Principles Of Adult Learning By Ravinder Tulsiani


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Part of being an effective instructor involves understanding how adults learn best. Compared to children and teens, adults have special needs and requirements as learners.

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Principles Of Adult Learning By Ravinder Tulsiani

  1. 2. Adult Learners <ul><li>What are student reasons for being in school? </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfill a dream </li></ul><ul><li>Get a job or promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Complete a resolution </li></ul><ul><li>Change careers </li></ul><ul><li>??????? </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Adults develop their learning processes in a number of ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Lasts the entire life span of each individual </li></ul><ul><li>Allows an individual to acquire, renew, upgrade, or complete knowledge, skills, and attitudes for functioning effectively in a constantly changing society </li></ul><ul><li>Allows adults to pursue learning throughout their lives, and is a way in which people supplement (and, at times, find a substitute for) learning received in formal settings </li></ul><ul><li>Equips individuals with skills and competencies for completing their &quot;self-education&quot; beyond learning in a formal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Acknowledges the contribution of all available educational influences, including formal and informal. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Adult Learners <ul><li>There is a distinct connection between the historical development of educational models, including the evolution from the pedagogical model to the andragogical model . </li></ul><ul><li>Pedagogy means literally &quot;the art of teaching children.&quot; It developed between the 7th and 12th centuries in the monastic schools of Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>Secular schools in the 19th century followed the pedagogical model, which was the only one available. </li></ul><ul><li>The basic assumption of the pedagogical model is that the teacher is fully responsible for imparting knowledge, primarily through lecture, while the student's role is that of a passive receiver of knowledge. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Adult Learners <ul><li>Recent educational theorists (mostly Malcolm Knowles) have developed an andragogical model based on the following assumptions: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Adults need to know why they are learning; </li></ul><ul><li>b)   Adults need to be seen as competent; </li></ul><ul><li>c) Adults want their knowledge and skills acknowledged in the classroom; </li></ul><ul><li>d) Adults need to be self-directed and experientially involved in their learning; and </li></ul><ul><li>e)   Adults want learning to be life-centered and applicable </li></ul><ul><li>We should base our model based on andragogical assumptions. </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation methods allow students to be active and self-directed in their learning. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Adult Learners <ul><li>The majority of adult learners work, most full-time </li></ul><ul><li>Adult students are extremely well educated; 85% have some college education </li></ul><ul><li>80% of adult students are between the ages of 25 – 44 </li></ul><ul><li>More women than men study as adults </li></ul><ul><li>Most adults seek degree programs </li></ul><ul><li>About 70% of the courses taken by adults are in their career fields </li></ul><ul><li>About 40% receive some level of tuition assistance from employers </li></ul>
  6. 7. Adult Learners <ul><li>The majority of adults do not learn for the sheer pleasure of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Adults learn in order to cope with change in their lives </li></ul><ul><li>Every adult who learns because of a transition can point to a specific event that triggered the transition, and thus, learning </li></ul><ul><li>Trigger events occur unevenly in several arenas of adult life </li></ul>
  7. 8. Adult Learners <ul><li>Adults seek greater involvement in decisions involving their education </li></ul><ul><li>The maturity level of adults indicates that they can accomplish more learning in less time </li></ul><ul><li>Adults place great value in education that offers convenience </li></ul><ul><li>Adults prefer goal directed learning orientations </li></ul><ul><li>Adults are looking for the acquisition of useful and relevant knowledge </li></ul>
  8. 9. Adult Learners <ul><li>Lecture 10% retention rate </li></ul><ul><li>Reading 20% </li></ul><ul><li>Audiovisual 30% </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion 50% </li></ul><ul><li>Practice by Doing 80% </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate use of Learning 90% </li></ul>
  9. 10. Adult Learners <ul><li>Should focus on need-to-know learning </li></ul><ul><li>Is self-directed learning </li></ul><ul><li>Takes into account the learner’s experience </li></ul><ul><li>Involves a readiness to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Includes an orientation to learning </li></ul><ul><li>Is fostered by adult motivation to learn </li></ul>
  10. 11. Adult Learners <ul><li>Is Teaching the purpose of education or is learning the purpose of education? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the difference? </li></ul>
  11. 12. Adult Learners <ul><li>Teaching Culture Learning Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Delivers instruction Produces Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Offers Courses & Programs Creates learning environments </li></ul><ul><li>Improves quality of instruction Improves quality of learning </li></ul><ul><li>Transfers knowledge from faculty Elicits student discovery to students and construction of knowledge </li></ul>
  12. 13. Adult Learners <ul><li>Teaching Culture Learning Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Atomistic Holistic </li></ul><ul><li>50 minute lecture Learning modalities </li></ul><ul><li>Covering material Specified outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Time held as a constant Learning held as a constant learning varies Time varies </li></ul><ul><li>Degree = accumulated credit hours Degree = demonstrated knowledge & skills </li></ul>
  13. 14. Adult Learners <ul><li>Teaching Culture Learning Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is external Knowledge is internal </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge delivered by instructors Knowledge is constructed and created </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is cumulative & linear Learning is nested & interactive </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher centered Learner centered </li></ul><ul><li>Talent & ability are rare Talent and ability are abundant </li></ul>
  14. 15. Adult Learners <ul><li>Group Learning should be an integral part of the educational experience </li></ul><ul><li>Group discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Scenarios </li></ul><ul><li>Panel discussions </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Learning games </li></ul><ul><li>Debates </li></ul>
  15. 16. Adult Learners Key advantages of the group interaction include the following : 1.Students gain knowledge and experience from each other 2. A real-world working environment is simulated 3. Individual strengths and weaknesses are blended 4. A sharing of teaching and learning responsibilities is facilitated 5. Self-confidence and self-esteem are increased 6. Leadership and participatory skills are developed 7. Interpersonal communication skills are strengthened 8. Achievement of a higher level of quality and performance in project assignments is possible; and 9. Decision-making skills are developed.
  16. 17. Adult Learners <ul><li>Good teams possess: </li></ul><ul><li>Excellent process skills </li></ul><ul><li>Team dynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-through on commitments </li></ul><ul><li>Open and honest communication among members </li></ul><ul><li>Use of active listening skills </li></ul><ul><li>Constructive resolution of conflicts and disagreements. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Adult Learners