Service is any act or performance that
one party can offer to another that is
essentially intangible and does not result
in any ownership of anything. Its
production may or may not be tied to
Defense, postal, hospitality, education,
airlines, law firms, entertainment etc.
Characteristics of Service
It has 4 major characteristics:
‘p’s of Service Marketing
1. People : selection, training & motivation
of employees can make a huge
difference in customer satisfaction.
2. Process : Here service companies such
different formats as cafeteria-style, fast-
food, buffet & candlelight.
3. Physical evidence : Actual experience
Qualities of services
1. Search qualities: The buyer can evaluate
2. Experience qualities: The buyer can
evaluate after purchase.
3. Credence qualities: The buyer normally
finds hard to evaluate even after
Difference between service
and product marketing
The majority of differences in how to market
services and products are attributed to four
Measurement aspects in
There are two processes of measuring
service marketing :
1. Objective process : this method includes
A. Primary process
B. Secondary process
2. Subjective process : SERVQUAL method
is used in this process to measure service
SERVQUAL is an marketing aspect means
service quality framework and measures
the scale of quality in service sectors.
It was developed in 1980s by
zeithami, parasuraman and berry.
Later this is refined into the RATER model.
This model deals with the objective of
bridging the gap between the perception
and expectation of customers.
Dimension of RATER model
RATER model identifies and bridges the gap
between the perception and expectation
which are as follows:
1. Management gap
It deals with the expected services by
customers and management perception of
2. Quality specification gap
This gap identifies the difference between the
management perception and actual
specification of customer experience.
3. Service delivery gap
Identifies difference between customer driven
service design and standards and service
4. Market communication gap
Found out the difference between the
delivery of the customer experience and
what is to be communicated customer.
5. Perceived service quality gap
Identifies the customer perception of
experience and customer perception of
Uses of SERVQUAL
We can evaluate service quality from the
We can track customer’s expectations and
We can compare a set of servqual scores
against those of competitors.
We can compare the expectations and
perceptions of different customer groups.
We can assess the expectations and
perceptions of internal customers.
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