Testimony of Faith:“I bear witness that there is no godbut the One God and thatMuhammad is His Messenger.”No false gods:• human• material• ideological• selfImplications of One God:One people– Equality– Respect– Cooperation– Protection
JihadUnending struggle for human perfection inself-discipline, reason, morals,behavior, and integrity.• Knowledge• Truthfulness• Sobriety• Courage• Moderation• Chastity• Charity• Humility• Patience• Faith• Compassion• Forgiveness• Purity• Gentleness
JihadUnending struggle for social perfection• Life• Liberty• Equality• Dignity• JusticePEACE
life“…do not kill yourselves...” (4:29)“Do not kill your children out of fear ofpoverty…” (17:31)“Do not kill any person Allah has madeinviolate, except with the right to do so.”(17:33)- self defense- capital punishment- combatants in war
Liberty(freedom from subjugation)“Say, ‘People of the Scripture!Come to a proposition which is thesame for us and you – that weshould worship none but God, andnot associate anything with Him andnot take one another as lordsinstead of God.’” (3:64)
equality• The prophet Muhammad repeatedly said,“I bear witness that all people arebrothers.”• He told his followers that “an Arab is notsuperior over a non-Arab, nor a white overa black… the most honored of you is themost righteous of you.”
dignity• “The alms are for the poor, the destitute, thosewho collect it, reconciling people’s hearts,freeing slaves, those in debt, spending in theway of Allah, and travelers. It is a legalobligation from Allah. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.” (9:60)• “Do not consume one another’s property by falsemeans, but only by means of mutually agreedtrade.” (4:29)• “Women have rights similar to men.” (
JusticeThe foundation of peace and progress.• “…be upholders of justice… even againstyourselves or your parents and relatives.(4:135) (i.e. don’t let the love of a people prevent youfrom being just.)• “…bear witness in justice, and do not letthe hatred of a people prevent you frombeing just. Be just; that is nearer torighteousness.” (5:8)
What isJihad?• The struggle for self-perfection• The struggle for social perfection• Ultimately, the struggle for peace
Do MuslimsLove Violence?• First 13 years, Muslims were not allowed to fight,even when they were tortured, imprisoned,exiled, and killed.• “Permission to fight has been granted to thoseagainst whom war is wrongfully waged… (22:39)• “Fighting is prescribed for you even (though) it ishateful to you. It may be that you hatesomething when it is good for you… God knowsand you do not know.” (2:216)
When is violencejustified?• When necessary to restore peace:“If two parties of the believers fight, makepeace between them. But if one of themattacks the other unjustly, fight theattackers until they revert to God’scommands. If they revert, make peacebetween them with justice, and be fair.God loves those who are fair.”(49:9)
When is violencejustified?• When necessary to restore liberty, dignity:“What reason could you have for not fighting inthe Way of God – for those men, women andchildren who are oppressed and say, ‘OurLord, take us out of this city whose inhabitantsare wrongdoers! Give us a protector fromYou! Give us a helper from You!’”(4:75)
• When necessary as self-defense:“Fight, in the way of God, against those whofight you, but do not go beyond the limits.God does not love those who go beyond thelimits.”(2:190)“…expel them from where they expelled you.”(2:191)When is violencejustified?
• 1978 UN General Assembly Resolutionreaffirmed:“the legitimacy of the struggle ofpeoples for independence… from...foreign occupation by all availablemeans, particularly armed struggle.”When is violencejustified?
Retaliation for aggression:“And fight in God’s cause against those whoinitially wage war against you, but do notinitiate aggression for, verily, God doesnot love aggressors… Thus if anyonecommits aggression against you, attackhim just as he attacked you – but remainconscious of God, and know that God iswith those who are conscious of Him.”(2:190, 194)When is violencejustified?
JihadMohammed’s rules of engagement:• Never kill innocent people• Never torture prisoners of war• Never kill animals or destroy crops, except for food• Never mutilate the dead• Don’t destroy infrastructures• Protect women, children, the elderly• Bury the dead of both sides• Provide prisoners’ needssee www.un.org
What isJihad?• The struggle for self-perfection• The struggle for social perfection• The struggle for peace