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History of Ireland, Scotland and Wales. An Osher Lifelong Learning at UNM Continuing Education class.

History of Ireland, Scotland and Wales. An Osher Lifelong Learning at UNM Continuing Education class.

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  • Wolfe Tone <br />
  • A populous Irish village, Gweedore, County Donegal. Source: Lawrence Collection, National Library of Ireland. <br />
  • A starving Irish family from Carraroe, County Galway, during the Famine. Source: National Library of Ireland. <br />
  • A family evicted by their landlords. Source: Lawrence Collection, National Library of Ireland. <br />
  • A homeless woman who has been evicted from her cottage. Lawrence Collection, National Library of Ireland. <br />
  • Left-Bridget O’Donnell and children, from the Illustrated London News, 1849. Right--&quot;Scalp at Caeuermore,&quot; from the Illustrated London News, 1849. <br />
  • Left--&quot;Scalpeen of Tim Downs at Dunmore,&quot; from the Illustrated London News, 1849. Right--&quot;Scalp of Brian Conner, near Kilrush Union-House.&quot; From Illustrated London News, n.d. <br />
  • From The Illustrated London News, July 6, 1850. &quot;The Embarkation, Waterloo Docks, Liverpool.&quot; Many Irish immigrants traveled to Liverpool first before emigrating to the United States and Australia. <br />
  • Illustration taken from The Illustrated London News, July 6, 1850. &quot;Scene between decks&quot; of an emigrant ship. Many Irish fled famine and poverty at home to emigrate to England, the United States, Canada, Australia and other countries. <br />
  • Charles Stewart Parnell <br />
  • Charles Stewart Parnell <br />

Osher history-ireland-scotland-wales-9 Osher history-ireland-scotland-wales-9 Presentation Transcript

  • The Creation of the United Kingdom The Union Flag • Acts of Union for Wales, 1535/1546 • Act of Union for Scotland, 1707 – Jacobite revolts, 1715 and 1745 – Act of Proscription, 1746 (repealed in 1782) – Heritable Jurisdictions Act, 1747 • Act of Union for Ireland, 1800 – Continuation of penal laws – Coercion Acts, 1803
  • The Creation of the United Kingdom • English as the primary language – Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge (SPCK) in Wales, 1699 – Scottish Society for the… (SSPCK), 1708 – National schools versus hedge schools in Ireland (~549 hedge schools existed in 1731) • Ordinance Survey mapping – 1791 in Scotland; 1801 in Ireland; 1805 in Wales • Anglicization of landlord class – Native law abolished; native poets without patrons • Anglicization of Church hierarchy • Service in British army • Emigration
  • Scotland and England Drawing of crofters’ cottages, Uig, Isle of Skye, from Our Journey to the Hebrides, by Joseph and Elizabeth Robins Pennell, 1890. • Scotland – Clearances, 1770-1850 – 70,000 emigrated 1760-1803 – 22,000 emigrated to Nova Scotia, 1815-1838 • Land tenure reform – Crofters and cottars – Highland Land Law Reform Association, 1880 – Crofter’s Party, 1885 – Crofters’ Holding Act, 1886 • Gave Scottish crofters fixed rental tenure and fees – Congested Districts Board, 1897 • Made land available to crofters and cottars
  • Scotland and England Plaque commemorating two of the leaders of the 1820 insurrection, Stirling, Scotland. • Political reform – United Scotsmen, 1790s – Provisional Government of Scotland declared in 1820 when weavers went on strike – Voter enfranchisement seen as a means to address the needs of the working class • Reform Act of 1832 – From 4,239 voters to 65,000 (1 in 126 to 1 in 8) – But Scottish politics still not taken seriously • Education Act of 1872 • Establishment of Secretary of State for Scotland, 1885
  • Wales and England Photograph of the military camp of Llanfair Talhaearn, c. 1886, the People’s Collection Wales, Denbighshire Record Office. • Wales – 60,000 emigrated 1850-1870 • Land tenure reform – Welsh National Land League, 1880s – “The Tithe War,” 1887 • Industry – Mining of lead, copper, coal – Ironworks – Cotton mills, potteries – Railroad industry, 1850s onward – Percentage of agricultural workers in 1750 ~90% – Percentage of agricultural workers in 1850 ~30% – Population 500,000 in 1750; 1,163,000 in 1850
  • Wales and England Portrait of J.E. Lloyd (founder of Cymru Fydd and Welsh historian), by Ivor William, at the National Library of Wales, Aberystwyth, Wales. • Political reform – Gwyneddigion, 1770 – Voter enfranchisement • Reform Act of 1832 – From 1 in 8 adult male voters to 1 in 5 – Liberation Society formed in 1840s • Aimed for more parliamentary reform and end of state support for the Church of Wales – Cymru Fydd (The Wales To Be), 1885 • Pushed for a legislative assembly • By 1892, Welsh MPs called for disestablishment of the church, education reforms, land tenure reform, and self-government
  • Ireland and England Portrait of Daniel O’Connell, by Bernard Mulrenin, 1836, National Portrait Gallery, London. • Political reform – Daniel O’Connell, 1775-1847 (“the liberator”) – The Catholic Association, 1823 – O’Connell ran for MP of County Clare in 1828 – The Catholic Emancipation Act, 1829 • Allowed Catholics to run for office and admitted Catholic MPs to Parliament • Also raised property qualifications to vote from £2 to £10 – Young Ireland, 1842 • The Irish Confederation, 1846
  • Cultural revival • Wales – Honourable Society of the Cymmrodorion, 1751 – Eisteddfodau (sing. Eisteddfod), 1789-present – University of Wales, National Library, National Museum (founded 1885-1907) • Scotland – James MacPherson, Works of Ossian, son of Fingal, 1760s – Gaelic Society of London, 1777; Highland Society of Scotland, 1784 – Celtic Studies program founded at University of Edinburgh, 1882 • The antiquarian movement – Aneurin Owen, d. 1851, Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales – Dr. William Price, d. 1893 – Robert Burns, d. 1796
  • Robert Burns, “The Answer” Portrait of Robert Burns, by Alexander Nasmyth, 1787, Scottish National Portrait Gallery. • Ev'n then a wish (I mind its power) • A wish, that to my latest hour • Shall strongly heave my breast; • That I for poor auld Scotland's sake • Some useful plan, or book could make, • Or sing a sang at least.
  • Robert Burns, “Bruce’s March to Bannockburn” • Scots, wha hae wi’ Wallace bled, • Scots, wham Bruce has aften led, • Welcome to your gory bed, • Or to Victorie! • Now’s the day, and now’s the hour; • See the front o’ battle lour; • See approach proud Edward’s power— • Chains and Slaverie! • Wha will be a traitor knave? • Wha can fill a coward’s grave? • Wha sae base as be a slave? • Let him turn and flee! • Wha, for Scotland’s king and law, • Freedom’s sword will strongly draw, • Free-man stand, or free-man fa’, • Let him follow me! • By oppression’s woes and pains, By your sons in servile chains, • We will drain our dearest veins, • But they shall be free! • Lay the proud usurpers low! • Tyrants fall in every foe! • Liberty’s in every blow!— • Let us do or die!
  • Cultural revival Portrait of Thomas Davis, c. 1840 • Ireland – Royal Irish Academy, 1785 – Young Ireland, 1842 • Established by Thomas Davis (1814-1845), a Protestant • Published a weekly journal, The Nation • After Davis’ death formed a militant group, the Irish Confederation – Catholic University of Dublin, 1855 – The Gaelic League, 1893
  • The creation of the United Kingdom • An Gorta Mor (the Great Hunger), 1845-1849 – By mid-1700s, average peasant ate 7-11 pounds of potatoes/day – Added to dairy products, a potato diet fairly healthy – By 1800, population of Ireland ~5 million – Napoleonic wars in Europe led to pressure for Irish lands to produce more wheat, less grazing for cows – Wet weather hit North America and England in 1845- 1846 – Root rot set in, Phytophthera infestans
  • A populous village, Gweedore, County Donegal. The Lawrence Collection, National Library of Ireland.
  • A starving family, Carraroe, County Galway. The Lawrence Collection, National Library of Ireland.
  • Eviction. The Lawrence Collection, National Library of Ireland.
  • Eviction. The Lawrence Collection, National Library of Ireland.
  • The homeless. Left—“Bridget O’Donnell and children.” Right— “Scalp at Caeuermoe.” Both from The Illustrated London News, 1849.
  • The homeless. Left— “Scalpeen of Tim Downs at Dunmore.” Right— “Scalp of Brian Conner, near Kilrush Union-House.” Both from The Illustrated London News, 1849.
  • The creation of the United Kingdom • The government’s response – Sir Robert Peel, Prime Minister 1841-1846 • Government scientists recommended burning the fields • Corn meal imported from the US • Works-programs enacted for those who had lost their houses and lands due to the rot • Corn Laws (high tariffs on importing European crops), repealed 1846 – Lord John Russell, Prime Minister 1846-1852 • Poor Law Amendment Act, 1847 – Outdoor relief given to those with their own houses and LESS THAN ¼ acre of land • Works projects did not promote economic development in Ireland • Cost of paying for famine relief put on landlords, who evicted tenants to pay lower tax rates – 300,000 evictions from 1846-1866, ~2 million people
  • The creation of the United Kingdom • Emigration – Many Irish moved to Liverpool and Glasgow, looking for industrial jobs – 1 to 2 million emigrated 1845-1850 • 25% of population lost in 5 years due to death and emigration • Loss of language worst in those areas depopulated by the famine and emigration – Coffin ships • 20% of passengers died during the voyages • 1815-1852: 3,466,211 emigrated from the United Kingdom (1 million to British North America; 2 million to US; 300,000 to Australia)
  • “The Embarkation, Waterloo Docks, Liverpool.” From The Illustrated London News, 1850.
  • “Scene between decks.” From The Illustrated London News, 1850.
  • Ireland and England Photo of William Ewart Gladstone, by London Stereoscopic Company, c. 1890. • Irish Republican Brotherhood, 1858 – “Fenians” • William Ewart Gladstone, 1809- 1898; – Prime minister four times from 1868-1898 – Disestablishment of the Church of Ireland, 1869 – Irish Land Act, 1870 • Gave all Irish tenants same rights as Anglo-Irish tenants in Ulster – Home Rule
  • Ireland and England Photo of Charles Stewart Parnell, by Matthew Brady and Levin Corbin Handy, c. 1875, Library of Congress. • Charles Stewart Parnell, 1846- 1891 – MP for Meath, 1875-1891 • The Land League, 1879 – Nationalization of Irish lands • The Irish Land Act, 1881 – Set fixed rental tenure and fees • Lord Ashbourne’s Land Act of 1885 – Provided £5 million to help tenants buy land • Gladstone’s Home Rule Act, 1886 • Gladstone’s Second Home Rule Act, 1893 • Irish Land Act, 1909 – Forced landlords to sell lands
  • Irish Land League poster, c. 1881