Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 JANUARY 2012 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT COMPLEX AUDITORIUM ATENEO DE MANILA UNIVERSITY, LOYOLA HEIGHTS, QUEZON CITY
Catalyzing New Mobility inCities:The Case of Metro ManilaProject Launch31 January 2012Social Development Complex, Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights Quezon City
Table of ContentsExecutive Summary I. Opening Program A. Welcome Remarks by Dean Antonio La Viña, ASoG II. Overview of the Innovations at the Base of the Pyramid in Southeast Asia Program (iBoP Asia) III. Presentation of iBoP’s Key Projects A. Universities and Councils Network on Innovation for Inclusive Development in Southeast Asia (UNID-SEA) B. Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities Project: Finding NewMo in Metro Manila IV. iBoP Asia Website: iFind NewMo V. Mapping for Inclusive Mobility: Pinpointing Transport Terminals and Hubs VI. Search for New Mobility Business Models in Metro Manila VII. Sharing the New Mobility Agenda A. Search for New Mobility Opportunities in AdMU B. New Mobility Initiatives of the MMDA C. Responding to New Mobility Challenges in QC D. SMART Program and New Mobility Initiatives of the University of Michigan VIII. Open Forum IX. Updates/ Insights from the Rockefeller Foundation X. Understanding the Challenges and Opportunities in New Mobility A. How responsive is Metro Manila ’s Public Transport System to the Needs of the Poor and Vulnerable Sectors? Insights from a Mobility Mapping Case Study of Metro Manila B. Case Studies on the Mobility Characteristics, Cost and Issues of the Poor and Vulnerable Groups C. A Preliminary Inventory and Typology of Enterprise Models for Inclusive Mobility in Metro Manila: Of, By, and For the Poor and Vulnerable XI. Open Forum XII. SMART Mapping Uncharted Connection Points in Metro Manila: The Participatory Mapping Workshop Approach and Process i
XIII. Annexes A. List of participants for Project Launch B. Moving Metro Manila – Eagle Eyes by Dean Tony La Viña C. Overview of the Innovations at the Base of the Pyramid in Southeast Asia Program (iBoP Asia) Presentation slides D. Universities and Councils Network on Innovation for Inclusive Development in Southeast Asia (UNID-SEA) Presentation slides E. Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities Project: Finding NewMo in Metro Manila Presentation slides F. Mapping for Inclusive Mobility: Pinpointing Transport Terminals and Hubs Presentation slides G. Search for New Mobility Business Models in Metro Manila Presentation slides H. New Mobility Initiatives of the MMDA Presentation slides I. Responding to New Mobility Challenges in QC Presentation slides J. SMART Program and New Mobility Initiatives of the University of Michigan Presentation slides K. Updates/ Insights from the Rockefeller Foundation Presentation slides L. How responsive is Metro Manila ’s Public Transport System to the Needs of the Poor and Vulnerable Sectors? Insights from a Mobility Mapping Case Study of Metro Manila Presentation slides M. Case Studies on the Mobility Characteristics, Cost and Issues of the Poor and Vulnerable Groups Presentation slides N. A Preliminary Inventory and Typology of Enterprise Models for Inclusive Mobility in Metro Manila: Of, By, and For the Poor and Vulnerable Presentation slides O. Photo Documentation ii
List of AcronymsADB - Asian Development BankAdMU - Ateneo de Manila UniversityASoG - Ateneo School of GovernmentAUVs - Asian Utility VehiclesBoP - Base of the PyramidBRT - Bus Rapid TransitCOA - Commission on AuditDOE - Department of EnergyDOTC - Department of Transportation and CommunicationDPWH - Department of Public Works and HighwaysE-trike - electric tricycleFGD - focus group discussionGIS - Geographic Information SystemGK - Gawad KalingaiBoP Asia - Innovations at the Base of the Pyramid in Asia ProgramIID - Innovation for Inclusive DevelopmentIMMAP - Internet and Mobile Marketing Association of the PhilippinesIT - Information TechnologyKII - key informant interviewLED - Light Emitting DiodesLGUs - Local Government UnitsLTFRB - Land Transport and Franchising Regulatory BoardMIS - Management Information SystemMM - Metro ManilaMM-PIBAS - Mega Manila Provincial Integrated Bus Axis SystemMMDA - Metropolitan Manila Development AuthorityMRT - Metrorail TransitMV - motor vehicleNewMo - New MobilityNGO - Non-Government OrganizationPT - Public transport/ public transportationPUJ - Public Utility JeepneyPUVs - Public Utility VehiclesPWDs - Persons with Disabilities iii
QC - Quezon CityRnD - Research and DevelopmentSE - Social EnterpriseSEA - Southeast AsiaTAN - Transparency and Accountability NetworkTODA - Tricycle Operators and Drivers AssociationUNIID - Universities and Councils Network on Innovation for Inclusive DevelopmentUP-NCTS - University of the Philippines National Center for Transportation StudiesUS - United States iv
Executive SummaryA total of 41 various organizations and 104 individuals working on transportation inMetro Manila attended the project launch held last 31 January 2012 at the SocialDevelopment Complex Auditorium of the Ateneo de Manila University attended thelaunching of the “Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: the Case of Metro Manila” project.With support from the Rockefeller Foundation, this undertaking was organized by theInnovations at the Base of the Pyramid in Asia (iBoP Asia) Program of the Ateneo Schoolof Government.The aim of the launch is for the stakeholders to look at the big picture and see howorganization and infrastructure are connected and how these can make the difference. Itis a paradigm shift of looking at how people really move and how one can make adifference. It is strong on having options that includes walking and cycling. The projecthopes to ignite the goal of sustaining a conversation among stakeholders on howcitizens can be empowered to shape the patterns of mobility and access in Metro Manilato be more inclusive. It is expected that the Metro Manila stakeholders, are motivated toactively contribute to their own enhanced mobility by taking advantage of theconstituency-awareness, -building, and -mobilizing opportunities presented at theproject launch.The earlier insights of the iBoP Program were people say no to innovation because ofthe price they had to pay for making change happen and that universities are not gearedtoward the promotion of innovation because they are too divided into multi-disciplinarysilos thus, could not fuse themselves together.With the initial results of commissioned researches in New Mobility project, thefollowing were some of the understanding of those on the ground about innovation: 1)that the community was being census and may be asked to move out from their place;and 2) the project might lead to improvements that might attract informal settlers fromother areas. These two experiences on the ground made the project team realize that thecommunity is afraid of progress and that the burden of understanding is with the projectpeople and not that of those in the base of the pyramid.Some important highlights of the New Mobility project include: 1. New Mobility Forum/Workshop/Lecture Series that serves as a venue for people to habitually share information, ideas, insights, and initiatives for taking action at a community level and increase advocates for mobility and access to transportation in Metro Manila. 2. The project has a research component that seeks to explore the impact of the current public transport system especially the poor and the vulnerable population of Metro Manila by mapping the current public transport system and understanding the mobility patterns, cost and issues of the poor and the vulnerable groups. 3. The search for New Mobility Business Models: New Mobility Social Enterprise and Social Innovations Award where the project will accept related initiatives, concept, ideas and solutions specifically addressing mobility problems in Metro Manila.
4. iFind New Mobility webpage in the iBoP website that features everything or anything related to new mobility including blog entries, links to other websites, latest news on mobility and an update of project’s activities. 5. Mapping for inclusive mobility: pinpointing public transport terminals and hubs using the hi-touch and hi-tech methods can improve the quality of information through a collaborative process. These also increases awareness among stakeholders, expand useful data available data for decision makers while enabling much broader spectrum of citizens to actively participate in citizen science in their own communities and to contribute their collective opinions and decisions. Hopefully these methods would increase efficiency to the generation of data and reduce costs while creating a community of people building on existing platforms. The information generated will be available on-line, not proprietary, and should start discussion streams on the state and improvements of the transport system in Metro Manila.Other partners and stakeholders also shared their respective new mobility agenda asfollows: 1. The Ateneo de Manila University presented by the University President, Fr. Jose Ramon Villarin, shared its vision of making the campus a sustainably mobile campus and its hopes of making it a carless campus. He also shared that there are plans for pedestrianizing the campus and starts including talks on mobility especially with students specializing on environment 2. The Metropolitan Manila Development Authority Chairman Francis Tolentino presented all their projects that address new mobility issues in Metro Manila. Some of their key projects include: construction of bicycle lanes from Remedios Circle to Intramuros, construction of pedestrian friendly foot bridge to be piloted in Sucat, elevated loading and unloading bus bays, motorcycle lanes along EDSA, LED Message Boards, Mega Manila Provincial Integrated Bus Axis System, Vehicle Tagging, Metro Manila Traffic Navigator, and the EDSA makeover project. He also noted the h importance of utilizing the esteros for transport purposes. 3. The local government of Quezon City presented by Retired Brig. Gen. Elmo San Diego, Head of the Department of Public Order and Safety of Quezon City, shared the electric tricycles (e-trike) program in cooperation with the Department of Energy and Asian Development Bank. It is a rent-to-own nationwide program designed jointly by LGUs, DOE, ADB and government financing. The basic requirement is to trade conventional tricycle with e-trikes. He also shared the Open Katipunan (OK) project that they planned to implement with Ateneo. Ultimately, the goal of project OK is to reduce cars traversing along Katipunan in half.Some of the issues/concerns raised by the participants were the following: 1. The framing of the poor and vulnerable: The use of the terms “poor” and “vulnerable” versus “commuter” or “general public”. Whereas, “poor” is an economic condition while “vulnerability” is a physical and social condition. The poor and vulnerable should not be separated from the general public but be coiled into one term: “commuters”.
2. The operation of electric tricycles and how it improves mobility:Such as the cost of operation, what to do with the electronic waste generated in using lead acid for operation. 3. The issues on making cities more walkable such as safety, health and monitoring.:Most of the mobility innovations are centered on vehicles despite the fact that walking is considered to be the most important mode of transport especially for the poor. Health-wise, make cities more walkable by also not endangering the health of the citizens. 4. The idea of citizen or community involvement:Bringing action down to the barangay level might yield quicker and: better result than relying on government alone. The proper mind shift is that innovation is not always the government’s role. If the community can do something, they must act on it. Advocate for social accountability. 5. The mapping components and its accessibility When mapping out transport hubs and terminals, consider the flood zone areas, sitios and barangays rather than street names and the vulnerable sectors like the senior citizens and persons with disabilities. In terms of accessibility, a discussion on all levels of access to information from gathering of data to publishing. Printed copies of the maps compared to posting on the internet may be more practical and are much acceptable to people.In order to understand the challenges and opportunities of new mobility in MetroManila, preliminary data of the three commissioned case studies were presented. Forthe mapping study, which tackles the question, how mapping can be used to respond tothe needs of the poor and vulnerable, Dr. Jun Castro presented both in numerical andvisual form partial mapping of the public terminals in North EDSA. In the study onmobility characteristics, costs and issues of the poor and vulnerable groups, Mr.Randolph Carreon showed photo documentation of their data gathering and generalfindings in Purok Centro, Matandang Balara, Quezon City. The data showed that peopleprimarily leave their house to go to work and school. Of the estimated total of 20,000trips per day, aside from walking, the top 2 transport modes used are PUJ and tricycle.Generally, the people said they would walk if they could. The perceived primary mobilityproblem of the Purok Centro Matandang Balara community was high transport cost,which they thought they could resolve by raising their income. Lastly, the Ateneo Centerfor Social Entrepreneurship represented by Ms. Tieza Santos, is commissioned to look atexisting transport/ mobility related social entrepreneurship opportunities in thetransport sector presented a summary of pretest data gathering and recurring themesand variables. Two recurring platforms were raised in terms of ICT access: mobile andInternet. Based on the preliminary survey results, data showed that in terms ofaffordability, these consumers are able to afford more information coming from mobiletechnology and Internet. In terms of information services, they invest too much ontransport cost than service feature. In terms of willingness to pay, they are willing to payaround PhP7. Majority have difficulty in availing healthcare services and the finding ofemployment but the primary issue is not in terms of inaccessibility directly but more interms of actual cost of goods due to lack of employment. 77% attribute their difficultytowards the cost of availing of these goods and services. The recurring themes that cameup were: 1) sustainable transportation related to sustainable targets and sustainablelegislation for transportation and land coordination policies/ designs, inter and intra-agency collaboration approach, agency prioritization and allocation process; 2) Energyefficiency, probably because of increasing oil prices and environmental healthconsideration.
Ms. Susan Zielienski, Managing Director of the SMART Center University of Michigangave an overview of the SMART program and shared some of the new mobilityinitiatives of the University of Michigan. She encouraged everyone to think ofaccessibility (meeting needs) rather than mobility as the goal to open up a range of newoptions for innovation, including IT. She highlighted that we all live in a world wheretransportation is equated to cars hence, improving transportation means improvingcars. People are culturally connected to their cars that everything else becomesextraneous. People assume that transportation is necessary, that cars are necessary,therefore to improve on transportation, we must improve on cars. She asserted that lifewould be much better if we have more choices and not just simply choose to have a car.
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012 I. Welcome Remarks Dr. Antonio La Viña, Dean, Ateneo School of Government The project launch of Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities in Metro Manila held in the Social Development Complex Auditorium inside Ateneo de Manila University started at around 9:00 a.m. with Ms. Marie Cddyqa Jaya Rogel of the Ateneo School of Government (ASoG) leading the Invocation and National Anthem. She welcomed the various participants representing different transport organizations in the event. She then called Dr. Antonio La Viña, Dean of the ASoG, to give the welcome remarks. Dean La Viña welcomed the participants (See Annex A for list of participants) to the event and to the Ateneo de Manila University campus. He said that most of the things he had to say could be found in his column entry at The Manila Standard entitled New Mobility and Moving Metro Manila. He felt that moving Metro Manila was probably more important or equally important than what the country was facing in the judicial arena1 at that time. In his column article New Mobility, (See Annex B) he said that dealing with transportation in Metro Manila and getting it right is important for prosperity and in dealing with poverty. A mapping activity that aims to bring together stakeholders to the table and have a real good conversation about options with respect to transportation and a goal of making the people more mobile can be a good start. Making sure that the poor are not excluded in these conversations and decisions are also valuable in dealing with poverty. He ended by wishing everyone a fruitful discussion and a good day. II. Overview of the Innovations at the Base of the Pyramid in Southeast Asia Program (iBoP Asia) Dr. Segundo Joaquin Romero, Director, iBoP Asia Program Ms. Rogel introduced Dr. Segundo Joaquin Romero to present the iBoP Asia Program of the ASoG. (See Annex C for his presentation slides) Dr. Romero started by defining the base of the pyramid that started the iBoP concept. In his presentation of the world economic pyramid, base of the pyramid (BoP) was defined as people with annual per capita income of less than US $1,500.00. The iBoP uses the word “base” rather than “bottom” to refer to these people because bottom sounds too starved. He presented various data that further illustrates the base of the pyramid. The iBoP puts emphasis on their belief that low income does not mean no income and1 Impeachment trial of Supreme Court Chief Justice Renato Corona 1
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012suggests a range of opportunities for market-based approaches to better meet theirneeds and empower their entry into the formal economy. What the iBoP is trying todo is to come up with a business model - similar to the New Mobility Project- thatfocuses on the use of public social enterprises to cater to the need of the poor andthe vulnerable. The program started in 2007 with Dean La Viña spearheading the unique way ofputting together various disciplines and deploys them to engage BoP communities.The program’s stakeholders include the government, private sector, non-government and international sectors that work to engage the BoP sector inSoutheast Asia (SEA). ASoG houses the program and has existing partneruniversities in Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam and now plans to move to Cambodiaas well. SEA countries are very dynamic moving towards greater innovation. However,iBoP is concerned that the innovation policies in SEA is more focused on economicand industrial development and less on poverty alleviation. European countriesused serve as great models for innovation but increasing innovation capacity inThailand, Singapore and Malaysia are now being aspired by other with transportbeing one of the major needs of the people. The iBoP currently pursues a two-track program or two major projects, theUniversities and Councils in Innovations for Inclusive Development in SEA and NewMobility in Metro Manila. Dr. Romero also said that while the program is alreadythree years old, its people are new so relatively, iBoP is a new program with newpeople. He also shared their early insights on innovation starting with a story of a LosBaños farmer during Masagana ’99. This farmer was able to produce 100 kabans perhectare through innovation but soon as he got his harvest, everyone went to ask fora share of his yield. Incidentally, he had to continue giving even when he was at alost. The following year this farmer said no to innovation. He also shared anotherstory that happened to their conversation with the community at Purok Centro. Atthe end of the workshop, the people raised two concerns: 1) that they were beingcensus and may be asked to move out from their place; and 2) the project might leadto improvements that might attract informal settlers from other areas. These twoexperiences on the ground made them realize that the community is afraid ofprogress and that the burden of understanding is with the project people and notthat of those in the BoP. Second insight was that universities are not geared toward the promotion ofinnovation because they are too divided into multi-disciplinary silos thus, could notfuse themselves together. Dr. Romero encouraged everyone to participate in whatASoG is currently doing and deploy together to promote innovation. He emphasizedthat iBoP is about mind shift, not improve BoP directly but help create a mind shiftin the government and NGO sector. 2
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012III. Presentation of iBoP Asia’s Key Projects A. Universities and Councils Network on Innovation for Inclusive Development in Southeast Asia (UNID-SEA) Ms. Mary Grace Santos, Project Manager, UNIID-SEA Ms. Mary Grace Santos was introduced next to present the UNIID-SEA project of iBoP Asia. (See Annex D) It is a partnership project between the National Research Council of the Philippines and Canada International Research Center. To put the project in context, Ms. Santos said that SEA experiences show spectacular growth in poverty reduction over the last three decades; however there is a big trade off for this development as inequality is also rising. She also mentioned that the Philippines have the highest gini coefficient2 in SEA. She said that we are in the field of innovation where innovation is defined as the development of technology, products and systems that aim at making things easier and improve the standard of living. But in reality, innovation process tends to exclude the poor and the social challenges they face in the innovation targets, which further exacerbates poverty and inequality. Social justice, equality and human rights are not deeply embedded in innovation found in SEA. These innovations are mostly economic and industrial in nature. Human development are not really used or prioritized so social development is just secondary to economic, technological and industrial development in innovation policies. iBoP with UNIID-SEA advocates for a new perspective on innovation and development through IID. IID is understood as innovation that reduces poverty and enables many groups of people especially the poor and vulnerable to participate in decision making, create and actualize opportunities and share the benefits of development. In a nutshell, it is like democratizing development with innovation being knowledge and skill driven; the project will engage the key agents that facilitate the production, diffusion and application of knowledge for innovation in various fields: universities and research councils. It is innovation for all and by all. UNIID-SEA is a 3-year initiative (2012-2015). The idea was conceived by iBoP Asia of ASoG and IDRC to first facilitate universities and research councils’ reinvention. Reinvention means to rethink, reorient, and retool to be capable intermediaries of innovation. For Universities, it is in teaching, research and extension and for research councils it is in priority/ agenda–setting, grant making with different minds coming together, and policy making. Second, the project seeks to facilitate the establishment of formal partnership and collaboration between universities and councils, which seeks to foster innovation research to reform social policy. Thirdly, the project aims to develop champions and nurture partnerships by2 Standard measure of equality in the world. Gini Coefficient: 0 representing perfect equality and 1representing maximum inequality. Gini coefficients of SEA -- Singapore: 42.5; Philippines: 44;Vietnam: 34.4; Malaysia: 37.9; Indonesia: 34.3 (Source: Securing the Present, Sharing the Future:World Bank East Asia and Pacific Economic Update 2011) 3
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012forming a network and eventually connect to a global movement namely: UNIIDSouth Africa, Latin America and South Asia. In the long term, the project aspires tofoster multi-disciplinary, multi-stakeholder and multi-level (national, regional andglobal) approaches, mechanisms and partnerships towards IID. The project will be working with one university each from Thailand, Indonesiaand Vietnam with ASoG being the lead university and project implementer in thePhilippines, in partnership with corresponding research councils for the next threeyears. Ms. Santos also presented a quick run through of the activities the project will gothrough or its components: a. Knowledge and capacity building (multi-disciplinary course module, Social Innovation Lab, capacity building workshop for champions); b. Research support; c. Link to policy; and d. Network building She invited everyone to the project launching this Aprilthat will bring inrepresentatives from all universities and councils ASoG will be working with. In theend, she encouraged everyone to engage and participate as they develop the project.B. Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities Project: Finding New Mobility in Metro Manila Dr. Marie Danielle Guillen, Manager, Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities Project Dr. Guillen was called to present the new project being launched on that day. (See Annex E) She started with the background and purpose of the project, which focuses on the use of new mobility as a lens in search of more sustainable and innovative solutions in the urban public transport system in Metro Manila, in particular, ensuring that the needs of the poor and vulnerable are met. Wanting to engage the participants, she asked them what they meant by mobility and how each managed to get to the event that day. Then she went through defining the concepts involved: Mobility – both the ability of a person (including the goods that the community needs) to travel todestinations of choice and the amount of movement and time necessary to do so. Transportation – the movement of people, animals and goods from one locationto another. The field is divided into infrastructure, vehicle and operations. New mobility in this project refers to an initiative that is multi-disciplinary,multi-sector, top-bottom, bottom-up approaches like social enterprise innovationsin mobility addressing a socially inclusive transport sector. Multi-disciplinary meansthat everyone is part of the transportation sector. She then recounted a story 10years ago when she met a Japanese who inspired her to write a thesis on pedicabswhile her friend worked on cycling attitudes in the University of the Philippines. 4
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012This meeting led to an understanding on the attitude to cycle. Basically the studyshows that built it and they will come. She highlighted that it took UP 7 years for thesystem to have a car-free oval an infrastructure that would promote cycling. This New Mobility project is looking at improving the transport sector. It tries toincorporate the dimension of sustainability in transportation such as social equity,economic, financial, health, ecology, physical environment, air quality, noise andclimate change and not just focusing on traffic. This is based on the premise that ascomplexity increases, the notion that a single solution to solve transportationchallenge also decreases and the need to look at the big picture. So there is a needfor everyone to be engaged in the call for new mobility and be catalyst, try to findways to solve these issues. Dr. Guillen then moved into differentiating some stakeholders involved in theNew Mobility project such as engineers, urban planners and IT developers. Shementioned that everyone seems to do something to address the transport issues butare not linked. There is a need to connect the dots and find out how each can linktogether. The project aims to develop a new platform, resource center and enabler ofinnovation for purposes of governance ensuring socially inclusive mobility in theregion. It also seeks to utilize and complement existing studies by initiating a metro-wide conversation among stakeholders to introduce new mobility and find out howthe stakeholders envision the future of transport system in Metro Manila. Finding New Mobility in Metro Manila essentially means taking myriad stepsthat leads to a paradigm shift by: Looking at the big picture; Focusing on people’s needs and wants especially that of the urban poor and the vulnerable groups; and Evolution of transport as attention turned to energy efficient mobility models, shared transport schemes and community owned transport. The project holds the Finding New Mobility Forum series called Let’s Talk NewMobility. These series serves as a venue for people to habitually share information,ideas, insights, and initiatives for taking action at a community level and increaseadvocates for mobility and access to transportation in Metro Manila. She informedeveryone that a similar forum was held last October 2011 hosted by Ayala. She alsoshared that they conducted validation workshops with the urban poor communityincluding tricycle operators and drivers association (TODA) to introduce the conceptof New Mobility and noticed that people got a bit worried but eventually relaxedwhen they learned that this initiative is meant to focus on the people She furthershared that when they went on field, the community representatives shared thatthey have no problem with road expansion but they were afraid that the NewMobility project would dislocate them from their home. This misconception aboutthe project was corrected and the importance of road sharing for people as a way offixing things was emphasized. The goal of this forum series is to sustain aconversation among these stakeholders on how citizens can be empowered to shapethe patterns of mobility and access in Metro Manila to be more inclusive. Anoverriding aim is to promote other forms of public transport such as biking andwalking. These forum series want to highlight the fact that government is doing itsbest to improve our transportation system and everyone needs a paradigm shift. She 5
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012 mentioned that in our country people often use cars as incentive as we move up the economic ladder but in other countries they use public transport as incentive. The project has a research aspect that seeks to explore how the current public transport system affects the poor and the vulnerable populations of Metro Manila by mapping the current public transport system and understanding the mobility patterns, cost and issues of the poor and the vulnerable groups. Aside from learning all the issues, seeking new or emerging entrepreneurial or livelihood opportunities responsive to their mobility needs, Dr. Guillen reminded everyone that they do have a role to play. New Mobility also seeks to engage the general public. This activity aims to build a community of people wanting to create a platform or build on available platform to improve information generated in maps for seamless multi-modal connections. This is expected to benefit not only the poor and the vulnerable groups but the general public as well. The development of a mapping concept is needed to see the connectivity. The project also has the search for New Mobility Business Models: New Mobility Social Enterprise and Social Innovations Award, which has the following objectives: To surface enterprising solutions to solve social mobility problems; To engage different stakeholders in solving pressing mobility problems in the megacity especially that of the poor and the vulnerable sector; and To document existing social enterprises in the transport sector and generate innovative ideas that address mobility problems and needs. Then as prelude to the next speaker, Dr. Guillen said that the project basically attempts to generate inquiries, present more information, tickle the interest, insights of the people, initiatives, innovations and interconnections.IV. iBoP Asia Website: iFind New Mobility Mr. Andre Quintos, Web and Networking Coordinator, iBoP Asia Mr. Quintos presented the iBoP Asia website (www.ibopasia.net) most specifically the new mobility section named iFind New Mobility. He started identifying the sections of the iBoP website home page with the header being a photo that illustrates the problem on new mobility. He said that the purpose of the New Mobility page on the site is to be a portal for everything related to new mobility. In the site you can find local and international content containing articles, blog posts and links to other websites. When users visit the website, they could immediately see the scope of what the website covers. iFind New Mobility is a blog where you can find anything related to new mobility. Latest news on new mobility can be found there. The sidebar on the right has links to other websites that help a typical commuter get around the metro, i.e. commuting in Metro Manila, MMDA, Metro Manila direction and ParaSaTabi.com. These links 6
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012 can help commuters go from one place to another. The news and information page talks about the new mobility project and other project related events. Project Activity page would describe the activities of the project and explain what is happening. The Events page contains anything that happened in the past and has yet to happen. Mr. Quintos reported that he is working on a twitter feed to promote all the articles found in the website to the social networking site Twitter. Videos would be uploaded also on the New Mobility Watch page. The picture galleries of past events could also be found in the site, for example, the team’s recent visit to GK Village in Payatas. He informed everyone that the existing site is just the beginning and that data are being collected and placed online. He envisions the site to be more useful to people in the future by including a transportation map in real time using available open applications. He shared their plan of adding New Mobility Marketplace where people can post anything transport related they want to sell such as transport for sale, biofuel etc. Another possibility is to have a contest to get everyone engaged and hopefully help people learn about new mobility.V. Mapping for Inclusive Mobility: Pinpointing Transport Terminals and Hubs Mr. Lorenzo Cordova, Jr. Research Associate, iBoP Asia In order to understand mobility, Mr. Cordova deemed it necessary for all to look at three things: 1) the different modes of transportation 2) the factors affecting public transport and 3) planning and advocacy. (See Annex F) From a perspective of a commuter, he presented the need to pinpoint the public transportation terminals and hubs and their connection using a map to increase mobility. The following were the key concepts of his presentation: Modes of public transport Public transport (PT) hubs PT terminals Informal transport hubs/terminals Engaging stakeholders in mapping He started by showing photos of the diverse modes of public transportation and said that each plays a major role in mobility especially of the poor and can either compete or play a complementary role to other forms of PT. He showed more photos of public transport hubs and multi-modal transport terminal in Metro Manila. Photos of PT terminals, mostly found in secondary roads, were also shown. Informal PT terminals/ hubs were defined as areas that are public or privately owned, used by motorized and non-motorized PT vehicles as terminals, but have no clear legal 7
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012provision and/or local government ordinances that support its existence. However,in reality, these informal PT terminals are often the source of living for the poor andvulnerable. Why is it necessary to pinpoint PT terminals and hubs? One reason presented byMr. Cordova was the complexity and diversity transportation modes. Second is thegrowing number of unaccounted PT terminals and hubs that hinders the walkabilityand sometimes obstruct the flow of transport. Third, its existence is not a secret butthe country lacks readily available and accessible information where they are.Fourth, LGUs and other government agencies lack capability to produce up-to-datemap and last but not the least, mapping requires much time and resources. In commuting in Metro Manila, do we think of connection points? What are ourchoices and are they efficient? These questions were presented as the rationale whywe need to map transport terminals and hubs in Metro Manila. They are crucial inorder to assess the mobility problems and opportunities in Metro Manila and toimprove information generated in maps for seamless multi-modal interconnectionsthat would benefit not only the poor and the vulnerable groups but the generalpublic as well. The goal of mapping was to build a community of people wanting tocreate that platform or build on available platform. He showed a mapping example of something they did in his GIS class to map thetricycle terminals in Barangay Bagong Silang, Caloocan City. The violet dots,representing the terminals, were all over the map (see Annex F, slide number 10).According to the local tricycle regulatory unit in Caloocan, they said that the thereshould be at least one terminal per one TODA but the map showed many tricycleterminals located near each other. In his study, he found out that too muchtransportation terminals and supply causes too much violence in the barangay. Thesecond map he showed (see Annex F, slide number 11) illustrates that most of theterminals use up space for pedestrians and sidewalks thus reduces the walkability ofthe barangay. This situation is not unique in Bagong Silang and can be foundanywhere in Metro Manila, thus the need for proper mobility mapping.Mapping for inclusive mobility needs three major components: Individuals and organizations as contributors Intermediation platform – “enabler” Users Mobility mapping can either be done using “hi-tech” or “hi-touch” methods. Hi-tech uses available open platform from the internet like google map or open street,while hi-touch will be the one used on the New Mobility mapping workshop usingthe University of Michigan-SMART Centre approach the following day. Hi-touchmethod involves seven or more people in a group mapping and noting connectionsand locations of specific terminals. He showed a listing of several existing web-basedplatforms that can be utilized to map the terminals. Possible information fromstakeholders would include: Mode of public transport Location of terminal/ hub Name of TODA, JODA, PODA etc. Number of members 8
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012 Destinations/ routes Time of operation Facilities and services available in the terminals/ hubs He gave a quick conceptual framework of how the project intends to map mobility. They wanted to form a community; utilize different platforms such as the Internet, mobile and hi-touch method; map out applications; and validate and hopefully be published online as a resource for the mobility of community. The project aims to improve the quality of information through a collaborative process, increase awareness among stakeholders, expand useful data available data for decision makers while enabling much broader spectrum of citizens to actively participate in citizen science in their own communities and to contribute their collective opinions and decisions. Hopefully the “hi-touch” method would increase efficiency to the generation of data and reduce costs. Generally, the project aims to empower a community of people that want to create or build on existing platforms. The community of empowered people will be producing data at the same time consuming them hence naming them “Prosumers”. He informed everyone present that the maps generated will be made available on- line as a community resource and should be able to generate discussion among stakeholders to improve state and improvement of the transport system in Metro Manila. He reminded everyone that mapping is an evolving activity so new approaches may become available over time. Finally, he said that everyone is welcome to give suggestions on how to improve their project.VI. Search for New Mobility Business Models in Metro Manila Ms. Jessica Dator-Bercilla, Senior Research Associate, iBoP Asia Ms. Dator-Bercilla started by asking who among the participants have tried walking and using public transport. She then asked whether the people from the audience ever thought that this experience of walking and/or using public transport would get better. She asked the audience whether any of them have written down or implemented their dream. She noted that many Filipinos lost the capacity to experiment and innovate soon after colonization. The psychology of Filipinos noted that Filipinos are too used to borrowing ideas or solutions from others (countries) that we forget to dream enough to experiment. But under the New Mobility project, this notion would be dissolved. A new business model search would be made open to all for their transport dreams to turn into reality. First she presented was the Social Innovation Initiative/ Concept Awards. (See Annex G) This opportunity is for those who have not written their idea on how to make urban centers more mobile. The project will accept concept, ideas and solutions specifically addressing mobility problems in Metro Manila. Essentially this is a solution-seeking initiative. The project is looking for innovative ideas under these four categories borrowed from the 4Ps of Innovation by John Besseant and Joe Tidd of the Humanitarian Fund: 9
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012 1. Product Innovation – new mode of transport 2. Process innovation –new way of being mobile 3. Position innovation –new form of mobility 4. Paradigm innovation The next was the Best New Mobility Social Enterprise Award. In searching fora new business model, the project team decided to focus on social enterprisespecifically for the transport sector that address new mobility problems especiallythat of the poor and vulnerable. Entries must reflect sound management, should beproperly documented and reflect a social enterprise (SE) that meets multiple bottomlines. SE uniquely uses the capabilities of different stakeholders as leverage todeliver goods and services in the area of mobility to meet multiple bottom lines. Itcan target the following or even more bottom lines: Surplus or profit generation, where profit is reinvested for the gain of the stakeholders and further pursuing the social objective Environmental health Preservation of cultural integrity and diversity Capacity development or empowerment of a sector or community simultaneously improving their quality of life. Climate change Below were examples of probable entries around the globe Ms. Dator-Bercillapresented: Cargo bike of Worldbike Mini-Bus Operation, Day Care Transport, Special Education Needs Transport by the HCT Group in UK. Agency Community transport Model and Transport Asset Management Riders for health Non-emergency Medical transport by Tranmedic Mobility Scooter by Rugged Tree She also mentioned that the entries should be existing projects meeting thefollowing common criteria: Clear identification of mobility issues being addressed especially with those of the urban poor and vulnerable groups; Employ approaches that incorporate principles of sustainability in transportation that address issues in ecology, social equity, health, finance and economy, air quality, noise, climate; and Clear identification of challenges being addressed and of success indicators Lastly, she presented the schedule. After the project is launched, formal calls fornomination would be open at mid February and run through March 2012. ACommittee deliberation follows around April-May 2012 and the winners can benominated to present at the Rio Entrepreneurship Summit in May –June 2012.Before she left, she directed questions to Dr. Guillen. 10
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012VII. Sharing the New Mobility Agenda A. Search for New Mobility Opportunities in the AdMU Fr. Jose Ramon Villarin, S.J., President, Ateneo de Manila University When the forum resumed after launch, Ms. Rogel introduced Fr. Villarin to share his thoughts on the new mobility opportunities in AdMU. He happily recalled the time when he used to walk from Dela Strada Church, 2 km away, to Ateneo in high school. The school did not have too many buildings then in 1970s and walking is something that the people like doing. But now as the school President for 18,000 students, the Challenge is making Ateneo a sustainably mobile campus. He shared that there are plans for pedestrianizing the campus. Currently, there are around 2,000 cars that park inside the campus and occupy 7.5 hectares of prime real estate and cost several billion pesos. What he sees and hopes for the campus is for it to become a carless campus. He looks forward to the New Mobility project because aside from helping others and the city, which he grew up in and learned to love, the project will also help the campus. He also hopes that the innovative ideas would not simply be shelved and be replicated and adopted by other campuses in the country. He shared that majority of the ideas will depend on how lands are allocated. Before he left, he welcomed everyone to the campus and wished for the project to succeed. He also emphasized that AdMU, contrary to what is perceived by many, is not an elitist school. He proudly claimed that they form their students to look beyond the campus and include the marginalized people. B. New Mobility Initiatives of the MMDA Hon. Francis Tolentino, Chair, MMDA Chairman Tolentino started with a photo from the Balikatan exercise, a general being carried on the back of another man. He said that this photo illustrates the situation of transport mobility in our country where people are indolent walkers. More than the concept of pedestrianization, he deemed it necessary to find out why there is a need to motorize. He expressed his thought that this project should also look into why Filipinos are not pedestrian citizens. He then moved to presenting the new mobility initiatives of the MMDA. He announced a proposed skybridge project that would utilize esteros to address hopefully address mobility issues. He hopes that this would open the minds of urban planners, policy makers, local legislators and city 11
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012engineers that it is about time they utilize esteros for transport purposes. Heproposed a shift in outlook for esteros as source of crimes, disease, flood, urbandecay etc. He stressed the importance of esteros to renew Metro Manila similar toSeoul, Korea; Bangkok, Thailand and Macau. He said that they intended to publicizethe Skybridge project in the next weeks. For the New Mobility initiative, he agreedthat everyone must free himself or herself from the tendency to see Metro Manila asroads and bridges and see that it is made of human beings. He found it veryappropriate to include the poor and marginalized sectors in the project. He then moved to presenting the following future and current projects of MMDA(See Annex H): 1. Plan to have bicycle lanes from Remedios Circle to Intramuros 2. Construction of pedestrian-friendly footbridges: These footbridges aim to avoid conflict between motor vehicles and pedestrians by providing safe movement at intersections in selected locations. Instead of using the usual road or pedestrian lane, the MMDA created footbridges as an alternative and safer way to go to the other side of the road. The MMDA will be taking the design and construction of footbridges in a whole new level. The new design to be constructed in Sucat and funded by the DPWH, will include man-lifts, which can accommodate up to six persons in any given time. With this design, persons with disabilities (PWD) will be able to traverse the other side of the road safely and more conveniently. 3. Elevated loading and unloading bus bays: The bays aim to eliminate the practice of indiscriminate embarking and disembarking of bus passengers in non-designated areas. The agency is proposing to implement the elevated loading and unloading bays, similar to what is being implemented in Jakarta, Indonesia. Bus bay will have an elevated platform approximately one meter from the carriageways. Likewise, bus floors will be customized to align with the boarding platform. Bus bays will be modified to ensure the convenience and safety of passengers by providing roofs, seats and proper ventilation, among others. Ramps will also be provided for the elderly and the PWDs. There is now a Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB) resolution signed regarding this so Chairman Tolentino was certain that this would be implemented. Hand in hand with this initiative is MMDA’s push for bus drivers to receive fixed salaries to prevent them from hoarding passengers. A single ticketing system of traffic violations across Metro Manila which aims for a centralized database of traffic violations is also expected to run by March. 4. Motorcycle lanes: For Chairman Tolentino, this is the best indication that Filipino drivers can be disciplined. Motorcycles have steadily proliferated in the metropolis and they contribute to traffic congestion. Given the limited training of motorcycle drivers at the onset, they can endanger road users’ safety. In response, MMDA designated non-exclusive motorcycle lanes or “blue lanes” along Commonwealth Avenue in Quezon City (QC) and Macapagal Avenue in Pasay City. This will be expanded to include EDSA starting February 14, 2012. Since its implementation in Commonwealth and Macapagal Avenue, there was a significant reduction of accidents in the mentioned thoroughfares. Chairman Tolentino hopes that this will pave way 12
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012 for bicycle lanes, and that with the right infrastructure, support and mindset, this can be accomplished.5. LED Message Board: MMDA will be installing light emitting diodes message boards in major roads in Metro Manila to provide traffic advisories as well as road safety reminders to guide road users. An example of this is the led message advisory along EDSA Main Avenue, Southbound.6. Mega Manila Provincial Integrated Bus Axis System: MMDA is embarking on The Mega Manila Provincial Integrated Bus Axis System (MM-PIBAS) which aims to improve traffic conditions by prohibiting provincial buses from plying the major thoroughfares of Metro Manila, minimizing public bus transport congestion, eliminating vehicle-pedestrian conflict and promoting faster mobility. This will be done by providing central terminals in the north, east, south and southeast for provincial buses coming from those corridors. The MM-PIBAS shall be patterned from existing centralized bus terminals in other countries. Looking at airports as models, the MM-PIBAS is envisioned to be a terminal building complex with large area to accommodate many buses, park and ride facilities, dedicated space, which allows the mobility of passengers and convenience of cargoes and suitable location accessible to other modes of transportation. The idea is to consolidate the 85 existing provincial bus terminals with 60 bus companies operating approximately 7,368 buses into 4 common terminals (North, East, South and South East). Chair Tolentino announced that President Aquino will be releasing an Executive Order in February directing MMDA and DOTC to start working on this. Hence, Chairman Tolentino’s quick trip to Seoul the following day with DOTC officials to specifically look at the operation of their bus terminals. He strongly believed that this would be President Aquino’s pet project so it is likely that this would be operational at the end of the year.7. Vehicle Tagging: MMDA’s vehicle tagging scheme involves the permanent painting of license plate details of public utility vehicles (PUVS) on all sides of the vehicle and roof. Each type of PUV has a distinct colored background with prescribed measurements for the text and background. This was partially implemented on city buses starting last August 15 and on AUVs on December 12 last year. The scheme has helped in tracking and apprehending vehicles that have committed traffic offenses and city buses operating outside of their franchised routes. It has also diminished the unlawful practice of bus operators swapping plate numbers and the number of hit- and-run incidents committed by reckless bus drivers. This initiative came from the transport sector. This is part of the government’s public private partnership and has no cost to the government.8. Metro Manila Traffic Navigator: A major public-private partnership initiative of MMDA in coordination with TV 5. An online media service providing updated traffic situations in 9 major thoroughfares, EDSA included. Using this system, passengers and motorists are being empowered to make well- informed decisions taking alternative/less-congested routes. This service can be accessed by any web browser-enabled device at http://mmdatraffic.interaksyon.com and may be downloaded to smartphones and tablets for free. The TV 5-MMDA traffic navigator was awarded the bronze Boomerang award for innovation by the Internet and Mobile Marketing Association of the Philippines (IMMAP) last August 18, 2011 and 13
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012 the I.T. award of the year. This award symbolizes the power of combining technology and public service to bring real positive change. Chairman Tolentino wanted to ask the developers to make the program more visual and include intersections at real time. 9. EDSA makeover project: MMDA is partnering with the private sector in transforming EDSA into a traffic discipline zone, making it a motorist/ commuter and pedestrian–friendly thoroughfare. Other components of this activity are landscaping and greening, beautification, installation of adequate lighting along EDSA using energy efficient light emitting diodes (LED) technology especially on sidewalks, tunnels and footbridges to avoid proliferation of bad elements and installation of CCTVs, upgrading of street signs and maintenance of foot bridges. MMDA is looking at Mongkok and Suanlum in Bangkok as models. 10. Estero Bridge Part II: This is an activity that aims to clean two esteros at a day. MMDA said this is challenging not because of the amount of trash but because of the people who want to be relocated. These people do not want to live in the estero de Concordia example. MMDA’s difficulty was how to transfer the people when government resources are limited. Chairman Tolentino called for everyone to change the way they look at cities as not just buildings but with people. Also change their perspective on esteros as areas of opportunities and harness the talents of the people living there. In the same manner, he called for people to look at transport in Metro Manila. At the end, he said he is looking forward to the results of the studies commissioned by the project to improve Metro Manila transport not just this year but in the years to come.C. Responding to New Mobility Challenges of Quezon City Retired Brig. Gen. Elmo San Diego, Head, Department of Public Order and Safety Quezon City General San Diego reported that QuezonCity is one of the biggest cities that occupies1/4th of Metro Manila. It has a population of 3million with half belonging to the poor. QC isalso one of the richest cities throughout thecountry and the richest in Metro Manila basedon the latest COA report. With suchcharacteristics, it attracts business investorsand also informal settlements. The biggestchallenge for the city is the increasing numberof informal vendors and how to eliminate them.QC’s response to mobility challenges is how tocoordinate with other agencies to support theirprograms. General San Diego also shared project Open Katipunan (OK) that they planned toimplement with Ateneo. The Ateneo community consists of grade school and highschool parents, students and student council members who meet every month todiscuss traffic and other problems along Katipunan. Ultimately, the goal of projectOK is to reduce cars traversing along Katipunan by 50% 14
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012 Then he moved on to share their latest mobility program, the electric tricycles.(See Annex I) To set the context, he said that tricycles are the most preferred andmost convenient motor vehicle used by the marginalized sector in QC. At the onset,e-trike was a traffic initiative that reduces carbon emission within the campus butthe students wanted it to ply along Katipunan. The City Council deemed it dangerousbut they supported the idea nonetheless. In partnership with the Department ofEnergy (DOE), QC was chosen as a pilot area to run e-trikes under the generousfunding of Asian Development Bank (ADB). The bank allotted US$ 40 Million for32,000 e-tricycle units. It is a rent-to-own nationwide program designed jointly byLGUs, DOE, ADB and government financing. The basic requirement is to tradeconventional tricycle with e-trikes. General San Diego showed photo samples of e-trikes that are actually used indifferent parts of the Philippines like Palawan and Mandaluyong. He mentioned thatthe initial design of the e-trike in QC failed because the units were underpoweredand could not handle the slopes of Payatas. QC was chosen as a pilot area becausethey have the most number of registered tricycles with 5,000 plying as “colorum”. Inthis regard, QC issued a moratorium in tricycle registration because of the number ofunregistered units plying the road. There were several changes proposed for QC’s e-trike program. This includes thefollowing: 1) The use of Lithium-ion battery rather than lead. Lithium-ion is lightweight; its lifetime is more than 5 years, and saves space inside the unit. 2) The construction of several charging stations all over QC. 3) The use of a more powerful engine that can run the slopes of Payatas. 4) The use of a fiberglass body to endure harsh weather conditions. He also presented advantages in using e-trikes which include the following: 1) Fuel savings of about P200 from the regular income of drivers and estimated US$ 185 million per year. 2) Aboost in the manufacturing industry since all parts are made locally. Manufacturers intended to participate in the bidding of ADB. 3) An advocacy for cleaner air by avoiding carbon emissions that amounts to 400,000 tons per year. 4) Helping in the development of cities outside Metro Manila by donating retrofitted conventional tricycle units that would be traded in for e-trikes. 5) A bigger potential income for drivers since they save on buying fuel. Also part of the proposal made with DOE and ADB is the gradual phase out ofpetrol-fed tricycles. This would entail provision of incentives such as preferentialfranchise or route for e-trike users and/or exemption from number coding scheme.The city government is also gearing up for e-trike related business. The project hopes to complete e-trike units delivered to LGUs with a standard 3-year warrantee. For QC, they will start distributing 2,000 units this year and 5,000every year until 2016 for a total of 22,000 e-trike units. By 2016, ADB expects tocomplete the distribution and operation of 100,000 e-trikes throughout MetroManila, QC included. Several provinces in the north like Cabanatuan, Palawan, Davao,and Mindanao are also beneficiaries of the ADB program. 15
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012 The program is running in Mandaluyong already. General San Diego showed data on the management and operation of their e-trikes and the result was quite encouraging. He showed a simple comparison between a standard trike and e-trike in terms of fuel savings, economic savings etc. E-trike costs more than a standard tricycle (P200,000) because of its battery but when it comes to road space, 2 conventional trikes = 1 e-trike. E-trike also carries 6-8 people while conventional carries only 3-4. Gross income of drivers on a daily basis amounts to P800 for a conventional tricycle and P1,600 for an e-trike. D. SMART Program and New Mobility Initiatives of the University of Michigan Ms. Susan Zielenski, Managing Director, SMART Center University of Michigan Ms. Zielinski informed the audience that the New Mobility project of iBoP Asia is a sister study in SMART Centre also which also got itssupport from the Rockefeller Foundation. They share the same sister community in catalyzing new mobility in cities. She explained that the following day, participants would experience SMART mapping. The three things the new mobility project aspires are: Connecting the dots: For livability, sustainability, equity Moving money: Innovation, access, jobs, enterprises Moving minds: New way of looking at transport and cities. She presented existing labs in the different parts of the world and their partners and sponsors. (See Annex J) She posed a question: “Why did the chicken cross the road?” and got diverse answers from the audience. But she said chickens do cross the road for the sake of moving. They do it in order to go to the other side of the road. She encouraged everyone to think of accessibility (meeting needs) rather than mobility as the goal to open up a range of new options for innovation, including IT. For example, making trips shorter and more efficient through IT enhanced integrated mobility, but also through eliminating trips through IT enhanced land use and urban design, and even more immediate, replacing trips altogether with IT such as tele-work, tele-shopping, tele-banking, tele-education etc. Mobility is not only about moving people. Mobility is transportation capacity expansion, land use planning and travel demand management. We all live in a world where transportation is equated to cars hence, improving transportation means improving cars. She noted that people are culturally connected to their cars that everything else becomes extraneous. She presented words that describe this connection: “captive” and “transportation disadvantaged” where captive means having no choice while transportation disadvantaged is when anyone who has no access to a car becomes poor and because he/ she has to ride a bus. In this association, people assume that transportation is necessary. Therefore, cars are necessary; therefore to improve on transportation, we improve on cars and that is why car companies make car improvements a lot. She asserted that life would be much better if we have more choices and not just simply choose to have a car. She also dissected the words typically associated with transportation and mobility, which she felt, must be changed to something more exciting and true: 16
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012 Captive – means forced Transportation Disadvantaged Alternative Modes– seems like the “alternative” will never make it. Sounds like second choice. Public transport cost versus investment Transportation demand management – sounds constraining and associated with sacrifice Sidewalks - sounds not too prioritized as the they refer to the side of something Road closing versus openings Car use reduction versus more options She wanted everyone to transform the notion that transportation is flat. There are actually more connected choices in new mobility. This transformation of paradigm from monolithic to multi-faceted and connected is a foundation for a major emerging industry. The new paradigm she proposed was based on the tons of innovation going on around the world. Mobility is about moving people, moving goods and moving less. This is highly evident in the greater desire of young people these days with IT than cars thus, IT is not just about moving people but also about moving goods and moving less. She advised that when implementation seems difficult as to which should be done first, she told the audience to do it all at the same time. Then she commended the event because it gets people together. She emphasized the importance of connectivity and optimization of all kinds, which can be seen by mapping. In mapping, a new mobility grid can be revealed by identifying and overlaying everything. Implementation is like a human body system, a system that needs all parts, big and small to run. One would never ask which is better or force the choice between the heart, lungs and pituitary gland because they are all necessary. It goes the same for transportation. Focus must be given more on increasing, optimizing and enhancing the connectivity of the current options. In new mobility, there is huge economic activity, saving money, creating jobs, and revitalizing local economy. She ended with a hope that a lot of entries will come from the Philippines in the SMART Mobility enterPrize. This is an award for entrepreneurial ventures in sustainable transportation created by University of Michigan’s SMART initiative and with support from the Rockefeller Foundation. The entries should demonstrate innovative and replicable solutions to local and global transportation challenges, up and running, legal and can come from anywhere from the world.VIII. Open Forum After lunch, Ms. Rogel opened the floor to questions, comments and suggestions. The participants were requested to approach the microphones in the aisle, state their name and organization before speaking. QUESTIONS/ COMMENTS ANSWERS/ RESPONSES Concerns from Elvira Medina, President of National Center for Commuter Safety and Protection: a) On the use of e-tricycle. Electricity is 1) Engr. June Yasol, General Manager 17
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012 QUESTIONS/ COMMENTS ANSWERS/ RESPONSESstill generated from fossil fuel and what of JAYAREC: The units are notabout the horrendous electronic waste powered by lead acid but Lithium iongenerated in using lead acid to operate battery. It has 3-year warranty and 5the units? For her these should be years life cycle with performanceaddressed. tested to last 10 years. Indirect use of fossil fuel through charging asMr. Bharat Bongu(Intellicap): compared to use of gasoline. Drivers could also earn more by saving moneyWhat are the costs 5-years down the on gasoline.line for e-trikes? 2) Benjie dela Peña: Personally not in favor of solutions that only look at technology but transport mobility needs all the help it can get. One thing that e-vehicles can do is it moves up the question of source of fuel higher up the chain. If you move it up higher the chain, it is easier to change the system. It does not matter with the driver the source of fuel as long as it gets its electricity. It is easier at the platform to change the source of power.b) Ms. Medina also commented on the Benjie dela Peña: The issues of theframing of the poor and vulnerable. The poor and vulnerable are not onlyuse of the term poor and vulnerable about transportation. The expressionversus use of general public. “Poor” is of what is poverty also changes froman economic condition while situation to situation. In the US there is“vulnerability” is a physical and social an infrastructure gap, people who livecondition. The poor and vulnerable near mass transit lines can afford toshould not be separated from the use cars and go to offices using theirgeneral public but be coiled into one car whereas poor have no access toterm: “commuters”. In the BoP, the public transport stations thus theybiggest sector is commuters. Many of need to buy cars but have no means tothe poor are economically active but do so. The terms “poor” andhave limited opportunities and they use “vulnerable” works well for thepublic transport. Quality of life revolves Rockefeller foundation. It caters toaround the term “commuter”. particular interest of the issues of people who do not have adequate housing and opportunities in livelihood.Bert Fabian, CAI-Asia:Fully supports the forum but needscontinuing discussion. There is greatopportunity in the fact that PresidentAquino, MMDA Chairman Tolentino andAdMU President Fr. Villarin are formerclassmates to have these discussions. Itlooks like there is still an inconsistency 18
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012 QUESTIONS/ COMMENTS ANSWERS/ RESPONSESin the concept of mobility especiallysince most of the major projects arestill centered on vehicles and not onpeople. Government can or mustcampaign for better public transportthat is on time and convenient. Butoverall, he believes that it is high timeto have this kind of discussion on newmobility so he emphasized that thisorganization CAI Asia commits to theproject.Engr. June Yasol, General Manager ofJAYAREC:When talking about catalyzing new Dr. Segundo Romero: In catalyzingmobility in cities, are you referring new mobility in cities the key word ismore on RnD or is there application for mind shift. How do you break thegrants (e.g. invest on e-trike pilot paradigm of the poor to somehowprojects). There is a need to have solid accept the imposition of car owners toground for mobility and not just ideas be on the same boat? The project does not aspire to give commuters a better transportation system but the project offers them up to the possibility of what can be done. Start with very small things like having a pool of knowledge and come up with a map on informal transport hubs to be shared to everyone. The project is trying to motivate the target beneficiaries to help themselves. Other countries already have maps available and if we do not start soon, our country might be left with bad handed down technology by our neighbors. It is a contest with them also in improving our transportation mobility faster than they do. In this regard, the New Mobility forum is targeted to happen every month with different stakeholders.Dr. Kardi Teknomo from Ateneo:One of the most important mode of Dr. Segundo Romero: This is where hi–transportation is walking especially for touch mapping effort might help.the poor. Unfortunately, most of the People looking at maps and identifyinnovations were more on vehicles sidewalks, blockages etc. opportunity,such as e-trike or e-jeep. Walking needs facilities that work and those that dono facilities but needs monitoring. The not. Once identified, what can besystem of monitoring does not happen. done? Is there something for theReporting and feedback from the barangay captain to do? What about 19
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012 QUESTIONS/ COMMENTS ANSWERS/ RESPONSEScommunity is needed. the Head of the association? It becomes actionable because information becomes tangible. Bringing the action down to the barangay might yield quicker and better result than relying on government alone to take action. The proper mind shift is that it is not always the government or MMDA’s role. If the community can do something, they must act on it. Advocate for social accountability.Mr. Alberto Suansing, Executive Directorof Philippine Global Road SafetyPartnership - Philippines:Hope springs eternal. He mentioned Dr. Danielle Guillen: This project is notthat various studies and talks about only RnD, it is about complementingtransport and mobility exist but he was and reaching out. She told the storyglad to have this forum to raise about TODAs not knowing where theproblems and come up with solutions. other terminals are as a clear exampleThese transportation mobility issues of the need to complement publichad been talked about but problems transport service. The project aims toarise due to neglect. The Government introduce the idea of complementingwas not really able to focus on public each other work to be efficient andtransportation. He shared about have the connection. The project alsodispatching nightmare in buses and his emphasized on IT and the promotionthoughts on how improving the salaries of transportation planning. It is a top-of bus drivers may not fly because the down and bottom-up initiative wherecurrent system is still weak. The talking with policy makers happens atoperators in our country still focus on the same time as rounding up newtheir business and not public service. business models and innovativeHe believes that fare increase to cope solutions at the community levelwith fuel increase is not the answer totransport problems rather optimizingthe use of roads. He also said that thereis politics in terminals. Then he raisedthe issue on safety of commuters.Nevertheless, he was glad that mobilityis now being looked into. There are somany solutions that can be applied. Thegood thing is that this project has socialaspect. He expressed his skepticism onMMDA’s UVVRP, which will not work inthe long run because it only increasesthe volume of vehicles. Most people buyanother car just to avoid the UVVRP.The country has been compared toSingapore a lot but Singaporecompared to the Philippines has a veryrespectable public transport system. 20
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012 QUESTIONS/ COMMENTS ANSWERS/ RESPONSES Karmi Palafox from Philippine Institute of Environmental Planner and Palafox Associates: Susan Zielinski: Traffic congestion and a) The drawback in some of the mobility are not different problems. mobility designs came from the The question is how do you send the way urban planners conceptualize right signal? What are we them. They think as if all are car communicating about? It is more users important or necessary to know what kind of city we want to live in rather b) Is there congestion charging in the than think of congestion etc. What project? kind of transportation combination? c) Framing of poor and vulnerable. If progress is desired, involve the private sector. However, are they willing to do things for the poor and vulnerable? She suggested not using words that may turn off the private sector in marketing. Dr. Hussein Lidasan, Transportation Science Society of the Philippines: Supports this activity and committed to help in any way they can. The ultimate goal is to minimize the movement of vehicles but not the movement of people. But it is not just about mobility per se but also access. Economic measure is the dream of every transport planner. Economic measure means, people who are willing to pay will pay higher but they will be expecting an efficient transport system. In terms of information, people appreciated and understand better visual explanations rather than numerical. The bottom line is to see what is doable. Look at how you can connect the people through the transport system. This forum was a start and hoped to continue and improve or alleviate the cancers of transportation. He wanted to hear how to improve quality of life without compromising the environment.IX. Updates/ Insights from the Rockefeller Foundation 21
Catalyzing New Mobility in Cities: The Case of Metro Manila Project Launch 31 January 2012 Mr. Benjamin dela Peña, Associate Director, Urban Development The Rockefeller Foundation Mr. dela Peña recounted his story or experience in walking and commuting in QC before. For him, he agrees to what Danielle said earlier, Metro Manila is transportation rich especially in the poor areas. However, there is a windshield bias by the policy makers and decision makers and people always see traffic as the main problem. His presentation centered on the seven needs of transportation (See Annex K): 1. Takes us where we want to go 2. It takes us when we want to go 3. It is a good use of our time 4. It is a good use of our money5. It respects us with the level of safety, comfort, and amenity it provides6. We can trust it7. It gives us freedom to change our plans Sometimes a shift in paradigm involves a change in jargon like calling the TrafficManagement Unit of MMDA to Transportation Management Unit. He emphasizedconnections as very important in transportation and the poor and vulnerable as themost affected. People who think about mass transit always think about speed. Theexperience in mass transit is speed is not as important as frequency. Emphasis was also given to transportation sharing or allowing people to walk.Some say Filipinos are lazy walkers but they do not realize that it is because facilitiesare not available for people to walk on. When it comes to transportation, cars arestill the priority when it should be the people. A clear illustration are the steelbarriers in EDSA preventing people from hitting cars, denying people to move in theway of cars. The good news is that the complications do not just happen in the Philippines.Other countries experience drawbacks so as they find solutions, the country canlearn and we can share the experience. He said that there is hope starting with conversations. It is not fair to put it all inthe hands of the government and believe that they will solve the problem. Thegovernment has to deal with electoral issue (the official’s terms) and budget cycle.However, the government should also have a clear vision and not just presentingsolutions to problems. He ended with a quote by Jan Gehi from Making Cities for People: “To be a lively, attractive, safe and sustainable city, (a city) must be sweet to its pedestrians, sweet to its cyclists.” There is a movement of a shared longing. 22