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Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change Documentation Report

  1. 1. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate ChangeDocumentation ReportMARCH 19-20, 2012Conference Room, Ateneo School of GovernmentAteneo De Manila UniversityLoyola Heights, Quezon City, Philippines
  2. 2. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate ChangeDocumentation ReportCatalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manilaa Rockefeller Foundation supported projectInnovations at the Base of the Pyramid in Asia ProgramAteneo School of GovernmentMarch 19-20, 2012Conference Room, Ateneo School of GovernmentAteneo De Manila University, Loyola HeightsQuezon City, Philippines
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTSList of AcronymsExecutive Summary ……………………………………………………………..… 1Introduction ……………………………………………………………………….. 2Day 1Module 1 – Sustainable Transport and Climate Change …………………………. 3Module 2 – Sustainable Transport and the Climate Process …………………… 5Module 3 – Transitioning to Low Carbon Transport …………………………….. 6Day 2Module 4 – Climate Finance for Low Carbon Transport …………………...…… 9Module 5 – Measuring the Impact of Low Carbon Transport Interventions on CO2 Emissions ..…………………………………………….....… 10Group Exercise ……………………………………………………………...……. 12Closing Program ………………………………………………………………….. 16Conclusion ………………………………………………………………….…….. 17Training Evaluation……………………………………………………………...…. 17Annexes 1: Module 1 presentation 2: Module 2 presentation 3: Module 3 presentation 4: Module 4 presentation 5: Module 5 presentation 6: Exercise questionnaire on computing CO2 Emissions 7: Group Exercise Guide 8: Output of one of the groups 9: Sample Training Certificate 10: Training Evaluation Report
  4. 4. List of AcronymsADB – Asian Development BankASIF – Avoid Shift Improved FrameworkBRT – Bus Rapid TransitCAI-Asia – Clean Air Initiative for Asian CitiesCC – Climate ChangeCDM – Clean Development MechanismCO2 – Carbon dioxideCSO – Civil Society OrganizationsDENR – Department of Environment and Natural ResourcesDILG – Department of Interior and Local GovernmentDOE – Department of EnergyDOH – Department of HealthDOTC – Department of Transportation and CommunicationDPWH – Department of Public Works and HighwaysEST – Environmentally Sustainable TransportationGEF – Global Environmental FacilityGHG – Greenhouse GasGIZ – Gesellschaft für Internationale ZusammenarbeitICT – Information and Communications TechnologyIPCC – Inter-governmental Panel on Climate ChangeJICA – Japan International Cooperation AgencyLCP – League of Cities of the PhilippinesLGU – Local Government UnitLPG – Liquefied Petroleum GasLRT – Light Rail TransitMM – Metro ManilaMMDA – Metropolitan Manila Development Authority
  5. 5. MRT – Metro Rail TransitNAMA – Nationally Appropriate Mitigation ActionNEDA – National Economic Development AuthorityNGO – Non-government OrganizationNMT – Non-motorized TransportPCA – Partnership for Clean AirPICIERD – Philippine Council for Industry and Energy Research and DevelopmentPPP – Private-Public PartnershipTEEMP – Transport Emissions Evaluation Model for ProjectsTRL – Transport Research LaboratoryUAE – United Arab EmiratesUK – United KingdomUN – United NationsUNFCCC – United Nations Framework Convention on Climate ChangeUSD – United States DollarUSec – Undersecretary
  6. 6. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change19-20, March 2012 | School of Government, Ateneo de Manila UniversityEXECUTIVE SUMMARYAs part of Ateneo School of Government’s efforts to raise awareness and publicparticipation, regular training and workshops about different aspects of climate change areheld. The Training for Sustainable Transport and Climate Change was conducted on March19 - 20, 2012, at the conference room of the School of Government, Ateneo de ManilaUniversity. The training was organized by the Rockefeller Foundation supported project"Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila" in partnership withMetropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA), Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities(CAI-Asia), Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Partnership for Clean Air(PCA), and United Kingdom’s Transport Research Laboratory (TRL). The training is basedon the work of the Bridging the Gap Initiative. “Bridging the Gap: Pathways for Transport inPost 2012 Process" is a partnership that was formed to bridge the gap between thetransport and climate change sectors.The objectives of the training were to: 1) Introduce the concept of climate change, theclimate change process, financing and the land transport sectors contribution to it; 2)Understand find ways how to transition towards low carbon transport; 3) Learn about theclimate financing for low carbon transport; and 4) Know how to measure the impact of lowcarbon transport interventions on carbon emission.The training was attended by 42 participants from different sectors including 26representatives from different local government units of the cities of Marikina, Pasig,Navotas, Mandaluyong, and Valenzuela; three (3) representatives from academe; three (3)representatives from the private sector; representative from Asian Development Bank; andeight (8) representatives from different Non-Government Organizations (NGOs). Theseparticipants came from different background such as environment, health, road safety, cleanair, and disaster management.There were a total of five modules during the two-day training. Four experts who served asresource speakers were assigned specific modules. Three modules were presented on thefirst day. The first module introduced the concept of climate change, sources of greenhousegases in particular the land transport sector and the needs to address it. The second modulediscussed the concepts of climate change mitigation, adaptation, and the climate process.The third module tackled the alternative low carbon transports.The fourth and fifth modules were presented in the second day. The former introduced theconcept of climate financing for low carbon transport while the latter thought how tomeasure the impact of low carbon transport interventions on CO2 emissions. A shortexercise was done on how to measure and calculate carbon emissions. The last activity ofthe training was a group exercise on possible low carbon transport projects. Theparticipants were tasked to provide brief project description, carbon advantages, method ofcarbon calculation, the possible barriers, partners, and how the project can be financed.In general, the Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change garnered positiveresponse from the participants. It enabled both the public and private sector representativesto understand the relationship between climate change, land use and sustainable transport,climate change process and financing, and the opportunity to work in identifying alternativesolutions, current local and international processes, methods, and approaches to climatechange. 1
  7. 7. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change19-20, March 2012 | School of Government, Ateneo de Manila UniversityINTRODUCTIONThe opening remarks that includes the overview of the training was given by Atty. GlyndaBathan-Baterina. She explained that participants will be undergoing through differentmodules that are necessary to enhance their knowledge and skills about sustainabletransport and its relationship with climate change. She then mentioned the role of theAteneo School of Government’s Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities Project and its partnerorganizations such as GIZ, MMDA, CAI-Asia, PCA and TRL in giving information and trainingto people about sustainable transport and climate change. She encouraged everyone to takepart in the activities, meet new people, and share perspectives. Dr. Segundo Romero followed and gave the welcome remarks. He gave an overview of Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities Project, its objectives and activities. He emphasized the important role of government agencies such as DPWH, DOTC and MMDA in innovating and improving the Left Photo: Atty. Baterina giving overview of the training; transport system through the use of modern technologies, Right Photo: Dr. Romero welcoming the participants of the training. such as the Traffic Navigator,in monitoring and helping improve the flow of traffic in Metro Manila. He also mentionedavailable web platforms like Waze, OpenStreet, and, which may aid inimproving Metro Manila’s transportation system, especially public transport. He alsointroduced the concept of New Mobility, or aptly called Inclusive Mobility. Dr. Romero citedthe success of mapping workshop held in Ortigas Business District in Pasig, and urged thecommunity to take into consideration these activities. The last part of his welcome remarksfocused on the idea learning by doing – we share and learn from each other.Ms. Heather Allen of UK’s Transport Research Laboratory introduced each module. Shestated that the modules were prepared by Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit(GIZ). She then requested the participants to finish the program, and stay after the secondday to obtain a certificate of completion and participation. Ms. Allen also said that anevaluation would be solicited from them after the training program. This was followed byself-introduction of the participants.To start the discussion, she surveyed who among the participants knew what climate changewas, who took the public transportation, and who walked most of their time. She thenemphasized the idea of walking as a mode of transportation that is usually unnoticed by mostpeople. Ms. Allen also introduced Dr. Marie Danielle Guillen as the lecturer/facilitator forthe first module. 2
  8. 8. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change19-20, March 2012 | School of Government, Ateneo de Manila UniversityDAY 1MODULE 1 – SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND CLIMATE CHANGEThe first module (Annex 1) began with an example of India’s transportation system whereinits efforts to address climate change were reflected in its transportation policies. In this light,Dr. Guillen asked how the participants understood climate change, and why it needed to beaddressed. Responses about its cause varied. Some suggested about the naturalanthropogenic origin of climate change. Others told about the naturally and unnaturallyoccurring changes in temperature, such as human activities (being the latter). Dr. Guillenthen related to everyone that climate change and the rising temperature could be anopportunity for everyone, especially about new business models on transportation. After Dr. Guillen’s presentation, a couple of participants inquired. Ms. Victoria Segovia, Executive Director of PCA, asked why forestry has become a source of GHG. Dr. Guillen noted that it was more in terms of logging and transportation requirements of logs. In this regard, there was a proposal to change the label to “deforestation” instead. Mr. Rene Pineda, President of Partnership for Clean Air, inquired why UAE greenhouse gas emission per capita Dr. Guillen presenting Module 1 on Sustainable Transport and was the highest. Ms. Allen responded Climate Change that GHG is computed in per capita. Thus, being the country with lowpopulation, the GHG is high in per capita basis. The number of population would affect theresults. She also confirmed that the production of oil of UAE contributed to its level ofcarbon emissions. Ms. Allen cited the interesting case of Singapore that has a very small areabut high in per capita emission.A few responses were solicited as to why carbon emissions from the transport sectors ofdeveloped countries were so high. Some noted the source and usage of fuel, high livingstandards, the planning of the cities (most live in suburbs and longer travel time), and thehigh level of motorization.A participant asked about UK. The country has good public transport but they still havetraffic, and congestion. In response, Ms. Allen pointed out why they put up the picture andemphasized that we need to have congestion otherwise we will have people thatcontinuously move. The real question is not traffic but how to provide options for publictransportation. Private vehicle has remained a status symbol and improving publictransportation requires collective action.On slide 22, Mr. Pineda asked if it is a good (as shown in the graph) that Chennai, Mumbai,and Hong Kong fell below the line of most efficient pattern of the modal share of motorizedprivate mode. Ms. Allen responded that we should be careful on this slide because itconsiders lots of data. Dr. Guillen noted that it was taken years ago and that most probablysituations have changed. 3
  9. 9. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change19-20, March 2012 | School of Government, Ateneo de Manila UniversityDr. Guillen asked the participants how their understanding of Smart Logistics Concept.Varying responses from the participants were given such as traffic light, mass transport,move your office at home, and integrating the use of ICT.For Slide 27, Mr. Pineda shared his insights, comments and questions on Slide 27 as follows: - Insights: The more you pave the road the more traffic – more carbon emission; There is wisdom in chaos; More cars, more mobility, more carbon. It pays to have a plan; it pays to have data to base our decisions from. - Interested to have per capita data when you are stuck in traffic, and when you are doing other things - Is there a tool in existence to measure the per capita?Ms. Allen said that there will be more detailed discussion in Module 4 regarding thequestions of Mr. Pineda. She emphasized that what is interesting in that slide is that you willsee the connection in the land use, the place of the work and the entire environment.On Slide 35, Ms. Allen posted the following questions to the participants: - How many of you are drivers? - How many of you practice eco-driving principle? - Why do you practice it?Many of the participants practiced ecol-driving principles and they do it to reduce cost. Ms.Allen emphasized that we do not immediately realize that while we do it to save, we havegreat positive impact to environment too. After the module, an open forum was held. Mr. Pineda cited the proposed Skybridge of MMDA, but asked if engineering was the solution to ease congestion and flow of traffic. While some thought it is not a good idea, some of the participants shared their views that having Skybridge may result to lesser carbon emission due to less stops. Ms. Allen said yes, that will be true for first 2 years. But by looking at the whole life cycle, you are not really dealing with the Some of the participants sharing their insights during the open forum problem, “like putting a plaster in a wound that will not really heal.” Othercomments and insights from the participants on this matter include: - We have to really make sure to bring the message to politicians that it is a short term option. - Get cost as well and bring it to the media. - Building more roads and more infrastructures are not the solution. - How do you make the mass mode in the places it will work better? - We need to present alternatives to the public. - We need to make the message clear that many of the big infra project did not solve the transport problem. 4
  10. 10. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change19-20, March 2012 | School of Government, Ateneo de Manila UniversityDr. Guillen urged the participants to look at the EST framework in addressing the problem,instead of old structure-centric paradigm. Mr. Ronald Cartagena shared that there is a needfor ordinary people to understand radical change. There is a need to create a balance(whether from different sectors we are coming from) to advocate for sustainable transport.The challenge to national government agency is to make a body that will look at the projectsof DOTC and MMDA to really screen and to look at long term benefits of sustainabletransport.Ms. Allen for her part suggested that, media should be utilized in making the general publicunderstand what sustainable transport is all about. And for the qualities of masstransportation/public transportation, it should be: affordable, good quality of service (e.g.convenient), and available and accessible to everyone.MODULE 2 – SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT AND CLIMATE PROCESSMs. Heather Allen proceeded with the second module (Annex 2) which focused on thesustainable transport and climate process. She began by asking who among the participantsunderstand the meaning of mitigation and adaptation, and if anyone know about the KyotoProtocol. The participants responded with a general understanding that climate change mitigation refers to what people could do to stop or prevent, and lessen the effects of climate change. While climate change adaptation would refer to actions and response of the people in naturally changing environment. Russia was given as an example of one state which put Kyoto Ms. Heather Allen discussing the concepts of sustainable transport and climate process Protocol at the national level and legally binding. She notedthat the on-going process, even in Copenhagen, local government units were given a voice inthe negotiation process with the United Nations, particularly the Inter-governmental Panelon Climate Change (IPCC). In the Philippines, Ms. Allen noted that a Climate Change ActionPlan had been passed into law.The actual reductions per year internationally were estimated to be at 5%, although it wasmentioned that data was hard to gather and monitor. Ms. Allen emphasized that there havebeen significant reductions in the energy and cement sectors, but it was noted that thereverse was reflected to the transport sector.In this module, the concept of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA) was alsointroduced. The participants shared that there is already a group in the country that wouldlike to focus on NAMAs. Ms. Allen recommended exploring the “bridging the gap” websitefor resources and reports that would help create interest and guidance NAMAs. 5
  11. 11. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change19-20, March 2012 | School of Government, Ateneo de Manila UniversityMODULE 3 – TRANSITIONING TOWARDS LOW CARBONTRANSPORTModule 3 (Annex 3) was also presented by Ms. Heather Allen. But prior to the presentationof this module, Ms. Allen asked the participants to give examples of low carbon transport.The participants gave the following examples: bicycles, walking, pedicabs, E-bikes, calesa,public transit (MRT and LRT), Jeepneys, E-jeepneys, tricycles, E-trikes, hybrid cars, hybridbusses, CNG buses, LPG taxis, ferry boats, paddle boats, solar trikes, habal-habal, kuliglig,carpooling, and FX-GT express. A general sentiment was shared by everyone that the country was rich in transportation, but sharing it was another issue. According to her, this made the Philippines one of the poorest in terms of mobility. After the listing down of ideas, each transport and mode of transportation had been classified between “shared” and for “individual-use”. In summary, out of 21 listed examples, only four transport modes are for individual- use. These are bicycles, walking, e- bikes, and hybrid cars. The other modes can be shared. Ms. Allen said that there is good balance between individual and shared transport. She asked the participants, why is it the transport infrastructures are geared towards single/ individual user? Is it because of historical approaches to transport planning? What do we need to make this a priority? Ms. Heather Allen and Dr. Danille Guillen facilitating the session on identifying low carbon transport modes. The participants identified bike lanes, improving sidewalks, providing safeand secure environment and more inclusive approach to transport to start as possible meansto make sustainable transport a priority. There is a need to pay attention on policies andhow policies they are properly implemented.When Ms. Allen asked if there are champions for low carbon transport, Sen. Recto wasgiven as an example with his initiative for pushing for e-vehicle. Ms. Allen emphasized thatwe need to have champions that will push for sustainable transport. She also cited thatpolicy and having champions complement the readiness of people citing as exampleCuritiba’s BRT experience that took 25 years and the experience of Bogota of implementingtheir BRT in 1 to 2 years.On Slide 15, the participants identified that academe and scientific institutions are notincluded in the list of stakeholders in the low carbon transport. Ms. Allen added that generalpublic and media are not usually included but they are the ambassadors of low carbon 6
  12. 12. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change19-20, March 2012 | School of Government, Ateneo de Manila Universitytransport. Developing partnerships and knowledge networks is very important in achievinglow carbon transport.During the open forum, Ms. Allen was surprised how easy for the group to identify a diverselist of modes. That Philippines is transport rich but mobility poor. She also cited that kidsusually get the importance of good transportation and well planned city.Ms. Allen asked the participants the following: - 1 or 2 things that you think the most important? - Things that you didn’t find in the module? - What did they find surprising?A representative from Taguig City shared their idea of “Probinsyodad”. There are two facesof Taguig – the well-planned and developed The Fort, and the old Taguig. The representativeswanted to apply the concepts presented to their City. After listening to the modules, theysaid that they realized that the road should be designed to be more walkable for pedestrians.They are thinking of something in transport to be in this thrust: - Mass transit for Taguig - intercity ; passing along the populated side - Improve infrastructure in the other side of Taguig that have narrow streets and make it more walkable, instead of focusing only to modern side of Taguig.Heather Allen appreciates the ideaand said that it can be an area forchanging the way we think. Insteadof thinking of a problem, it wouldbe worthwhile to turn it into anopportunity. She also cited anexample in Bogota where theybroaden the width of the streetsfor poor population.Other insights, comments, andquestions from the participants arethe following: - In enabling factor, how do we consider the cultural factors? Because in the Philippines, we wanted to be dropped as much as possible at the Participants sharing their insights during the open forum for Module 3 doorsteps of our house (door-to-door connections). - In addition to that, we hop from one mode to other. How do we achieve low fare and organize the modes of transport? - We have a lot of good plans. The problems are in the difficulty of implementation, and the implementers. We need commitment of those involved and concerned. - How does MRT address the problems in transportation? - Mr. Benedicto shared that if we are successful in pushing for low carbon transport, then DOH will have lesser health problems/ issues to address and more resources for other purpose.Heather Allen’s responses are as follows: - Culture is a big challenge. For example, if we cannot organize stakeholders, you cannot come up with single ticketing. 7
  13. 13. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change19-20, March 2012 | School of Government, Ateneo de Manila University - Recommend that you go into stages. You will have problems if you work on it in one time – there is a need for a step- by- step approach. - Cited examples of a cashless system. As long as you have the approach but going towards in a single approach of integrating these into one - On MRT, you have increase the demand in the past five to ten years but also have to increase in capacity. It is not only in MM. Having the right demand and capacity balance is the key.On MRT, Dr. Romero added that it is the most efficient mode of public transportation inMetro Manila. It carries around 600,000 passengers per day. It is lesser to pay fine than payfor more cars. He emphasized that we need to organize transit riders. Question is thatwould you like to do this on a larger level or are there initiatives that we can do in locallevel? There are already things that we can do in local level. That is why the new mobilitymapping we are doing is very important. We can learn at the local level then we becamemore mature towards a regional and national level.On culture and choices – in Philippines the culture plays a lot (e.g. stored value) – peoplenormally do not buy this and rather pay every ride. There is a culture of control on how tospend money on that. Another is the barker that you will give as token/fee. We are in“sachet” mentality. We should understand the behavior of the people. They need us tounderstand them in order to change behavior.The representative from DILG shared his insight on too many mode options. That we haveto come up with alternatives (e.g. livelihood), or can also remove/ eliminate some modes oftransport if we want to see change.Mr. Pineda asked if there are any data in the fare in relation to per capita income. He alsoemphasized that efficiency is still the name of the game in transport.With so much issue to be tackled on transport, Ms. Allen recognizes the importance tobridge the transition. And most requires new training. She also shared on the fares, there isa book by GIZ that the participants can refer to. For public transport, recovery through fare,the other one is on efficiency. On fares – there has been interest internationally to privatizemass transit.On culture, there is also the same mentality in other countries There is a need to agreethat we should be able to understand it, in a local context and another layer of stakeholderunderstanding - asking people the right way. There is the same situation in other parts of theworld. Key is to focus on the affordability, quality of service, and that it should be foreveryone. There are plenty of ways to make it affordable for the poor. It is a question ofproviding quality for the right price. 8
  14. 14. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change19-20, March 2012 | School of Government, Ateneo de Manila UniversityDAY 2The day stared with recap of the first day’s session. The participants were also asked whatthey learned. It was highlighted that the concept of climate change and sustainable processhad been most memorable, as well as the knowledge on UNFCCC.MODULE 4 – CLIMATE FINANCE FOR LOW CARBON TRANSPORTMr. Ko Sakamoto, Transport Economist of Asian Development Bank (ADB) presentedModule 4 (Annex 4). He started with posting the following questions in the plenary:  How does an individual finance what he wants to do?  What financial sources are available for sustainable transport?  Is the general public aware of the term “climate financing”?A participant, Mr. Rene Pineda sharedhis thoughts on how he understoodclimate financing. He said that some ofthe money invested or spent by aneconomy that is required to put a capin carbon emissions to credit or tolower a countries threshold of carbon.Mr. Sakamoto reminded everyone thatthe concept of climate financing isimportant in support to mitigation andadaptation efforts of a country. He Mr. Ko Sakamoto discussing with the participants the concepts ofsummed the idea into two types of climate financingclimate finance to: Climate Fund andCarbon Market.To further clarify, he said that the two concepts only differ in the mode of acceptance ofmoney, whereas, in his example, a producer, a fisherman receiving grant would be a form ofclimate fund, while when a producer, a farmer sells rice to the market would be a form ofmarket mechanism. There were also a couple of financial sources listed such as the ODA(Official Development Assistance), state taxes, and climate finance from internationalorganizations like the IMF. With regards to relative proportion of Climate Finance, domesticfinance still provides the biggest source.When Mr. Sakamoto was asked if the two are exclusive of each other, he said that in CDM,project entities can be companies in US or Europe. Examples are planting trees in Indonesiain order for them to have carbon credits. Climate Finance can come from sources such asmultilateral, bilateral, and carbon market. Even local authorities can set this up (voluntarycarbon market).He also mentioned that out of 6147 proposals for carbon market scheme, only 37 or 0.6percent (%) were transport-related projects. He added that future opportunities might comefrom Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action (NAMA). A basic checklist for climate financewas also proposed:  Helps mitigate climate change  Approach is aligned with Avoid-Shift-Improve 9
  15. 15. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change19-20, March 2012 | School of Government, Ateneo de Manila UniversityMr. Sakamoto cited that the group may want to consider cable car when you think of CDM.Low carbon and sustainable transport is included in the operational strategy of GEF. Co-financing – typical to GEF projects; mixing various fund sources.Mr. Pineda raised questions as follows: Looking at the bullet points, will the proponentpropose separately to ADB and GEF? When will the proposal submission starts?According to Mr. Sakamoto, there should be several discussions and coordination amongentities. For example, LGU create proposal and approach GEF, sometimes it is the otherway around. Note that GEF and ADB have different cycle. Proponent should carefully lookat this especially in timing for the budgetary process. However, the more collaborators inthe proposal, the more complex it will be. But it is also good to gather synergies.Counterparts can be in-cash or in-kind. And in order to access Clean Technology Fund,sustainable transport should be in an investment plan.Ms. Segovia of PCA asked and pointed out that we do not have an office of GEF here inPhilippines. She asked where do we apply? Atty. Bathan-Baterina said that the focal point inPhilippines is DENR thorugh USec. Teh. There is also a need work with DOTC and DENRfor proposal.The basic checklist for Climate Finance that needs to be considered: 1. Project helps mitigate Climate change? 2. Does the project target Avoid-Shift-Improve approach?On the aspect of MRV, the requirements increase while the carbon markets develops.There is value in carbon and there has to be an established value to trade it.MODULE 5 – MEASURING THE IMPACT OF LOW CARBONTRANSPORT INTERVENTIONS ON CO2 EMISSIONSThe fifth module (Annex5) was presented by Mr.Alvin Mejia, EnvironmentSpecialist of CAI-Asia. Themodule is focused onscanning which cities havealready started the surveyson the impact of lowcarbon transportation tothe emission of CO2.Taguig has already starteddoing survey. Mr. Mejiasuggested that it can betraced to the taxes to get Mr. Alvin Mejia discussing with the participants the concepts on Module 5the aggregates. If the LGUshave funds, they can explore possible partnership with some companies to tract the data. 10
  16. 16. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change19-20, March 2012 | School of Government, Ateneo de Manila UniversityMr. Pineda asked the following questions: - If the CO2 is constant, how do you determine the emission? - In generating and tracking data, it is generally a top-down approach. Are there possibilities for it to become a bottom-up?According to Mr. Mejia, for UNFCCC purpose, there are emission factors for gasoline anddiesel for example. The top-down data is available from DOE. In transport emission, it isusually bottom-up results is usually higher than top-down. For diesel, it is uncertain if 100%diesel is always used in transport. According to Ms. Allen, for cities, you can assume thatalmost all types are used in transport; assume 5% used in other purpose.Together with Ms. Allen, they presented the concept of ASIF: A – Total Activity S – Modal Structure I – Modal energy Intensity F – Carbon content of FuelsThe result would be the total carbon emission from transport. In light of this, he presentedthe idea of Transport Emissions Evaluation Model for Projects (TEEMP). He raised the issuethat the real question was not how to compute or know the carbon emissions; instead howto lessen the output of such.The ASIF model could also be used on the personal level to account for every person’scarbon emission in transportation. The other insights from the participants on ASIF include: - ASIF is one model to practice on how we measure impact. We belong to different offices so we can use this in our sphere on influences. - A lot of these are theoretical. For us to absorb this and apply effectively, it would be useful to focus to one or two models. Put those ASIF into Philippine context. If 8 out of 10, there should E = efficiency to be addedMs. Allen emphasized that we all have choices. Sometimes we decide not to choose thatchoice. There is a need to look at complementary of different modes of transport. Therewas lots of flexibility in the ASIF model.Dr. Guillen shared the preliminary result of the Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities Projectwhere in the data showed that the current situation is that the urban poor choose to own amotorcycle since its cost is cheaper than to commute. We need to shift the paradigm. Wehave lots of choices but we are not emphasizing to highlight the right choice and costMaybe we can distinguish the choice of society and as an individual. We still can haveaccessibility and mobility that supports connective growth. Mr. Mejia emphasized that weneed to make public transport modes more efficient.A short exercise on the calculation of carbon emission was conducted after wards. Mr. Mejiaexplained briefly how to calculate it. A few concerns were raised by Ms. Dinna Dayao, amember of the media, as to how one could compute for other modes of transport such asthe MRT and LRT. Mr. Mejia said that such tools exist that other organizations use, likeWWF and WRI. 11
  17. 17. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change 19-20, March 2012 | School of Government, Ateneo de Manila University The exercise questionnaire on computing CO2 Emissions can be found in Annex 6. The representative from Malabon was the first one to get the answer right. Participants trying to solve the problem and computing for CO2 Emissions GROUP EXERCISE The last activity of the training is a group exercise in developing low carbon transport projects. Each group were tasked to describe the project, describe its carbon advantages and how the group intend to prove it, major barriers, partners you need to get approval and help implement, and how do you intend to finance it. The group exercise guide can be found in Annex 7. Each group was given 10 minutes to present. The table below is the summary of workshop results: PROJECT CARBON METHOD BARRIERS PARTNERS FINANCEDESCRIPTION ADVANTAGES CARBON CALCULATIONReporter: Karl No carbon Survey - -LGU -LoansChristian (easy = 2 One street infrastructure -Private -GrantsAbalos smiles) How many cars -lack of -CSO -PPP- can be respect of -national bikelaneAssumption: replaced? other drivers government -GEF1. Area -social -media -ADB :Quezon acceptance City -education 2/52. Utilize what -political will we have3. There are already existing practices that we can adapt4. Possibility for local economic developmen t n- to offset 12
  18. 18. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change 19-20, March 2012 | School of Government, Ateneo de Manila University PROJECT CARBON METHOD BARRIERS PARTNERS FINANCEDESCRIPTION ADVANTAGES CARBON CALCULATION what we investedProject: Bikes– Juan PidalPromote bikeas a primaryalternativemode oftransportwithin the cityGroup 3 Easy = 2 Shift all trips to Displaced -LG smiles EVs incumbents -private Self-Christine -jeepneys companies financingRoxas Philippines -trikes -banks sort of have 60%= -multi-lateral arrangemeHost City: renewable Cooperatives banks ntsMalabon electricity mix , ownerships Carbon 1/3 of the Narrow credits population roads Near to 3/5 shore Lots of flooded areasProject:Electric mini-busRationale –high flooringand not proneto floodingJeepneys andtricyles havelow flooringand easilyaffected byfloodConnectother cities byother modes 13
  19. 19. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change 19-20, March 2012 | School of Government, Ateneo de Manila University PROJECT CARBON METHOD BARRIERS PARTNERS FINANCEDESCRIPTION ADVANTAGES CARBON CALCULATION C advantage Through 3/5VICKY 2 smiles emissionSEGOVIA concentrationRefer topresentation(Annex 8)Monorail Reduced Baseline Political will DOTC PPPsystem number of Estimates of Displacement MMDA Loans vehicles, vehicles plying of other DPWH from ADBInterconnecte reduced CO2 to certain road public LGU and GEFd to mrt-lrt emissions transport DOEstn Reduced After project, Social DOST 5/5 traffic start data acceptability NEDAEdsa- gathering to Cost of NGOscommonwealt C advantage compare transporth don’t know baseline to newC5 dataStations tointegrateparking areas(e.g. bike) Presenters discusses their respective group’s exercise outputs 14
  20. 20. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change19-20, March 2012 | School of Government, Ateneo de Manila UniversityAfter the presentation, some of the participants also shared their insights. According to Ms.Dayao, most of the time people see political will and having no support from government asbarriers. But citizens can be organized to make our cities more livable. She also emphasizedthat as citizens we should be part of the process from the start and find ways to be involved.There are ways to move around and address the barriers. Our leaders are usually looking atthe short term plans. The key is to harness our energy and push forward with our agendathat do not require political will.Mr. Pineda acknowledged that the proposals are very good. However, Mr. Pineda pointedthat what most did not encompass is the efficiency aspect. Without considering this, it canbe counterproductive in the long run. In addition, carbon accounting and logistics are alsonot included. Most proposals only consider movement of people but not goods.Heather Allen mentioned to the participants that the implementation can be top-down orbottom-up. She also emphasized that bike programs can be started tomorrow. Monorail canhave big impact but may be difficult to implement. To look at the long term, it is importantto start something that will enable the realization of low-carbon transport.The group took a vote on the projects presented. The results are as follows: Project 1 (bikes) – 11 Project 2(e-bus) – 5 Project 3 (ASBU) – 4 Project 4 (rail) – 8Afterwards, Ms. Allen posted the following questions: 1. What have you learned most? 2. What are the simple things that you would do to lead towards low-carbon?The following were some of the direct feedback from participants:  Paolo (DOST-PCIERD) – I learned how to compute CO2 emission. Our agency is also cooperating with Japanese group for the calculation of energy audit. The topics presented provided me with new information. I also like the proposed projects presented. It’s good that we were able to produce good quality projects even in a short time.  Christine (Marikina) – I learned a lot from this training. I am new in the field of transport and I would like to apply what I learned in my current work. On the slides presented, it would be good to use local data so we can relate to the figures.  Evelyn Dangat (Valenzuela) – I learned a lot especially in calculating C emissions especially in greenhouse gas inventory that we are doing now. Thank you for having this seminar. 15
  21. 21. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change19-20, March 2012 | School of Government, Ateneo de Manila UniversityCLOSING PROGRAMThe program ended with Dr. SegundoRomero and Ms. Allen awarding thecertificate of participation to the participantswho had successfully completed the training(see Annex 9 for sample certificate).Dr. Romero also gave the closing remarks.In his closing remarks, Dr. Romeroexpressed that he is happy to finish thecourse especially with local governments. Healways believed that LGUs are one of the 2propellers of bikelane Philippines.Citing Singporeans as an example, we need100 hours of training per year for you to becompetent to your job. It is not only forbosses but also from the janitorial level tothe highest level. If you cannot get it fromyour agencies, do it yourselves. How can wecompete for 2.5 weeks vs. 2 day s?He emphasized that the participants werenot brought kin the training just to listen Top Photo: Awarding of certificateClosing Remarks Bottom photo: Dr. Romero giving to a participantbut to also continue what we have started.The Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities Project will put up a project management site.He also highlighted that we want that we want the participants to be speakers and trainersthemselves. He encouraged the private individuals and NGOs to inform their LGUsparticularly the mayor of each city about this alternative approach and perspective onsustainable transport and climate change. Lastly, he introduced the website put up by ASoGas an additional webresource.Before formally closingthe training, Ms. Allenemphasized that theimplementation will beup to the participants.She also took thatopportunity to thankthe participants andorganizers. Group photo of the participants and resource speakers of the training 16
  22. 22. Training on Sustainable Transport and Climate Change19-20, March 2012 | School of Government, Ateneo de Manila UniversityCONCLUSIONThe program ended with a general consensus that there was a need to shift from traditionalapproaches to innovative means to address climate change and transport. This could becoupled with Avoid-Shift-Improve Framework. Moreover, it was also noted thatstakeholders must be made aware of the opportunities in light of climate change and thatsome would include new business models for inclusive mobility.TRAINING EVALUATIONAfter the training, evaluation forms were distributed, and a total of 29 participantsresponded. Ms. Heather Allen prepared the evaluation report entitled Bridging the Gap:Pathways for Transport. Report on GIZ Low Carbon Transport and Climate ChangeTraining, Manila, Philippines (see Annex 10 for the full report).The training program was given a high-rating over-all. Majority of the participants wanted totake further training modules from the Ateneo School of Government, CAI-Asia, and GIZ.Prepared By:Lorenzo V. Cordova, Jr. | Iresha Rathnasena | Miguel Serapio 17
  23. 23. ANNEX 1Module 1 – Sustainable Transport and Climate Change
  24. 24. Sustainable transport and climate change Manila, Philippines Module 1 March 19, 2012 Danielle Guillen 01.05.2012 Seite 1This training is based on the work of the Bridging theGap initiative. „Bridging the Gap: Pathways for Transportin a Post 2012 Process‟ is a partnership that was formedto bridge the gap between the transport and climatechange sectors.For more information about the work of Bridging the Gapvisit their website: 01.05.2012 Seite 2 Seite 2 1
  25. 25. Module overview Climate change Controlling GHG emissions without compromising economic growth or mobility Social and economic impacts of low carbon transport Module summary 01.05.2012 Seite 3 Seite 3CLIMATE CHANGEAn introduction to the concept, and of the land transport sector‟scontribution to it 01.05.2012 Seite 4 Seite 4 2
  26. 26. What is climate change?“Climate change refers to a change in the state ofthe climate that can be identified by changes in themean and/or the variability of its properties, and thatpersists for an extended period, typically decades orlonger. Climate change may be due to naturalinternal processes or external forcings, or topersistent anthropogenic changes in thecomposition of the atmosphere or in land use.”Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 01.05.2012 Seite 5 Seite 5Why do we need to addressclimate change? Source: IPCC (2007) 01.05.2012 Seite 6 Seite 6 3
  27. 27. “Cutting emissions sufficiently to meet the 2°Cgoal would require a far-reaching transformationof the global energy system… Reaching that goalwould require a phenomenal policy push bygovernments worldwide.” IEA (2010) 01.05.2012 Seite 7 Seite 7 The 2oC target can be met Source: IEA (2009) 01.05.2012 Seite 8 Seite 8 4
  28. 28. CO2 emissions (metric tonnes per capita) 0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 Afghanistan 0.02 Central African… 0.06 Ethiopia 0.08 Nepal 0.12 Kenya 0.30 Zimbabwe 0.77 Philippines 0.80 India 1.43 Indonesia 1.71 Brazil 1.94 Panama 2.16 Korea, Dem. Rep. 2.94 Mexico 4.31 China 4.96 France 5.82 Iran, Islamic Rep. 6.94 Malaysia 7.18 United Kingdom 8.84 South Africa 8.98 Germany 9.57 Japan 9.81 Korea, Rep. 10.38 Per capita CO2 emissions Russian Federation 10.81 Singapore 11.80 01.05.2012 GHG emissions by sector in 2005 01.05.2012 United States 19.34 Luxembourg 22.57 United Arab Emirates 25.05 Source: World Bank, 2011 Seite 9 Seite 9 Seite 10 Seite 10 Source: IPCC (2007)5
  29. 29. CO2 emissions by sector in 2008 Source: International Energy Agency (IEA) (2009) 01.05.2012 Seite 11 Seite 11 Transport sector CO2 emissionsIn CO2 terms… Source: Bongardt (2009) based on IEA data Page  12 01.05.2012 Seite 12 Seite 12 6
  30. 30. Estimated changes to energy consumption by sector and region between 2007 and 2050 Source: International Energy Agency (IEA) (2009) Page  13 01.05.2012 Seite 13 Seite 13 Increase in transport vehicles and activity Passenger light-duty vehicle fleet and ownership rates in key regions Source: IEA WEO (2009)Page  14 01.05.2012 Seite 14 Seite 14 7
  31. 31. 01.05.2012 Seite 15 Seite 1501.05.2012 Seite 16 Seite 16 8
  32. 32. Source: ITF/OECD (2010) 01.05.2012 Seite 17 Seite 17 01.05.2012 Seite 18 Seite 18 9
  33. 33. Population split of urban and rural cities in 2010 and 2050 Source: UN, 2007 in World Bank, 2010 01.05.2012 Seite 19 Seite 19 Stop point 01.05.2012 Seite 20 Seite 20 10
  34. 34. CONTROLLING GHGEMISSIONS WITHOUTCOMPROMISING ECONOMICGROWTH OR MOBILITYAn introduction to the drivers of GHG emissions from land transportand to strategies to manage them 01.05.2012 Seite 21 Seite 21 Source: UITP, 2006 (courtesy of SYSTRA) 01.05.2012 Seite 22 Seite 22 11
  35. 35. ASIF – drivers of emissions from transport SiG (Carbon A Fi,j Modal Iiemissions Total Activity Carbon from Structure Modal Energy (passenger or Content oftransport) (travel by Intensity freight travel) Fuels mode) Load factor Modal travel (passengers share (MSi) or tons per veh-km) (Li) Modal Energy Intensity (Ii) Technological energy efficiency (Ei) Vehicle Fuel Intensity On-road impacts (e.g. Vehicle drive cycles, Characteristics traffic (Vci) congestion) 01.05.2012 Seite 23 Seite 23 Avoid-Shift-Improve (ASI) transport strategy 01.05.2012 Seite 24 Seite 24 12
  36. 36. Avoid-Shift-Improve in practice 01.05.2012 Seite 25 Seite 25 Avoid/Reduce travel demandHow can unnecessary trips beavoided? Smart logistics High-density mixed land-use planning Information Communication Technology (ICT) Smart pricing Restricting parking supply. 01.05.2012 Seite 26 Seite 26 13
  37. 37. Reducing travel demand in practiceCarbon footprints of journeys by residents in three different neighbourhoodsin Toronto, Canada. Source: Dan Hoornweb/World Ban, 2010 01.05.2012 Seite 27 Seite 27 Reducing travel demand in practice Source: Kenworthy, 2008 01.05.2012 Seite 28 Seite 28 14
  38. 38. Shift to/maintain demand for low carbon modesWalking and cycling 01.05.2012 Seite 29 Seite 29 Shift to/maintain demand for low carbon modes 01.05.2012 Seite 30 Seite 30 15
  39. 39. Shift to/maintain demand for low carbon modes 01.05.2012 Seite 31 Seite 31The need to maintain demand for low carbon modes 01.05.2012 Seite 32 Seite 32 16
  40. 40. Public transport supports efficient cities 01.05.2012 Seite 33 Seite 33 Shift/maintain travel demand How can travel demand be shifted to more efficient modes of transport?  Transport Demand Management (TDM):  “Push” measures (e.g. road pricing)  “Pull” measures (e.g. enhancing provision for non-motorised transport; improving accessibility and affordability of public© Karl Fjellstrom, 2006 transport. 01.05.2012 Seite 34 Seite 34 17
  41. 41. Improving energy efficiency of travelHow can the energy efficiency oftravel be improved? Enhance vehicle energy efficiency Train in eco-driving principles Improve low carbon fuels Renew vehicle fleets Reduce fuel subsidies Regulate vehicle design. 01.05.2012 Seite 35 Seite 35 Improving energy efficiency 60 (reduction in Improvement in Fuel Economy (reduction in fuel use) (L/100km) 50 Percent Improvement in Fuel Economy Percent fuel use) (L/100km) 40 30 20 10 0 Conventional Advanced Hybrid Conventional Advanced Hybrid Diesel Gasoline Gasoline Gasoline Diesel Diesel Vehicle Vehicle Vehicle Vehicle Vehicle Vehicle Source: IEA, 2008 01.05.2012 Seite 36 Seite 36 18
  42. 42. Improving efficiency of travelSource: Barth and Boriboonsomsin, 2008 in Replogle, 2010 01.05.2012 Seite 37 Seite 37 Impact of Avoid-Shift-Improve „Improve‟ measures 44% emission reduction „Avoid‟ and „shift‟ measures 20% emission reduction Source: EEA, 2010 01.05.2012 Seite 38 Seite 38 19
  43. 43. The importance of policy packages rather than single measures 01.05.2012 Seite 39 Seite 39SOCIAL AND ECONOMICIMPACTS OF LOW CARBONTRANSPORTAn introduction to the co-benefits of sustainable low carbontransport 01.05.2012 Seite 40 Seite 40 20
  44. 44. The future? © Ko Sakamoto, 2010 01.05.2012 Seite 41 Seite 41 Cross-sector synergiesTransport Low carbon transport is a Economy cost effective Education solution to the achievement Health of economy- Energy wide efficiency objectives 01.05.2012 Seite 42 Seite 42 21
  45. 45. Reducing social and economic costs  Air pollution from transport in developing countries costs up to 2% of many countries‟ GDP  Air pollution from transport in polluted cities such as Bangkok and Jakarta costs up to 10% of their GDP  External costs of particulates and other vehicle emissions (excluding lead) are equivalent to 60% of the import cost of gasoline and 200% of the import cost of diesel  Congestion increases public transport operating costs by 10% in Rio de Janeiro and 16% in São Paulo  Congestion and associated road traffic delays and unreliability can reduce growth of GDP 01.05.2012 Seite 43 Seite 43MODULE SUMMARYAn overview of key points 01.05.2012 Seite 44 Seite 44 22
  46. 46. Summary  The carbon intensive transport systems of developed countries are not sustainable  Transport cannot be sustainable unless it is low carbon  A low carbon development trajectory does not restrict economic development or mobility  The concepts underlying low carbon transport systems are not complex  The ASIF approach summarises the drivers of GHG emissions, which should be addressed  The Avoid-Shift-Improve approach to transport strategy development can set developing countries on the path to realising wider economic, social and environmental benefits. 01.05.2012 Seite 45 Seite 45 Module 1 overviewAcknowledge theneed to recogniseclimate change Recognise and Realise the Be aware of Recognise the communicate potential to de- the Avoid-Shift- Understand the drivers of GHG the wider couple mobility Improve source of GHG emissions from benefits of and GHG approach to emissions the transport sustainable low emissions from transport sector carbon transport strategy transport. Be equipped to mitigate against GHG emissions from the land transport sector. 01.05.2012 Seite 46 Seite 46 23
  47. 47. GIZ SUTP project 01.05.2012 Seite 47 Seite 47 01.05.2012 Seite 48 Seite 48 24
  48. 48. Reducing energy in public transportSource Ticket to Kyoto 01.05.2012 Seite 49 Seite 49 Benefits of low carbon transport Low carbon transport 01.05.2012 Seite 50 Seite 50 25
  49. 49. Creating green jobs Public transport contributes between €130 billion and €150 billion to the European economy (approx 1.2% of its GDP) In 2008, public transport operators in the EU-27 employed approximately 1.2 million people Low carbon transport also creates „green‟ jobs in:  Infrastructure to support green transport modes, such as public transport and non-motorised transport  Alternative fuels  Technologies to enact green transport, e.g. GPS systems, Intelligent Transport Systems, green logistics etc. Page  51 01.05.2012 Seite 51 Seite 51 Reducing poverty Increasing provision for private cars is inequitable, benefiting wealthier citizens Journeys for low income citizens in developing countries can be excessively long and costly, exacerbated by urban sprawl Investment in non-motorised and public transport can increase accessibility to jobs and services – especially if targeted to where the urban poor live and work Transport subsidies can be a safety net for low income groups. Page  52 01.05.2012 Seite 52 Seite 52 26
  50. 50. Road safety 0.5 million people die and 15 million people are injured in urban road collisions in developing countries every year Collisions cost developing countries between 1 to 2% of their GDP Economic cost of accidents in developing countries has been estimated as the same value as total aid and lending to these countries Measures to manage traffic to control its energy efficiency can reduce risk to NMT users Enhancing NMT infrastructure can better protect its users. 01.05.2012 Seite 53 Seite 53 27
  51. 51. ANNEX 2Sustainable Transport and the Climate Process
  52. 52. Sustainable transport and the climate process Manila, Philippines Module 2 March 19, 2012 Heather Allen 01.05.2012 Seite 1This training is based on the work of the Bridging theGap initiative. „Bridging the Gap: Pathways for Transportin a Post 2012 Process‟ is a partnership that was formedto bridge the gap between the transport and climatechange sectors.For more information about the work of Bridging the Gapvisit their website: 01.05.2012 Seite 2 Seite 2 1
  53. 53. Module overview The UNFCCC Land transport and the Kyoto Protocol Land transport post 2012 Module summary 01.05.2012 Seite 3 Seite 3THE UNFCCCAn introduction to the United Nations Framework Convention onClimate Change 01.05.2012 Seite 4 Seite 4 2
  54. 54. What is the UNFCCC? United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. An international treaty Adopted in 1992 Aim: “to stabilise greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that will prevent dangerous human interference with the climate system.” 01.05.2012 Seite 5 Seite 5Signatories of the UNFCCC 194 Parties- Annex I Industrialised countries that were members of the OECD in 1992 and countries with economies in transition.- Annex II Industrialised countries that were members of the OECD. These are required to provide financial resources to support climate change mitigation and adaptation in Non-Annex I Parties, and to promote the development and transfer of technologies to Annex I Parties and Non-Annex I Parties.- Non-Annex I Mainly developing countries, including Least Developed Countries. 01.05.2012 Seite 6 Seite 6 3
  55. 55. How does the UNFCCC work? Intergovernmental process The Secretariat facilitates the implementation of the Convention The Convention is non-legally binding, but it can set „protocols‟ Progress is assessed at annual „Conferences of the Parties‟ (COP) Decision making at the COP is done by consensus. 01.05.2012 Seite 7 Seite 7 An holistic approach to climate change “A human intervention to reduce the sources or Mitigation enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases.” UNFCCC “An adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or Adaptation expected climate change or its impacts which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.” 01.05.2012 Seite 8 Seite 8 4
  56. 56. UNFCCC bodies Channels of advice UNFCCC bodies Conference of the Parties (COP) Ad Hoc WorkingSubsidiary Body Ad Hoc Working Group on Further Subsidiary Bodyfor Scientific and Group on Long- Commitments for for Implementation Technological term Co-operative Annex I Parties (SBI)Advice (SBSTA) Action (AWG-LCA) under the Kyoto Protocol (AWG-KP) Subsidiary Bodies (SB) Temporary Working Groups (AWGs) 01.05.2012 Seite 9 Seite 9 Observer organisations  Intergovernmental organisations (IGOs)  Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) 01.05.2012 Seite 10 Seite 10 5
  57. 57. The Kyoto Protocol  The first international agreement to mandate (legally bind) domestic GHG emission reductions  The Treaty was agreed in 1997 and entered into force in 2005  Nearly all Parties to the UNFCCC have signed the Kyoto Protocol (KP)  The USA is a notable exception  Developing countries (Non-Annex I Parties) are not committed to reducing emissions under the KP  Collective emission reduction pledges of 29% on 1990 levels by 2012  There are no procedures in place to punish countries that do not deliver their pledge. 01.05.2012 Seite 11 Seite 11 UNFCCC milestonesMilestone Year DescriptionSigning of the 1992 Signed in Rio, it was a voluntary commitment for Annex IConvention Parties to seek to stabilise their emissions from 1990 to 2000.Adoption of the 1997 This set a „legally binding‟ target for Annex I Parties to reduce their collective emissions by 5% on 1990 levels by 2012, and introducedKyoto Protocol 3 policy measures to support this.Marrakesh Accords 2001 Agreements setting out numerous provisions to support the operationalisation of the Kyoto Protocol.Kyoto Protocol 2005 This took place at COP11 in Montreal.entered into forceNairobi Work 2005 SBSTA launched a 5 year work programme to explore the impacts,Programme vulnerability and adaptation to climate change.Bali Action Plan 2007 COP13 produced this „road map‟ for a negotiation process for a new international climate agreement, with completion aimed for COP 15 in 2009.Copenhagen 2009 Annex-I Parties pledged to provide „new and additional finance‟ and set emission reduction targets to 2020. Non-Annex I Parties agreedAgreement to conduct mitigation activities (NAMAs).Cancún 2010 These outputs of COP16 continued and developed negotiations in respect to adaptation and mitigation, including related finance andAgreements technology provisions. 01.05.2012 Seite 12 Seite 12 6
  58. 58. Any questions 01.05.2012 Seite 13 Seite 13UNFCCC support for non-Annex I Parties Finance Capacity building Technology transfer 01.05.2012 Seite 14 Seite 14 7
  59. 59. Finance under the UNFCCC UNFCCC‟s financial Global Environmental mechanism Facility (GEF) Least Special Climate Developed „Special‟ funds Change Fund Countries Fund Adaptation Fund (SCCF) (LDCF) Clean Joint Development Emissions Carbon market Mechanism Implementation trading (JI) (CDM) Green Climate Emerging funds Fund (GCF) 01.05.2012 Seite 15 Seite 15 Capacity building„The process of developing the technical skillsand institutional capability in developingcountries and economies in transition to enablethem to address effectively the causes andresults of climate change.‟ 01.05.2012 Seite 16 Seite 16 8