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  1. 1. GLASS <ul><li>Glass generally refers to hard, brittle, transparent material, such as those used for windows, many bottles, or eyewear. Examples of such solid materials include, but are not limited to, soda-lime glass, borosilicate glass, acrylic glass, sugar glass, Muscovy-glass, or aluminium oxynitride. . Many glasses contain silica as their main component and glass former . </li></ul><ul><li>However, glass science and physics commonly includes only inorganic amorphous solids, while plastics and similar organics are covered by polymer science, biology and further scientific disciplines. </li></ul><ul><li>Glass plays an essential role in science and industry. The optical and physical properties of glass make it suitable for applications such as flat glass, container glass, optics and optoelectronics material, laboratory equipment, thermal insulator (glass wool), reinforcement fiber (glass-reinforced plastic, glass fiber reinforced concrete), and art. </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>What are the chemical properties of glass? Glass is almost completely made of silica (silicon dioxide), the naturally occuring form of the element silicon. This is basically the same substance as quartz and common sand. Silica is the most abundant substance on Earth and is paradoxically a liquid. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  3. 3. Wine glass A wine glass is a type of glass stemware which is used to drink and taste wine. It is generally composed of three parts: the bowl, stem, and foot. Selection of a particular wine glass for a wine style is important, as the glass shape can influence its perception.   Wine glasses made of fused or cut glass will often interfere with the flavor of the wine,as well as creating a rough, thick lip, from which it is not as pleasurable to drink. TYPES OF GLASS AND THEIR PROPERTIES
  4. 4. <ul><li>Red wine glasses </li></ul><ul><li>Glasses for red wine are characterized by their rounder, wider bowl, which increases the rate of oxidization. As oxygen from the air chemically interacts with the wine, flavor and aroma are subtly altered. This process of oxidization is generally more compatible with red wines, whose complex flavors are smoothed out after being exposed to air. Red wine glasses can have particular styles of their own, such as </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Bordeaux glass : tall with a broad bowl, and is designed for full bodied red wines like Cabernet and Merlot as it directs wine to the back of the mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>Burgundy glass : broader than the Bordeaux glass, it has a bigger bowl to accumulate aromas of more delicate red wines such as Pinot Noir. This style of glass directs wine to the tip of the tongue. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>White wine glasses </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>White wine glasses vary enormously in size and shape, from the delicately tapered Champagne flute, to the wide and shallow glasses used to drink Chardonnay. Different shaped glasses are used to accentuate the unique characteristics of different styles of wine. Wide mouthed glasses function similarly to red wine glasses discussed above, promoting rapid oxidization which alters the flavor of the wine. White wines which are best served slightly oxidized are generally full flavored wines, such as oaked chardonnay. For lighter, fresher styles of white wine, oxidization is less desirable as it is seen to mask the delicate nuances of the wine. To preserve a crisp, clean flavor, many white wine glasses will have a smaller mouth, which reduces surface area and in turn, the rate of oxidization. In the case of sparkling wine, such as Champagne or Asti Spumante, an even smaller mouth is used to keep the wine sparkling longer in the glass. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Crown glass (optics) </li></ul><ul><li>Crown glass is type of optical glass used in lenses and other optical components. </li></ul><ul><li>Crown glass is produced from alkali-lime (RCH) silicates containing approximately 10% potassium oxide. </li></ul><ul><li>As well as the specific material named crown glass , there are other optical glasses with similar properties that are also called crown glasses. Borosilicates contain about 10% boric oxide, have good optical and mechanical characteristics, and are resistant to chemical and environmental damage. Other additives used in crown glasses include zinc oxide, phosphorus pentoxide, barium oxide, and fluorite. </li></ul><ul><li>A concave lens of flint glass is commonly combined with a convex lens of crown glass to produce an achromatic doublet. The dispersions of the glasses partially compensate for each other, producing reduced chromatic aberration compared to a singlet lens with the same focal length. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Borosilicate glass </li></ul><ul><li>Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with the main glass-forming constituents silica and boron oxide. Borosilicate glasses are most well known for having very low coefficient of thermal expansion, making them resistant to thermal shock, more so than any other common glass. </li></ul><ul><li>Borosilicate glass has a very low thermal expansion coefficient, about one-third that of ordinary glass. This reduces material stresses caused by temperature gradients, thus making it more resistant to breaking. This makes it a popular material for objects like telescope mirrors, where it is essential to have very little deviation in shape. </li></ul><ul><li>While more resistant to thermal shock than other types of glass, borosilicate glass can still crack or shatter when subject to rapid or uneven temperature variations. When broken, borosilicate glass tends to crack into large pieces </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Lead glass </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Lead glass is a variety of glass in which lead replaces the calcium content of typical potash glasses . Lead glass contains typically 18–35 mol % PbO, while modern lead crystal , historically also known as flint glass due to the original silica source, contains a minimum of 24% lead oxide.Lead glass is desirable due to its decorative properties. </li></ul><ul><li>Technically, the term crystal should never be applied to glass, as glass, by definition, lacks a crystalline structure . The use of the term lead crystal remains popular due to historical and commercial reasons; originally stemming from the Venetian use of the word cristallo to describe the rock crystal imitated by Murano glassmakers. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>THE USES OF GLASS </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Glass is a hard, manufactured solid with transparent properties that is used for a variety of purposes such as eyewear, bottles, windows and even certain types of furniture. Glass is frequently used to decorate living rooms, as with glass coffee tables, and can even be molded into decorative works of art. When you order glass from an online or local company, you will have a variety of types to choose from. You may want to order thin glass or a higher quality of glass that is more durable; when you order through a specialty store, you can usually customize the thickness of the glass. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>You can also order soundproof glass, which acts as a sound-deadener and comes in very handy when used for your home's outside windows. You may also want to consider tempered glass, which is more durable and less likely to shatter. This type of glass is used in situations where safety is important, as it is up to five times as strong as regular glass and, due to the treatment it receives in the manufacturing process, is heat-resistant as well. This particular type of glass is so useful and durable that many local building codes requires new buildings to use tempered glass for their outside windows </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>What is a Ceramic ? </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>The properties of ceramic materials, like all materials, are dictated by the types of atoms present, the types of bonding between the atoms, and the way the atoms are packed together. This is known as the atomic scale structure. Most ceramics are made up of two or more elements. This is called a compound </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>The atoms in ceramic materials are held together by a chemical bond. The two most common chemical bonds for ceramic materials are covalent and ionic. For metals, the chemical bond is called the metallic bond. The bonding of atoms together is much stronger in covalent and ionic bonding than in metallic. That is why, generally speaking, metals are ductile and ceramics are brittle. Due to ceramic materials wide range of properties, they are used for a multitude of applications. In general, most ceramics are: </li></ul><ul><li>hard, </li></ul><ul><li>wear-resistant, </li></ul><ul><li>brittle, </li></ul><ul><li>refractory, </li></ul><ul><li>thermal insulators, </li></ul><ul><li>electrical insulators, </li></ul><ul><li>nonmagnetic, </li></ul><ul><li>oxidation resistant, </li></ul><ul><li>prone to thermal shock, and </li></ul><ul><li>chemically stable. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Uses of ceramics </li></ul><ul><li>Ceramics can be used for industrial, commercial or art purposes. Industrial ceramics is about the use of ceramics to develop ceramic materials with special properties such as heat resistance, hardness, electrical conductance, etc., to build industrial and scientific components. Commercial ceramics includes the use of ceramics to manufacture everyday products using ceramic materials, e.g. sanitary-ware, wall and floor tiles, etc. Ceramics can also be an art form that provides relaxation and the ability to be creative. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>END </li></ul>