INTRODUCTION
 „Instrument „ means any written document by
which a right is created in favour of some
person.
 “negotiabl...
CONTD-
 Thus, a negotiable instrument is a document
by which rights vested in a person can be
transferred to another pers...
NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS
ORIGIN : In the year 1881.
SCOPE : Applicable in entire India except the
State of Jammu & Kashmir.
...
MEANING
 There are certain documents which are freely
used in commercial transactions and monetary
dealings. These docume...
S 13
 A negotiable instrument means a promissory
note, a bill of exchange or a cheque payable
either to order or to the b...
Kinds of negotiable instrument
Negotiable instrument Negotiable instrument
By STATUTE . By custom or usage
1) Promissory n...
CHARACTERISTICS OF A NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENT
1) Freely transferable: The property in a negotiable, instrument
passes from on...
CONTD -
Example S sells certain goods to B. B gives
a promissory note to S for the price. He
refuses to pay the promissory...
CONTD -
Recovery: He can sue upon the instrument in his own
name.
The transferee of the instrument need not give notice
of...
PRE- SUMPTION OF NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENT
Until the contrary is proved, the following
presumptions shall be made. (sec 118 &...
CONTD -
Transfer of a N.I were made in order in which they
appear.
It is presumed that a lost negotiable instrument is
d...
PROMISSORY NOTE
Sec.4
“ A promissory note is an instrument in writing
containing an unconditional undertaking signed by
th...
PARTIES
MAKER : The person who makes the promissory note
and promises to pay is called the Maker.
PAYEE : The person to wh...
ESSENTIALS OF THE PROMISSORY NOTES
1. It must be in writing .
2. It must contain a promise or undertaking to pay a definit...
EXAMPLE
a) I promise to pay Ram or order Rs.2000{PN}
b) I acknowledge myself to be indebted to Shiva in
Rs.5000 to be paid...
FORMAT OF PROMISSORY NOTE
Rs. 1,000 Delhi, February10,2009
Three months after date I promise to pay Shyam or
order the sum...
BILL OF EXCHANGE
Sec.5 :
“A bill of exchange is an instrument in writing containing an
Unconditional order signed by the m...
PARTIES
DRAWER: The person who makes the bill of exchange is called
drawer.
DRAWEE: The person who is directed to pay is c...
FORMAT OF BILL OF EXCHANGE
Rs. 500 Greater Noida,21 Feb.2009
Three months after the date pay to Ram or order the sum of Fi...
ESSENTIALS FEATURES OF BILL OF EXCHANGE:
1. It must be in writing.
2. It must contain an order to pay a definite sum of mo...
CHEQUE
Sec.6 :
“ A cheque is a bill of exchange drawn on a specified
banker & not expense to be payable on a specified
ban...
FORMAT OF CHEQUE
No.……..
Date………..2010
Pay…………………………………………………………or bearer
the sum of Rs…………………………………
Rs…………………
A/c No LF N...
PARTIES
DRAWER: The person who makes a cheque is called Drawer.
DRAWEE: The person who is directed to pay is called Drawee...
ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF CHEQUE:
1. It is always drawn by a bank & not by any other institutions.
2. It always payable on dem...
CROSSING OF CHEQUES
 CHEQUE CROSSED GENERALLY - Where a cheque bears across
its face an addition of the words “and compan...
CONTD -
 PAYMENT OF CHEQUE CROSSED GENERALLY OR SPECIALLY -
Where a cheque is crossed generally, the banker on whom it is...
HOLDER
Sec.8
The Holder of a Promissory note, B.O.E or CHEQUE
means any person entitled in his own name to the
possession ...
HOLDER
1) The person must be entitled to receive payment or receive the
amount by filling a suit in his own name against o...
HOLDER IN DUE COURSE
Sec.9
Any person who for consideration becomes the possessor of the
promissory note, B.O.E or Cheque ...
WHEN DOES A PERSON BECOMES A
HOLDER IN DUE COURSE
Before the amount mentioned in the instrument becomes payable.
1) Withou...
CONTD -
A holder of a negotiable instrument will not be a holder in due
course if:-
a) he has obtained the instrument by g...
PRIVILEGES OF HOLDER IN DUE COURSE
1)Inchoate stamped instrument: A person, who has
signed & delivered to another a stampe...
CONTD -
3) Fictitious payee: Where a bill is drawn payable to the
drawer‟s order in fictitious name & is indorsed in the s...
CONTD -
5) Instrument cleansed of all defects: Once a negotiable instrument
passes through the hands of a holder in due co...
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HOLDER AND HOLDER
IN DUE COURSE
 A holder can obtain an
instrument without
consideration
 If an instr...
NEGOTIATION
Method of transfer
An instrument is said to be negotiated
when a promissory note,BOE,cheque is
transferred t...
CONTD-
 Meaning of endorsement – An endorsement
means signing the negotiable instrument on
the back of ,or face thereof o...
PRESENTMENT
Presentment for Acceptance (required
only in case of BOE)
Presentment for payment
Presentment made to the d...
DISHONOUR (S 92)
 A negotiable instrument is said to be
dishonoured by non-payment when the
maker, acceptor or drawee, as...
BOUNCING OF CHEQUES (S 138- S142)
 A cheque is said to be bounced or dishonored by non-
payment when the drawer of the ch...
CONTD -
 The penalty can be upto two years imprisonment or fine
upto twice the amount of cheque or both. The offence
can ...
NOTING
When a cheque is dishonoured generally
the bank who refuses payment returns
back the cheque gives reasons in writi...
PROTEST
Protest is a formal certificate issued by the
notary public certifying the dishonour of
the bill or note.
It has...
DISCHARGE FROM LIABILITY
By payment
By cancellation
By release
By non-presentment for acceptance of a
bill of exchange...
BANKER AND CUSTOMER
 No statutory definition of banker
 NI Act defines a banker as any person acting
as a banker
 Custo...
OBLIGATIONS OF A BANKER
 To honour cheques.
 To keep a proper record of the transactions.
 To abide by the instructions...
PROTECTION GRANTED TO BANKER
 Protection of paying banker –
 where a cheque payable to order purports to be
indorsed by ...
CONTD-
 Protection of collecting banker – A banker
who has in good faith received payment for a
customer‟s crossed cheque...
CAMPUS OVERVIEW
907/A Uvarshad,
Gandhinagar
Highway, Ahmedabad
– 382422.
Ahmedabad Kolkata
Infinity Benchmark,
10th Floor,...
THANK YOU
Negotiable  instruments act
Negotiable  instruments act
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Negotiable instruments act

975

Published on

Negotiable instruments act - Unitedworld School of Business

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
975
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
101
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Negotiable instruments act

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION  „Instrument „ means any written document by which a right is created in favour of some person.  “negotiable” – means whereby rights in an instrument can be transferred by one person to another
  2. 2. CONTD-  Thus, a negotiable instrument is a document by which rights vested in a person can be transferred to another person in accordance with the provisions of the Negotiable instruments Act 1881
  3. 3. NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENTS ORIGIN : In the year 1881. SCOPE : Applicable in entire India except the State of Jammu & Kashmir. Applicability: Deals with law relating to three specific instruments, viz. Promissory note, Bill of exchange and cheque.
  4. 4. MEANING  There are certain documents which are freely used in commercial transactions and monetary dealings. These documents, if they satisfy certain conditions are known as “Negotiable Instruments.”  A Negotiable instrument is a method of transferring a debt from one person to another.
  5. 5. S 13  A negotiable instrument means a promissory note, a bill of exchange or a cheque payable either to order or to the bearer, whether the words „order‟ or ‟bearer‟ appear on the instrument or not
  6. 6. Kinds of negotiable instrument Negotiable instrument Negotiable instrument By STATUTE . By custom or usage 1) Promissory note. 1) Bank draft. 2) Bill of exchange. 2) Pay orders. 3) Cheque. 3) Hundies. 4) Delivery order Not negotiable instruments: Share certificate, bill of lading, postal order
  7. 7. CHARACTERISTICS OF A NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENT 1) Freely transferable: The property in a negotiable, instrument passes from one person to another by a simple process, i.e., by mere delivery if it is payable to bearer, and by indorsement and delivery if it is payable to order. 2) Holder‟s title free from all defects: The holder in due course (one who acquires the instrument in good faith and for consideration) gets it free from all defects.
  8. 8. CONTD - Example S sells certain goods to B. B gives a promissory note to S for the price. He refuses to pay the promissory note, claiming that the goods are not according to order. If S sues B on the note , B‟s defence is good. But if he negotiates the note to H, a holder in due course, B‟s defence will be of no avail.
  9. 9. CONTD - Recovery: He can sue upon the instrument in his own name. The transferee of the instrument need not give notice of transfer to the party liable to pay. A negotiable instrument can be transferred infinitum, ie, can be transferred any number of times till maturity.
  10. 10. PRE- SUMPTION OF NEGOTIABLE INSTRUMENT Until the contrary is proved, the following presumptions shall be made. (sec 118 & 119). N.I was made, drawn, accepted, indorsed or transferred for consideration.  NI Bearing a date was made or drawn on that particular date only. B.O.E was accepted within a reasonable time after its date & before its maturity.
  11. 11. CONTD - Transfer of a N.I were made in order in which they appear. It is presumed that a lost negotiable instrument is duly stamped. Holder of a negotiable instrument is a holder in due course except the case where the instrument has been obtained by fraud
  12. 12. PROMISSORY NOTE Sec.4 “ A promissory note is an instrument in writing containing an unconditional undertaking signed by the maker to pay a certain sum of money only to or to the order of a certain person or to the bearer of the instrument”. .
  13. 13. PARTIES MAKER : The person who makes the promissory note and promises to pay is called the Maker. PAYEE : The person to whom the payment is to be made is called the Payee. HOLDER: The holder is either the payee or someone to whom he may have indorsed (transfer) the note is known as Holder. ENDORSER: The person who indorses the note to another is called the Endorser . ENDORSEE: The person to whose favour the note is endorsed is called the Endorsee
  14. 14. ESSENTIALS OF THE PROMISSORY NOTES 1. It must be in writing . 2. It must contain a promise or undertaking to pay a definite sum of money. 3. The promise to pay must be unconditional. 4. It must be signed by the maker. 5. The payee must be identified & must be certain. 6. The sum payable must be certain. 7. The amount payable must be in legal tender in money of India. 8. Other formalities – like date, place ,& stamp must be mentioned.
  15. 15. EXAMPLE a) I promise to pay Ram or order Rs.2000{PN} b) I acknowledge myself to be indebted to Shiva in Rs.5000 to be paid on demand, for value received.{pn} c) I am liable to Arnold Rs.3000 {Not PN} d) I have taken Rs.10000 from John to whom I am accountable for the same with interest. {Not PN} b) I promise to pay Rs.10000 to George seven days after his marriage with Julie. {Not PN}
  16. 16. FORMAT OF PROMISSORY NOTE Rs. 1,000 Delhi, February10,2009 Three months after date I promise to pay Shyam or order the sum of one thousand rupees, for value received. To, Shyam 222, Ashok Vihar Delhi-110052 Stamp Sd/-Ram
  17. 17. BILL OF EXCHANGE Sec.5 : “A bill of exchange is an instrument in writing containing an Unconditional order signed by the maker directing a certain person to pay a certain sum of money only to or to the order of a certain person or to the bearer of the instrument.”
  18. 18. PARTIES DRAWER: The person who makes the bill of exchange is called drawer. DRAWEE: The person who is directed to pay is called drawee. PAYEE: The person to whom the payment is to be made is called payee. ACCEPTOR: When the drawee accepts the bill is called acceptor.
  19. 19. FORMAT OF BILL OF EXCHANGE Rs. 500 Greater Noida,21 Feb.2009 Three months after the date pay to Ram or order the sum of Five Hundred rupees , for value received. To, Shyam 235,Subhash marg delhi-110006. In case of need with Accepted Canara Bank, Delhi Shyam Sd/- Stamp Krishna
  20. 20. ESSENTIALS FEATURES OF BILL OF EXCHANGE: 1. It must be in writing. 2. It must contain an order to pay a definite sum of money. 3. The order to pay must be unconditional. 4. It must be signed by the drawer (who draw money). 5. The drawer, the drawee &the payee must be identified & must be certain. 6. The sum payable must be certain. 7. The bill must contain an order to pay the money in legal tender in India. 8. It must contain the formalities like date, place & stamp etc.
  21. 21. CHEQUE Sec.6 : “ A cheque is a bill of exchange drawn on a specified banker & not expense to be payable on a specified banker & not expense to be payable otherwise than on demand & it includes the electronic image of a truncated cheque & a cheque in the electronic form.
  22. 22. FORMAT OF CHEQUE No.…….. Date………..2010 Pay…………………………………………………………or bearer the sum of Rs………………………………… Rs………………… A/c No LF No Sd/- PUNJAB NATIONAL BANK Subzi Mandi,Delhi -110007 “5777100” 111013035”
  23. 23. PARTIES DRAWER: The person who makes a cheque is called Drawer. DRAWEE: The person who is directed to pay is called Drawee. PAYEE: The person to whom the payment is to be made.
  24. 24. ESSENTIAL FEATURES OF CHEQUE: 1. It is always drawn by a bank & not by any other institutions. 2. It always payable on demand. 3. A cheque can be bearer, order or crossed. 4. The drawee, that is, the banker named must honour the cheque by making payment to the payee when the cheque is presented for payment to the banker at his office during the usual office hours, provided the cheque is properly and validly drawn and the drawer has sufficient funds to his credit. 5. The signature on the cheque must tally with the specimen signature of the concerned drawer. 6. A cheque must be dated.
  25. 25. CROSSING OF CHEQUES  CHEQUE CROSSED GENERALLY - Where a cheque bears across its face an addition of the words “and company” or any abbreviation thereof, between two parallel transverse lines, or of two parallel transverse lines simply, either with or without the words “not negotiable”, that addition shall be deemed a crossing, and the cheque shall be deemed to be crossed generally. [section 123]  CHEQUE CROSSED SPECIALLY - Where a cheque bears across its face an addition of the name of a banker,either with or without the words “not negotiable”, that addition shall be deemed a crossing, and the cheque shall be deemed to be crossed specially, and to be crossed to that banker. [section 124].
  26. 26. CONTD -  PAYMENT OF CHEQUE CROSSED GENERALLY OR SPECIALLY - Where a cheque is crossed generally, the banker on whom it is drawn shall not pay it otherwise than to a banker. Where a cheque is crossed specially, the banker on whom it is drawn shall not pay it otherwise than to the banker to whom it is crossed, or his agent for collection. [section 126].  CHEQUE BEARING “NOT NEGOTIABLE” - A person taking a cheque crossed generally or specially, bearing in either case the words “not negotiable”, shall not have, and shall not be capable of giving, a better title to the cheque than the person from whom he took it had. [section 130].  Thus, mere writing words „Not negotiable‟ does not mean that the cheque is not transferable. It is still transferable, but the transferee cannot get title better than what transferor had.
  27. 27. HOLDER Sec.8 The Holder of a Promissory note, B.O.E or CHEQUE means any person entitled in his own name to the possession thereof, and to receive or recover the amount due thereon from the parties thereto. Where the note, bill or cheque is lost or destroyed, its holder is the person so entitled at the time of such loss or destruction.
  28. 28. HOLDER 1) The person must be entitled to receive payment or receive the amount by filling a suit in his own name against other parties to negotiate the instrument giving a valid discharge. 2) In case instrument is lost from the person who was entitled to receive the payment, the subsequent finder does not become it‟s owner. Only the person who was entitled to receive the payment initially is the real owner. 3) The person must have a legal right to possess the instrument in his own name.
  29. 29. HOLDER IN DUE COURSE Sec.9 Any person who for consideration becomes the possessor of the promissory note, B.O.E or Cheque before the amount mentioned in it becomes payable & without having sufficient cause to believe that any defect existed in the title of the person from whom he derives his title.
  30. 30. WHEN DOES A PERSON BECOMES A HOLDER IN DUE COURSE Before the amount mentioned in the instrument becomes payable. 1) Without having sufficient cause to believe that any defect exists in the title of the person from whom, he derives his title 2) He becomes a possessor of a promissory note, b.o.e or cheque . 3) If it is payable to the bearer. 4) Consideration has passed from him. Illustration:- A is a payee for a valuable consideration of a bill payable to order. He gets this instrument from B without knowledge of any defect in B‟s title & its maturity. In this e g. A is a holder in due course.
  31. 31. CONTD - A holder of a negotiable instrument will not be a holder in due course if:- a) he has obtained the instrument by gift or by illegal method. b) he has obtained the instrument after its maturity.
  32. 32. PRIVILEGES OF HOLDER IN DUE COURSE 1)Inchoate stamped instrument: A person, who has signed & delivered to another a stamped but otherwise inchoate instrument , is precluded from asserting, as against a holder in due course, that the instrument has not been filled in accordance with the authority given by him, the stamp being sufficient to cover the amount(sec.20). 2) Liability of prior parties: Every prior party to a negotiable instrument is liable thereon to a holder in due course until the instrument is duly satisfied (sec.36).
  33. 33. CONTD - 3) Fictitious payee: Where a bill is drawn payable to the drawer‟s order in fictitious name & is indorsed in the same hand as the drawer‟s signature, the acceptor is not relieved from liability to any other holder in due course, on the plea that the drawer is fictitious(sec.42). 4) Conditional delivery: If a bill or not is negotiated to a holder in due course, the other parties to the instrument cannot avoid liability on the ground that the delivery of the instrument was conditional or for a special purpose only.
  34. 34. CONTD - 5) Instrument cleansed of all defects: Once a negotiable instrument passes through the hands of a holder in due course, it gets cleansed of its defects provided the holder was himself not a party to the fraud or illegality which affected the instrument in some stage of its journey. Thus any defect in the title of the transferor will not affect the rights of the holder in due course even if he had knowledge of the prior defect provided he himself is not a party to the fraud. Example: A, by fraud, induces B to make a promissory note in his favour. He indorses the note to C, who take it as a holder in due course. C subsequently indorses the note to A, for value. A cannot sue B on the note as he himself is a party to the fraud .
  35. 35. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HOLDER AND HOLDER IN DUE COURSE  A holder can obtain an instrument without consideration  If an instrument is inchoate, a holder of such instrument cannot get good title in the instrument  A holder need not bother about the defect, if any in the title of the instrument  Obtains an instrument with consideration and for value.  Holder in due course acquires a good title even if the instrument is inchoate.  Holder in due course who acquires an instrument knowingly the defect of the title.
  36. 36. NEGOTIATION Method of transfer An instrument is said to be negotiated when a promissory note,BOE,cheque is transferred to any person so as to constitute that person the holder of the instrument Transfer with an intention to transfer the title of the instrument.  Negotiation by delivery  Negotiation by endorsement and delivery
  37. 37. CONTD-  Meaning of endorsement – An endorsement means signing the negotiable instrument on the back of ,or face thereof or, or on a slip of paper annexed thereto
  38. 38. PRESENTMENT Presentment for Acceptance (required only in case of BOE) Presentment for payment Presentment made to the drawee. Must be made before the date of maturity
  39. 39. DISHONOUR (S 92)  A negotiable instrument is said to be dishonoured by non-payment when the maker, acceptor or drawee, as the case maybe makes default in payment upon being duly required to pay the same.  Dishonour by non payment  Dishonour by non acceptance
  40. 40. BOUNCING OF CHEQUES (S 138- S142)  A cheque is said to be bounced or dishonored by non- payment when the drawer of the cheque makes default in the payment upon being duly required by the same.  If a cheque is dishonoured even when presented before expiry of 6 months, the payee or holder in due course is required to give notice to drawer of cheque within 30 days from receiving information from bank..  The drawer should make payment within 15 days of receipt of notice.  If he does not pay within 15 days, the payee has to lodge a complaint with Metropolitan Magistrate or Judicial Magistrate of First Class, against drawer within one month from the last day on which drawer should have paid the amount.
  41. 41. CONTD -  The penalty can be upto two years imprisonment or fine upto twice the amount of cheque or both. The offence can be tried summarily. Notice can be sent to drawer by speed post or courier. Offence is compoundable.  It must be noted that even if penalty is imposed on drawer, he is still liable to make payment of the cheque which was dishonoured. Thus, the fine/imprisonment is in addition to his liability to make payment of the cheque.
  42. 42. NOTING When a cheque is dishonoured generally the bank who refuses payment returns back the cheque gives reasons in writing for the dishonour of the cheque. Noting The holder cause such dishonour to be noted by a notary public upon the instrument or upon a paper attached thereto or partly upon each Noting consists in recording the fact of dishonour by notary public
  43. 43. PROTEST Protest is a formal certificate issued by the notary public certifying the dishonour of the bill or note. It has to be done within a reasonable period of time.
  44. 44. DISCHARGE FROM LIABILITY By payment By cancellation By release By non-presentment for acceptance of a bill of exchange By material alteration
  45. 45. BANKER AND CUSTOMER  No statutory definition of banker  NI Act defines a banker as any person acting as a banker  Customer – A person becomes a customer of a bank when the latter agrees to open an account with the former. Thus, a customer is a person who has some sort of account with the banker. The duration of relationship is immaterial.
  46. 46. OBLIGATIONS OF A BANKER  To honour cheques.  To keep a proper record of the transactions.  To abide by the instructions given by the customer  To not disclose the state of his customer‟s account or affairs  To claim interest on money lent
  47. 47. PROTECTION GRANTED TO BANKER  Protection of paying banker –  where a cheque payable to order purports to be indorsed by or on behalf of the payee, the drawee is discharged by payment in due course.  Where a cheque is originally expressed to be payable to a bearer, the drawee is discharged by payment in due course to the bearer thereof
  48. 48. CONTD-  Protection of collecting banker – A banker who has in good faith received payment for a customer‟s crossed cheque ,does not incur liability , later if it is found that the title is defective
  49. 49. CAMPUS OVERVIEW 907/A Uvarshad, Gandhinagar Highway, Ahmedabad – 382422. Ahmedabad Kolkata Infinity Benchmark, 10th Floor, Plot G1, Block EP & GP, Sector V, Salt-Lake, Kolkata – 700091. Mumbai Goldline Business Centre Linkway Estate, Next to Chincholi Fire Brigade, Malad (West), Mumbai – 400 064.
  50. 50. THANK YOU
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×