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Six Sigma was invented by Motorola, Inc. in 1986 as a metric for measuring defects and improving quality. Since then, it has evolved to a robust business improvement methodology that focuses an organization on customer requirements, process alignment, analytical rigor and timely execution.
Six Sigma - A vision of quality which equates with only 3.4 defects per million opportunities for each product or service transaction. Strives for perfection.
DFSS – (Design for Six Sigma) is a systematic methodology utilizing tools, training and measurements to enable us to design products and processes that meet customer expectations and can be produced at Six Sigma quality levels. (DMADV - Define, Measure, Analyze, Design, Verify)
DMAIC – (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control) is a process for continued improvement. It is systematic, scientific and fact based. This closed-loop process eliminates unproductive steps, often focuses on new measurements, and applies technology for improvement.
A process is all the activities involved in producing a product or service for a customer. It is cross-functional in nature
Quality is defined by customer requirements for the chosen process
Defects are defined and counted
Inconsistencies in the process, known as variation, are studied
Causes of variation are identified and addressed
Key Terminology Critical to Quality Attributes most important to the customer Defect Failing to deliver what the customer wants Opportunity Event where success or failure can be determined Process Capability Level of quality your process can deliver X Underlying factors that affect Ys Y Measures being addressed by the project
Key Terminology Variation What the customer sees and feels Stable Operations Ensuring consistent, predictable processes to improve what the customer sees and feels Common Cause of Variation A source of failure that is always present as part of the random variation inherent in the process Special Cause of Variation A source of failure that lies outside the Process, and so is intermittent, unpredictable, unstable
DMAIC Define Measure Improve Analyze Control Team Chartering Customer Focus Process Mapping Measurement Variation Data Collection Data Analysis Process Analysis and Focus Root Cause Analysis Quantify Opportunity Generate Solutions Select Solutions Implementation Planning Monitor the Process Documentation Institutionalize
Case Study IT services business Customer service call center
Goal statement: "Increase the call center's industry-measured customer satisfaction rating from its current-level (90th percentile = 75 percent) to the target level (90th percentile = 85 percent) by end of the fourth-quarter without increasing support costs.“
Milestones, tasks, responsibilities, schedule and communication plan.
"What influences your level of satisfaction with our services?"
Summarize customer requirements
Identify measures for each requirement
Define Requirement Measure (CTQ) Quickly connect with a helpful person Wait Time Get the information I need Transfers; Service Time Apply the information, with help if needed Customer Satisfaction, Support Cost Understand how to avoid problems recurring Days to Close
Details of the plan for the Monday staffing pilot program:
Measurement system issues: Revise existing sampling plan and data collection process to distinguish new staff from old staff.
Because the current customer satisfaction sampling gives only 1 data point per month (not enough to see a change), arrange a special sample – five per day for the first 60 days of the pilot (80 percent from existing staff, 20 percent from new staff).
People and logistics issues: Communicate what is happening and why. Emphasize evaluation is not of individuals, only overall impact.
ANOVA ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA), a calculation procedure to allocate the amount of variation in a process and determine if it is significant or is caused by random noise.
Cause and Effect Diagram A cause and effect diagram is a visual tool used to logically organize possible causes for a specific problem or effect by graphically displaying them in increasing detail. It helps to identify root causes and ensures common understanding of the causes. It is also called an Ishikawa diagram.
Control Chart A graphical tool for monitoring changes that occur within a process, by distinguishing variation that is inherent in the process (common cause) from variation that yield a change to the process (special cause).
Kano Analysis Kano analysis is a quality measurement tool used to prioritize customer requirements based on their impact to customer satisfaction.