SULPHURIC  ACID
USES OF SULPHURIC ACID <ul><li>Used to remove oxides from the surface of metals (metallurgy) </li></ul><ul><li>One of the ...
<ul><li>Mainly used in producing fertilisers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superphosphate fertilisers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
MANUFACTURE OF SULPHURIC ACID <ul><li>Sulphuric acid is made from sulphur dioxide, SO 2 , by the  Contact Process . </li><...
<ul><li>STAGE 1 </li></ul><ul><li>In the furnace, sulphur is burnt in dry air at a temperature 100°C to produce sulphur di...
<ul><li>STAGE 3 </li></ul><ul><li>In the absorber, the sulphur trioxide, SO 3  is first reacted with concentration sulphur...
SULPHUR DIOXIDE AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION <ul><li>Effects in the human: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coughing </li></ul></ul><u...
BAD EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN <ul><li>Cause respiratory problems in human </li></ul><ul><li>Corrodes the building and metal str...
REDUCING ACID RAIN <ul><li>Most acids causing acids rain are from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulphuric acid </li></ul></ul><ul...
REDUCING THE ACIDITY UN THE LAKES, RIVER AND SOIL <ul><li>It can be reduced with the following chemicals </li></ul><ul><ul...
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Sulphuric Acid

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Sulphuric Acid

  1. 1. SULPHURIC ACID
  2. 2. USES OF SULPHURIC ACID <ul><li>Used to remove oxides from the surface of metals (metallurgy) </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most important industrial chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Used in manufacturing of almost all products </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Mainly used in producing fertilisers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superphosphate fertilisers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulphuric acid + Calcium phosphate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2H 2 SO 4 + Ca 3 (PO 4 ) 2 -> Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ammonia sulphate fertilisers: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulphuric acid + Ammonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2NH 3 + H 2 SO 4 -> (NH 4 )2SO 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sulphonic acid reacts with sodium hydroxide to form sodium alkyl sulphonate, which is a detergent. </li></ul>
  4. 4. MANUFACTURE OF SULPHURIC ACID <ul><li>Sulphuric acid is made from sulphur dioxide, SO 2 , by the Contact Process . </li></ul><ul><li>The raw materials used are sulphur, air and water and it consist of 3 stages </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>STAGE 1 </li></ul><ul><li>In the furnace, sulphur is burnt in dry air at a temperature 100°C to produce sulphur dioxide. </li></ul>CONTACT PROCESS STAGES <ul><li>STAGE 2 </li></ul><ul><li>In the converter, sulphur dioxide, SO2 and excess oxygen gas, O2 are passed over a few plates of vanadium(V) oxide, V2O5 catalyst at 450°C to produce sulphur trioxide, SO3. </li></ul><ul><li>2SO 2 + O 2 ⇄ 2SO 3 </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>STAGE 3 </li></ul><ul><li>In the absorber, the sulphur trioxide, SO 3 is first reacted with concentration sulphuric acid, H 2 SO 4 to form a product called oleum. </li></ul><ul><li>The oleum, H2S2O7 is the dilute with water to produce concentrated sulphuric acid, H2SO4 in large quantities. </li></ul><ul><li>The two reactions in the 3 rd stage are equivalent to adding sulphur trioxide, SO3 directly to water. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SO 3 + H 2 O -> H 2 SO 4 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>This reaction not carried out in industry because it is too vigorous. </li></ul><ul><li>It produces a large cloud of sulphuric acid mist. This mist is corrosive and pollutes the air. </li></ul>
  7. 7. SULPHUR DIOXIDE AND ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION <ul><li>Effects in the human: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coughing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chest pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shortness of breath </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lung diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can cause acid rain </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the reaction of SO 2 with rainwater </li></ul><ul><li>2SO 2 + O 2 + 2H 2 O -> 2H 2 SO 4 </li></ul>
  8. 8. BAD EFFECTS OF ACID RAIN <ul><li>Cause respiratory problems in human </li></ul><ul><li>Corrodes the building and metal structures especially with carbonate and active metal </li></ul><ul><li>Lakes and rivers become acidic </li></ul><ul><li>A threat to aquatic life because the decrease of the pH value of the water </li></ul><ul><li>pH of the soil decreases </li></ul><ul><li>Salts are leached out of the top soil </li></ul><ul><li>Roots of trees are destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Plants die of malnutrition and diseases </li></ul>AIR POLLUTIONS WATER POLLUTIONS SOIL POLLUTIONS
  9. 9. REDUCING ACID RAIN <ul><li>Most acids causing acids rain are from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulphuric acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SO 3 + H 2 O -> H 2 SO 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sulphurous acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SO 2 + H 2 O -> H 2 SO 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbonic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 + H 2 O -> H 2 CO 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But, it can be reduced by reacting the gas with:- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium carbonate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> CaCO 3 + SO 2 -> CaSO 3 + CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium oxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CaO + SO 2  CaSO 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4CaO + 4SO 2 + 2O 2 -> 4CaSO 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium sulphate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2CaSO 3 + O 2 -> 2CaSO 4 </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. REDUCING THE ACIDITY UN THE LAKES, RIVER AND SOIL <ul><li>It can be reduced with the following chemicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium oxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CaO + 2H + -> Ca 2+ + H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium hydroxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ca(OH) 2 + 2H + -> Ca 2+ + 2H 2 O </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium carbonate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CaCO 3 + 2H + -> Ca 2+ + H 2 O + CO 2 </li></ul></ul>

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