giporlos at 68.5 percent, and Taft at 68.8 percent. Twelve of the municipalities were above the provincial rate while 11, including the lone city of Borongan, were below the provincial estimate. Target 1C. Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger Proportion of Households who Experienced Food Shortage Food shortage is the experience of hunger and not having anything to eat in. The CBMS survey reports that only 12.76 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 percent of the households experienced food shortage in 2005-2006. There were more Food shortage was experienced by in the rural areas (13.5%) than those in the majority of its population only in the munici- urban areas who experienced hunger. Of pality of Maslog (68.9%). This is followed the total population, 13.8 percent experi- by Balangiga (45.6%) and Sulat (38.0%). enced food shortage. A higher proportion Seven municipalities had below 10 percent of the males (14.1%) than of the females of its population experiencing food short- (13.6%) experienced the same. age in the last three months prior to the Table 9. Proportion of Households Who Experienced Food Shortage and by Urban/Rural, Eastern Samar 2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 31 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 33. Map 5. Food Shortage by Municipality below normal weights were classified as either underweight or malnourished, respectively. In 2005-2006, the CBMS survey shows that 6.7 percent (or 3,055 of 45,347 children) in the province who are under five years of age were underweight. Females had a slightly higher prevalence (6.9%) than the males (6.6%). Those in the rural areas had a much higher prevalence (7.5%) than those in the urban (4.8%). Based on this indicator, malnutrition was highest in Jipapad (64.2%), followed Map 6. Prevalence of Underweight Children Under 5 Years of Age Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 survey, with Dolores having the lowest at 5.6 percent. Thirteen of the municipalities had rates above the provincial percentage of 13.8 percent while the rest (around 10) municipalities fell below. Prevalence of underweight children under 5 years old The nutritional status of children below five years of age was determined through the Operation Timbang (OPT) results using the International Reference Standard where children having moderately and severely Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 Table 10. Prevalence of Underweight Children Under 5 Years of Age, by Sex and by Urban/Rural Eastern, Samar 2006 32 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 34. by Maslog (20.7%), both of which are of cattle, 90 heads of carabao, and 254 interior municipalities. Ten municipalities goats were distributed to farmers in different had prevalence ranging from 4.4 percent municipalities. to 14.7 percent. The rest had proportions of malnourished children ranging from 0.2 The Fishery Conservation Project involved percent to under 4 percent, with Can-avid campaigns on fishery conservation on both garnering the lowest rate at 0.2 percent. marine and inland resources. The project While eight municipalities were above the also included artificial reef development, provincial average of 6.7 percent, Balan- fish shelter sanctuaries, and campaign on giga was at par and the rest of the fourteen anti-illegal fishing. To help the fisher folk, municipalities were below the average. the provincial government distributed 200 units of marine engines to fisher folks at low interest rate and affordable down payment B. CURRENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS requirement. Poverty Alleviation Program Employment Program To respond to the poverty and hunger The Employment Assistance Program issues, the provincial government conduct- of the Provincial Government provides ed the Provincial Anti-poverty Summit in assistance in finding job opportunities, both 2007 and the Food Summit in 2008, which locally and overseas. Since 2004, seven resulted in a multi-sectoral comprehen- job fairs were organized by the province sive collaboration in facing the issues on to provide opportunities for local and poverty. overseas employment. From a total of 2,797 applicants who registered, 1,627 or 58.16 The Poverty Alleviation Program of the percent qualified for employment. province provides for livelihood assistance to cooperatives, Non-government Organi- Since 2007, P2 million was allocated for zations (NGOs), People’s Organizations the Overseas Support Program, a loan (POs) and other community organizations in facility with minimal interest for the place- the form of loans and equipment. Through ment fee of qualified overseas job seekers. the Agriculture Product Diversification and Fifteen recipients availed of such loan at Intensification Program of the Office of the P50,000 each and one recipient has already Provincial Agricultural Services (OPAS), paid in full. the provincial government distributed 340 hand tractors and 100 shallow tube wells In line with this, from 2005-2009, the to individual farmers and associations Technical Education and Skills Develop- or cooperatives at low interest rates and ment Authority (TESDA) has been able to affordable counterparts. train 42,801 individuals and out of which 91.17 percent (or 29,022) had graduated. It Additional income is provided to farmers was able to assess 22,821 applicants from through the Barangay Livestock Breed- various centers and provided certification to ing Loan Program and Goat Dispersal 78 percent (17,759) of those assessed. Of Program. Since 2006, a total of 343 heads those given an assessment, a total of 6,714 33 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 35. were reported as employed. There remains Kahirapan-Comprehensive and Integrated more of those who were employed but not Delivery of Social Services (KALAHI-CIDSS) reported at all. project, which was jointly implemented by the Department of Social Welfare and From 2006-2009, TESDA provided schol- Development (DSWD) and the National arship under the Pangulo Gloria Scholarship Anti-Poverty Commission (NAPC) to (PGS) along areas with high employment counteract poverty in the country. From potentials; example, welders, butchers, 2004-2006, the 101 poorest barangays in plumbers, housekeepers,and domestic the municipalities of Sulat, Maslog, Jipapad, helpers. The most outstanding course Can-avid, Balangiga, and San Policarpo is the one for butchers as it produced 29 received economic support, physical infra- graduates who were sent to Canada. structure, basic service infrastructure, and This is followed by welders, which is in capability-building activities amounting to demand abroad and locally in shipbuilding P72 million. The local counterpart amounted companies such as Hanjin and Aboitiz. The to P29.8 million. Provincial Government gave scholarships to 808 TESDA trainees while the Pangulong Cooperatives Development Gloria Scholarship Program supported As of June 2007, there were 513 coopera- 1,412 scholars. tives that were registered in Eastern Samar. Twenty percent were categorized as On the second semester of 2009, TESDA operating after the conduct of a series of focused on helping its graduates land delisting of non-operating businesses which gainful employment through its jobs bridg- resulted in their dissolution or cancellation. ing program. So far, there are three opera- By revitalizing the Provincial Cooperative tional blue desks, or employment desks, Development Council, which was chaired strategically placed in the three TESDA by Governor Ben P. Evardone, capability institutions: ANAS, BNAS and SNSAT. building activities and technical assistance were made possible through coordination Every summer since 2004, the Special with member agencies. Program for the Employment of Students (SPES) of the Provincial Government Through the Cooperatives Savings provides summer jobs for qualified students Mobilization and Capital Build-up Program aged 15 to 25 years. A total of 1,148 (SMCBUP), innovative savings mobiliza- students have already availed of this tion and capital build-up schemes were program for the past 6 years. For this developed by the cooperatives themselves. summer, 250 slots will be made available In 2006, 89 cooperatives in Eastern Samar to qualified students. This is jointly funded generated P8,08 million in savings and by the LGU (60%) and DOLE (40%). almost P3.2 million increase in capital. KALAHI - CIDSS Tindahan Natin Program The most impoverished barangays in This is a poverty alleviation project initiat- the province became recipients of the ed by the national government for employ- World Bank -assisted Kapit-Bisig Laban sa ment generation, livelihood, and food 34 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 36. security. The project provides government- 10 farm-to-market roads 60.437 kilometers subsidized quality rice and noodles through long and costing P12.931 million. Three a store jointly identified and endorsed by President’s bridges worth P13.8 million in DSWD, City and Municipal Social Welfare Borongan, Guiuan and Sulat were also and Development Offices of the LGUs and completed. the Barangay Council. This has accred- ited 125 Tindahan Natin Operators and The Infrastructure for Rural Productiv- benefited 28,866 low-income families in 298 ity Enhancement Sector (InFRES) Project, barangays in the province.. which has a long-term goal of increasing rural income in areas with high agricultural This program has resulted in meeting the potential provided assistance worth more demand for quality rice at less cost among than P400 million for the construction poor families in far-flung areas. Qualified of 139.19 kilometers of farm-to-market operators were given the opportunity to roads in Can-avid, Arteche, Maslog, avail of the program and to manage a Balangkayan, Maydolong, Hernani, Sulat, simple business. and Dolores. Infrastructure Support Food Fortification Program Infrastructure support in the form of roads and The provincial government, through bridges are necessary to facilitate development the Provincial Health Office, began in the countryside. A total of 107 infrastructure implementing in 2000 the Philippine Food projects were undertaken from 2004 - 2009, Fortification Act of 2000 or RA 8976. This 56 of which were farm-to-market roads worth law mandates that staple food such as P102 million while 17 farm-to-market roads rice, sugar, flour, and oil be fortified with worth P50 million are still for bidding. From iron and Vitamin A. In line with this, the 2008-2010, a total of 610.62 kilometers of Food Fortification Program of the province barangay, municipal, and provincial roads aims to fight and eliminate micronutrient were repaired, rehabilitated and opened. malnutrition by increasing dietary intake Meanwhile, during the period 2005-2010, a of Vitamin A, iron, and iodine equivalent total of P316.3 million was utilized for infrastruc- to 50 percent of RDA contributed by forti- ture projects, with 72 percent of the funding fied foods. from the Department of Agriculture (DA) in the amount of P100 million, from National Disaster In relation to this, the micronutrient Coordinating Council (NDCC) worth P100 supplementation through the Garantisa- million and from the European Commission dong Pambata service provides a bi-annual (EC) grant of P27.6 million. week-long delivery of a package of health services to children between ages 0 – 71 Agrarian Reform Community Projects months old with the purpose of reducing (ARCPs) funded by the Asian Development morbidity and mortality among them. This is Bank (ADB) constructed 17 farm-to-market achieved through the promotion of positive roads that are 61.231 kilometers in length Filipino values for proper child growth and and costing P137 million. Locally funded development. This period of implementation ARCPs (provincial counterpart) completed started in 1995 and is still ongoing. 35 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 37. For its efforts, the province was Llorente, Salcedo, Oras, and Balangkayan in given national recognition as the 2006 and 2007 and in Early Childhood Care Garantisadong Pambata Champion and Development (ECCD) program sites of of Region VIII for a consistently high Maydolong and Guiuan. This resulted in accomplishment in Vitamin A supple- decreased malnutrition and increased in the mentation and deworming of children knowledge, attitudes and skills of mothers in from 2007-2009. the prevention and control of malnutrition. Sources of funds include United Nations Pabasa Sa Nutrisyon Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF), PLAN This is an information-sharing type of activ- International and local government units. ity where mothers of malnourished children are taught how to properly select and prepare Home, School and Community Food Production family meals that are affordable yet nutritious This includes setting up of kitchen gardens for the prevention and control of malnutrition. in homes, schools, and communities; putting This was implemented in the municipalities of up of demo centers and nurseries, distribu- Arteche, Jipapad, Maslog, Lawaan, Balangi- tion of plant materials, small animals/finger- ga, Giporlos, General Macarthur, Borongan, lings and provision of technical assistance Sulat, Can-avid, Dolores, San Policarpo, in food production. Pabasa sa Nutrisyon Cum Supplemental Feeding Program Plus ÂGÊ (PSN CUM SF Plus G) This is a locally ini- tiated project at Brgy. Punta Maria, Borongan, E. Samar, conceptual- ized and implemented by the Barangay Nutri- tion Committee (BNC) through the Barangay Nutrition Scholar (BNS) with assistance from PNC as a strategic approach to address the mal- nutrition problem in the area. The three major program components are: Pabasa sa Nutrisyon, tion prevalence for both pre-school and school Supplemental Feeding and the “G” Strategy children was reduced in 2008 from 20.41% to (Gardening Component). 10.2% and from 22.41% to 5.17%, respectively. The beneficiaries were pre-school and school For this best practice, the barangay was the children, pregnant and lactating women, mothers recipient of a Provincial award as Most Outstand- and/or caregivers, nutritionally-at-risk families ing Barangay Nutrition Committee and the BNS and the entire community. as the Most Outstanding Barangay Nutrition As a result of this best practice, the malnutri- Scholar in 2008. 36 36 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 38. Food For School Program Act Promoting Salt Iodization Nationwide” Implemented by the Department of was passed in December 1995, requiring Education (DepEd), the Food for School that all food grade salt for human and Program is an immediate intervention to animal consumption be iodized. address hunger among families through their children in Department of Education- To comply with this law, all municipali- supervised Pre-elementary and Grade 1. It ties and the province itself have enacted is a form of food subsidy for young learners their respective ordinances in support of who belong to poor families, providing a the national program. Regular monitoring daily ration of one kilo of iron-fortified rice of salt iodization program implementation for a limited period of time. As long as the is conducted, through the leadership of child goes to school everyday, the family is the Provincial Health Office and the Rural assured of rice on its table. The implemen- Health Units. Salt utilization at the house- tation period was 90 days in September to hold level is monitored by the “Sangkap December 2006, 15 days in March 2007, Pinoy” Task Force. In the province, there is 40 days in April-June 1, 2007 and 19 days a 97-percent iodized salt utilization. in September 2007. Those who were benefited were 7,833 C. CHALLENGES AND PRIORITIES FOR ACTION Grade 1 pupils and pre-elementary children in the municipalities of Arteche, Balangiga, Income and Employment Balangkayan, Borongan, General MacAr- Although the province has graduated thur, Giporlos, Hernani, Jipapad, Lawaan, from the “Club 20”, or the Top 20 Poorest Maslog, Mercedes, Quinapondan, Salce- Provinces, its poverty incidence of 69.5 do, San Julian, San Policarpo, and Sulat. percent, according to the CBMS survey, is still high and remains as one of the most As a result of this intervention, there important challenges. The obvious causes was improved school attendance as well of poverty in Eastern Samar is its relatively as nutritional status of school children. undeveloped and stagnant economy, Moreover, complimentary activities were which, to a large degree, accounts for the undertaken to ensure the sustainability to lack of/or insufficiency of income of the mitigate hunger. Such activities included poor families and the high unemployment School/Home/Community Food Production, rate. The province’s economy is dominated Productivity, Life and Values Development by primary (agriculture, fishing) or extrac- Training, and Nutrition, Information and tive industries, which by themselves are Education. low-income generating activities. ASIN Law Implementation Priority should be focused on raising the As part of the effort to address the micro- level of income and providing more oppor- nutrient deficiency problem, President Fidel tunities for employment. At the barangay V. Ramos in 1993 launched Salt Iodization and municipal levels, more funds should be through the “Ending Hidden Hunger” provided for the Self-Employment Assistance Conference. The ASIN Law or RA 8172 “An Program of the Municipal Social Welfare 37 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 39. Offices to encourage more individuals and Ecology of University of the Philippines-Los groups toward self-sufficiency. Small and Baños, has identified anemia as a “public medium enterprises should be supported health problem that requires immediate and given greater focus, especially in the attention in the province of Eastern Samar”. marketing of products. At the provincial The anemia situation revealed a high (40%) level, the Employment Assistance Program and moderate (13%) magnitude of anemia should be intensified. among children 6-36 months old and among non-pregnant, non-lactating Women of Subsistence Incidence Reproductive Age (WRA), respectively. The proportion of the population living There is a need for an integrated approach below the subsistence level is also high at to address iron deficiency, which is the most 59.4 percent which means that majority do significant determinant of anemia. not have enough income to buy basic food needs. Agricultural productivity needs to be The following are the other related stepped up to increase the rice sufficiency challenges: (1) Sustainability of the volun- level from its present 57 percent. Other teer program through the Barangay Nutri- products such as coconut, abaca, corn, root tion Scholar Program; (2) Limited supply of crops and their by-products need a boost deworming tablets and micronutrients; (3) to increase their production and marketing. Support of local officials and beneficiaries; (4) Intensification of nutrition programs Malnutrition and Food Shortage and services in municipalities with high The 2008 Comprehensive Report for the incidence of malnutrition, such as Jipapad project "Towards an Integrated Anemia (64.2%) and Maslog (20.7%); (5) Focus Prevention and Control Programme in the on the municipalities with high incidence Philippines” by the Institute of Human Nutri- of food shortage such as Maslog (68.9%), tion and Food of the College of Human Balangiga (45.6%), and Sulat (38%). 38 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 40. Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education at the time of the survey. Of this, 57,763 A. STATUS (76.6%) were enrolled in elementary. The females had a slightly higher proportion Target 2A. Ensure that, by 2015, children (78.1%) of enrollees than did the males everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be (75.1%). Those in the urban areas also had able to complete a full course of primary a slightly higher (77.6%) proportion than schooling those in the rural areas (76.1%). Proportion of Children Aged 6-12 Years Old Enrolled Municipalities with the lowest proportion in Elementary Education of children ages 6-12 years old and enrolled were Hernani (59.2%), Maslog (63.9%), The CBMS survey covered a total of and Jipapad (68.9%). Those with the 75,448 children who were 6-12 years old highest enrollment were in the municipalities Table 11. Magnitude and Proportion of Children Age 6-12 Years Old Enrolled in Elementary Education, by Sex and by Urban/ Rural, 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 39 39 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar Province of Eastern Samar
  • 41. Map 7. Children Aged 6 -12 Years Old Enrolled in Elementary Education Proportion of Children Aged 13-16 Years Old Enrolled in High School There was a total of 38,762 children aged 13 – 16 years old as indicated in the CBMS survey. Of this, only 22,001 (56.8%) were enrolled in high school. Of the 18,871 females, only 64.6 percent were enrolled while of the 19,891 males, only 49.3 were enrolled. There was a significantly higher proportion of females than males enrolled. The proportion of enrollment in the urban areas was higher (66.0%) than in the rural areas (52.8%). At 43.2 percent (16,761), one sees that there is still a large portion of the popula- tion of 13-16 year olds who are yet to be enrolled in high school by 2015 if the universal target for secondary education is to be achieved. Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 The lowest proportion of enrollees was of Mercedes (84.4%), Guiuan (80.8%), in the municipalities of Maslog (21.8%), Balangkayan (79.5%), Lawaan (79.3%), Jipapad (29.8%), Arteche (42.6%), Salcedo (79.1%) and Borongan (79.0%). Hernani (46.2%), and General MacArthur Other municipalities ranged between 72.5 (47.6%). Majority of their children ages percent and 78.5 percent. 13-16 were not enrolled in high school. Meanwhile the highest proportion of Based on the provincial average of 76.6 enrollees was in Sulat at 66.1 percent. percent, there are 11 municipalities that fall Other municipalities ranged from 50.3 below and 12 that are above such average. percent to 63.9 percent. Eleven out of To attain a 100 percent or universal enroll- the 23 municipalities were above the ment for these primary school children by provincial average of 56.8 percent while 2015, the 23.4 percent have to be enrolled. 12 were below such average. Table 12. Magnitude and Proportion of Children Aged-13-16 Years Old Enrolled in High School by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Eastern Samar 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 40 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 42. Map 8. Children Aged 13 - 16 Years Old Enrolled in High School by Municipality The highest proportion of children ages 6-16 years and enrolled in school regardless of level, were in the municipalities of Salcedo (88.7%), Sulat (87.2%) and the city of Borongan (87.1%). The lowest proportions that were enrolled in school were in the municipalities of Hernani (66.0%), Maslog (72.2%), Jipapad (73.2%), Arteche (78.5%) and General MacArthur (79%). The other municipalities had propor- tions ranging from 80.6 percent to 89.9 percent. Compared to the provincial average of 83.5 percent, 13 out of the 23 munici- palities fell above while 10 of the municipalities were below this. Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 Proportion of Children aged 6-16 Map 9. Proportion of Children Aged 6 – 16 Years Old Enrolled in School Years Old Enrolled in School There were 114,210 children who were 6-16 years old at the time of the CBMS survey in 2005-2006. Of these, 95,418 or 83.5 percent were enrolled regardless of the grade level. Of the 58,822 males, 80.4 percent or 47,303 were enrolled while of the 55,387 females, a total of 48,303 or 86.9 percent were enrolled. A higher propor- tion in the urban areas (86.4%) than in the rural areas (82.4%) were in school. To attain a 100 percent enrollment by 2015, 16.5 percent (or a total of 18,792) of these children need to be enrolled in school. Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 41 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 43. Table 13. Magnitude and Proportion of Children Aged 6-16 Years Old Enrolled in School by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Eastern Samar 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 Literacy Rate of 15-24 Year-olds Simple literacy rate is Map 10. Literacy Rate of 15- 24 Year-Olds measured in terms of the percentage of the popula- tion who can read, write and understand simple messages in any language or dialect. Based on the CBMS survey, the literacy rate of 15- 24 year-olds was at 96.6 percent in 2006. Females (97.7%) had a higher literacy rate than males (95.6%). Those in the urban areas (97.9%) had a higher literacy rate than those in the rural areas (96.0%). Literacy rates were high in Mercedes (99.0%), San Policarpo (98.6%), Guiuan (98.1%) and Hernani (98.1%). Maslog had the lowest literacy rate at 80.8 percent while the rest of the municipalities had literacy rates ranging from 94.1 to 97.4 percent. Only seven of the municipalities fell below the provincial average Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 of 96.6 while the rest of the sixteen (16) were above it. Table 14. Literacy Rate of 15-24 Years Olds, by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Eastern Samar 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 42 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 44. B. CURRENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS also able to experience education through 47 organized Supervised Neighborhood Access to Basic Education Play (SNP) groups or Home-based ECCD. Republic Act 9155 provides, among others, free education for primary and Basic Education Information System secondary Filipino children. Aside from the This Basic Education Information System basic education courses offered in primary (BEIS) serves as the primary Management and secondary schools, education is also and Information System of the DepEd. It provided for target groups through the processes and generates data needed for Alternative Learning System. This program planning, budget preparation, resource provides out-of-school youth and adult allocation and performance indicators. learners greater opportunity to continue Updated data in the BEIS rainbow spectrum learning outside the formal school system indicated specific needs that resulted in at their own pace and style of learning and the construction of additional classrooms, at their most favorable time and place. delivery of additional school furniture to both elementary and secondary schools Pre-School Program / Early Childhood Care and and deployment of teacher items to “Hot Development (ECCD) Colored Schools” both in the elementary This DepEd program links children’s home and secondary levels. experiences to every part of school learning proceedings. This further intends to enhance Child Friendly School System pupil’s readiness on the first ladder of basic education to prevent massive dropouts. The implementation of this Child Friendly Such program is offered by both public School System program started in 1999, and private institutions to children aging along the Country Program for Children V 3-5 years old. of the UNICEF. The major goals included wider access to quality education, encour- The ECCD Program through the Day Care agement of integrated childhood care and Service provided early childhood training development, and helping parents meet the and psychosocial stimulation activities to a basic learning needs of children. total of 63,026 children within the 3-5 age group, an impressive improvement from Completion of Incomplete Elementary Schools 11,000 children in 2004. At present, the To widen access to basic education province ranks second region-wide in the particularly in remote barangays, primary percentage of Grade 1 pupils with ECCD schools are turned into complete elemen- (68.83%) and garnered a batting average tary schools. This saves the pupils from that is higher than the regional percent- going to nearby communities just so they age (61.22%). The program currently has can continue their elementary education. 550 day care centers in the province, an increase from 373 in 2004. All 549 day care Multi-Grade Program workers are subsidized by the Provincial Multi-grade classes are established in Government. There were 555 children barangays, especially in thinly populated, without access to day care centers but were remote areas where the enrolment does not 43 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 45. Home-Based Learning Program on Accreditation and Equivalency (The Hernani Experience) BACKGROUND / KEY FEATURES: RATIONALE: • Learning activities are conducted individually • The CBMS survey in in the home of the learner at a regular schedule 2006 showed that Her- as agreed upon by the learners and the Mobile nani had one of the high- Teacher est proportions of children • Flexible learning services are provided to out 13 – 16 years old who were of school youth and adults so that they may be not enrolled in high school able to continue learning outside the framework (53.8%). of the school system and upgrade their literacy • There are many youth skills and competencies. who are unable to enroll due to poverty and dif- ficulty in accessing schools RESULTS: • In 2006, there were 15 enrollees from Brgy. OBJECTIVES: Nagaja and 20 from Brgy. Batang. • As one of the programs of the Alternative • Supported by PLAN Philippines, a consid- Learning System, this is intended for those who erable increase in the enrolment in the A & E are not able to complete the ten-year basic edu- System was observed in the District of Hernani cation in the formal school system who are 15 • In 2007, 15 out of 25 learners were able to pass years old and above. the A & E Test for secondary level. The District • This aims to deliver basic education services to of Hernani got the highest percentage of passers the underserved, deprived and depressed sectors (25%) in the Division and the result was above of the community with limited access to formal the Division average percentage. education • To sustain the learner’s participation in the A LESSON LEARNED & E System and answer the special and individual • There is a need for policy support and corre- learning needs of learners who are elementary and sponding budgetary allocation at the municipal secondary dropouts, 15 years old and above, who level in order to sustain the implementation of lack time in attending learning sessions. the ALS programs and projects. warrant the organization of single or mono program, such will develop the reading grade classes. This program makes basic readiness, word-recognition/vocabulary, education accessible to the less fortunate comprehension, study and literacy appre- and underprivileged Filipinos. ciation skills of the children. Under this program, there are provisions for regular monitoring of reading instructions; regular Every Child a Reader Program (ECARP) diagnosis and evaluation of the reading The program aims to make every child a status of pupils in both oral and silent reader at the end of the third year of instruc- reading, and the adoption of varied reading tion. Through a well-balanced reading projects in the school and district levels. 44 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 46. Likewise, continuous capability building is PLAN Philippines, that covers the munici- of school heads and teachers is designed palities of Salcedo, Llorente, Balangkayan, just so their instructional and managerial and Hernani. competence would improve. In line with this program, too, some reading policies Stakeholders are involved in planning, are adhered to by the division, such as: implementing and evaluating projects. “No read, No Pass Policy”, “Let a Child They are invited and recognized in school Read a Day”, “Drop Everything and Read”, programs and activities. They are consulted and “Developing Study Habits Through on issues and concerns directly affecting the Assignments”. children and the school. The Parent-Teacher Associations (PTAs) and the Student School-based Management (SMB) Government Council (SGC) are active The School-based Management program partners of the school in fund generation for is popularized by empowering school heads projects, while the government entities are to come up with strategic plans to address usually sources of fund for these projects. the specific needs and problems of their respective schools in line with curriculum Scholarship Program and instruction, physical facilities, person- Since 2009, the Provincial Govern- nel capability building, management of ment has been assisting students at the educational services and networking with Eastern Samar State University and St. stakeholders, including government and Mary’s College campuses in the province. non-government organizations. This values The Academic Scholarship Program has the involvement of the School Governing amounted to P8.75 million. More than 50 Council in the implementation of school of the scholars have already graduated. programs, projects and activities, including the preparation of the School Improvement Plan (SIP). C. CHALLENGES AND PRIORITIES FOR ACTION Intensive Collaboration with Stakeholders One of the major challenges being faced The crucial role that stakeholders play by the government is how to reduce dropout in the effective implementation of school rates both in elementary and secondary level. programs and projects cannot be denied. This is primarily because of the relatively high Hence, schools undergo several activities proportion of children who are not in school. in order to establish harmonious relation- In fact, more than 23.4 percent of children ships with their public: the parents, the with ages 6-12 years are not enrolled in community, the church, the government and elementary education while more than 43.2 nongovernment agencies, and other institu- percent of children 13-16 years old are not tions which might have vested interest in the enrolled in secondary school education. More education of the youth. The most prevalent than 16.5 percent of children 6-16 years old organization that supports the school plans who are not enrolled in school. 45 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 47. Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality The CBMS survey indicates that in A. STATUS 2005-2006,the ratio of girls to boys in elementary education in relation to the total Target 3A. Eliminate gender disparity population of primary school children was in primary and secondary education, 0.9 or 9 girls to 10 boys. There are also preferably by 2005, and in all levels of more boys than girls in elementary school education no later than 2015 in urban (0.9) and in rural (0.9) areas. For secondary schools, the ratio of girls to boys Ratio of Girls to Boys in Primary, Secondary and in relation to the total population of second- Tertiary Education ary school children is 1.1 or 11 girls to 10 boys. There are also more girls in the urban Table 15. Ratio of Girls to Boys in Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Levels, by Urban/Rural, Eastern Samar, 2005-2006 46 46 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 Province of Eastern Samar Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 48. (1.1) than in rural (1.1) schools. The same Map 11. Ratio of Girls to Boys in Primary Education picture shows for tertiary level students. Of the total population of tertiary students, the ratio of girls to boys is 1.1 or 11 girls to 10 boys. In urban and rural areas, there is the same ratio of 1.1 each. In the 15-24 year–old category, the ratio of females to males is 0.9 vis-à-vis the total population of this age category. There are also nine literate females per 10 males in urban and rural areas, giving a 0.9 ratio each. There is gender equality in primary education in eight municipalities: Arteche, Balangkayan, Mercedes, San Policarpo, Maydolong, Quinapondan, San Julian, and Maslog with a 1.0 ratio each of girls to boys. The rest of the 15 municipalities and one city each had a ratio of 0.9 girls to boys in primary education, which was comparable Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 to the provincial average of 0.9. There were only nine girls to every 10 boys who were in school in these municipalities. Map 12. Ratio of Girls to Boys in Secondary Education In the secondary education, there was a disparity in the ratio of girls to boys in almost all the municipalities except for Lawaan’s 1.0 ratio. Most of the municipali- ties had a higher ratio favoring girls, with 11 municipalities having a 1.1 ratio and 10 with a 1.2 ratio. It was only in Hernani where there is a 0.9 ratio, indicating more boys than girls enrolled in primary education. The ratio of girls to boys in tertiary education shows the widest disparity was in General MacArthur and Quinapondan with a 1.5 ratio each, indicating more girls than boys in tertiary education. These were followed by San Policarpo (1.4), Giporlos (1.3) and Dolores (1.3). Twelve other municipalities had disparities, albeit to a Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 lesser degree: ranging from 1.11.2. Only 47 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 49. Map 13. Ratio of Girls to Boys in Tertiary Education Hernani and Sulat showed a ratio of 1.0 each, indicating equal numbers of girls and boys. In four municipalities however, the ratio indicated more boys than girls in Taft (0.9), Arteche (0.9), Lawaan (0.9) and Maslog (0.8).There were eight municipali- ties that were at par with the provincial ratio of 1.1. Nine had higher ratios while six had lower-than=average ratios. Ratio of Literate Females to Literate Males Aged 15-24 Years Old Generally, there were more literate males than females with the ratio of 0.9, except in Maslog (1.1) and in Balangkayan where there was no disparity (1.0). In the other 21 municipalities, ratios ranged from 0.8 to 0.9. Sixteen municipalities were at par with the provincial ratio of 0.9 while two (2) were Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 above and five (5) were below. Proportion of Seats Held by Women in the Munici- Map 14. Ratio of Literate Females to Males pality and Province Women’s opportunities in political and public roles are closely linked to women’s empowerment. The number of elective seats held by women in the municipalities and in the province is expressed as a percentage of all occupied elective seats. The propor- tion of elective seats held by women was highest in San Policarpo (79.7%), Lawaan (78.5%), and Sulat (56.3%). Lowest were in Jipapad (30.0%), Balangiga (32.0%), and San Julian (35.5%). The rest of the munici- palities ranged from 37 percent to 53.7 percent. Fifteen municipalities were below the provincial percentage of 46.5 percent and only eight were higher, suggesting a lower participation of women compared to men in the political arena. 48 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 50. Map 15. Proportion of Seats Held by Women in Elected Positions GAD Code also provided for the creation of the Provincial Gender and Development (PGAD) Council that ensures the implementation, monitoring and evaluation of GAD programs and activities. The United Nations Popula- tion Fund’s (UNFPA) 6th Country Programme of Assistance to the Province of Eastern Samar in the three pilot municipalities of Sulat, Maydolong, and Llorente starting 2005 focuses on three component areas: Population and Develop- ment Strategies, Reproductive Health, and Gender. The expected outcome of the Gender compo- nent is strengthened institutional mechanisms and socio-cultural Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 practices to promote and protect the rights of women and girls, and advance gender and equality. B.CURRENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS The UNFPA provides financial and technical assistance to the projects that Women Empowerment and Development aim, among other things, to mainstream gender issues through legal and policy The Eastern Samar Gender and Devel- reforms, gender-sensitive data collection, opment (GAD) Code of 2008 embodies and prevention of gender-based violence. women’s empowerment, gender equality, women’s human rights and gender-respon- Interventions initiated in the three UNFPA sive development. Among other things, it pilot areas resulted in: provides for their protection; participation in political processes; economic welfare 1. The creation of a gender-friendly and security; reproductive rights; marital environment with support structures. and parental rights; right to education, • Gender Code/Ordinance in place in adequate healthcare, humane living condi- the province (Provincial Ordinance No. tions: and other rights. To ensure the imple- 7, s. 2008) and adopted in the three pilot mentation of all GAD programs and activi- municipalities; ties, a GAD budget of 5 percent from the • Regular meeting of Provincial GAD General Fund and 20-percent Development Council to discuss emerging GAD issues Fund of the Province shall be allocated. The and concerns; 49 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 51. • Creation of Provincial Gender Network 6. Forging of partnership with stakehold- (Pro-GenderNet) composed of lady legisla- ers. tors, heads of offices, faith-based organiza- • VAWC partnerships with PLAN Philip- tions, and educators; pines, Oikos, Perfetta; • Creation of Gender Champions in • MOVE partnerships with PLAN, Philip- Media; pine National Police (PNP), Bureau of Jail • Formation of Men Opposed to Violence Management and Penology (BJMP) and Everywhere (MOVE) local chapters; other government organizations, includ- 2. Steady GAD allocation in the LGUs. ing provincial, municipal and barangay 3. Increasing number of clients availing officials; of Violence Against Women and Children • Partnership with media practitioners (VAWC) center services (3 VAWC centers highlighting reproductive health discussions in the 3 pilot areas, Provincial Crisis Center in radio programs. and Provincial Women and Child Protection Unit). C. CHALLENGES AND PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 4. Trained 19 service providers of VAW composed of 10 Municipal Social Welfare The following are the challenges being and Development Office (MSWDOs), two faced by the government and priorities social workers, three house parents, four for action in terms of achieving the Goal Women and Child Protection Unit (WCPU) 3 targets: staff (doctor, medical social worker, police 1. To eliminate the disparity of the 0.9 ratio officer, houseparent). of girls to boys in elementary education. 5. Continued operation of VAWC centers 2. To eliminate the disparity of the 1.1 ratio and other similar institutions while adhering of girls to boys in secondary and tertiary to performance standards and protocol and levels of education. providing services such as psychosocial 3. To eliminate the disparity of the 0.9 care, medical health, protection and safety, ratio of literate females to males aged clothing and personal items, paralegal/ 15-24 years. legal assistance, livelihood (Llorente), IEC/ 4. To strengthen GAD implementation Advocacy and even financial assistance to and integration in programs and services. defray schooling in formal and Non-Formal 5. To encourage more women participa- Education (NFE). tion in elective positions in government. 50 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 52. Goal 4: Reduce Child Mortality A. STATUS live and the quality of healthcare that are available and accessible to them. The Target 4A. Reduce by two-thirds, higher the proportion of deaths, the lesser between 1990 and 2015, the under-five the quality of healthcare. mortality rate Of the 45,345 children with ages 0-5 Proportion of Children Aged 0 to Less Than 5 Years years, 410 (0.9%) died, according to the Old Who Died CBMS survey. There was a slightly higher proportion of male (1.0%) than female The survival of very young children (0.8%) deaths. The proportion of deaths in indicates the social, economic and the urban areas (0.9%) was much higher environmental conditions in which they than in the rural areas (0.4%). Table 16. Magnitude and Proportion of of Children Aged 0 to Less than 5 Years Old Who Died, by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Eastern Samar, 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 51 51 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 53. Map 16. Proportion of Children Aged 0 to Less Than 5 Years Old Who Died with zero deaths was in Mercedes. Twelve municipalities fell below the provincial average of 0.9 percent and 11 were beyond the average. The Provincial Health Office in 2006 reported that the five leading causes of under-five mortality per 1,000 live births were pneumonia, which accounted for 8.19, diarrhea (2.02), sepsis (1.12), congenital heart disease (0.79), and pre-maturity (0.79). Proportion of Infants Who Died Children aged 0 to less than one year old or infants who died consisted of 175 out of 6,945 (2.5%) of children of this age. There were a higher proportion of male deaths (2.8%) as compared to female deaths Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 (2.1%). The proportion for urban areas was higher (3.1%) than that for the rural area (2.3%). The highest proportion of children aged 0 to less than 5 years old who died was in The proportions of infants who died were Jipapad with 6.4 percent. This was followed highest in Jipapad (14.0%), Arteche (5.7%), by Maydolong (1.8%), Arteche (1.7%), and San Julian (5.7%), and Maydolong (5.5%). Balangkayan (1.5%). The lowest propor- These were followed by fifteen (15 munici- tions were in General MacArthur, Taft and palities with proportions ranging from 0.4 Sulat with 0.3 percent deaths. The rates for percent to 4.7 percent. The municipalities of the rest of the 15 municipalities ranged from Maslog, Mercedes, Sulat, and Taft had no 0.4 percent to 1.3 percent. The municipality infant deaths during the period. Table 17. Magnitude and Proportion of Infants Who Died, by Sex and by Urban /Rural, Eastern Samar, 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 52 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 54. Twelve municipalities and Map 17. Proportion of Infants Who Died one city had proportions below the provincial average of 2.5 percent while 10 other municipalities had higher proportions. The leading causes of infant mortality per 1,000 live births were pneumo- nia (6.06), diarrheal diseases (1.23), sepsis neonatorum (1.23), neonatal death (1.01) and pre-maturity (0.67). Proportion of Children Aged One to Less Than Five Years Old Who Died There were 38,400 children aged one to less than five years old. Of these, 245 (0.6%) died. Both males and females had the same Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 proportion of 0.6 percent. The proportion of deaths was higher in the rural (0.7%) than Map 18. Proportion of Children Aged 1 to Less than Five Years Old Who Died in the urban areas (0.5%). The municipalities of Jipapad (4.2%), Maslog (1.5%), and Dolores (1.4%) had the highest proportions of deaths of children aged one to less than five years old. Eighteen (18) munici- palities had proportions which ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 percent. Hernani and Mercedes had no deaths of this age level during this period. Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 53 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 55. Table 18. Magnitude and Proportion of Children Aged 1 to Less than 5 Years Old Who Died, by Sex and by Urban/Rural, Eastern Samar, 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 Twelve of the municipalities and one Expanded Program for Immunization city had proportions below the provincial On the overall, the immunization coverage average of 0.6 percent. Ten were above of the province has been consistently over this average while Can-avid was at par with 90 percent for the past five years, although such province-wide percentage. some municipalities still have immunization coverage below 85 percent. The delivery of immunization services to the community has greatly been strengthened through the B. CURRENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS Reaching Every Barangay (REB) Strategy, where missed children are identified and Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses tracked through data analysis. Strategies All Rural Health Units in the province are to reach every child in every barangay such managing childhood illnesses using the as catch-up immunizations are conducted Integrated Management for Childhood to make sure that all eligible children are Illness (IMCI) approach. This approach given the necessary immunizations before consists of comprehensive evidenced- they reach one year of age. Rapid Cover- based guidelines developed by the World age Assessments are then being done to Health Organization (WHO) to assess and validate results. classify childhood illnesses, thereby reduc- ing preventable deaths of children under This strategy is complemented by good five years old through early recognition of Cold Chain Management to ensure that signs, prompt treatment and referral to the the potency of the vaccines is maintained at appropriate health facility. Its implementa- the health facility; and by improved disease tion has been sustained in almost all of the surveillance activities. Rural Health Units (RHUs) since 2000 with regular mentoring and coaching from IMCI Breast Feeding Program supervisors/facilitators within the health Correct and adequate feeding practices facility. Training of health workers has also starting at birth are critical for the physi- been maintained through a shift to IMCI cal and mental development of a child. On-the-Job (OJT) training in 2004. On the Studies show that breastfeeding is the best other hand, the municipal LGU ensures that form of feeding during the first six months IMCI drugs such as antibiotics, antipyretics of life due to both health and economic and oral rehydrating solutions (ORESOL) reasons. The WHO recommends that are available at the health facility at all infants receive nothing but breast milk times. (exclusively breastfeeding) for the first six 54 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 56. months and continued breastfeeding until 1. Intensifying advocacy and health the age of two years. promotions at the community level; 2. Organization of breastfeeding support Breastfeeding is very common in the groups – peer-to-peer counseling is being province, as evidenced in the latest Nation- initiated and promoted in some pilot baran- al Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) gays; survey in 2008, which indicates that 91.6 3. Capacity building for breast feeding percent of children in Eastern Visayas in support groups and health workers the past five years have been breastfed. are on-going (trainings such as breast However, only 30.2 percent in Eastern feeding counseling, infant and young Samar (SR-MICS 2007) are exclusively child feeding practices, lactation breast-fed and on the average, children management training for hospital-based are breastfed only until age of 15 months health workers (NDHS 2008). 4. Monitoring the enforcement of the Milk code in health facilities. The downward trend in the exclusive breast- 5. Mother-baby friendly Hospitals Initia- feeding practice and in other incorrect feeding tives (MBFHI) which has been a require- practices has been noted. The following strate- ment in the Department of Health (DOH) gies to address this have been implemented: licensing of hospitals. 55 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 57. Essential newborn care C. CHALLENGES AND PRIORITIES FOR ACTION Although significant improvements have been made in child health globally, The following are the challenges govern- newborn mortality rates have changed ment faces and priorities for action in terms little. An estimated 34 out of every 1,000 of achieving the Goal 4 targets: babies born in developing countries die before they reach one month of age (Global 1. Improving infant and young child health eLearning, United States Agency for feeding practices at the community level International Development, USAID). WHO is a more sustainable way to address (2006) report revealed that “Of the 130 malnutrition. This includes improving the million babies born every year, about four breast feeding practices, particularly on the million die in the first four weeks of life – the exclusive breast feeding up to six months neonatal period" and "Three-quarters of and continued breast feeding until the child neonatal deaths occur in the first week of reaches two years of age. Organization life." Hence, achievement of the Millennium of breast feeding support groups in each Development Goal 4 (MDG-4) of reducing barangay is critical to the success of this under-five mortality by two-thirds by the program. year 2015 will require substantial reduction 2. Reducinge disparity of immunization in neonatal mortality. coverage by sustaining the “Reaching every child in every barangay” approach. However, in the province, newborn 3. Improving newborn care by institu- deaths are not efficiently reported when tionalizing the Essential Newborn Care compared to maternal deaths because the program in all health facilities (hospitals, neonatal death review has yet to be insti- rural health units, barangay health stations). tutionalized. Based on the study conducted 4. Ensuring the availability of low cost, by WHO (2009) in 51 big hospitals in the good quality, essential IMCI drugs in all country, a number of practices in essential health facilities at all times. newborn care need to be corrected. Hence, 5. Institutionalize the Neonatal Death , DOH and WHO came up with a new Review to identify preventable causes for protocol in newborn care that is now being implementation of appropriate response implemented in the province. strategies. 56 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 58. Goal 5: Improve Maternal Health the period 2005-2006. A higher proportion A. STATUS of deaths occurred in the rural (0.5%) rather than in the urban (0.3%) areas. Target 5.A: Reduce by three quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal The proportions of women deaths due to mortality ratio pregnancy-related causes were highest in Jipapad (1.8%), Llorente (1.3%), Arteche Proportion of Women Deaths Due to Pregnancy- (1.0%), and Quinapondan (1.0%). Those Related Causes ranging from 0.2 percent to 0.8 percent were registered by 10 municipalities. Nine With CBMS, maternal mortality is comput- other municipalities recorded no deaths due ed in terms of proportion of women deaths to pregnancy-related causes. due to pregnancy-related causes over the number of children less than one year old Two municipalities had the same propor- plus the number of women who died due tion as that of the province at 0.4 percent to pregnancy-related causes. There was a while nine fell below and twelve were above total of 31 (or 0.4%) maternal deaths during the provincial benchmark. 57 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 59. Table 19. Magnitude and Proportion of Women Deaths Due to Pregnancy-Related Causes, By Urban/Rural, Eastern Samar 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 Map 19. Proportion of Women Deaths Due to Pregnancy Related Causes Maternal deaths are deaths due to pregnancy and childbirth occurring during pregnancy or up to 42 days after delivery of the child. Recently, focus had been on deaths caused by direct causes such as hemorrhage (antepartum or postpar- tum), puerperal sepsis and obstructed labor. Indirect maternal deaths are those pre-existing conditions not related to pregnancy and childbirth such as anemia, heart conditions, and traumatic accidents. Hemorrhage from abruptio placenta, placenta previa and ruptured uterus remained the leading causes of maternal deaths in the province. The other causes were eclampsia and puerperal sepsis. There had not been much progress in the area of reproductive health in the Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 province and this may have contributed to the relatively high maternal deaths. The Sub-Regional Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (SR-MICS) conducted in 2007 by The CBMS report on maternal deaths is the NSO revealed that although eight out consistent with the results of the Maternal 10 women of reproductive age who gave Death Review of the province in 2005 birth were provided pre-natal care by and 2006. There were 22 and 17 deaths skilled personnel, only about three out of 10 reviewed for the year 2005 and 2006, deliveries were attended by skilled person- respectively. Of these, 60 percent to 70 nel. What is more alarming is the data that percent were caused by hemorrhage and showed that only two out of 10 deliveries 70 percent were still delivered at home and were in facilities as most of these women attended by traditional birth attendants had home deliveries. (TBA) or hilots. 58 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 60. Target 5.B: Achieve, by 2015, universal factors and solutions are identified, and access to reproductive health policy agreements between stakeholders are made at the end. These agreements Contraceptive Prevalence are being reviewed as to the status of implementation. Using a prescribed tool, Contraceptive prevalence is the percent- investigation of maternal deaths starts with age of couples using at least one method community interview and then traced to the of contraception, regardless of the method facility the patient was referred to. A health used. During the period 2005-2006, a total facility interview for both the rural health unit of 499 or 22.2 percent of couples were and the hospital (in case of hospital deaths) using at least one method of contraception. will be then be conducted. All those reported were coming from rural areas. There were none from the urban The MDR was initiated in the province by areas. UNICEF and DOH in 2000 and institutional- ized since then. It has evolved into MDRs in the Inter-Local Health Zones (ILHZs). B. CURRENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS Some municipalities conduct maternal death reviews even down to the barangay The causes of maternal deaths were level, discussing with barangay officials the related to the three–delay model: i.e., (1) avoidable factors and the interventions to Delay in seeking medical care; (2) Delay in address these and to improve community receiving adequate and appropriate care participation. Throughout the years, mater- at health facility; and (3) Delay in identify- nal death reviews have become part of the ing and reaching the appropriate level of health system and accomplished what they facility, hence, interventions and reforms were supposed to and even more. Reforms instituted throughout the years have been and interventions are all anchored on the focused in addressing the causes of these findings of the MDR. Finally, behavior three delays. change was noted not only in the commu- nity but in the health workers themselves1. Maternal Death Review Improving Access to Facility Based Deliveries: BEONC Maternal Death Review (MDR) is a forum where deaths from pregnancy- and child- By improving access to facility-based birth- related causes are reviewed. The deliveries or deliveries attended by skilled “road to death” or the chronological events birth attendants, through the Basic Essential leading to death are discussed, avoidable Obstetrics and Neonatal Care (BEONC), Table 20. Proportion of Couples Using Contraceptives 1 ( Mabulay, D. (2009). “Learning and Acting on Results”, MDR documentation for Eastern Samar experience initiated by UNICEF) 59 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 61. one can actually reduce the second and accredited for the Philhealth MNCP and third delay in the three-delay model. Mater- have been receiving reimbursements while nal death reviews through the years have the rest of the facilities are in the process consistently revealed that majority of the of complying with the requirements for maternal deaths were delivered by tradi- accreditation. tional birth attendants and done at home. Hence, MDRs had always encouraged Upgrading the health facilities is also deliveries in health facilities attended by complemented with local policy develop- skilled health professionals (doctor, nurse, ments. Recently, the Family Health Code and midwife). The Province-wide Invest- was passed at the provincial level and ment Plan for Health (PIPH) has included replicated in the municipalities. It includes interventions and reforms such as the policies on redefining the role of the tradi- renovation and construction of birthing huts tional birth attendants in safe motherhood in strategic barangays, which give priority and newborn care, mandatory postpartum to the Geographically Isolated and Disad- visits of midwives on the immediate 24-48 vantaged Areas (GIDA). This is funded by hours after delivery for those who gave birth the European Union/Commission and the at home. This is so as to address the findings DOH Facility Enhancement Program. in the MDR that maternal deaths occur in the first two days postpartum. In 2009, as one of the pilot sites, the province received funding from the Joint Organization of Women’s Health Team Program on Maternal and Neonatal Health (WHT) in every barangay was done in (JPMNH) to rapidly reduce maternal and 2008. The WHT are tasked to find pregnant neonatal deaths. Three UN agencies: women in their barangay, track pregnancy, UNFPA, UNICEF and WHO, in cooperation assist pregnant women in their birth and with the DOH, provided funds for capabili- ensure that these pregnant women will ty-building activities of health workers and have prenatal services and eventually for the equipment to make facility-based delivery in health facilities. They also make deliveries possible. To date, 18 of the 24 sure that health professionals, in case of rural health units have functional lying-in home-based deliveries, do postpartum clinics offering the BEONC. It has become care. They are also the ones who vigilantly the norm since a lot more health facilities report maternal deaths to make sure that (RHUs and Barangay Health Stations or all deaths are accounted for. BHS) are getting ready to provide BEONC services. To sustain their operations, these All these interventions have greatly facilities have applied for accreditation improved the proportion of pregnant for the Philhealth Maternity and Newborn women delivering in health facilities from Care Package (MNCP), which provides 15 percent in 2006 to 40 percent in 2009, reimbursements for the drugs, medicines, and deliveries attended by skilled health supplies and incentives for the healthcare professionals from 40 percent in 2006 to provider. Fourteen RHUs have in fact been 78 percent in 2009 (LGU score card data). 60 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 62. Improving access to Basic Emergency Obstetrics These unmet needs refer to those women and Newborn Care (BEmONC) and Comprehensive of reproductive age and are interested in Emergency Obstetrics and Newborn Care (CEmONC) using at least one family planning method but are not currently using it. While it is Through the PIPH and the United Nations true that there are various reasons for such joint program, all 12 government hospitals non-action on the part of the patient, no and some RHUs have improved their criti- access to family planning services is the cal capacities to provide BEmONC and most common reason. CEmONC functions. This strategy aims to address the third cause of delay in the Provincial maternal death reviews through three-delay model. the years have consistently showed that 60 percent of maternal deaths occurred to those These facilities are the referral centers with four or more children already. Hence, for the RHU/BHS lying-in clinics in the the Provincial Health Office was really bent community, particularly for pregnancies with on addressing this problem. The conduct of complications. They also attend to the births the Community-Based Management Informa- that cannot be handled in the community. tion System (CBMIS) in all the municipalities To date, all the hospitals have BEmONC in 2009 has identified the real unmet needs functions while two hospitals (Eastern Samar for family planning. Municipalities are in the Provincial Hospital or ESPH in Borongan and process of addressing the identified family Felipe Abrigo Memorial Hospital or FAMH in planning unmet needs through outreach Guiuan) have CEmONC functions such as services. This has increased the contraceptive providing blood transfusions and caesarian prevalence rate from 27 percent in 2008 to operations. They comprise the second and 33 percent in 2009 (FHIS). This is still a long third tiers in the Maternal, Neonatal, Child way from the benchmark set by DOH but Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) service the province ensures that the health workers delivery network. will adhere to the four pillars of the family planning program. Strengthening the Health Referral system has also help reduce the second and third Community Involvement and Participation delay. A health referral manual is available in all health facilities, which include policies All the interventions and reforms and guidelines in the referral system as mentioned above will only be successful agreed upon by all stakeholders. Transpor- through strong community involvement and tation equipment for both land and river are support. The community should own the also being provided by LGUs and foreign issue on maternal deaths, as its long-term funding sources. effect does not only affect the health sector component of the community as a whole. Reduction of Unmet Needs for Family Planning This will address the first and second causes of delay of the three-delay model. Studies have shown that addressing the Family Planning unmet needs will reduce 20 Barangay Health Emergency Response percent to 30 percent of maternal deaths. Teams (BHERT) or Barangay Health Teams/ 61 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 63. Councils have been reorganized and their then expanded to Oras-arteche, Taft, role expanded to cover support for mater- and Guiuan. Today, the five ILHZs are in nal and newborn care services. Advocacy varying levels of functionality or maturity campaigns are ongoing to get their support but all are one in improving themselves in the following: to meet the criteria for functionality and a. Establishing a communication and developing their systems: transportation network in the barangay to facilitate the transport of pregnant mothers a. Integrated Health Referral System to the nearest lying-in facility; b. Health Information System b. Ensure that their support and involve- c. Drug Management System ment with the family in the birth and d. Integrated Health Planning emergency plan of the pregnant woman; e. Human Resource Development System c. Play an active role in other health- related activities such as the immunization, Each ILHZ has an ILHZ board composed family planning action sessions, and garan- of the governor as the chairman, and tisadong pambata program. mayors of the member municipalities, PHO, d. Assist the WHT in pregnancy tracking DOH, Philhealth, Technical management and in resolving any problems that may committee chairman, and nongovernmental arise. organization representative as its members. e. Allocate funding for WHT activities in The Technical Management Committee the community (TMC) is the ILHZ’s technical working arm. It is composed of the chief of hospital of Health promotions are geared toward the core referral center as its chairman. increasing community involvement and Members are the following: municipal participation. Information dissemination health officers of member municipalities, the using localized, focused behavior-changing chief of Technical section of the provincial communication materials are being intensi- health office, DOH, nongovernment organi- fied. With the interventions for the supply zation and Philhealth representatives. side now in place, the need to focus on the demand side generation is greatly empha- The ILHZ board convenes every quarter sized for the coming years so as to improve to discuss and resolve health-related issues the utilization of the lying-in facilities that are raised by the TMC, and formulates and now available in all parts of the province. approves resolutions/policies to be imple- mented in member municipalities of the Inter-Local Health Zones (ILHZ) ILHZ. The TMC meets each month to discuss and resolve issues and concerns raised by The province has five ILHZ: Oras- its members, at their level. It consolidates Arteche; Taft; Borongan; Guiuan, and issues to be referred to the ILHZ board. the Balagiqui. Organization of the ILHZ It spearheads the implementation of the was initially piloted in Balagiqui and ILHZ Work and Financial Plan and tracks its Borongan ILHZ with technical assistance progress. It facilitates and assists problems provided by DOH and German Technical that may arise from the local health board Cooperation (GTZ) in 2005-2006. It was of each municipality. 62 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 64. The ILHZ gets its resources from the 1 for the coming years. The ongoing percent of the 20-percent Development systems development within each ILHZ Fund contributed by each member munici- will ensure that all the interventions/ pal LGU and from the Provincial LGU called reforms will be sustained; the Common Health Trust Fund (CHTF). 2. Improving community participation The Technical Management Committee and involvement; hence, community formulates the work and financial plan that organizations, advocacy campaigns is approved by ILHZ board. All the reforms and behavioral-change communica- and interventions initiated will be sustained tion activities should be intensified through the functional ILHZ. In sum, the and made as one of the priorities for ILHZ is the hive of all the community-based action---e.g., the WHT and BHERT activities facilitating the achievement of the should be sustained; MDGs. 3. Improving delivery of health servic- es (RHUs and hospitals) by ensuring C. CHALLENGES AND PRIORITIES FOR ACTION that the quality of care is maintained through mentoring and supervision; The following are the challenges being 4. Ensuring the availability of drugs, faced by the government and priorities medicines and supplies in health facili- for action to achieve the Goal 5 targets: ties at all times through the improve- ment of the procurement system and the 1. Sustaining reforms and interven- implementation of other reforms such as tions initiated by development partners. the Revolving Fund for the hospitals, and This will be through the functional ILHZ, Income Retention, which requires strong which will be the hive of all activities political will for its success. 63 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 65. Sustained Blood Supply: A MotherÊs Lifeline in Llorente, Eastern Samar BACKGROUND / RATIONALE: • Hemorrhage is a major cause of maternal caused by hemorrhage deaths • Lobby for LGU • In 2007, a maternal death occurred due to support for mass blood hemorrhage and the patient was not transfused typing and donation with the exact amount of blood needed because • Tapping of Medi- there was no blood available at the Eastern Samar cal Technologist from Provincial Hospital. The mother died four days the PHO post partum • Establishment of • The incident motivated the RHU to initiate Blood Directory that a “walking blood bank” identifies potential • UNFPA gave P50,000 for the establishment blood donors in every household/barangay of a Blood Directory in Llorente • Donated the blood collection to the ESPH • RHU personnel visited every barangay to con- blood bank but reserved for the priority use of duct blood typing in order to establish a Blood mothers from Llorente. Directory • Preparatory steps were taken for an upcoming RESULTS: bloodletting campaign. A series of information • Reduced number of maternal deaths attrib- campaigns were conducted for LGU employees, uted to hemorrhage high school students, the SK Federation and other • Increased couple’s awareness about the danger youth organizations. Through the request of the signs of high-risk pregnancy MHO, the parish priest announced the activity • Availability of blood for patients from Llor- during a Sunday holy mass. ente at the ESPH • Letters and IEC materials were sent to pos- • RHU will establish Blood Council and Ba- sible donors – 80% of the donors were members rangay Blood Councils of the AFP and 20% were from LGU employees, • Updating of Blood Directory RHU staff and the youth. • Conduct of bloodletting on a regular basis OBJECTIVE: LESSONS LEARNED: • To reduce the number of maternal deaths due • Advocacy is a very important tool in catalyz- to hemorrhage ing community support • LGU support is crucial in implementing in- KEY FEATURES: novative programs/strategies • Conduct of community meetings to orient • A minimum amount can be optimized by couples about maternal deaths especially those mobilizing widespread public support 64 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 66. Goal 6: Combat HIV/ AIDS, Malaria and Other Diseases individuals in the province in 2006, with A. STATUS more males than females dying of the disease. There was a higher death rate Target 6.C: Have halted by 2015 and related to tuberculosis in the rural areas begun to reverse the incidence of malaria (about 41 per 100,000) as compared to and other major diseases those in the urban areas (about 13 per 100,000). Prevalence of Tuberculosis The municipalities with the highest death Tuberculosis was the cause of death of rates (i.e., per 100,000) associated with 126 (or about 33 per 100,000 population) tuberculosis were Arteche (80), Hernani Table 21. Death Rates Associated with Tuberculosis, by Sex and by Urban Rural, Eastern Samar 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 65 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 67. (78), Sulat (68), Balangiga (67), and Map 20. Prevalence and Death Rates Associated with Tuberculosis Jipapad (57). Mercedes and Maslog had no (0) deaths associated with the disease. Endemic Diseases of the Province The province has the second highest prevalence in filariasis, with microfilaria rate of 7/1000 population and the highest clinical rate for filariasis in the region. Thus, the WHO had recommended mass treatment for the province. Likewise, 11 out of 23 municipalities are endemic for schistosomiasis. There have also been cases of rabies in six out of the 23 municipalities for the past five years. Rising cases of dengue has been noted in some municipalities, with several outbreaks noted in 2009. On the other hand, in 2007, the province has been declared Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 as a “Malaria-Free” province and has maintained the status since then. the Waray tukob (zero bites) program have B. CURRENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS been implemented since 2009. This helped to increase the mass treatment coverage Mass Treatment Strategy: to more than 85 percent. Such steps aim to a. Filariasis eliminate the disease in the next two years. The WHO recommended mass treatment b. Schistosomiasis with Diethyl Carbamazole (DEC), the drug of choice, to 95 percent of the population Mass treatment with Praziquantel, regardless of whether they have the infec- the drug of choice, is being done in the tion or not. Diethyl Carabamzole is said to schistosomiasis-endemic municipalities reduce the microfilaria, the infective stage of of Arteche, Jipapad, Maslog, Oras, filaria worm by 99 percent, thereby breaking Dolores, Can-avid, Taft, Sulat, San Julian, the cycle of infection. This is conducted once Borongan, and Maydolong. Although the a year for a period of five consecutive years. mass treatment strategy was initiated few However, for the province, this has been years ago, it gave a dismal average of 15 extended to several years because of the percent coverage vis-a-vis the target of 85 discouraging results of the random survey percent coverage before 2009. However, conducted in 2006 and 2009. Reasons after the launch and implementation of for these results have been identified and the Waray tukob strategy, this increased discussed. Strategies to address this such as the mass treatment coverage from 2,000 66 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 68. households to 80,000 households, or from facility; Regular and uninterrupted supply 15 percent to 55 percent of the popula- of drugs; Good recording and reporting tion. This strategy also complemented system; and Available Treatment partner other measures such as: improving the who will directly observe as the patient community’s behavior and healthcare takes the anti-tuberculosis drugs within practices; and increasing households’ the prescribed time. access to sanitary toilet and sustaining this through the implementation of the The implementation of this program Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS), has been sustained throughout the years where the community is taught a “disgust with the cure rate at over 85 percent in to open-defecation” mindset. This is more almost all the health facilities. Recent sustainable since it requires community developments include the private-public involvement and participation. mixed DOTS; the creation of a functional tuberculosis diagnostic committee (TBDC) Waray Tukob Strategy for the smear negative cases; and the Philhealth accreditation of the health facil- Waray Tukob is a comprehensive ity for the Tuberculosis-DOTS Package campaign against all endemic diseases where treatments are reimbursed as in the province, namely: filariasis, schis- incentives for health workers, particularly tosomiasis, rabies, and dengue. It also the treatment partners. To date, 18 of the includes those diseases not caused by 24 RHUs are accredited for the Philhealth bites such as tuberculosis and leprosy. Tuberculosis-DOTS package. This is one of the Disease-Free Zone initia- tives implemented under the PIPH, which Anti-Rabies Program is spearheaded by leaders from the five All municipalities have passed their Rabies ILHZs. It puts together all the advocacy Ordinance, which includes the promotion of campaign activities with strong commu- the responsible pet ownership. However, nity participation. Mass treatment activi- the problem lies in the enforcement or ties, policy development and advocacy implementation of the ordinance. Few activities are planned and implemented municipalities have established a functional together with other stakeholders. task force while dog vaccination coverage is very low. On the other hand, animal bite Tuberculosis DOTS Program treatment centers (ABTC) have been estab- lished in the core referral centers of each DOTS, which stands for Directly ILHZs, thereby improving the management Observed Treatment for Short Course of dog bite cases. Human anti-rabies Chemotherapy, has been implemented in vaccines are being purchased using the the province since 2001. It has five essen- Common Health Trust Fund (CHTF) of each tial components: Strong political support; ILHZ. Meanwhile, the Waray Tukob strat- Passive case finding which is being egy will focus on an advocacy campaign done through direct sputum microscopy for responsible pet ownership and the hence, the vital presence of microscopist/ organization of functional task forces at the medical technology in each of the health community level. 67 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 69. Dengue Control Program 1. Sustaining the mass treatment strategy for filariasis and schistosomiasis to be able A strengthened epidemiologic and to eliminate these endemic diseases in the disease surveillance system in the province province; has greatly improved the reporting and 2. Intensifying the advocacy for the imple- early response toward dengue. The Waray mentation of the Rabies Ordinance and Tukob strategy includes organizing Dengue increasing the awareness of the community Brigades in each barangay. on responsible pet ownership to achieve a rabies-free province; C. CHALLENGES AND PRIORITIES FOR ACTION 3. Strengthening the Epidemiologic and Disease Surveillance System in the province The following are the challenges being to include the Disaster and Outbreak faced by the government and priorities response; for action so as to achieve the Goal 6 4. Gathering data on HIV/AIDS incidence targets: in the province. PeopleÊs Empowerment Saves One (PESO) for Health: A HEALTHCARE FINANCING SCHEME Saving for health was usually rated poor people a better alternative to indigence and low by poor families in their order all its negative ramifications -- cycle of debts, of priorities. Money was usually set inability to access hospital services, feelings of aside for education and other needs, despair and powerlessness, etc. It was initiated by but not for health. The prevailing the Provincial Health Office to enable the poor to thinking was that the government access hospital services while participating in car- had the sole responsibility for provid- ing for their own health. By becoming members of ing healthcare and that people were the PESO for Health and contributing their own merely recipients of this service. This money, they have gradually realized that their own attitude usually rendered a poor fam- health is valuable hence, has a cost attached to it. ily helpless in times of illnesses and In the process, the members have gained a sense medical emergencies. With no other available of their own dignity and self-worth. They have resources, the only option was to borrow money taken pride in belonging to a project that has been at a high interest when hospitalization could no able to provide for their hospitalization needs and longer be postponed. On the other hand, the Lo- has earned them recognition from the hospital cal Government Units (LGUs), especially during and PHO staff. They have been freed from total the immediate post-devolution period, lacked the dependency and helplessness and have shaken off resources to provide for all of the people’s hospi- the stigma attached to being “charity patients”. talization needs. Hospital staff, medical supplies, drugs and medicines were inadequate. . The vision of the project is to ensure quality, equitable, accessible and affordable health care to The PESO for Health, acronym for People’s each beneficiary by the year 2020, in partnership Empowerment Saves One for Health, has offered with the LGUs and other sectors. Its purpose is 68 68 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 70. to help improve access to health care services by providing expanded health care coverage to every household member. Its specific objectives are: 1) To strengthen access to health care services through community participation and inter-dis- ciplinary approaches; 2) To install a health financ- ing scheme for the people’s hospitalization needs; 3) To sustain the curative and preventive care projects and services through “cooperativism.” This was initially implemented in the munici- pality of Borongan and expanded in 2005 to the four other municipalities composing the inter- local health zone (ILHZ) namely, San Julian, Maydolong, Balangkayan and Llorente. The project membership has grown from 40 house- holds and 186 individuals to 1,586 households and 5,884 individuals, achieving a 23% increase in its membership per year. It has also benefited a total of 161 members. The original scheme of the project is patterned the Philippines and the Eastern Samar Provin- after the original PESO for Health project cial Health Office Employees’ Association (gain- implemented in Guihulngan, Negros Oriental. ing yearly dividends of more than P25,000.00). Modifications in the policies and benefit packages However, the Treasurer maintains a petty cash of were incorporated over the years. Members pay ten thousand (P10,000.00) to ensure that money a registration fee of P20.00 per household and a is available whenever the members need it. The monthly fee of P2.00 per individual member or dividends are used to finance the project operating a total of P24.00 per year. In exchange, a mem- costs such as meetings. In 2007, the project started ber is given a membership card and is entitled to providing the Treasurer with incentives amounting P400.00 worth of medicines, whenever he/she is to 10% of the dividends earned. hospitalized. In cases when drugs are out of stock in the hospital, members are given the P400.00 so The most visible result of the project is the they can buy medicines from drugstores outside. continued support and participation that it en- During week-ends and whenever the hospital joys from the members. Members take pride in has no supply of drugs and medicines, members being part of a project that has earned them ac- can get medicines from specified drugstores with cess to a vital health service and recognition from which the management team has made arrange- the Provincial Health Office and hospital staff. ments. Consequently, they have gained dignity, a sense of self-worth and appreciation of the value of their Total funds as of April 2008, mostly from mem- own health. Furthermore, hospital and PHO staff bers’ contributions, amount to P203, 585.87. These have become more responsive to the needs of the have been deposited at the Development Bank of members seeking hospitalization 69 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 71. Goal 7: Ensure Environmental Sustainability A. STATUS Map 21. Proportion of Land Area Covered by Forest Target 7.A: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programs and reverse the loss of environmental resources Forests are necessary for preserving a stable and habitable environment. Before the presidential proclamation of the total log ban, Eastern Samar sustained some damages as a result of extensive deforesta- tion in the past. Hence, the proportion of land area covered by forest in the province has decreased to 53.19 percent. The munici- palities with very low forest area coverage were Salcedo (9.6%), Mercedes (10.7%), Taft (13.7%), and Can-avid (24.4%). On the other hand, the municipalities Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 70 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 72. with the highest forest coverage were Map 22. Proportion of Population with Access to Safe drinking Water Llorente (88.0%), Maydolong (82.5%), Oras (81.0%), Maslog (78.3%), Borongan City (77.9%), Jipapad (77.3%), and Guiuan (75.0%). Dolores did not indicate any data on forest coverage. There are eight munici- palities with a land area covered by forest that were less than the provincial average of 53.19 percent while 14 had bigger forest cover than the average. Target 7.C: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation Access to Safe Drinking Water The CBMS indicator, Proportion of Population with Access to Safe Water Supply, includes safe water supply from community water systems, deep well and Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 artesian wells whether for own use or shared with other households. and Balangkayan (91.5%) had the highest proportions of the population with access to Of the total population, 303,437 or 78.7 safe drinking water. These were followed by percent had access to safe drinking water. 15 municipalities with proportions ranging Females (78.9%) had a slightly higher propor- from 70 percent to 88.7 percent. The lowest tion than males (78.4%). Households in the were Giporlos (34.3%), Sulat (59.3%), and urban areas (86.0%) had a higher proportion Balangiga (60.9%). Maslog had 0 percent than those in the rural areas (75.9%). access to safe drinking water. Compared to the provincial average of 78.7 percent, The municipalities of Lawaan (97.1%), there were 12 municipalities that had higher Arteche (93.4%), Maydolong (93.4%), proportions and 11 that were lower. Table 22. Magnitude and Proportion of Households/Population with Access to Safe Drinking Water, by Sex and by Urban Rural, Eastern Samar, 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 71 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 73. Access to Sanitary Toilet Facilities Map 23. Proportion of Population With Access to Sanitary Toilet Facility Considered sanitary toilet facilities are water-sealed flush to sewerage system or septic tank and closed pit, whether for own use or share with other households. The CBMS survey revealed that only 69.2 percent, or 55,384 of households, had access to sanitary toilet facilities. There was a higher percentage of access by urban (79.2%) households as compared with rural households (65.2%). The proportion of the population with access to sanitary toilets was almost comparable with that of the households, which was 69.5 percent. Females had a higher percentage (70.3%) of accessibility than males (68.7%). The municipality of Maslog had the lowest percentage (44%) of accessibility Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 to sanitary toilet facilities with majority of its population not having access to toilets. Other municipalities with percentages Hernani with proportions of 85.1 percent, below 60 were Jipapad (53.8%), Arteche 82.3 percent, and 81.7 percent, respec- (56.6%), Guiuan (57.1%), and Dolores tively. Fourteen municipalities had higher (57.2%). Accessibility to sanitary toilet than the provincial average of 69.5 percent facilities was high in Maydolong, Sulat, and while nine fell below this figure. Table 23. Magnitude and Proportion of Households/Population with Access to Sanitary Toilet Facilityfe Drinking Water, by Sex and, by Urban Rural, Eastern Samar, 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 72 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 74. Target 7.D: By 2020, to have Map 24. Proportion of Population Who are Informal Settlers achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers Proportion of Households/Population Who Are Informal Settlers Informal settlers are those occupying houses and/or lots without permission of owner. A total of 2,234 (or 2.8%) households were informal settlers at the time of survey. There is a slightly higher percentage of informal settlers in the urban (2.9%) than in the rural (2.8%) areas. The proportion of the population who were informal settlers was at 2.9 percent with males having a higher percentage (2.9%) than females (2.8%). Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 The neighboring towns of Hernani (6.1%), General MacArthur (5.7%), Llorente (5.6%), and Giporlos (5.4%) Proportion of Households/Population had the highest proportions of the Who Are Living in Makeshift Housing population who were informal settlers. There were more municipalities that Those living in makeshift housing have had lower proportions than the provin- either walls or roofs that are improvised or cial average of 2.9 percent. temporary. A total of 1,848 households or 2.3 Table 24. Magnitude and Proportion of Households/Population Who Are Informal Settlers, by Sex and by Urban Rural, Eastern Samar, 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 Table 25. Magnitude and Proportion of Households/Population who are Living in Makeshift Housing by Sex and by Urban Rural, Eastern Samar, 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 73 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 75. percent in the province lived in makeshift housing. Map 25. Proportion of Population Who are Living in Makeshift Housing There was a higher percentage of these dwell- ers in the urban (2.5%) rather than in the rural (2.2%) areas. A total of 8,758 persons (or 2.3% of the population) in the province were living in makeshift housing. There was a higher proportion of males (2.3%) than females (2.2%) who lived in such type of housing. The highest proportion of population who lived in makeshift housing was concentrated in the municipalities of Can-avid (7.2%), Maslog (4.9%), and Arteche (4.6%). Those with the lowest proportions were in Jipapad (0.6%), Hernani (0.7%), and Sulat (0.8%). Other munici- palities fell within the range of 1.1 to 3.6 percent. There are more municipalities that fell below the provincial percentage of 2.3, indicating that this was not widespread. Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 Proportion of Households/Population with Inadequate Living Conditions Households or population with inadequate Map 26. Proportion of Population Living in Inadequate Living Conditions living conditions are those which do not have safe drinking water or sanitary toilet facilities, or living in makeshift housing or no security of tenure. Of the total households, 35,931 (or 44.9%) had inadequate living conditions, with the rural areas having a higher proportion (49.4%) compared to those in the urban areas (34.1%). In terms of the population, a total of 173,758 (45.0%) were living in inadequate conditions. Males had a higher percentage (45.76%) than the females (44.23%). All or 100 percent of the members of the popula- tion of the municipality of Maslog were living in inadequate living conditions. This is so because the CBMS survey indicates that all households in Maslog had no access to safe drinking water from the community water system, deep well or artesian well. Meanwhile, the municipality of 74 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 76. Table 26. Magnitude and Proportion of Households / Population Living in Inadequate Living Conditions, by Sex and by Urban Rural, Eastern Samar, 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 Giporlos had the next highest proportion of proclamation of watershed reservation areas the population living in inadequate condi- and advocacy on climate change mitigation and tions at 75.8 percent. A closer look at the adaptation, and solid waste management. CBMS survey result indicates that a large portion of the population or 65.7 percent Samar Island Biodiversity Project (SIBP) had no access to safe drinking water and The project was designed to establish and 32.0 percent had no access to a sanitary support the Samar Island National Park (SINP). toilet facility. The SINP was established by Presidential procla- mation 422 in 2003 as the largest terrestrial In six other municipalities, majority were Protected Area in the Philippines. The park covers living in inadequate living conditions. 333,000 hectares of forests and an additional These were in Balangiga (59.4%), Jipapad 125,400 hectares of buffer zone encompassing 36 (58.0%), Dolores (54.8%), Can-avid municipalities and one city of Samar Island (19 of 53.0%), Guiuan (52.7%), Sulat (52.4%), which are in Eastern Samar). The project includes and Arteche (50.6%). The inaccessibility of strict biodiversity protection and the sustainable either safe water or sanitary toilet facilities use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs). or both were the major reasons for their inadequate living conditions. Those with The SINP is being managed by the Protected the lowest proportions were in Maydolong Area Management Board (PAMB), a multisec- 22.1%), Lawaan (24.5%), Balangkayan toral body composed of representatives of LGUs, (27.9%), and Borongan (33.7%). Other NGAs, POs, nongovernmental organizations, municipalities ranged from 36 percent to and the DENR responsible for policy formulation 46.6 percent. An equal number of munici- and general administration of the protected area. palities fell below and above the provincial average of 45.76 percent with Mercedes The following are the four major programs being at par. being implemented in the management of SINP: • Biodiversity management program B. CURRENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS • Community outreach program • Community-based eco-tourism program Forest Management Services • Stakeholder participation and management This program is a service of the Provincial program Environment and Natural Resources Office (PENRO), which includes identification of Community-Based Forest Management Program (CBFM) production forest, distribution of seedlings As a national strategy to ensure sustainable for private plantation establishment, development, the Community-Based Forest reforestation projects, maintenance and Management Program (CBFM) was designed protection of established plantations, forest to uplift the socio-economic condition of upland protection and confiscation of lumber, farmers and likewise encourage them to become 75 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 77. partners in the development and manage- constructed in three municipalities: Maslog ment of the country’s natural resources. In (1), Jipapad (2), and Arteche (2). In terms the province, this involves area development of sanitation, 591 sanitary toilets were of denuded forest lands by planting forest constructed to benefit 100 households in trees intercropped with cash crops so as to Arteche, 135 in Jipapad, and 356 in Maslog. provide additional income to upland farmers of Borongan, Hernani, Salcedo, Oras, and Informal Settlers Can-avid while serving as partners in the devel- Informal settling of a small portion of the opment and management of the environment population is not as widespread a problem and natural resources. as their inaccessibility to water and sanitary toilet facilities. Hence, the focus of inter- Coastal Resource Management Project (CRMP) – ventions from the provincial government Matarinao Bay Management Project (MBMP) has been in providing water and sanitary This coastal project is a joint undertaking of toilet facilities. There is, too, a faith-based the LGUs of Salcedo, Quinapondan, General organization which has been providing MacArthur, and Hernani. The parties aim houses in some areas of the province. The toward protecting, rehabilitating and enhanc- Gawad Kalinga program of the Couples ing the productivity of their natural resources for Christ envisions a slum-free, squat- through the implementation of laws and the ter–free Philippines by providing land for Matarinao Bay Management Council (MBMC) the landless, homes for the homeless, food Plan for sustainable development. The project for the hungry, and as a result, dignity and has resulted in decreased incidence of illegal peace for every Filipino.. fishing, increased awareness on natural resource protection and the formulation of a C. CHALLENGES AND PRIORITIES FOR ACTION unified ordinance in fishing activities. The following are the challenges being faced by the government and priorities for Water and Sanitation Program action to achieve the Goal 7 targets: The provincial government’s implementation 1. Full Implementation of Provincial of the ADB-assisted Rural Water Supply and Environment Code; Sanitation Project and the UNICEF-assisted 2. Focus on Climate Change Mitigation Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) issues and concerns; program resulted in the construction of Level 3. Provision of water facilities to house- II water facilities in all municipalities. The holds having no access to potable water UNICEF WASH project either has completed (e.g., Maslog, 100%;Giporlos, 65.7%; or is undertaking construction, improvement Sulat, 40.7%); and development of 31 water and sanitation 4. Provision of sanitary toilet facilities to facilities in 20 barangays in nine municipalities households without access (e.g., Maslog, and in 12 elementary and high schools. 56%; Jipapad, 46.2%; Arteche, 43.4%); 5. People living in inadequate living With assistance from the Philippine National conditions (e.g., Maslog, 100%; Giporlos, Red Cross (PNRC), five water systems were 75.8%; Balangiga, 59.4%). 76 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 78. Goal 8: Develop a Global Partnership for Development A. STATUS cellphones. Urban areas (35.7%) have a higher proportion of households with Target 8. F: In cooperation with the cellphones compared to those in the rural private sector, make available the areas (15.9%). benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications Borongan City had the highest percent- age of households with cellphones at Proportion of Households with Cellphones 32.5 percent, followed by Mercedes with 31.2 percent. The far-flung municipalities Only a very small proportion, i.e., 21.7 of Maslog and Jipapad had the lowest percent, of households in the province has percentage with 1.8 percent and 3.8 Table 27. Magnitude and Proportion of Households with Cellphones, by Urban Rural, Eastern Samar, 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 77 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 79. Map 27. Proportion of Households with Cellphones Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 percent, respectively. Municipalities with Proportion of Households with Computers percentages less than 15 percent were Arteche (11.5%), San Policarpo (11.6%), Households with computers were still Giporlos (12.4%), and Dolores (14.7%). a rare occurrence with only 2.7 percent Others ranged from 15.8 percent to 28.9 of the households owning computers. percent. Only seven out of 23 municipalities Predictably, most of these were located had percentages higher than the provincial in urban (5.2%) rather than in rural average of 21.7 percent. (1.7%) areas. Table 28. Magnitude and Proportion of Households with Computers, by Urban Rural, Eastern Samar, 2005-2006 Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 78 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 80. Map 28. Proportion of Households with Computers Source: CBMS Survey 2005-2006 B. CURRENT POLICIES AND PROGRAMS of 23 municipalities have internet connec- tion: Balangiga, Guiuan, Maydolong, Information Technology Borongan, San Julian, and Can-avid. The provincial government implemented its computerization program that resulted in the construction of a provincial website, C. CHALLENGES AND PRIORITIES earning for the province the Best Regional FOR ACTION Website Award (Provincial Category) in October 2007 from the Regional Informa- The following are the challenges being tion Technology and E-Commerce Commit- faced by the government and priorities tee and National Computer Center. It also for action to achieve the Goal 7 targets: enhanced the IT literacy and capability of 1. Improvement of information and commu- the provincial government employees. nication technology in all municipalities, especially those without internet connections; The provincial capitol premises are Wi-Fi 2. Full implementation of the computer- zones for up to a 200-meter radius. Six out ization program for the whole province. 79 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 81. Part 3. Meeting the 2015 Chalenge A. Priority Program and Policy Responses The province’s pace of development The province has achieved modest has been slow and uneven across munici- success in some areas of human develop- palities. The vicious cycle of poverty and ment. Based on the Field Health Service underdevelopment is visible in the province. Information System (FHSIS) reports from Low income, poor health and nutrition, the Provincial Health Office, both infant and low level of education, and low standard mortality rates have gone down, malnutri- of living are the tangible manifestations of tion prevalence has been reduced, access underdevelopment and deprivation among to potable water and sanitary toilet facilities a big chunk of the population. has improved, and basic education perfor- mance indicators are at par with the rest of The major cause of poverty in Eastern the provinces in the country. Samar is the relatively underdeveloped and stagnant economy. This, to a large extent, According to the NSCB, poverty incidence accounts for the lack of/or insufficiency of has also been reduced to 33.9 percent in income of the poor families in the province. 2003 from 45.9 percent in 2000, enabling it The province’s economy is dominated by to move out of the “Club 20” of the poorest low-income primary economic activities provinces in the country. However, the 2006 such as agriculture, fisheries, and forestry. CBMS survey showed that the province had More than half of the province’s poor have 50,772 households (or 63.7%) living below household heads who are engaged in the poverty threshold. This means that agriculture. 268,104 persons (69.5%) of the popula- tion are classified as poor. Those in the The low productivity of agricultural lands rural areas had a higher poverty incidence especially rice fields and coconut farms on (69.3%) than those in the urban areas which majority of the population are depen- (50.0%) in 2006. dent for their living is a cause for alarm. This 80 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 82. situation has serious implications on the the negative effect on the province’s food income earning capacities of farmers and security, which in turn affects the health of fishermen who comprise the bigger portion the people. Based on nutritional standards of the population. and estimated food requirements, Eastern Samar suffers deficits in most commodities Low agricultural/fishery production is, in such as rice, vegetables, fruits, beef, and turn, caused by the lack of appropriate and eggs. Only rootcrops and fish are produced adequate inputs such as seeds, feeds, and in excess of the dietary requirements of the technology that is beyond the reach of small province. farmers, fishermen, and livestock producers due to lack of capital. The depletion and A substantial proportion of the population degradation of the environment, especially lives without the benefit of the minimum marine and fishery resources, have negative basic facilities and services. As shown in the implications on production levels. This is latest CBMS survey, around 30.7 percent further aggravated by the inefficient post- of households do not have sanitary toilet harvest and marketing systems. access while a significant 21.1 percent of households have no access to safe water. A more direct result of the relatively poor As of 2007, 46 percent of households did performance of the agriculture sector is not yet enjoy the benefit of electricity. 81 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 83. Another cause for concern is the degra- the national highway and improving and dation of the environment due to uncon- expanding seaports and airports, irrigation trolled extraction and exploitation of facilities, farm-to-market roads, power and natural resources through such activities as communication systems; quarrying, mining, deforestation and other 5. The need to improve the condition of abusive practices. This is compounded by the environment; an inadequate solid waste management 6. The need to provide the poor greater system in most parts of the province. access to specialized credit sources and social preparation to become bankable; Against this backdrop, some segments of 7. The need to broaden the ownership the population are left with no choice but to base of local economies by organizing move or migrate as workers either in other and promoting cooperatives, livelihood areas of the country or overseas. Due to associations and collective enterprises and their low skills and educational qualifica- linking both government and the business tions, however, majority of them end up as sector for financial, technical, and market- domestic helpers in the country’s big cities ing assistance. or abroad. At the same time, outmigration also drains out the province of its skilled manpower and leaves a generally weak B. Financing the MDGs human resource base. The predominance of negative and counterproductive values The major development concerns of the among a big segment of the population and provincial government have always been the perceived presence of too much politics in line with the MDGs, particularly on and corruption in government further deter healthcare, education and poverty eradi- the institution of positive change in Eastern cation. However, these concerns require Samar. substantial resources which the provincial government cannot adequately provide due Given the above development problems to its very limited financial resources. and issues, the province shall address the following development imperatives geared The major source of the province devel- toward the attainment of the MDGs: opment fund is the mandatory 20-percent 1. The need to invest in agricultural allocation from its internal revenue allot- development to secure food security; ment from the national government. In fact, 2. The need to shift to high-value crops, this fund comprises almost 97 percent of to diversify land usage and to move toward the province’s projected total income for agro-industrialization; 2010. Its locally generated income merely 3. The need to extensively render critical comprises 3 percent. This limited income social services such as health, education, of the province is fortunately augmented housing, potable water and sanitation, and by overseas development assistance from social welfare; UNICEF, UNFPA, WHO, and EC. 4. The need to invest in infrastructure and facilities that could bring the province to For the calendar year 2010, the the mainstream such as by rehabilitating province’s 20-percent Development Fund 82 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 84. amounting to P126 million reflected the Eastern Samar will be fully operationalized following allocation: in 2011-2016. Amount Percent Seven municipalities of the province will also be covered by the Pantawid Pamily- General Public Services: P22,665,000.00 17.99% ang Pilipino Program of the Department Social Services: P50,980,000.00 40.46% of Social Welfare and Development (4Ps). Economic Services: P 8,900,000.00 7.06% Support Infrastructure: P21,500,000.00 17.06% C. Monitoring Progress Toward the Attain- ment of the MDGs The biggest allocation of 40.46 percent on social services includes programs, projects The Provincial Planning and Develop- and activities primarily on health and nutri- ment Office, in cooperation with other tion, education, water and sanitation, and stakeholders, has been conducting regular sports development. Economic services assessment of the provincial progress vis-a- are focused on agricultural and fisher- vis the MDGs. In tracking the progress, ies development, livestock development, the major sources of data were (1) NSCB livelihood development, tourism, and trade for poverty and subsistence incidence and commerce. The support infrastructure with baseline data as early as 1990 and includes development on land transporta- updated every three years; (2) the annually tion, power and energy and flood control. published BEIS for data for performance The general public services are support indicators in education; (3) FHSIS’s data activities that include initiatives in informa- on health indicators, which has consoli- tion technology, public finance, and peace dated province-wide annual data as well and order programs. as disaggregated data by municipality for select indicators; (4) NSO for demographic The grant for the health sector from EC data and others; and (5) CBMS for its through the DOH amounts to P500 million disaggregated data by municipality, sex for 2006-2010 in support of the Provincial and urban/rural updated every three years. Investment Plan for Health. The UNICEF The second update is already ongoing, with and UNFPA Sixth Country Program for the first CBMS results serving as baseline Children (CPC 6) for the current year, which data. The performance of the province is is for the welfare of children and women, compared to national and regional bench- amounts to P19.1 million and P3.86 million, marks whenever the data are available for respectively. The JPMNH for the Province of such comparative analysis. 83 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 85. Part 4. Conclusions and Recommendations This report presents the status of the Investment Promotion Program; Market province vis-à-vis the MDG targets, as well Development Program; Small- and Medium- as the challenges facing the government Industry Credit Program; and Eco-Tourism vis-a-vis the MDGs. The results highlight Development Program. which areas the government should priori- tize. As such, the following should be given 2. While only 13.8 percent experienced priorities if one were to achieve the MDG food shortage, the proportion of popula- targets. tion living below food threshold was high at 58.7 percent. This indicates that major- 1. Poverty presents the highest cause for ity are unable to meet the minimum food concern to the province. Poverty incidence needs. Hunger and malnutrition need to at 69.5 percent indicates that majority of the be addressed. One of the component population remains poor. How to provide strategies for agro-industrialization is opportunities for and support to increase productivity enhancement in agriculture family income is therefore the government’s and fishery through intensification and challenge. The Eastern Samar Provincial diversification. To optimize productive levels Development Physical and Framework Plan of agricultural and fishery resources, the (PDPFP) for 2010 to 2015 proposes to adopt government should provide adequate and strategies for economic development that timely production inputs such as appropri- will lessen reliance on primary economic ate technology, seeds, fertilizers, pre- and activities and gradually shift the focus to post-harvest facilities, high quality breed of secondary or tertiary ones, particularly on livestock and poultry, and fishing gears and agri-based industries and the develop- implements. This will target major food and ment and promotion of eco-tourism. Prior- industrial crops to satisfy food sufficiency ity programs will be Rice Self-Sufficiency and the raw material requirements of indus- Program; Agricultural Product Diversifica- try. tion and Intensification Program; Livestock and Poultry Production Program; Fishery 3. To address malnutrition, the province Production and Development Program; will continue to implement its Nutrition 84 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 86. Program. The program has two compo- 7. Reduction of maternal and child nents: micronutrient deficiencies, and deaths must be sustained through the Child protein energy malnutrition. The former Health Program and the Maternal Health seeks to prevent and virtually eliminate Program. The Child Health Program seeks deficiencies in iron, Vitamin A, and iodine. to reduce mortality rates of infant and those The latter is concerned with the gener- under-five years of age by implementing ally poor nutritional status of children projects such as immunization and the as indicated by low weight and stunted Integrated Management of Child Health growth. The major activities include the Illnesses (IMCI). following: (a) food production through bio-intensive gardening; (b) supplemental 8. The Maternal Health Program is feeding; (c) micronutrient supplementation; intended to improve direct services to (d) food fortification; (e) advocacy and mothers and reduce maternal mortality social mobilization and IEC development; and morbidity. Major components are: and (f) designation of full time municipal (a) upgrade and improvement of maternal nutrition action officers. health facilities in hospitals and rural health units; (b) training of health workers on the 4. In the area of health, diseases such management of obstetrical emergencies; as tuberculosis and other endemic diseases and (c) lactation management. such as filariasis, schistosomiasis, and dengue must be contained /controlled. 9. Provision of basic services such as water, sanitation, and adequate living 5. The Public Health Improvement conditions need to be addressed vis-à- Program aims to improve the delivery vis the need to ensure the protection and of public health services and thus help reduce mortality and morbid- ity cases. The major components include communicable diseases control, endemic diseases preven- tion and control, and prevention and control of lifestyle-related diseases. 6. The Field Facilities Upgrad- ing Program aims to make all the province’s Rural Health Units be Sentrong Sigla-certified and PhilHealth-accredited, and thus be able to offer improved health services. It also helps establish additional health stations in remote areas to complement the health services offered by hospitals and health centers in the poblacion. 85 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 87. sustainability of the environment and The incomplete elementary schools have natural resources through the Environment to be addressed as well so as to widen the Protection and Development Program and access to basic education. Other underlying Infrastructure and Utilities Program problems such as poverty can be addressed by poverty reduction measures intended for 10. More and better quality educational poor families. facilities for pre-school, elementary and high school students must be accessible 11. Information technology and commu- especially for those living in geographi- nication facilities need to be expanded cally isolated areas. In 2005-2006, only to include far-flung municipalities. Along 469 elementary schools provide services for with power development, this is important 597 barangays (78.6%) of the province. Of especially since part of the overall goal these, only 304 were complete elementary is to attract tourists and investors into the schools while 154 were incomplete elemen- province. tary or primary schools usually located in the small and hard-to-reach barangays. 12. The attainment of the MDG goals There were only 66 secondary schools and targets, however, depends largely and eight tertiary ones. This concern can on the political will to carry out the policy be addressed through the DepEd’s School directions and on provision of the resources Building Program and Multi-grade Program. in the operationalization of the policies. For 86 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 88. 2010, the Province of Eastern Samar has European Commission, and faith-based allocated 40.5 percent of its 20-percent donor agencies such as Compassion Development Fund to social services, International. The progress of the province particularly for programs, projects and vis-a-vis the MDGs will also be monitored activities on health and nutrition, education, using data from various sources such as the water and sanitation, and sports develop- National Statistical Coordination Board, ment. National Statistics Office, Department of Education, Department of the Interior For economic and support infrastructure, and Local Government, Department of 7.1 percent and 17.1 percent, respectively, the Environment and Natural Resources, have been allocated. Financial, material Provincial Health Office and others, using and technical resources are expected from administrative/monitoring tools such as local and foreign donors such as PLAN the CBMS, BEIS, FHSIS, Family Income Philippines, United Nations Children’s and Expenditure Survey (FIES) and Local Fund, United Nations Fund for Popula- Governance Performance Management tion Fund, United Nations Development System (LGPMS). Program, the World Health Organization, 87 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 89. EXPLANATORY TEXT A. Preparation of Provincial wit: “the most comprehensive and consistent Millennium Development Goals comparative subnational data (are) is at the (MDGs) Report Using CBMS Data regional level although this is simply an ad- ministrative level of government that has no 1. Background and Justification responsibilities for delivery of social services. More data (are) is gradually becoming avail- The availability of good statistics and the capacity of governments, able at the provincial level, but not at lower donors and international organizations to systematically levels which are at the frontline of efforts to measure, monitor and report on progress in all social and reduce poverty1.” economic spheres are at the heart of development policy and the achievement of the MDGs. In response, the Philippine Government has embarked on an initiative to localize the The Millennium Development Goals Report 2007 MDGs using the Community-Based Monitor- ing System (CBMS). In 2005, the National While progress toward the attainment of Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) issued the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Resolution No. 6 “recognizing and enjoining is systematically being measured, monitored support to the CBMS as a tool for strength- and reported at the national level, clearly, ening the statistical system at the local level there must be a parallel effort at the local level that will generate statistics for monitoring and to bring the MDGs into the mainstream of the evaluation of development plans, including local development agenda. the progress of the local governments in at- taining the Millennium Development Goals.” This is especially called for under decen- tralized regimes where local government Meanwhile, several approaches are being units (LGUs) are at the forefront of policy or carried out by the Department of the Interior program execution. Unfortunately, however, and Local Government (DILG) in capacitating national statistical systems have yet to respond LGUs to contribute to the attainment of the adequately to the demand for micro-level MDGs and uplifting the quality of life of their statistics that can aid LGUs in their poverty constituents. These interventions are particu- alleviation efforts, as noted in a joint World larly stated in DILG Memorandum Circular Bank and Asian Development Bank report, to (MC) No. 2004-152 “Guide to Local Govern- Decentralization in the Philippines: Strengthening Local Government Financing and Resource Management in the Short-Term, 2005 (A Joint Document of the 1 World Bank and the Asian Development Bank) 88 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 90. ment Units in the Localization of the MDGs” CBMS is intended to be done on a regular dated November 2004, which provides for basis and can therefore be used for updating the: (a) menu of Programs, Projects and Ac- MDG indicators and facilitating preparation of tivities (PPAs) per MDG goal and target to regular MDG reports. The CBMS can also be guide LGUs in responding to the MDGs; (b) used as basis by national and local govern- ments for costing and identifying appropriate diagnosis of the local situation using existing local indicators and monitoring system; and interventions needed to achieve the MDGs as (c) call for documentation and replication of well as for resource allocation. Finally, given the good practices. large spatial disparities, the CBMS can help identify where focus has to be given to achieve The CBMS that is being implemented in the targets. the Philippines is indeed well-positioned to track progress toward the attainment of the The CBMS’ role in localizing the MDGs was MDGs at the local level. For one, a number of recognized during an Experts Group Meeting indicators being monitored in the CBMS are on Localizing the MDGs held on November included in the indicators for monitoring the 28, 2006 at the United Nations Economic and progress in achieving the MDGs. Moreover, Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN Figure 4. CBMS Coverage in the Philippines (as of May 12, 2010) Source: CBMS Survey, 2005 89 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 91. ESCAP) in Bangkok, Thailand. The Committee Agusan del Sur, Biliran, Camarines Norte, on Poverty Reduction composed of 24 nation- Eastern Samar, Marinduque, Romblon, states agreed that the CBMS could comple- Sarangani and Siquijor. The abovemen- ment the official data collection activities of tioned provinces were selected since they national statistical offices and improve the were among the first LGUs that were able availability of the MDG and other indicators to consolidate their CBMS databases at at the local level. It also agreed that localizing the provincial level. The CBMS Census the MDGs through CBMS would help inte- was conducted in these provinces between grate the goals into the national development 2005 and 2007 (for detailed information on strategies. It therefore urged other developing census years, see Table 29). countries to initiate and implement similar in- novative systems that would help localize the In particular, the technical collaboration was MDGs. carried out to meet the following objectives: (i) to track the status on the attain- As of May 12, 2010, CBMS is being imple- ment of the MDGs in the identified mented in 59 provinces (32 of which are provinces; (ii) to assist these provinces province-wide), 687 municipalities and 43 in preparing their Provincial MDG cities in the Philippines, covering 17,848 ba- Reports; and (iii) to increase local rangays all over the country (see Figure 34). awareness on how these reports can A good number of these LGUs have already bridge local and national development consolidated their CBMS databases and are strategies. well-positioned to generate their own local MDG Reports. For one thing, CBMS collects 3. Expected Technical Collaboration Outputs information that reflects the multi-faceted na- ture of poverty. In addition, data generated by The project is expected to produce the the CBMS can be broken down by municipal, following outputs: (i) mentored technical barangay, purok and even down to the house- staff of the nine CBMS-partner provinces hold level, thereby presenting meaningful on how to prepare Provincial MDG Reports, information and enabling deeper analysis of and (ii) Provincial MDG Reports of the nine the poverty situation. Moreover, the CBMS provinces. can generate color-coded maps showing the poverty status at each geopolitical level. 4. Capacity-Building 2. Objectives The capacity-building of the Provincial MDG Teams consists of three workshops This technical collaboration aims to and one-on-one mentoring process. capacitate nine provincial governments to systematically measure, monitor and Processing of CBMS Data to Generate MDG report their status with respect to the Indicators. This 2-day activity was designed MDGs. The operative word here is status to provide participants with: (i) a deeper since the provinces used their first round appreciation of the importance of the CBMS of CBMS data in formulating this report. in benchmarking/tracking local progress These provinces include Agusan del Norte, toward the attainment of the MDGs; (ii) a 90 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 92. satisfactory level of knowledge in process- Mentor/Mentee Relationship. In order to ing CBMS data to facilitate analyses of ensure a sustained and focused mentoring accomplishments versus targets; (iii) some program, a mentor from the Research Team basic skills on how to incorporate MDG of the CBMS Network was matched to one targets in local development plans and Provincial MDG Team. facilitate corresponding increase in budget allocation for MDG-responsive PPAs; and The assigned mentor was expected to (iv) tools and methodologies in formulating set a specific time each week to interact MDG reports. with his/her Provincial MDG Team and discuss the following: (1) review progress Preparation of Provincial MDG Reports in drafting the Provincial MDG Report, (2) Using CBMS Data. This 2-day activity set/identify targets for the coming weeks, was designed to build on the gains of and (3) draw up an action plan to achieve the first workshop by providing techni- those targets. In addition, the mentor was cal assistance to the Project Teams in (i) expected to assist his/her assigned MDG processing CBMS data to generate the Team in identifying and solving problem additional MDG indicators and consoli- areas. dating their data at the provincial level, (ii) benchmarking/tracking their progress Meanwhile, Dr. Celia M. Reyes, Anne toward the attainment of the MDGs , (iii) Bernadette E. Mandap and Marsmath A. reviewing partial provincial reports based Baris, Jr. reviewed all partial and final on the indicators generated using the first reports. The technical staff of the NEDA workshop, and (iv) finalizing list of indica- Social Development Staff headed by tors to be included in the report. Director Erlinda Capones also reviewed and provided valuable comments on the Presentation and Critiquing of Provincial reports. MDG Reports. This 3-day activity was designed to finalize the Provincial MDG B. CBMS-MDG Indicators Reports and at the same time provide an opportunity for an exchange of views and Unless otherwise indicated, all the statisti- possible harmonization of approaches cal tables, graphs, charts and poverty maps as well as for the provision of consistent presented in this report were generated guidance to all the Provincial MDG Teams. using the CBMS methodology. The expected output from this workshop was the complete manuscript of the MDG The MDG Indicators, which were esti- Report which already incorporates the mated using CBMS data, are presented in comments/inputs of the assigned mentor table 29. and resource persons who were invited to share their expertise during the workshop. 91 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 93. Box 1. Community-Based Monitoring System It involves the following steps: The CBMS is an organized way of Step 1 – Advocacy/organization collecting data at the local level to be Step 2 – Data collection and field editing used by local governments, national Step 3 – Data encoding and map digiti- government agencies, nongovernment zation organizations (NGOs) and civil society for Step 4 – Data consolidation, database- planning, budgeting, and implementing building & poverty mapping local development programs as well as Step 5 – Data validation and community for monitoring and evaluating their perfor- consultation mance. It is a tool for improved local Step 6 – Knowledge (database) manage- governance and democratic decision- ment making that promotes greater transpar- Step 7 – Plan formulation ency and accountability in resource Step 8 – Dissemination, implementation, allocation. and monitoring 92 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 94. Table 29. The CBMS-MDG Indicators and their Definition 93 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 95. Table 29. The CBMS-MDG Indicators and their Definition (Continued) 94 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 96. Table 29. The CBMS-MDG Indicators and their Definition (Continued) 95 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 97. C. Poverty and Food Thresholds E. Survey Operations Official poverty thresholds computed by the All survey operations were undertaken under NSCB were used and, in some cases, updated the supervision of the CBMS Technical Working to the reference period for the CBMS data by Groups (TWGs) at the Provincial and Municipal inflating these thresholds using the appropriate Levels. They identified the local personnel who Consumer Price Index (CPI). The poverty and were trained as enumerators and field supervi- food thresholds used for each province are sors. Technical assistance was provided by presented in Table 29. the PEP-CBMS Network Coordinating Team, Table 30. Poverty and Food Thresholds D. Authority for the CBMS Census the Bureau of Local Government Develop- ment (BLGD) and Regional Office IV-B of The NSCB has issued Resolution No. the Department of the Interior and Local 6 (2005) which recognizes and enjoins Government (DILG), National Anti-Poverty support to the CBMS as a tool for strength- Commission (NAPC), National Economic ening the statistical system at the local and Development Authority (NEDA) Regional level. It also directs the NSCB Technical Office IV-B and the Institute for Democratic Staff to initiate and coordinate an advoca- Participation in Governance (IDPG). cy program for the adoption of the CBMS by the LGUs, through the Regional Statisti- Training was mainly conducted at two cal Coordination Committees (RSCCs), the levels. The first level training (Training technical arm of the NSCB Executive Board of Trainors) is conducted for members in the regions. of the TWGs. This is usually conducted by members of the research staff of the The NSCB has also approved the CBMS Network and CBMS accredited CBMS Survey Instruments through NSCB trainors from the DILG, NAPC and NEDA. Approval No. DILG-0903-01. Meanwhile, a second level training (Train- ing of Enumerators) is conducted for 96 Province of Eastern Samar Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data
  • 98. enumerators who are usually composed poverty maps were processed using Stata, a of barangay health workers and students. general-purpose statistical software package The members of the TWG acted as trainors created in 1985 by StataCorp. in this training. These softwares were provided for free to the F. Data Processing System nine provinces which formulated their reports under this project. The data processing software used under this project includes the CBMS Data Encoding G. CBMS Poverty Maps System, the CBMS-Natural Resources Data- The poverty map for each indicator shows base and Stata. the provincial map disaggregated by munici- pality. The CBMS encoding system uses CSPro (Census and Survey Processing), a software A simple color scheme is used (green, light developed by the United States Bureau of green, pink and red) to represent the four Census for entering, editing, tabulating, and ranges of data for each indicator. Each indica- disseminating data from censuses and sur- tor, however, used a different range relative to veys. The CSPro-based (Census and Survey the provincial data. Processing) Encoding System converts survey data into electronic data. It produces text files H. Limitations of the Data (ASCII) described by data dictionaries, which While observations are taken from the entire adds flexibility to the output data. This feature population, the user of the data presented in facilitates the interface between the CBMS this report should bear in mind that the mu- data and other database systems and statisti- nicipalities in two provinces (Eastern Samar cal softwares. and Biliran) were not able to collect their data over the same period. For instance, CBMS was The CBMS Mapping system employs the piloted in a number of municipalities in Eastern Natural Resources Database2 (NRDB) for Samar and Biliran in 2005 and was imple- CBMS-based poverty mapping and for storing mented provincewide in 2006. Moreover, due and displaying household- and individual- to some difficulties, the CBMS census could level information, The CBMS-NRDB is capable not be carried out in 1 barangay in Romblon, of creating and storing spatial (shapefiles) and and 2 barangays each in Camarines Norte non-spatial (texts and numbers) data as well and Eastern Samar. as generating maps, reports and graphs ideal for presentation and analysis of poverty attri- Estimates on poverty and subsistence inci- butes in the community. This has significantly dence may also be affected by under- and/or addressed the need for a simple yet powerful over-reporting of income or reluctance on the and free geographically-oriented database. part of the respondents to reveal their true lev- els of income. As in other surveys, the CBMS Meanwhile, the CBMS data presented in enumerators may also have encountered in- this report through tables, graphs, charts and terview non-response and item non-response. 2 The NRDB was developed by Mr. Richard Alexander, a British volunteer who spent three years working for the Bohol Environment Management Office through the assistance of 97 Status Report on the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province of Eastern Samar
  • 99. Available in this series: NATIONAL REPORT • Philippines Progress Report on the Millennium Development Goals 2010 PROVINCIAL REPORTS •Status ReportofonAgusan del NorteDevelopment Goals Using CBMS Data Province the Millennium •Status ReportofonAgusan del Sur Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province the Millennium •Status ReportofonBiliranMillennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province the •Status ReportofonCamarines Norte Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province the Millennium •Status ReportofonEastern Samar Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province the Millennium •Status ReportofonMarinduque Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province the Millennium • Status Report onRomblon Province of the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data •Status ReportofonSiquijor Province the Millennium Development Goals Using CBMS Data •Status ReportofonSarangani Development Goals Using CBMS Data Province the Millennium