The English Conquest of Wales and Scotland
Henry VIII in the Whitehall Mural, by Remigius van Leemput, 17th century, Royal...
The Tudors and Wales
• Henry VIII and Wales
–
–
–
–

Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham, ex. 1521
Rhys ap Gruffudd of Din...
The Act of Union (Wales)
•

•
•

His Highness therefore of a singular Zeal, Love and Favour that he
beareth towards his Su...
Wales after the Acts of Union
The Tudors and Scotland
Portrait of James IV, 16th century,
Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh.

• The Auld All...
The English Conquest of Wales and Scotland
John Knox statue, by Pittendrigh MacGillivray, 1904,
St. Giles Cathedral, Edinb...
The Stuarts and Scotland
Portrait of James VI/I, by Jan de Critz, 1606,
National Maritime Museum, London.

• James VI and ...
The Stuarts and Scotland
The Union Jack
•
•
•

•

Gunpowder Plot, 1605
Writing of Shakespeare’s
Macbeth
The instrument of ...
The Stuarts and Scotland
Charles I and Henrietta Maria as Apollo and Diana,
Gerrit van Honthorst, 1628, Hampton Court Pala...
The English Civil War and Scotland
• Civil War, 1642-1646, and its aftermath
– Oliver Cromwell, d. 1658
– The “Highland Ch...
The Restoration of the Stuart dynasty
Portrait of James II, Nicholas de Largilliere, 1685,
National Maritime Museum, Londo...
The Last of the Stuarts
Portrait of Anne, by Michael Dahl, 1705, National Portrait Gallery,
London.

• William III and Mar...
England finally conquers Scotland
A Lost Cause: the flight of James II after the Battle of the Boyne,
Andrew Carrick Gow, ...
The letter to Campbell forces before the
massacre of Glencoe
•

•
•
•

You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the...
The Kings over the Water
• Attempts to repeal the Act of Union, 1713
• The Jacobites
– The white rose
– Jacobite toasts--“...
The Kings over the Water
Bonnie Prince Charlie entering Holyroodhouse, by John Pettie, 1898,
Palace of Holyroodhouse.

• R...
Manifesto of the Prince Regent,
May 16, 1745
• By virtue and authority of the above commission of
regency, granted unto us...
The Second Jacobite Revolt
• Glenfinnan, 1745
• Battle of Prestonpans, September 1745
• The march to London, November-Dece...
Left—Monument at Culloden battlefield;
right—Hunted Down, by John Pettie, 1877,
Hospitalfield House, Arbroath, Scotland.
The aftermath of Culloden
• Cumberland’s ravaging of the Highlands
• Seizure of lands of Jacobites
• Act of Proscription, ...
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History of Ireland, Scotland and Wales Osher Lifelong Learning at UNM

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We will examine Irish, Scottish, and Welsh history and culture from 500 BC to the present. In particular, lectures and discussions will focus on the early cultural identity of the Irish, Scots, and Welsh and their customs and mythologies; the influence of Roman culture and Christianity on these lands and peoples; the English conquest and colonization of these lands and peoples; and, finally, on the process of political devolution in all three areas. These aspects of Irish, Scottish, and Welsh history will be examined through historical documents and literature, art, music, and film clips. Students will emerge from the class with a clear sense of the events that shaped the early history and culture of Ireland, Scotland, and Wales and how those events continue to shape these areas even to the present day.

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  • James IV of Scotland, 16th century. National Galleries of Scotland, Edinburgh.
  • John Knox
  • Charles I and Henrietta Maria as Apollo and Diana. Duke of Buckingham as Mercury (center?). 1628, Gerrit van Honthorst, Queen’s Staircase, Hampton Court.
  • James II in 1685. By Nicholas de Largilliere. National Maritime Museum, London.
  • A Lost Cause: the flight of James II after the battle of the Boyne. Artist, Andrew Carrick Gow. 1888, Tate Art Gallery.
  • Bonnie Prince Charlie, 1898
  • The monument at Culloden.
  • History of Ireland, Scotland and Wales Osher Lifelong Learning at UNM

    1. 1. The English Conquest of Wales and Scotland Henry VIII in the Whitehall Mural, by Remigius van Leemput, 17th century, Royal Collection, Hampton Court Palace, Surrey. • Wales and England before the Tudors – The revolt of Owain Glyn Dwr, 14001408 • Owain a descendant of the native dynasty of Powys • Declaration of independent Welsh parliament at Machynlleth • The Tudor Dynasty – Henry VII, r. 1485-1509 • Grandson of Henry V’s widow and a Welsh squire – Arthur, d. 1502 – Henry VIII, r. 1509-1547
    2. 2. The Tudors and Wales • Henry VIII and Wales – – – – Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham, ex. 1521 Rhys ap Gruffudd of Dinefwr, ex. 1531 Council of the Marches of Wales Rowland Lee, bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, appointed head of council of Wales in 1534 – Act of Union, 1536 – Act of Union, 1543 • Edward VI, r. 1547-1553 • Mary I, r. 1553-1558 • Elizabeth I, r. 1558-1603 – First Welsh Bible in 1588 – Reformation presented as a ‘return’ to the old ‘Celtic Church’
    3. 3. The Act of Union (Wales) • • • His Highness therefore of a singular Zeal, Love and Favour that he beareth towards his Subjects of his said Dominion of Wales, minding and intending to reduce them to the perfect Order, Notice and Knowledge of his Laws of this Realm, and utterly to extirp all and singular the sinister Usages and Customs differing from the same, and to bring the said Subjects f this his Realm, and of his said Dominion of Wales, to an amicable Concord and Unity, hath by the deliberate Advice, Consent and Agreement of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal and the Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the Authority of the same, ordained, enacted and established, that his said Country or Dominion of Wales shall be, stand and continue for ever from henceforth incorporated, united and annexed to and with this his Realm of England… All Welsh were to have the “singular Freedoms, Liberties, Rights, Privileges and Laws” as the English The Principality and Marcher lordships were to be “united, annexed and joined to divers of the Shires of England”
    4. 4. Wales after the Acts of Union
    5. 5. The Tudors and Scotland Portrait of James IV, 16th century, Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh. • The Auld Alliance – Scotland and France • James IV, r. 1488-1513 – Abolition of MacDonald lordship of the isles, 1493 – Battle of Flodden, 1513 • James V, r. 1513-1542 – Marriage to Mary of Guise, 1536 • Henry VIII’s “rough wooing” of Scotland, 1542-1550 – Support for MacDonald lord of the isles revolt – Proposed marriage of Edward and Mary of Scotland – Battle of Pinkie, 1547
    6. 6. The English Conquest of Wales and Scotland John Knox statue, by Pittendrigh MacGillivray, 1904, St. Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh. • The Reformation in Scotland – John Knox and Presbyterianism • On the Monstrous Regiment of Women, 1558 – Mary of Guise, d. 1559 – Archibald Campbell, earl of Argyll, 1558-1573 – Scottish Civil War, 1559-1560 – Mary Queen of Scots, r. 1542-1567 – James VI, r. 1567-1625 – Scots Gaelic Bible printed in 1606 – Scottish Church (Kirk) • Presbyterians versus Episcopalians
    7. 7. The Stuarts and Scotland Portrait of James VI/I, by Jan de Critz, 1606, National Maritime Museum, London. • James VI and I, r. 1567/1603-1625 – “One king, one people, one law” – The proposed union • Abolish mutually hostile laws • Establish free trade • All Scots resident in England before James’ rule to be naturalized as English • Create a common currency, the Unite • Use of the Great Union/Union Jack
    8. 8. The Stuarts and Scotland The Union Jack • • • • Gunpowder Plot, 1605 Writing of Shakespeare’s Macbeth The instrument of union, 16061607 – Abolition of mutually hostile laws (only proposal accepted) – Establishment of free trade – Mutual naturalization of James’ Scottish and English subjects – Anglo-Scottish extradition treaty James and the Scottish Kirk – Episcopalianism vesus Presbyterianism
    9. 9. The Stuarts and Scotland Charles I and Henrietta Maria as Apollo and Diana, Gerrit van Honthorst, 1628, Hampton Court Palace, Surrey. • Charles I, r. 1625-1649 – Commission for Surrenders and Teinds, 1627 – English Episcopalian practices and a new Scottish prayer book and liturgy imposed on Scottish church in 1530s – General Assembly of the Kirk, 1638 • Scottish Presbyterians rejected Episcopalianism – Campbells (Protestants) versus MacDonalds (Catholics) – Charles’ Scottish war, 16391640 – Treaty of Ripon, 1641
    10. 10. The English Civil War and Scotland • Civil War, 1642-1646, and its aftermath – Oliver Cromwell, d. 1658 – The “Highland Charge,” 1644-1645 • Catholic MacDonalds versus Protestant Campbells – Charles I tried for treason and executed, 1649 – Scots Protestants invited Charles II to Edinburgh and crowned him in 1649 – Cromwell’s forces drove Charles II into exile, fought Scots Protestant army • The Commonwealth, 1649-1660 – Cromwell as “Lord Protector” – Cromwell’s policy toward Scotland • • • • • • English garrisons in all of lowland Scotland Punitive taxation Scottish public records seized and taken to London Scottish monarchy declared “redundant” Scotland’s royal arms ritually hanged on gallows in Edinburgh Scottish parliament dissolved, 30 MPs sent south to London
    11. 11. The Restoration of the Stuart dynasty Portrait of James II, Nicholas de Largilliere, 1685, National Maritime Museum, London. • Charles II, r. 1660-1685 – Restoration of Scottish parliament – Scottish Kirk placed in the hands of Episcopalians – Scottish government in hands of English officials – Campbell earls of Argyll highly placed in Scottish government • James II, r. 1685-1688 – Catholic and absolutist tendencies • The Glorious Revolution, 1688
    12. 12. The Last of the Stuarts Portrait of Anne, by Michael Dahl, 1705, National Portrait Gallery, London. • William III and Mary II, r. 1689-1694/1702 – Act of Settlement, 1701 • Anne, r. 1702-1714 – Act of Union, 1707 – Abolition of Scottish privy council, 1708 – Queen of Great Britain, 1707-1714
    13. 13. England finally conquers Scotland A Lost Cause: the flight of James II after the Battle of the Boyne, Andrew Carrick Gow, 1888, Tate Art Gallery, London. • Jacobites – Latin for James = Jacobus • • • Battle of the Boyne, 1690 Scottish oath of loyalty to William and Mary Massacre of Glencoe, February 13th 1692 – MacDonalds of Glencoe – John Dalrymple, Master of Stair and Secretary of State for Scotland, d. 1707 • Act of Settlement, 1701 – Formally barred Catholic Stuarts from the throne • Act of Union, 1707 – Formally joined England and Scotland
    14. 14. The letter to Campbell forces before the massacre of Glencoe • • • • You are hereby ordered to fall upon the rebels, the McDonalds of Glenco, and put all to the sword under seventy. You are to have a special care that the old Fox and his sons doe upon no account escape your hands, you are to secure all the avenues that no man escape. This you are to putt in execution at fyve of the clock precisely; and by that time, or very shortly after it, I'll strive to be att you with a stronger party: if I doe not come to you att fyve, you are not to tarry for me, but to fall on. This is by the Kings speciall command, for the good & safety of the Country, that these miscreants be cutt off root and branch. See that this be putt in execution without feud or favour, else you may expect to be dealt with as one not true to King nor Government, nor a man fitt to carry Commissione in the Kings service. Expecting you will not faill in the fulfilling hereof, as you love your selfe, I subscribe these with my hand att Balicholis Feb: 12, 1692 For their Majesties service To Capt. Robert Campbell of Glenlyon • (signed) R. Duncanson
    15. 15. The Kings over the Water • Attempts to repeal the Act of Union, 1713 • The Jacobites – The white rose – Jacobite toasts--“the king over the water” and “the little gentlemen in black velvet” • First Jacobite revolt, 1715-1716 – James Francis Edward Stuart (d. 1766) proclaimed James III and VIII – Jacobite forces led by the Earl of Mar – English forces led by the Duke of Argyll – Battle of Sheriffmuir, November 1715 – James would become known as “the Old Pretender”
    16. 16. The Kings over the Water Bonnie Prince Charlie entering Holyroodhouse, by John Pettie, 1898, Palace of Holyroodhouse. • Reactions to the first revolt – The Disarming Act, 1716 – Creation of the Highland Companies (the Black Watch) – Seizure of lands of Jacobites • Second Jacobite revolt, 1745-1746 – Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender, “Bonnie Prince Charlie,” d. 1788
    17. 17. Manifesto of the Prince Regent, May 16, 1745 • By virtue and authority of the above commission of regency, granted unto us by the King our royal father, we are now come to execute His Majesty’s will and pleasure, by setting up his Royal Standard, and asserting his undoubted right to the Throne of his ancestors… • As for those who shall appear more signally zealous for the recovery of His Majesty’s just rights, and the prosperity of their country, we shall take effectual care to have them rewarded according to their respective degrees and merits; and we particularly promise as aforesaid, a full, free, and general pardon to all officers, soldiers, and sailors, now engaged in the service of the usurper…
    18. 18. The Second Jacobite Revolt • Glenfinnan, 1745 • Battle of Prestonpans, September 1745 • The march to London, November-December 1745 • Battle of Falkirk, January 1746 • Battle of Culloden, April 1746 – 9000 English led by the duke of Cumberland versus 6000 Jacobites led by Lord George Murray – Charles fled the battle and escaped to France in September 1746
    19. 19. Left—Monument at Culloden battlefield; right—Hunted Down, by John Pettie, 1877, Hospitalfield House, Arbroath, Scotland.
    20. 20. The aftermath of Culloden • Cumberland’s ravaging of the Highlands • Seizure of lands of Jacobites • Act of Proscription, 1746 (repealed in 1782) – Highland dress banned – Playing of bagpipes banned – Keeping of weapons banned • Heritable Jurisdictions Act, 1747 – Abolished Scottish clan chiefs’ right to call up men • Prison, transportation and indentured servitude, execution for captured and convicted Jacobites
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