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Unleashing Change

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Unleashing Change - Voices of Kosovo’s Youth 2010 - 20 October 2010

Unleashing Change - Voices of Kosovo’s Youth 2010 - 20 October 2010

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  • 1. unite for children Report 3ROLF $QDOVLV 8QWLQJ WKH .QRW Unleashing Change7KH 3ROLWLFDO (FRQRP RI &RUUXSWLRQ DQG $FFRXQWDELOLW LQ .RVRYR Voices of Kosovo’s Youth 2010 -XQH 20 October 2010 RSULJKW ‹,.6™™™ ‹•™‡„ ‘”‰ ƒ‰‡
  • 2. Copyright © UNICEFThe Author of this report is Kosovar Stability Intiative (IKS)ISBN 978-9951-600-00-2
  • 3. Unleashing Change Voices of Kosovo’s Youth 2010 20 October 2010This report was produced with generous support from UNICEF, and with funds from Luxemburg Government The views and opinions expressed in this study do not necessarily reflect those of UNICEF.
  • 4. CONTENTSFOREWORD ............................................................................................................................................. 2 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS .................................................................................................. 3 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................... 5 INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 7 RECOMMENDATIONS........................................................................................................................... 9 METHODOLOGY .................................................................................................................................. 11 EDUCATING KOSOVO’S YOUTH: ANOTHER LOST GENERATION? ..................................... 13  THE LEGACY OF THE 1990S .................................................................................................................... 14  YOUTH SATISFACTION WITH EDUCATION IN KOSOVO ............................................................................ 16  LEARNING WITHOUT BOOKS OR COMPUTERS ......................................................................................... 17  LACKING THE BASICS ............................................................................................................................ 22  ATTITUDES TOWARDS EDUCATION: TO CONTINUE OR NOT CONTINUE ................................................... 27  BRIDGE TO THE FUTURE OR A STUMBLING BLOCK? ................................................................................ 30 NO JOBS, NO PERSPECTIVE.............................................................................................................. 33  UNEMPLOYMENT: YOUTHS’ GREATEST CONCERN ................................................................................ 34  EDUCATION DOES NOT PREPARE ONE FOR WORK ................................................................................... 38  PEOPLE I KNOW ..................................................................................................................................... 42  THE GOVERNMENT’S RESPONSE? ........................................................................................................... 44  TO LEAVE OR NOT TO LEAVE! ................................................................................................................ 45 ENCOURAGING YOUTH PARTICIPATION .................................................................................... 47  DEVELOPING A NEW GENERATION OF ACTIVE CITIZENS: PARTICIPATION IN THE FAMILY ....................... 47  YOUTHS’ EAGERNESS TO PARTICIPATE IN DECISION-MAKING PROCESSES .............................................. 49  TOO LITTLE, TOO LATE!?........................................................................................................................ 52  YOUTHS’ STRUGGLE TO MAKE THEIR VOICES HEARD ............................................................................. 54  TURNING PROMISES TO PRACTICES ........................................................................................................ 57 KOSOVAN YOUTH FACE THEIR FUTURE..................................................................................... 59  MY FUTURE LOOKS BRIGHT? .................................................................................................................. 59  KOSOVO THROUGH MY EYES .................................................................................................................. 61  MIGRATION: YOUTHS’ SAFETY VALVE................................................................................................... 62  ‘KOSOVO: THE YOUNG EUROPEANS’..................................................................................................... 65 AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH ................................................................................................. 69 ANNEX I. ADDITIONAL GRAPHS RESULTING FROM THE KOSOVO-WIDE SURVEY ...... 70 ANNEX II. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR YOUTH AGES 10-14 .............................................................. 81 ANNEX III. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR YOUTH AGES 15-24 ............................................................. 96 ANNEX IV. FOCUS GROUP DISCUSSION GUIDE........................................................................ 109 ANNEX V. EU-FUNDED PROJECTS ................................................................................................ 112  TABLE 4. SUPPORTING THE EDUCATION SECTOR IN KOSOVO 2004-2009 ............................................ 112 www.iksweb.org 1
  • 5. FOREWORDAbout one-fourth of the worlds population comprises of young people between the ages10 to 24. With 50% of its population under the age of 25 Kosovo is known for havingthe youngest population in Europe. However, young peoples participation in thedecision making processes in all areas remains a major challenge. The fact that theyoung largely feel excluded from public debates has prompted UNICEF to address theirparticipation by engaging different stakeholders and ministries in conceiving andimplementing better social inclusion policies, giving priority to young persons. Theparticipation of youth in decision making processes and the associated societal shiftscan form an integral part of shaping Kosovos future prospective. Yet, at central or locallevels, young peoples voices fade prior to reaching the right ear. Their mobilization andempowerment has to become a priority for Kosovan institutions, civil society andstakeholders to realise the full potential that a young population represents in Europeand beyond.The Voice of Kosovo Youth study you have in your hands reveals the views andexperiences of young people in Kosovo. The study explores young peoples challengesand hopes about the educational system, employment opportunities, future prospectsand the Kosovan society in general, highlighting the circumstances that impede theirparticipation in public life. Youth expressed their frustration about future prospects withregards to poor education and associated unemployment, including the unavailability ofstudy materials, unqualified teaching staff or the lack of up to date methodologies.However, they express their desire to be given the opportunities to contribute moreactively and shape Kosovos presence and future.UNICEF will continue to monitor and advocate for the rights of children and youth inall countries. The recommendations deduced from the empirical findings in the reportshould guide stakeholders and policy makers as they engage in the fight to build andmake an inclusive and vibrant society and in providing a better present and future for allyoung people in Kosovo.Johannes WedenigUNICEF Kosovo Head of Office,Prishtina, October 20102 www.iksweb.org
  • 6. ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMSADA Austrian Development AgencyALMP Active Labour Market ProgramAUK American University in KosovoCIDA Canadian International Development AgencyCYAC Central Youth Action CouncilEC European CommissionESOMAR European Society for Opinion and Market ResearchETF European Training FoundationEU European UnionFSDEK Finish Support to the Education Sector in Kosovo FSDEKGDP Gross Domestic ProductGTZ German Technical CooperationIKS Kosovar Stability Initiative (Iniciativa Kosovare per Stabilitet)ILO International Labour OfficeKEC Kosovo Education CentreKEDP Kosovo Education Development PlanKYEAP Kosovo Youth Employment Action PlanKYN Kosovo Youth NetworkLYAC Local Youth Action CouncilMEST Ministry for Education, Science and TechnologyMCYS Ministry of Culture, Youth and SportsMLSW Ministry of Labour and Social WelfareNGO Non-Governmental OrganisationOECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and DevelopmentPEC Public Employment CentrePES Public Employment ServicesSDC Swiss Agency for Development and CooperationSIDA Swedish International Development AgencySOK Statistical Office of KosovoUNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural OrganisationUNDP United National Development Programmewww.iksweb.org 3
  • 7. UNICEF United Nations Children’s FundUSAID United States Agency for International DevelopmentUSG United States GovernmentVET Vocational Education Training4 www.iksweb.org
  • 8. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYApproximately half of Kosovo’s population is under age 25. Kosovo is thus theyoungest state in Europe both in terms of age and its newborn statehood. Educating,empowering and employing Kosovan youth remain key challenges for Kosovo in itsquest towards European integration. In 2001, UNICEF carried out a Young VoicesOpinion Poll to promote the participation of children and young people. It gave themthe opportunity to have their opinions and concerns heard and widely shared with theirfamilies, the government and public at large. The present report seeks to identify theproblems and issues that young people consider priorities.Kosovan youths’ concerns and hopes have changed little since UNICEF’s first YoungVoices Opinion Poll in 2001. Nearly a decade ago, 43 percent of youth believed thatKosovo would become a better place to live. They liked their country, and 87 percentwanted to continue living in Kosovo. They hoped for an improved standard of living,fewer social problems and a better political situation.In 2010, neither international assistance nor the declaration of independence hasbrightened future prospects for Kosovan youth. Kosovo must invest more in its youngpeople towards becoming a competitive economy within the larger European market.Investment must begin in the education sector. The legacy of the 1990s, outdatedteaching methodologies and poor infrastructure have left youth disenfranchised withKosovo’s education sector. The positive relationship between education andemployment mean that a strong education sector is crucial for reducing unemploymentand poverty towards greater social stability.Kosovo remains the poorest economy in South East Europe. Youth under age 25 havebeen among the most affected, with an estimated unemployment rate of 73 percent. In alabour market in which labour demand is already very low, 95.5 percent of youth haveno prior work experience. This affects long-term unemployment among youth; 81.8percent have been seeking a job for more than 12 months. Informalities and nepotism inhiring practices further disadvantage the unemployed. With such bleak prospects, someconsider migration the best way to improve their lives.Youth still have limited impact on decision-making processes for two reasons:institutions rarely feel obliged to respect youths’ right to participate, and young peopledo not consider participation a civic responsibility. Failing to involve youth in decision-making processes may easily contribute to future instability.In the eyes of young people, economic and social conditions serve as a yardstick formeasuring quality of life in Kosovo. Like previously surveyed youth, respondents hopedfor a better economic situation and standard of living in Kosovo. Kosovan Serb youthtended to be more uncertain about their futures than other youths.www.iksweb.org 5
  • 9. 6 www.iksweb.org
  • 10. INTRODUCTIONGiven the high levels of youth unemployment, education is a key priority for Kosovo.1With approximately half the population under age 25,2 Kosovo is the youngest state inEurope both in terms of age and its newborn statehood. Together with natural resources,the newborn country’s youth have been identified as one of its two strengths.3 Kosovo’syoung labour force can be an asset amidst Europe’s aging population and is a crucialfactor in Kosovo’s hopes for European integration. Indeed, the European Commissionhas emphasised the importance of youth employment and empowerment in progressreports, as have the World Bank and USAID.Yet, despite Kosovan leaders’ vocal commitment to European integration, minimalattention has been given to youth. For example, in the Government’s 55-page strategyreflecting national priorities for 2008 thru 2011, youth are mentioned only eight times.4As the United Nations Development Programme noted in its 2006 Human DevelopmentReport, Kosovo youth had little impact on decision-making institutions for two reasons:first, institutions do not feel obliged to respect the rights of youth to participate, andsecond, young people do not consider their participation a civic responsibility.In 2001, UNICEF carried out a Young Voices Opinion Poll to promote the opinions,views and concerns of children and young people. The survey was conducted with 400children and young people between nine and seventeen years old. In 2004, UNICEFcarried out another youth opinion poll that focused on health education, employment,development, protection and participation in civil society. The survey was conductedwith 600 young people between nine and twenty-five years old. It also involved a seriesof focus group with youth.This present report seeks to assess opinions, views and concerns of young people andshare them with the government, key stakeholders and the public at large. It makescomparisons with the prior surveys on youth, where relevant. The data and findingspresented in this report will be used by UNICEF to establish baseline and progressindicators in order to inform the development of a comprehensive situation analysis ofyoung people; to monitor the impact of UNICEF programme interventions; and tostrengthen the monitoring and evaluation of the Kosovo Youth Action Plan.The 2010 Young Voices Opinion Poll, funded by UNICEF and carried out by the IKSteam involved mixed research methods, including a Kosovo-wide survey of 1,300respondents; in-depth interviews with youth across Kosovo; and 10 focus groups withyouth of diverse education levels, ethnicities and geographic areas. In-depth interviewswere also conducted with policy makers, practitioners, donors and other relevantstakeholders.In this resulting report, the first chapter deals with youths’ opinions and satisfactionwith Kosovo’s education system. Chapter two examines youths’ opinions regarding1 European Commission (EC), Kosovo-Fulfilling its European Perspective, Brussels, October 2009.2 U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base, Population Pyramid Kosovo 2010. Kosovo’s total population is estimated to be1,815,048, out of which 864,170 (47.6 percent) are under age 24. At http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/country.php.3 Republic of Kosovo, Medium Term Expenditure Framework 2009-2011, June 12, 2008. Prishtinë/Priština, p. 6.4 Government of Kosovo, Program of the Government of Republic of Kosovo 2008-2011, Prishtinë/Priština, April 2008.www.iksweb.org 7
  • 11. employment opportunities in Kosovo; their readiness for the labour market; and linksbetween education and employment. Chapter three looks into youth participation indecision-making processes and the institutional provisions for youth involvement indecision-making. The fourth chapter focuses on youth perceptions of life in Kosovo andtheir satisfaction with life in general; measures their willingness to migrate; andpresents the views of Kosovan youth in relation to their future and Europeanintegration.8 www.iksweb.org
  • 12. RECOMMENDATIONS Education  A comprehensive approach and efforts to the education system are evident. This, nonetheless, requires extensive investment over a considerable period of time. Current efforts must be complemented by strong leadership, including strategic government commitment and increased budget allocation for education sector.  Inter-ministerial coordination is crucial for synchronizing labour market demands with opportunities for the education sector to supply labour, particularly vocational training. MLSW should make identifying skills required by the labour market a priority. Subsequently, such needs should be reflected in MEST’s sector-wide strategic approach.  Promoting foreign exchange for private and public tertiary students and lecturers would accelerate education reform by introducing new methods employed in other countries of the region and Europe. Additionally, skills and knowledge gained during a semester abroad would contribute to furthering the quality of current teaching at the university level. Employment  The infusion of a young labour force is essential for filling the jobs left open by Europe’s ageing population. The Government of Kosovo can enter into bilateral agreements with interested EU countries in order to identify labour market demands and establish programs for providing labour. Short-term migration can be coordinated, controlled and regulated bilaterally. MLSW should take the lead in establishing such a program on behalf of the Government of Kosovo. The MSLW project was pioneering in this regard.  Compulsory internships, mandated as part of University level curricula could better prepare graduates for the labour market. AUK is an exceptional example in this regard. Opportunities for youth to intern with international organisations in Kosovo should be examined. MEST should explore additional opportunities for initiating internship agreements between universities in Kosovo and the region.  Web-portals where youth can upload their CVs and employers can announce vacancies can marry labour market demands with existing skills. This is a widely used, successful practice in other countries. It can help reduce informalities during selection and recruitment processes. Such a website could be accessible by youngsters throughout Kosovo. MLSW in close cooperation with businesses could initiate such a project. Participation  For the Prime Minister of Kosovo and the Government to prove their commitment to Kosovo’s ‘Young Europeans,’ the year 2011 should bewww.iksweb.org 9
  • 13. declared a ‘Year for Youth.’ This should be translated into actions, including increasing budget lines towards facilitating youth participation and stimulating their activism. Such a national level decision should trickle down to affect the municipal level.  School principals should identify avenues for encouraging students’ participation and activism. They could identify youths’ interests and opinions regarding their future, via computer-based social networks, which are very popular among youth. Future Perspective  Initiatives for opening more EU information and cultural centres in other places outside of Prishtinë/Priština should be encouraged. As a matter of fact, both EU and Government of Kosovo should utilize this momentum of the positive attitudes of young Kosovans towards EU. In addition, to more centres, the government and EU could support draft the curricula and organize compulsory classes of EU integration (institutions and values) for the secondary school attendees, as part of the relevant subject of the social sciences.10 www.iksweb.org
  • 14. METHODOLOGYThe findings presented here draw from mixed research methods involving bothquantitative and qualitative data. An initial literature review illustrated the dearth ofaccurate and current data available in order to respond to the research objectives, that ofassessing opinions, views and concerns of young people and share them with thegovernment, key stakeholders and the public at large. Therefore, IKS decided to usemultiple methods, data sources and researchers for triangulation, towards enhancing thereliability and validity of the research findings.A primary data source was the Kosovo-wide survey of 1,300 youth ages 10 to 24.Disproportionate, multi-stage random sampling was employed. The sample wasstratified by municipality, age and ethnicity. UBO Consulting was commissioned tocarry out the structured face-to-face interviews, which took place between March 29thand April 7th 2010. Two different surveys were employed to assess the views andconcerns of young people ages 10 to 14 and 15 to 24 years old, respectively. Theinterviews were administered in line with the ‘guidelines on Interviewing Children andYoung People’ issued by the European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research(ESOMAR)5 in 1999. According to these guidelines, all children were interviewed intheir own language and in their homes with permission from their parents or guardians.Though, the interviewer and child were alone during the interview to encourage thechild to answer all questions freely and candidly. All field researchers attended a one-day training led by a specialized psychologist.As Figure 1 illustrates, 900 Kosovo Albanians, 200 Kosovo Serbs, and 200 respondentsof other ethnicities including Turks, Gorani, Bosnians, Roma, Ashkali and Egyptianstook part. UBO Consulting controlled the data through 35 percent back-checking;entered the data into SPSS; and performed consistency controls. The data analysisinvolved both descriptive statistics and regression with a 95 percent confidence interval.Particular attention was paid to variables such as age, gender, region and ethnicity.The quantitative survey data was supplemented by in-depth interviews with youngpeople and ten focus group discussions with high school students, university students,job-seekers and employed youth. The focus groups were held in Prishtinë/Priština,Prizren, Gjakovë/Đakovica, Dragash/Dragaš, Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša, Gračanica/Graçanicë and Mitrovicë/Mitrovica. In-depth interviews with youth as key informantswere a defining feature of the research methodology, as illustrated by the use ofquotations and anecdotes. The report was further enriched by interviews with more than50 policy-makers, international donors, youth organisations and youth centres. Theseinterviews assessed existing initiatives and programs targeting youth towardsempowerment, education, employment opportunities and participation in decision-making processes.Triangulation was used to identify converging themes and seemingly contradictoryfindings were investigated. IKS team analysed the quantitative and qualitative data andcompiled the findings in a report according to four chapters. IKS shared the preliminary5 The European Society for Opinion and Marketing Research (ESOMAR) is the world organisation for enabling better research intomarkets, consumers and societies. ESOMAR promotes the value of market and opinion research in illuminating real issues andbringing about effective decision-making on a global level. ESOMAR’s mission is to promote the highest standards in marketresearch for improving decision-making in the public and private sectors. For more information, see: www.esomar.org.www.iksweb.org 11
  • 15. findings in a workshop with key stakeholders in areas of education, employment andparticipation in decision-making and incorporated amendments and suggestions in thisreport.Figure 1. Sample Demographics Total sample size: n = 1300 Unit Percentage Frequencies Gender Male 50.7% 658 Female 49.3% 642 Age 10-14 years 34% 444 15-24 years 66% 856 Ethnicity Albanian 69.6% 900 Serb 15.5% 200 Other* 14.9% 200 Region Prishtinë/Priština 24% 313 Pejë/Peč 14% 182 Prizren 18% 230 Gjilan/Gnjilane 12% 167 Gjakovë/Đakovica 5% 61 Mitrovicë/Mitrovica 16% 208 Ferizaj/Uroševac 11% 139* ‘Other’ includes Roma, Ashkali, Egyptians, Gorani, Bosnians and Turks.12 www.iksweb.org
  • 16. EDUCATING KOSOVO’S YOUTH: ANOTHER LOSTGENERATION? ‘Education is their bridge to the world.’ - Alyssa Milano, UNICEF Goodwill AmbassadorChildren from Kosovo painted this picture for the UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador,Alyssa Milano, who visited on Children’s Day in 2010. The open book represents thefoundation of education and knowledge, from which the red flowers (Kosovo’schildren) grow into the world. The painters, Kosovan youth, were born after 1999 andhave no memory of the conflict. They look towards a better future, eager to changeKosovo. For this, education is their ‘bridge to the world.’In 2010, approximately half of Kosovo’s population was under age 25, and around 54percent of them were enrolled in the education system.6 High hopes were placed oneducation as the backbone of economic development and progress but problemsremained.7 As the European Commission Progress report noted, Kosovo’s educationsystem continued to be affected by resource constraints, inadequate facilities (includingbasic sanitary services and potable water), poor quality teaching and low enrolment(lower than the regional average). The implementation of the Law on Education at themunicipal level had been hampered by inadequate financial and administrativecapacities in municipal education directories.8 Faced with all these challenges, willKosovo’s Young Europeans9 be able to realise their dreams and be catalysts for socialand economic change?This chapter first observes how the legacy of the 1990s affected the quality of educationin Kosovo. Following an overview of youth satisfaction with the education sector,issues with learning materials, teachers and classroom infrastructure are discussed.Finally, recommendations for improving the education sector are made.6 IKS calculation using data from the Statistical Office of Kosovo on total school enrolment (469,631 students) at all levels and theestimated number of youth under age 25 in Kosovo (865,170), according to the U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base,Population Pyramid Kosovo 2010, http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/country.php. The last census in Kosovo was held in 1981,so accurate population data is unavailable.7 Government of Kosovo, Program of the Government of Republic of Kosovo 2008-2011, Prishtinë/Priština, April 2008.8 European Commission, Kosovo under UNSCR 1244/99 2009 Progress Report, Brussels, October 2009.9 ‘Kosovo: The Young Europeans’ is the slogan of a government-sponsored promotional campaign for Kosovo launched on 26October 2009. The campaign aired on six stations in Europe and the United States, including CNN, BBC, Euronews, Bloombergand Eurosport, aiming at branding Kosovo as a new nation, focusing strongly on the power of young people.www.iksweb.org 13
  • 17. The legacy of the 1990sIn 2008, the Government of Kosovo identified education as one of ‘the 4 E’s,’ thepriority sectors towards Kosovo’s development: Economy, Energy, Education andEurope. Nonetheless, the education system has remained one of Kosovo’s greatestweaknesses. For nearly twenty years Kosovo’s education system has been in a state ofemergency, providing only basic necessities. ‘Even nowadays we can’t talk aboutreforms,’ said Lida Kita, a European Training Foundation (ETF) expert on Kosovo’seducation system. ‘We still talk about priorities.’10 Insufficient education amongteachers, outdated teaching methodologies, lack of space, overcrowded schools, reducedclass hours and low salaries have hampered the quality of the education provided.Such problems have been due in part to the legacy left by decades of discrimination andthe destruction of schools during the conflict. About half a million young KosovanAlbanians were forced by the Serb authorities to leave the formal education system afterKosovo’s decision-making autonomy over education was abolished in 1989. This led tothe creation of an Albanian parallel education system.11 In 1991, secondary educationmoved almost entirely underground as only 6,000 official seats were made available for36,000 Albanian students finishing primary education.12 By 1992 Albanian studentswere entirely excluded from schools in Kosovo. Hundreds of Albanian head-teacherswere dismissed. All of the teachers at the University of Prishtinë/Priština who refused toteach according to the newly introduced curriculum, with Serbian as the sole languageof instruction, were ‘deemed to have resigned.’13 Most Kosovan Albanian staff andstudents were removed from the University of Prishtinë/Priština.14From 1989 to 1999 the Albanian parallel education system struggled to survive. In 1995386,511 students were enrolled15 in this system that suffered from dire limitations.Lessons were held in improvised classrooms in private houses and garages. Textbookproduction was prohibited in Kosovo so some materials were smuggled from Albania.Other books were produced illegally in Kosovo, but could not reflect new developmentsin science and technology.16 Dated curricula were applied by unqualified volunteerteachers. Insufficient infrastructure and Serb harassment meant that the number ofstudents attending school halved by 1996.17 Then, the 1998-1999 conflict destroyed halfof the schools; damaged about 17 percent of schools; and left most without runningwater and sanitary equipment.Although 110 schools had been rebuilt by 2010,18 many children still attended school inovercrowded classrooms in morning, afternoon and sometimes even evening shifts.Initially adopted as a necessity after the conflict, about 70 schools still taught three10 IKS interview with Lida Kita, European Training Foundation, 1 July 2010.11 In March 1990 Belgrade enacted ‘Temporary Measures’ which included ‘The Programme for the Attainment of Peace, Freedomand Prosperity in the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo’, and the ‘Law on the Activities of Organs of the Republic inExceptional Circumstances’. The Temporary Measures led to the suspension of the Provincial Parliament, the removal of Kosovo’sautonomous control over education and the introduction of Serbian as the only official language of education (Sommers Buckland, Parallel Worlds: Rebuilding the Education System in Kosovo: UNESCO, 2004, p. 42).12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Thematic Review of National Policies for Education –Kosovo, June 2001.13 Alva et al., 2002, in Sommers Buckland, 2004.14 Bellamy, A., ‘Human Wrongs in Kosovo: 1974-99’, The International Journal of Human Rights, 2000, 4 (3), pp. 105-126.15 Bache, J. Taylor, A. ‘The Politics of Policy Resistance: Reconstruction Higher Education in Kosovo.’ Journal of Public Policy,2003, 23 (3), pp. 279-300.16 Sommers Buckland, Parallel Worlds: Rebuilding the Education System in Kosovo: UNESCO, 2004, p. 42.17 OECD, Thematic Review of National Policies for Education – Kosovo, June 2001.18 Data on MEST investments in school infrastructure from 2004 to 2010 were taken from the Department of Infrastructure andTechnical Services, MEST, September 2010.14 www.iksweb.org
  • 18. ‘shifts’ per day in 2007. Most others had two.19 Schools teaching in three shifts wereforced to shorten class hours to only 35 to 40 minutes per class, instead of 45 minutes.This has had consequences for the quality of education that youth receive. Milot a 22-year-old student recalled: We were a lot of students in high school. It was impossible for the teacher to deal with each of us individually. We could not do any presentations; write essays and learn many other things that are crucial to know in the modern world.20The number of schools with three shifts was reduced to 20 in 2010.21 Even so, otherscontinued to have two shifts. Shortened classes thus remained a reality in many Kosovoschools. Lack of space, an issue that continues to hinder the quality of education in themost crowded faculties of Prishtinë/Priština University, remains a problem.Since the end of 2001 and in accordance with the New Curriculum Framework,22 theKosovo education system has undergone reforms that introduced nine years ofcompulsory education as according to Bologna Process:23 five years of primary schoolfollowed by four years of lower secondary education. In addition to the first nine years,it includes either general secondary education that lasts four years and prepares studentsfor university, or vocational secondary education that typically lasts three years. Startingin 2011, higher secondary education also is expected to become mandatory. It’s crucialto mention as well, that the New Curriculum outlines a significant change in how theeducation and schooling is viewed, the shift from a content focus to a more learningoriented and competency based approach is emphasised and its implementation ispushed by in particular by the current Ministry of Education, Science and Technology(MEST) Minister.The post-independence legislation has been favourable for further reforms in education.It included a new structure for the education system; mainly a new institutional set upand further curriculum development. UNMIK has fully transferred all competencies inthe education sector to the Government of Kosovo. Further, the basis for transferringresponsibilities from national to municipal government authorities was established bythe 2008 Law on Education in Municipalities of the Republic of Kosovo24 and the Lawon Local Governance,25 in practical terms it means that the Directorate of Educationwithin municipality undertakes the selection of school directors and administrative staff.Nevertheless, for some of the observers of the education system this is clearly notenough. As one of the education experts put it, poor leadership at the national level hasmeant a lack of inter-ministerial coordination in pushing forward reforms: ‘The19 Lida Kita, HDR Country Analysis - Kosovo, ETF working paper, May 2008.20 IKS interview with Milot Rexhepi, student of political sciences, Prishtinë/Priština, 9 April 2010.21 MEST data and CHF International fieldwork. IKS email correspondence with Valbona Dushi, Partner Relations Manager, CHFInternational, 17 September 2010.22 UNMIK Department of Education and Science (DES), ‘The New Kosovo Curriculum Framework – Discussion white paper,’Prishtinë/Priština, September 2001.23 The Bologna Process is a European reform process aiming at establishing a European Higher Education Area (EHEA) by 2010.The Bologna Declaration of June 1999 has put in motion a series of reforms needed to make European Higher Education morecompatible and comparable, more competitive and more attractive for Europeans and for students and scholars from othercontinents. http://www.ehea.info24 Law on Education in the Municipalities, Law No. 03/L-068; Republic of Kosovo. 2008, Article 4.25 Law on Local Self Government, Law No. 03/L-040, Republic of Kosovo. 2008.www.iksweb.org 15
  • 19. government needs to coordinate, and the inter-ministerial coordination should be asingle voice. There is a lot to be done in this respect.’26In 2008 and 2009, donors demonstrated an interest in supporting the development of theeducation system. The education sector-wide approach project (SWAP) was launched inMay 2010 by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (MEST) andEuropean Commission Liaison Office (ECLO). The three million euro, EU-fundedproject aimed to contribute to enhancing the management and quality of the educationsystem. The project planned ‘to support the curriculum development and teachertraining development in Kosovo.’ It also sought to support MEST and MunicipalEducation Departments across Kosovo ‘to improve the systems of planning,implementation and evaluation in education at all levels of government.’27With financial support from the Swedish International Development Agency (SIDA)through the Capacity Building and Education Reform Project (CBERP), MEST wasundertaking donor mapping at the time of writing this report ‘in order to feed thisinformation into MEST Strategic Planning.’28Numerous other donors have financed Kosovo’s education sector to date. The WorldBank (WB) is the longest standing supporter of Kosovo’s education sector, financingthe sector since 1999. EU-funded projects totalled 76.6 million euros for 2004 thru2009.29 The United States Government (USG) funded projects in education and theyouth sector roughly amounting to 19 million USD between 2000 and 2008. Further, theUSG has set aside an estimated 13 million USD for the fiscal year 2011 (October 1,2010 to September 30, 2011) for education and youth projects and schoolconstruction.30 The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), DanishDanida, Austrian Development Agency (ADA), German GTZ, Swiss Agency forDevelopment and Cooperation (SDC), Norwegian Government, UNICEF and otherUnited Nations agencies also have contributed substantially, primarily in the form ofgrants.It now seems hopeful that donor coordination, which has been an issue until recently,will help in avoiding overlapping of projects by different donors. MEST, supported bySIDA will harmonize donors’ initiatives and will accommodate the financial and humanresources according to the needs and demands in the ground. Still, more needs to bedone in this aspect as many donors have pointed out the weak capacities of MEST andlimited number of staff.Youth satisfaction with education in KosovoMost Kosovan youth recognised the value of education. The reasons 15- to 24-year-oldrespondents to IKS’s survey most commonly cited for getting an education were to26 IKS interview with Dukagjin Pupovci, Director of Kosovo Education Center (KEC), 3 June 2010.27 ECLO Press Release, EU support measures to promote quality education in Kosovo, 27 May 2010,http://www.delprn.ec.europa.eu/?cid=2,103,873.28 IKS interview with Lovisa Ericson, SIDA Education Programme Officer, 17 June 2010; IKS e-mail correspondence with LovisaEricson, SIDA Education Programme Officer, 18 August, 2010.29 IKS interview with Sophie Beaumont, ECLO Education Program Manger, 9 June 2010; IKS e-mail correspondence with SophieBeaumont, 24 August 2010. For details see Table 4 in Annex V.30 IKS e-mail correspondence with Inez Andrews, USAID Senior Education and Youth Advisor, 30 July 2010.16 www.iksweb.org
  • 20. ‘develop themselves’ and to make their families proud (84.2 percent agreed with eachstatement, respectively).When asked about their overall satisfaction with the quality of education, mostrespondents to the Kosovo-wide survey replied that they were ‘satisfied’: 89.4 percentof 10- to 14-year-olds, 74 percent of 15- to 19-year-olds, and 61.1 percent of 20- to 24-year-olds. As Graph 1.1 illustrates, overall satisfaction thus seemed to decrease with ageand the corresponding education levels of primary, secondary and tertiary education.Graph 1.1 Youths’ overall satisfaction with the quality of education, by ageA statistically significant relationship existed between ethnicity and overall satisfactionwith the quality of education.31 On average, Kosovo Albanians were more satisfied thanother ethnic groups. More specifically, Kosovo Serb respondents tended to be lesssatisfied than other youth with desks, chairs, and classroom equipment; hygiene; andheating.32Despite surveyed youths’ general satisfaction with the quality of education, morespecific survey questions and in-depth interviews indicated dissatisfaction withelements of the education system, as the following sections detail.Learning without books or computersThe current Kosovan Curriculum Framework, dating from 2001, promotes a schoolcurriculum that remains subject-based rather than skills-based.33 Thus the educationsystem has taught few if any skills that would assist youth in transitioning fromeducation to employment, such as problem-solving or teamwork. Indeed, more than half(52.8 percent) of the 15- to 24-year-old survey respondents considered school curriculaold and without practical application. Similarly, 63.7 percent felt that school was very31 It was statistically significant at the 5 percent level of significance (p 0.001).32 A statistically significant relationship existed at the 5 percent level of significance (p 0.001).33 UNMIK Department of Education and Science (DES), ‘The New Kosovo Curriculum Framework – Discussion white paper,’Prishtinë/Priština, September 2001.www.iksweb.org 17
  • 21. theoretical and had little practical orientation. For example, Bert, a knowledge-hungry10-year-old from Prishtinë/Priština, explained: I can hardly wait to go to school. [But] sometimes I fall asleep during the classes because I already know what the teacher is explaining. The teacher then calls my mom and tells her that I am dreaming during the class hour. I can hardly wait to go to the fifth grade to learn physics. My father finds websites on the internet where I read about gravity and a lot of other things.34The outdated curriculum could be viewed in stark contrast to some of Kosovo’stechnologically advanced youth. Milan, a 21-year-old student of Art at the University ofMitrovicë/Mitrovica, said attending classes was not enough: I study graphic design, which is a recent thing and highly related to technology. My professors are old and their programs for this faculty most probably date from the ‘90s. I am lucky that I have internet, and I can do my own research. I am planning to go to Belgrade after graduation to attend some main courses that I could not do here.35For Bert and his classmates, a group of lively 10-year-olds, Kosovo’s education systemcould hardly keep up with their desire to learn. Seventy percent of their cohort used acomputer with internet at home.36 However, few schools seemed to utilize modernlearning methodologies.Although many schools were equipped with computer labs, not all students had theopportunity to use them. Drilon, a 17-year-old gymnasium student in Gjakovë/Đakovica, explained that his school was recently equipped with new computers: ‘Beforewe had Pentium 1, the weakest computers ever. We could hardly learn the easiestprograms such as Word, let alone go further. We don’t have internet yet, even though itis necessary.’37 Gentiana, an 18-year-old student of the Technical High School inPrizren, complained that the one computer in her school was shared by 30 students.38Teachers also lacked materials and aids towards more inclusive and varied teachingmethodologies. For example, teachers were encouraged during trainings organized byKosovo Education Centre (KEC), to use listening comprehension exercises. However,an English teacher explained that he did not have a tape recorder or any audio-visualaids to apply the modern teaching techniques he had learned.39Without textbooks at secondary vocational schools, students said that teacherscontinued to dictate lessons. They rarely taught critical thinking skills or assignedexercises to solve. ‘We learn only theory; there is no practice at all,’ complained Dona,an 18-year-old student. Her friend Burak agreed, ‘Instead of solving exercises we are34 IKS interview with Bert, Prishtinë/Priština, 9 April, 2010.35 IKS Focus Group with Kosovo Serb youth in Gračanica/Graçanicë, 12 May, 2010.36 IKS Young Voices Opinion Poll - Kosovo 2010.37 IKS Focus Group with students from gymnasium and professional schools in Gjakovë/Đakovica, 29 April, 2010.38 IKS Focus Group with Students from gymnasium and Professional Schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.39 USAID, Assessment of Basic Education/Pre-University Education in Kosovo, July 2009, p. 25.18 www.iksweb.org
  • 22. dictated lessons; there are no books.’40 An 18-year-old girl from the Technical HighSchool in Prizren explained further: We don’t have books. We are divided in two groups because we are 29 students in the class and 15 students have a lesson for one hour and the other 14 hold a lesson the second hour. Architecture as a branch needs space. We are not at all satisfied with the teaching methods; the professor talks and we write.41The same concerns were shared by other students attending professional schools inPrizren. A senior student at the Economy and Law High School complained thatstudents’ appeals for books had been ignored: In my branch we have books for only half of the courses. In the other half we use the notes that teachers dictate. We have had this problem for four years. We complained, but nothing has happened. One professor has drafted his own book, which has been licensed by the Ministry of Education, whereas the others don’t even care. They take notes from the internet or God knows where.42The situation with books seemed worse for minorities. The medicine branch at AtaturkHigh School in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša opened four years ago, but of the 14courses, only two had books, a student said. His friend who studied science at the samehigh school agreed, ‘It is the same situation for us. The teachers dictate and we write.This is the situation for most of our courses. We have no books. We have books only forTurkish and English courses.’43In April 2009 the National Council for Curriculum and Textbooks was established toreview and approve a new Curriculum Framework. The curriculum was to align Kosovowith European education standards. The revised curriculum aimed to promote abalanced approach in teaching and learning ‘with regard to providing students withvalid and updated knowledge while also helping them develop valuable skills.’44 Still,as students comments indicate the extent to which these reforms will be implementedremains to be seen. According to Dukagjin Pupovci, Director of KEC, ‘Preparingteachers is the key; if teachers are not prepared to implement the new methods, thecurricula serve no purpose.’45Teachers educated before the 1990s only received two and sometimes three years ofeducation at what used to be the Higher Pedagogical Institute. About 70 percent of theteachers presently in primary schools had two years of this pre-service training.46Further teacher training has been divided into pre-service and in-service training toreach both new generations of teachers and those currently serving. From 2001 to 2009approximately 11,000 of the 24,824 active teachers in Kosovo attended teacher trainingprograms.47 MEST officials are fully aware of the need for massive teacher training inorder to ensure teachers have capacities for implementing the new curricula. In addition,40 IKS Focus Group with Turkish students from Ataturk High School in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša, 6 May, 2010.41 IKS Focus Group with students from gymnasium and professional schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.42 Ibid.43 IKS Focus Group with students of Ataturk High School in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša, 6 May, 2010.44 MEST,‘Curriculum Framework for pre-school, primary, secondary and post-secondary education’ Second Draft,Prishtinë/Priština, April 2010, p. 12.45 IKS interview with Dukagjin Pupovci, Director of Kosovo Education Center (KEC), 3 June, 2010.46 IKS interview and email correspondence with Ardita Hima, KEC, Prishtinë/Priština, August 2010.47 IKS email correspondence with Nehat Mustafa, Political Advisor to the Minister of MEST, 23 July, 2010.www.iksweb.org 19
  • 23. MEST in close cooperation with University of Prishtinë/Priština have taken necessaryarrangements to start re-training all teachers who have a former 2 years of HigherPedagogical Institute pre-service training enabling them to upgrade their qualification toa four year degree. The program is scheduled to start by the end of October 2010 giventhat University has made all necessary preparations.The Canadian Agency for International Development (CIDA) was the first to invest inteacher training programs in Kosovo. Other donors followed, such as UNICEF, KosovoEducation Development Fund (KEDP), Finish Support to the Education Sector inKosovo (FSDEK), KEC and MEST itself. KEC alone has trained more than 10,000teachers to date in in-service teacher training. Pre-Service teacher training is providedby Faculty of Education in the University of Prishtinë/Priština, in-service teachertraining was offered by many different organizations to date, and has not been regulatedby law. MEST is in the process of completing the legislation regarding teacher training,which entails that only MEST accredited institutions can provide teacher training inKosovo.Despite efforts by both MEST and international donors to improve teachers’ knowledgeand methodology, problems remained. While 80.8 percent of 10- to 14-year-olds and64.8 percent of 15- to 24-year-olds were generally content with their teachers, morespecific survey questions, interviews and focus groups revealed areas of dissatisfaction.More than 66 percent of 10- to 14-year-olds and 62.5 percent of 15- to 24-year-oldsconsidered teachers’ behaviour towards students overly authoritative and strict. Thusonly marginally fewer students seemed more satisfied with teachers than in the 2004UNICEF Kosovo-wide survey, when 72 percent of respondents said teachers had veryauthoritative behaviour.48During interviews, students detailed their experiences with poor teaching at all levels.An 18-year-old explained, ‘in case you ask the wrong question, the teachers tell us to“shut up” and “sit down.”’ University students described similar experiences. A 22-year-old from the Faculty of Architecture commented: I am not at all satisfied with the quality of education. The profession I have chosen needs a lot of work and dedication and requires the professor to be very prepared and up to date. Unfortunately in my faculty the professors are communists, come drunk to classes and harass girls.49Similarly, Drin, a lively 16-year-old, said: Teachers are very conservative and not professional in their work. They are not at all close to students; sometimes they have even beaten us. Due to the low salaries they have, teaching has been a second job for them. I remember teachers not coming to classes because they were working somewhere else privately.50Deniza, a young woman from Gjakovë/Đakovica, summarized her experienced: ‘Theteacher enters the classroom, explains what he/she has to explain, asks whether we48 UNICEF, Youth in Kosovo, June 2004, p. 27.49 IKS interview with a 22-year-old student of Architecture in Univeristy of Prishtinë/Priština, Prishtinë/Priština, 5 April, 2010.50 IKS interview with Drin, student, Prishtinë/Priština, 7 April, 2010.20 www.iksweb.org
  • 24. understood and leaves the classroom. Nothing interesting.’51 Overall, more than 15percent of the 10- to 14-year-olds and 19 percent of 15- to 24-year-olds said they were‘undecided’ as to whether their teachers were qualified to teach their subjects. Anotheryouth reflected: One thing that concerns me regarding the education system in Kosovo is the mixture of new methods with old ones. Most of the old teachers pretend to be teaching us according to the new reforms, but what they really do is confuse us. I felt so ashamed when I came to the faculty. [W]hen I was asked to write an essay or do a presentation, I had no idea of what an essay was, let alone writing one. Recently, new, young staff is coming in, and I hope that things will improve. We had the opportunity to learn from the new staff who were educated abroad and who try to prepare us for the labour market.52The difference between ‘younger’ and ‘older’53 teachers’ approaches was a commontheme among youth. As a law student at Prishtinë/Priština University commented, ‘Theyoung professors are enthusiastic and try to make the class hour attractive. Theirknowledge and approach is modern. Whereas the old professors are very conservativeand work with outdated methods, regardless of their attempts to reform.’54Young Kosovo Serbs in Gračanica/Graçanicë also complained about the teachingmethodologies employed.55 ‘There are still old professors, and it is hard to tell theprofessor to use new technology’ said Miloš, a student of English literature at theUniversity of Mitrovicë/Mitrovica.56 Kosovo Serb youth said that the Bologna processwas functional on paper, but that its implementation remained an issue. Teachers eithercontinued with their old methods or improvised something in between. Ivana, a studentof medicine at the University of Mitrovicë/Mitrovica explained: There are cases when a professor has understood the Bologna system and the way it functions. What happens then is that in one faculty you have one course being lectured according to the Bologna system and other courses continuing with the old methods.57While such problems may reflect ongoing transitions as part of the current educationalreform process, the quality of teachers’ lessons and approach must be tackled at theirroot.The Faculty of Education at the University of Prishtinë/Priština, where futuregenerations of teachers are schooled, was established in 2002 by MEST and theUniversity of Prishtinë/Priština. However, it struggles to recruit and adequately preparenew teachers. Teachers’ salaries remain low, despite the 30 to 40 percent increase in51 IKS Focus Group with students from the gymnasium and professional schools in Gjakovë/Đakovica, 29 April, 2010.52 IKS interview with Milot Rexhepi, student of political sciences, Prishtinë/Priština, 9 April, 2010.53 Answers are based on students’ perceptions of ‘old’ and ‘young.’ They likely based definitions on age and the time period inwhich teachers were educated.54 IKS interview with Hereza Sefaj, student of Law at Prishtinë/Priština University, Prishtinë/Priština, 6 April, 2010.55 The schools in Serb communities are under the authority of the Ministry of Education in Belgrade. Kosovo Serb students areeducated according to the curricula of Republic of Serbia and do not receive any instruction in the Albanian language. See: OSCE,Kosovo Non-Majority communities within the Primary and Secondary Educational Systems, April 2009.56 IKS Focus Group with Kosovo Serb youth in Gračanica/Graçanicë, 12 May, 2010.57 Ibid.www.iksweb.org 21
  • 25. 2009. With salaries ranging from 230 to 260 Euros per month,58 teachers are underpaidcompared to other professions. Thus, a profession that was prestigious during the yearsof the parallel system has become less attractive.Students still choosing to attend the Faculty of Education were not satisfied with theeducation they received. ‘A teacher who was supposed to lecture once a week, lecturedonly once a month and nobody would hold him responsible,’ explained Valdet, a 24-year-old student who left the Faculty of Education to register in Banking and Finance ata private university. ‘Professors do as they like, without taking into account students’needs. Recently, we had to wait six hours to enter the exam,’ complained Edona, a 20-year-old student at the Faculty of Education who planned to transfer into the EconomicsFaculty. Students complained that some of the teachers had been teaching for more than30 years and were too old to adapt to new methods.59Students were not the only ones disappointed in the Faculty of Education. According tothe President of the Board of the Kosovo Accreditation Agency, Ferdije Zhushi Etemi: The Faculty of Education is not preferred for good or excellent students. The whole concept of the Faculty of Education is wrong. There are too few and unqualified staff. There are teachers who are 72 years old. The concept of education is not implemented at all. There is a lack of methodology, strategy and didactics. Only two people in the administration have educational backgrounds; the others come from other disciplines.60Similar concerns were voiced by MEST. Kushtrim Bajrami, Director of the Departmentfor International Cooperation, Coordination of Development and European Integration,agreed, ‘The academic staff of the Education Faulty needs to be better.’61Lacking the BasicsIn addition to teachers, ‘The reform process depends substantially on the physical spaceof schools,’ according to MEST.62 Despite investments made by MEST andinternational donors, school infrastructure has remained a problem. Although MEST ischarged with policy development and monitoring the system, it has noted that ‘theschool infrastructure for the successful implementation of [new teaching] programs isstill lacking.’63 Insufficient infrastructure can impact the quality of education.In IKS’s Kosovo-wide survey, school infrastructure was among the issues with whichyoung people were least satisfied.58 ETF, Mapping Policies and Practices for the Preparation of Teachers for Inclusive Education in Contexts of Social and CulturalDiversity, Country Report for Kosovo (under UNSCR 1244/99) working document, 2010.59 IKS Focus Group with university and college students in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.60 IKS Interview with Ferdije Zhushi Etemi, President of the Board of the Kosovo Accreditation Agency, Prishtinë/Priština, 22 June,2010.61 IKS interview with Kushtrim Bajrami, Director of the Department for International Cooperation, Coordination of Developmentand European Integration, MEST, Prishtinë/Priština, 9 June, 2010.62 MEST, Infrastruktura e Objekteve Arsimore [Infrastructure of School Buildings], at http://www.masht-gov.net/advCms/#id=57.63 MEST, Department for Development of Pre-University Education, second round of workshops with teachers in pre-universityeducation, held in six municipalities (Podujevë/Podujevo, Mitrovicë/Mitrovica, Ferizaj/Uroševac, Suharekë/Suva Reka,Kaçanik/Kačanik and Skenderaj/Srbica), 16 July, 2010.22 www.iksweb.org
  • 26. Graph 1.2 Percentage of surveyed youth dissatisfied with school infrastructure64As Graph 1.2 illustrates, approximately 25 percent of the respondents said they weredissatisfied with the classrooms, labs, and sports equipment in their schools. About 16percent were dissatisfied with hygiene and about 15 percent with classroom equipment.About 12 percent were dissatisfied with their schools’ heating systems. Youth fromFerizaj/Uroševac and Gjilan/Gnjilane were more likely to express concern regardinginfrastructure issues than students from other regions.According to survey respondents, many schools also lacked basic equipment andservices, such as laboratories, libraries, sport facilities, computers and healthcare. Somelaboratories had been transformed into classrooms to hold other classes for themultitude of students.65 Libraries were poorly equipped and sports facilities consistedmainly of cement squares outdoors with little to no sports equipment. They could not beused during the winter. As Dona, an 18-year-old student from Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša, commented, ‘There are no laboratories for chemistry, physics, etc.There is no gym for physical education. When it’s raining we can’t go outside.’6664 For youth age 15-24-year-old, only the answers of respondents who were attending school have been calculated.65 Kosovar Stability Initiative - IKS, Mitrovicë/Mitrovica: One City, Two Realities, December 2009.66 IKS Focus Group with Turkish students, Ataturk High School in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša, 6 May, 2010.www.iksweb.org 23
  • 27. Graph 1.3 Availability of school facilities for youth ages 10-14As Graph 1.3 illustrates, 38 percent of surveyed 10- to 14-year-olds had no healthcare atschool, 33.2 percent had no laboratories, 20.5 percent had no internet, 13 percent had nosport facilities, 11.6 percent had no library and 7.9 percent had no computers. Comparedto other regions, Ferizaj/Uroševac and Gjilan/Gnjilane seemed to have the leastadequate school facilities. The regions where the most students said their schools lackedhealthcare were Ferizaj/Uroševac and Prizren.Graph 1.4 Availability of school facilities for youth ages 15-24 attending schoolThe survey suggested that 15- to 24-year-old respondents had less access than 10- to 14-year-olds to laboratories, computers, internet and libraries. As Graph 1.4 illustrates,more than 36 percent of the 15- to 24-year-old respondents attending school said therewere no laboratories in their school, 18.9 percent had no computers and 28.8 percenthad no internet. Further, 26.8 percent had no healthcare at school, 12.8 percent had nolibrary and 9.7 percent did not have sports facilities.24 www.iksweb.org
  • 28. More Albanian respondents said they attended schools without healthcare (41.7 percent)than Serb (30.9 percent) or other respondents (25 percent). More Albanian (36.2percent) and other respondents (30.4 percent) lacked laboratories compared to Serb(19.1 percent) respondents. However, more Serb respondents did not have internet (26.5percent) than Albanians (20.4 percent) and other ethnic groups (14.3 percent). Slightlymore Serb respondents were without libraries (14.7 percent) than Albanians (12.5percent) or other minorities (1.8 percent). Nine percent of Albanian respondents did nothave computers at school, whereas 4.4 percent of Serb and 5.4 percent of youth of otherethnicities did.Youth attending schools in particular regions seemed to have less access to laboratoriesthan others, as Graph 1.5 illustrates. About 57 percent of 15- to 24-year-old respondentsin Ferizaj/Uroševac, 41.8 percent in Pejë/Peć and 36.2 percent in Gjilan/Gnjilane saidthey did not have laboratories in their secondary schools.Graph 1.5 Percentage of 15-24-year-olds without laboratories in at school, by regionMore than 61 percent of 15- to 24-year-old respondents in Ferizaj/Uroševac, 50.7percent in Gjilan/Gnjilane and 43.7 percent in Prizren said they did not have healthcareat school. Overall, the regions of Ferizaj/Uroševac and Gjilan/Gnjilane seemed to havethe least adequate infrastructure in schools.67In addition, classroom space has been a serious issue for youth. More than 58 percent ofthe 10- to 14-year-old respondents and 50.3 percent of the 15- to 24-year-olds statedthat there were too many students in their classrooms. Again, differences appeared toexist by region, as illustrated by Graph 1.6. In Ferizaj/Uroševac, Pejë/Peć and Prizren,67 In Ferizaj/Uroševac, 38.6 percent of respondents did not have computers at school; 47.7 percent did not have internet; 29.5percent had no library and 29.9 had not sports facilities. In Gjilan/Gnjilane, 40.6 percent had no internet; 17.4 percent had no libraryat school; and 37.7 percent had no sports facilities.www.iksweb.org 25
  • 29. the lack of classroom space was noted by similarly high percentages of respondents ineach age group. In Gjakovë/Đakovica and Mitrovicë/Mitrovica, nevertheless,differences in classroom sizes seemed to exist between the two age groups. The regionof Gjakovë/Đakovica had the highest number of respondents ages 10 to 14 stating thatclassrooms were over-crowded (89.5 percent).Graph 1.6 Percentage of youth who said their classroom was over-crowded, by region and ageA statistically significant relationship existed at the five percent significance levelbetween ethnicity and whether youth felt schools were overcrowded.68 On average,Kosovo Albanians of all ages were more likely than Kosovo Serb youth to feel that theirschools were overcrowded.In 2008/2009, the average number of students per classroom was 23 for primary and 30for secondary schools.69 This is considerably higher than in other countries in the regionsuch as Slovenia (18.5 and 20.4, respectively), Hungary (21.1 and 22.6) and the OECDaverage (21.6 and 23.7).70 Rural-urban migration has decreased classroom sizes in somerural schools. However, the number of students per class in some schools remainedhigh. The number of overcrowded classrooms exceeded the number of under-crowdedclassrooms.68 p 0.00169 Statistical Office of Kosovo, Educational Statistics 2008/09, July 2010.70 OECD, Education at a Glance 2010: OECD Indicators for 2008, 2010.26 www.iksweb.org
  • 30. As a senior student from Prizren Medical High School explained: ‘We are about 45students in one class; it has been very difficult these four years to learn in such acrowded environment.’ Another student from Prizren Economics and Law High Schoolexplained: ‘The maximum number of students in my class was supposed to be 32, butwe were 46. We could not find chairs to sit. Every day we had to fight over chairs. Nowwe are 35, as some [students] left school; they had enough.’71MEST has sought to provide additional educational space. While 800 damaged and 61destroyed schools have mostly been repaired and rebuilt, the pre-war total of 1,220schools has not been reached.72 In any case, considering Kosovo’s large youthpopulation and the expansion of mandatory schooling to 13 years in 2010,73 the spacerequired has grown faster than MEST’s construction efforts. With a total of 985 primaryand 108 secondary schools in 2010, Kosovo still faced severe shortages in classroomspace.74Despite the aforementioned infrastructural deficiencies, MEST’s budget was reducedsignificantly from 56.5 million in 2008 to 36 million in 2010. This affected the budgetfor capital outlays; the Ministry’s budget for school construction declined from 38.5million in 2008 to 24.5 million in 2010. Despite the increase in teachers’ salaries, theoperational budget from which teachers’ salaries and school maintenance are paiddecreased from 17.6 million in 2008 to 6 million in 2009. While the budget increased to11.5 million in 2010, it remained less than in 2008. Budget cuts call into question thegovernment’s dedication to improving education in Kosovo. They dually place at riskyouths’ opportunities for the future.75Attitudes towards education: To continue or not continueMany youth recognized the value of education, as evidenced by both the Kosovo-widesurvey and in-depth interviews. ‘My future depends on the education I receive. I willcontinue my studies until the last grade even though I still have not decided what tostudy,’ said Drin, a 16-year-old high school student from Prishtinë/Priština.76 For 18-year-old Gentiana, ‘School is everything; without school one has no job security, anddoes not know what to expect in the future.’77 Nineteen-year-old Hana agreed, ‘Schoolis a necessity, like bread.’78 Tellingly, youth of Kosovo is aware where their prioritieslie.While the number of youth enrolled in mandatory primary and lower secondaryeducation has fluctuated slightly from year to year, the number of students enrolled inupper secondary education has increased steadily, as illustrated in Table 1.1.71 IKS Focus Group with students from gymnasium and professional schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.72 European Commission Damage Assessment Kosovo, Building Assessment Kosovo, International Management Group, April 2004.73 MEST, ‘Curriculum Framework for pre-school, primary, secondary and post-secondary education,’ Second Draft,Prishtinë/Priština, April 2010.74 MEST, Educational Statistics 2009/10.75 Ministry of Economics and Finance, Central Budget Tables for 2008 and 2009, Budget of the Republic of Kosova for 2010,January 2010.76 IKS interview with Drin, student, Prishtinë/Priština, 7 April, 2010.77 IKS Focus Group with students from gymnasium and professional schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.78 IKS Focus Group with high school students in Dragash/Dragaš , 5 May, 2010.www.iksweb.org 27
  • 31. Table 1. Number of Kosovan students enrolled in education, 2004 to 2010 School year 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 Primary lower secondary 327,207 322,180 324,618 326,911 322,975 311,744 Upper secondary 60,760 74,781 88,691 90,207 96,172 104,053Source: MEST Education Statistics, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010.Students attending upper secondary education choose between the traditionalgymnasium and vocational school. In the 2008/09 academic year, 41,692 studentsattended gymnasia, the majority of them girls. The same year, 55,073 students wereenrolled in vocational schools with the majority being male.79 Traditionally, gymnasiahave been a pre-requisite for university.80 Although more students have enrolled invocational education training (VET), it has been considered an option for lowperforming students. Many students not accepted into their gymnasium of choice attendvocational school instead.81 Apart from a bad image, there are additional problems withVET education in Kosovo.Vocational schools have been meant to prepare students for the labour market, incontrast to gymnasiums that offered more theoretical education. VET’s are supposed tohave a more practical approach to education, as well as offer business internships. InKosovo, arguably, vocational schools have not been aligned with labour marketdemands. Few such institutions partnered with businesses, and this undermined thepurpose of vocational education. Students completing vocational education could notattend post-secondary vocational education, as it did not exist in Kosovo.82 Thusstudents had to either enter the job market or transfer to the university. More practicaltertiary vocational education like a technical college or university could offer manyyouth additional opportunities.Increased rates of enrolment in higher education have been influenced by shiftinggender roles. Traditionally, the transition rate from obligatory lower secondary school tooptional upper secondary education has been higher for boys than girls. However, girls’rates of continuing education have increased in recent years. While 75.6 percent of girlstransitioned to higher education in the 2004/05 academic year, 80.4 percent continuedon in 2008/09.In some areas of Kosovo, girls remained disadvantaged in accessing upper secondaryeducation. More girls abandoned elementary school in Ferizaj/Uroševac, Malishevë/ 83Mališevo and Dragash/Dragaš than in other municipalities. For example, Anjezaattended primary school in her village in Dragash/Dragaš. Though, only four of thetwelve girls from her class continued on to secondary school. ‘The other girls stay athome because of their families’ mentalities,’ she said. The lack of public transport fromDragash/Dragaš’s villages to the high school caused concern for some parents who79 Statistical Office of Kosovo, Educational Statistics 2008/09, July 2010, pp. 52-53.80 UNICEF – IKS stakeholders’ workshop, Prishtinë/Priština, 13 July, 2010.81 European Training Foundation, ETF Country Plan- Kosovo 2009, p. 5.82 MEST, ‘Curriculum Framework for pre-school, primary, secondary and post-secondary education’ Second Draft,Prishtinë/Priština, April 2010.83 Statistical Office of Kosovo, Educational Statistics 2008/09, July 2010, pp. 38, 64-65.28 www.iksweb.org
  • 32. worried whether their children, particularly girls, would be safe travelling to and fromschool.84Other youth agreed that poor transportation inhibited many girls from continuing theireducation after primary school, particularly young woman in villages. Hana, an 18-year-old student in Gjakovë/Đakovica explained, ‘Girls from villages decide not to continuesecondary school when they are in the ninth grade mainly because there is notransportation during the wintertime or evening. Parents are afraid to send their girls toschool.85In Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša, some girls did not want to further their education. Forexample, Ahmet explained how her older sister had finished elementary education, butdid not want to attend high school.86 Some of Ahmet’s friends and acquaintances inMamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša said their parents took them out of school. Still, after oneyear they had convinced their parents to permit them to continue. Seda explained, ‘Mydad did not allow me to come to school. He said, “What will you be if you go to school?Stay at home.”’ Her friend Sibel had a similar experience: ‘My mother did not allow meto go to school. She said that girls don’t go to school. Later my friend came andconvinced my mother to send me to school. My father did not say anything. He wantedme to continue.’87 The focus group participants explained that starting a family wasvery important for girls in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša. Staying at home and notattending school was considered a sign that girls were prepared for marriage. ‘The yearthat I stayed at home people came to ask me to marry, but I did not want to,’ Sedacontinued. ‘My mother wanted me to get married, but I always refused and told her thatI wanted to go to school. Now that I am in school nobody mentions marriageanymore.’88Attitudes towards education are slowly changing in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša. This isdue in part to the fact that education has become more accessible. Ali explained, ‘Whenthere was no high school in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša people had to go to Prizren.Even the number of boys who attended school was not very high. Only five to six boyswould attend school in Prizren.’ His friend Burak agreed: ‘With the opening of the highschool many things changed; the mentality of people changed. More girls go to schoolnowadays.’89In addition to geographical location and access, ethnicity also appeared to be adetermining factor influencing whether youth continued their education after primaryschool. Roma and Romani girls in particular faced challenges in continuing theireducation. According to SOK, Roma, Ashkali and Egyptian (RAE) girls have the lowestlevel of education in Kosovo.84 IKS Focus Group with high school students in Dragash/Dragaš , 5 May, 2010.85 IKS Focus Group with students from gymnasium and professional schools in Gjakovë/Đakovica, 29 April, 2010.86 IKS Focus Group with students of Ataturk High School in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša, 6 May, 2010.87 Ibid.88 Ibid.89 Ibid.www.iksweb.org 29
  • 33. Table 2. Number of Kosovan students enrolled in education by ethnicity, 2008/2009 Primary Lower Upper secondary Ethnicity secondary Total Female Total Female Albanian 306,427 147,191 94,572 42,456 Bosnian 3312 1641 1025 419 Roma 1519 685 75 25 Ashkali 3412 1554 203 43 Egyptian 1670 750 89 23 Turk 1618 808 746 348 Goran 960 444 41 6 Source: SOK Education Statistics, 2008/2009Only two of the four girls participating in IKS’s focus group in a Roma neighbourhoodof Mitrovicë/Mitrovica had completed elementary education. One girl had dropped outat various stages. One girl had never attended school; she relied on her friend to writeher name on the participants’ list. The girls explained that they quit schooling becausetheir families felt girls did not need to be educated and because many Roma girls marryat an early age.Adelina did not want to tell her age. She had always wanted to go to school and hadattended upper secondary school after finishing lower secondary school in the Serblanguage. However, she quit after only three months because she was the only Romachild in her class. Roma boys tended to drop out of school because they had to work tohelp support their large families.90Clearly, improved free public transportation for youth to and from school could enablemore young women and men to continue their education. Awareness-raising campaignsmay help address conservative attitudes and encourage youth in general to continuetheir education.Bridge to the future or a stumbling block?In order for education to be a ‘bridge to the world’ for Kosovo’s youth, an effectiveeducational system that enables graduates to continue their studies further or smoothlytransition into the labour market is required. Yet, more than a decade after the conflict,institutions barely provided basic educational infrastructure and continued to face a hostof quality and infrastructural challenges. While educational reforms pertaining tocurricula development and teacher training were underway, much work remained for theeffects to be felt by the average student. Needless to say, education reforms aremeasured in generations and not in individual academic years. This has beenparticularly true considering the challenging task of rebuilding post-war Kosovo’sdevastated education sector. Despite the understandably extensive financial andtemporal commitments required to reconstruct this sector, its present state does not bodewell for the future of Kosovo’s youth. Kosovo’s education sector may well be describedmore as a stumbling block than a bridge to the world.90 IKS Focus Group with Roma youth community in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica, 21 May, 2010.30 www.iksweb.org
  • 34. While some of the challenges identified through IKS’s research have already begun tobe addressed, the education reform process is still far from producing the desiredresults. Reform efforts have been stretched thin in an expansive sector that requiresongoing investment over a considerable period of time. Current efforts must becomplemented by serious and strategic government commitment, demonstrated toincreasing budget allocation.Additionally, inter-ministerial coordination is crucial. Labour supply, particularly invocational education training, must be synchronized with labour market demands.MLSW should make identifying skills needed in the labour market a priority andsubsequently liaise with MEST to ensure that these needs are reflected in theeducation sector.Finally, as it will be elaborated in the next chapter, promoting foreign educationalexchange for private and public tertiary students and lecturers would accelerateeducation reforms by introducing new methods employed in other countries of theregion and Europe. Additionally, skills and knowledge gained during a semesterabroad would contribute to furthering the quality of current teaching at the universitylevel.www.iksweb.org 31
  • 35. 32 www.iksweb.org
  • 36. NO JOBS, NO PERSPECTIVE ‘I think it is very difficult for a young person to find a job, regardless of how qualified he or she is. In Kosovo nothing works without knowing the right people.’ - Drin, 16-year-old student from Gjakovë/ĐakovicaUnemployment is a structural problem with a long history in Kosovo. Even during theheight of Kosovo’s industrialization in the late 1980s, unemployment wavered around36 percent.91 It steeply increased as the Serbian authorities dismissed en masse Albanianworkers from the state-run factories in the early 1990s.92 The factories fell into disrepairand many suffered further destruction during the war. The sluggish post-conflictprivatisation process has since resulted in few new jobs, far from enough toaccommodate the increasing population.In 2009, unemployment continued to plague 45.4 percent of Kosovo’s population.Youth have been among the most affected. The young, working population aged 15 to24 comprised 20 percent of Kosovo’s labour force (48.1 percent) and 73 percent ofthem were unemployed. Such high unemployment rates are unsustainable. Not only ishigh youth unemployment positively related to social instability and higher crime rates,but it also means that youth lack reasons for remaining in Kosovo. As the World Bankhas concluded, ‘Kosovo’s difficult labour market conditions have been especially severefor youth, with obvious implications for social stability.93‘Unemployment in Kosovo is destroying youth,’ said Milot, a 22-year-old studentattending a private university in Prishtinë/Priština.94 His concern was echoed widely byyoung people throughout Kosovo. While youth ages 15 to 24 comprised nearly 20percent of Kosovo’s labour force, they represented 40 percent of the country’sunemployed.95 With a youth unemployment rate of approximately 73 percent, higheramong young women (81.8 percent), Kosovo possessed both the highest unemploymentrate and the highest youth unemployment rate in the region.Finding employment has been particularly difficult for youth because 95.5 percent ofthem have no prior work experience. In a labour market in which labour demand hasbeen very low, insufficient work experience has been a key factor influencing long-termunemployment among youth.96 Long-term unemployment, seeking a job for more than12 months, affected 81.7 percent of Kosovo’s youth in 2009.97Kosovo’s economic growth spurted double-digits after the conflict due to internationalaid and remittances.98 Though, it has decreased to less than five percent since 2005,91 World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Actions, April 2010, p. 12.92 Malcolm, N., Kosovo: A Short History, 1998, p. 429.93 World Bank, Interim Strategy Note for Republic of Kosovo for the period FY10-11, December 2009, p.14.94 IKS interview with Milot Rexhepi, student of political sciences, Prishtinë/Priština, 9 April, 2010.95 World Bank, Kosovo, Youth in Jeopardy: Being Young Unemployed, and Poor in Kosovo, September, 2008, p. iv.96 Ibid, p. 12.97 Statistical Office of Kosovo (SOK), Series 5: Social Statistics, Results of the Labour Force Survey 2009, Prishtinë/Priština, July2010, p.5.98 World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Action, April 2010, p. v.www.iksweb.org 33
  • 37. further aggravating the labour market. In addition, Kosovo’s economic growth has notbeen reflected in the labour market, which has been characterized by low labour demandand stagnation. With a per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of €1,760, Kosovo hasremained the poorest state in the Western Balkans. In 2010, micro-businesses in low-skilled occupations and low value-added sectors still comprised 90 percent of the weakprivate sector.99 They could neither absorb the backlog of unemployed persons noremploy the steady stream of 25,000 to 40,000 new graduates entering the labour marketevery year.100 In order to decrease the unemployed rate, real GDP growth would have tobe more than six percent for at least a decade, not the 0.9 percent average that existedbetween 2002 and 2007.101This chapter aims at placing youth unemployment at the heart of debate about the futureof Kosovo. It analyses young people’s preoccupation with unemployment and the waysthey find to adapt to it. Further, it considers the impact education has on employmentand the challenges young people face in transiting from education into the labourmarket. The chapter also evaluates youth career strategies and the government responseto high rates of unemployment among youth. At the heart of this chapter lies the corethesis that young people are as much preoccupied with unemployment as adults.Unemployment: Youths’ Greatest ConcernAmong the new entrants to the labour market was Selda, a 21-year-old Turkish studentwho was lucky to have found a job as a translator. ‘Unemployment is a big concern inKosovo,’ she said. ‘All these youth wander up and down the streets; I think that noincentive to work has remained in them.’102 The bleak economic situation has taken itstoll on both youth and their adult counterparts. For years, young people had watchedtheir parents and family members struggle to make ends meet. They were sensitized tounemployment at an early age. Ten-year-old Bert already understood the value ofplanning ahead: ‘Of course school is good for my future, without school I will be on thestreet.’103Like Bert, most surveyed youth ages 10 to 14 identified unemployment (47.3 percent ofrespondents) and poverty (28.2 percent) as the greatest threats facing Kosovo. Incomparison, few youth mentioned other potential threats like corruption (7.4 percent),drug abuse (6.1 percent), organised crime (5.4 percent) and environmental pollution (5.6percent).99 Ibid, p. ix.100 Medium Term Expenditure Framework 2009-2011, 12 June 2008, p.6.101 World Bank, Kosovo, Youth in Jeopardy: Being Young Unemployed, and Poor in Kosovo, September, 2008, p. 2.102 IKS interview with Selda Sylejmani, student, Prishtinë/Priština, 8 April, 2010.103 IKS interview with Bert, Prishtinë/Priština, 9 April, 2010.34 www.iksweb.org
  • 38. Graph 2.1 Greatest threats facing Kosovo for surveyed 10-14-year-oldsYouth ages 15 to 24 felt similarly; 47.8 percent of respondents named unemployment asthe main threat to Kosovo and 24.5 percent identified poverty. Indeed unemploymentand poverty are related; unemployed people in Kosovo face a higher risk of poverty orextreme poverty.104The risk of being unemployed and extremely poor was particularly high for Roma inKosovo. ‘I started working when I was 13 years old,’ said 22-year-old Armend, wholived in the newly-built Roma Mahalla in south Mitrovicë/Mitrovica.105 ‘First I workedas a loader, and then I did whatever job was out there. Now I dig trenches. I would liketo have a permanent job, maybe as an auto mechanic.’ Armend’s friends and neighboursfaced similar issues. Senad, who dropped out of school after the fifth grade, believedthat ‘poverty and unemployment are the main problems. We need to make our ownliving, and we work wherever we can.’106 His friend Artan explained that dropping outof school to work is typical for Roma boys: ‘Difficult conditions and poverty obligeRoma children to work. Senad, for example, works as a taxi driver. It is difficult tomaintain his family, so he had to drop out of school and start to work. Poverty forcesyoung people to drop out of school.’107Regardless of whether youth were still enrolled in school, already working or seekingwork, they were concerned by unemployment. As Graph 2.1 illustrates, 56.3 percent ofsurveyed youth ages 15 to 24 said they were ‘very preoccupied’ with unemployment,while 31.1 percent were ‘preoccupied.’104 World Bank, Kosovo, Youth in Jeopardy: Being Young Unemployed, and Poor in Kosovo, September, 2008, p. vii.105 IKS Focus Group with Roma youth in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica, 21 May, 2010.106 Ibid.107 Ibid.www.iksweb.org 35
  • 39. Graph 2.2 Extent to which 15-24-year-olds were preoccupied with unemploymentA statistically significant relationship existed between ethnicity and preoccupation withunemployment. Albanian youth and youth from other minorities tended to be morepreoccupied with unemployment than their Serbian counterparts.108 Whereas 60.2percent of Albanian respondents and 72.4 percent of other minorities stated that theywere ‘very preoccupied’ with unemployment, only 23.3 percent of the Serbian youthstated the same.Even so, in a focus group held with Serb youth in Gračanica/Graçanicë, unemploymentsurfaced as a great concern. Alexander, a student at the University of Mitrovicë/Mitrovica explained: ‘Many generations have been educated in the last ten years, butthey have worked nowhere. They have looked for jobs and they have found nothing.’His colleague Bujana argued that a reason for not finding a job is because they don’tlook for one, especially in Prishtinë/Priština: ‘We have to keep in mind that when youngpeople graduate they do not even think about applying for jobs in Prishtinë/Priština,mainly because, the Serb community is not fully integrated in the larger Kosovosociety.’ Ivan, a 24 year old graduate from the University of Mitrovicë/Mitrovica arguedthat ‘youth who have a university degree would not look for jobs in any Kosovaninstitution because the salaries are very low,’ compared to what the Serbian governmentoffers. According to a recent study on local reforms in Kosovo, public employees in theSerb parallel system receive relatively high salaries: the gross monthly income of €892is much above the typical Serbian salaries of €508.109 When asked if they would want togo work in Serbia, the participants replied that the same situation would await themthere.108 Albanian youth (p = 0.001), Serb (p = 0.01), other minorities (p = 0.011).109 Most of the public employees are financed by three agencies of the Serbian government: Ministry of Education, the HealthInsurance Fund and the Ministry of Kosovo and Metohija. György Hajnal and Gábor Péteri, Local reform in Kosovo: final report/Forum 2015 (ed.) Prishtinë/Priština, Forum 2015, 2010, pp.77-78.36 www.iksweb.org
  • 40. A statistically significant relationship also existed between geographic region andpreoccupation with unemployment. On average youth in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica,Gjakovë/Đakovica and Gjilan/Gnjilane tended to be slightly less preoccupied withunemployment than youth in Prishtinë/Priština.110 For example, in Mitrovicë/Mitrovicaonly 23.9 percent stated they were ‘very preoccupied’ with unemployment compared to67.3 percent of respondents in Prishtinë/Priština. This was surprising as Mitrovicë/Mitrovica had the highest rate of youth unemployment in the country. The data mayillustrate young people’s acquiescence to being jobless in Mitrovicë/Mitrovica.111Acknowledging the pervasiveness of unemployment, some youth have found ways toadapt. For example, Agon, a 17-year-old student at Hajdar Dushi Gymnasium inGjakovë/Đakovica, planned to study physiotherapy: There are not a lot of physiotherapists in Gjakovë/Đakovica and they will be needed in the future. It is a profession that provides a better financial situation even though it takes longer to finish the studies. I am more interested in knowing where I am going to work; it is not that I really want this profession, but I know that it offers a better future. And if I work hard I can gain a reputation.112Whether one’s preferred profession will pay the bills is a question youth everywhereface. However, due to the limited and underdeveloped labour market, such choices havebeen much more constrained for Kosovo’s youth. Many have forfeited their dreams atan early age for what they perceive to be better future prospects. For example, 22-year-old Rona was studying architecture at the University of Prishtinë/Priština, but she washaving second thoughts: ‘I am thinking of registering at a private college or university[to] study banking and finance as I think that will help me find a job in the future. I lovearchitecture but I do not see a good future as an architect.’113Without reliable information on labour market demands, students chose occupationsbased on perceptions rather than market needs. Insufficient communication betweeneducational institutions and businesses has made it difficult for students to makeinformed choices regarding their studies; they have lacked information aboutbusinesses’ needs. Despite young peoples’ common perception that a tertiary educationdegree would offer the best chances of employment, employers actually prefervocational education mixed with work experience. In the USAID survey, 69.7 percentof employers stated that they preferred vocational education for manual jobs and still45.4 percent preferred vocational education for professional positions. This shows aclear mismatch between the perceptions of students and the preferences of employersfor the educational background of applicants.On the other hand, the International Labour Organisation (ILO) has found that poorevaluation frameworks for qualifications have meant that employers use university110 (p ≤ 0.01).111 Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, Labour and Employment 2007, p. 12.112 IKS Focus Group with students from the gymnasium and professional schools in Gjakovë/Đakovica, 29 April, 2010.113 IKS interview with Rona Binakaj, student, Prishtinë/Priština, 5 April, 2010.www.iksweb.org 37
  • 41. degrees as a yardstick for screening recruits; jobs may not have any connection to theirdegree.114 This has led to graduates performing jobs below their qualifications.The small labour market and limited employment possibilities further influenced thechoices available to Kosovan youth. Indeed the World Bank has identified low labourdemand as the main reason for poor labour market performance. A second reason wasthe low level of skills within the population. Education remained crucial for securing ajob.115 The findings of the 2009 Household Budget Survey indicated that highereducation leads to more income from regular employment compared to those withprimary and secondary education who to a considerable extent had to live by per diem,pensions from abroad, own business and support from outside.116The education systemis hence particularly relevant for the labour market.Education does not prepare one for workUnemployment rates in Kosovo varied substantially by level of education.Unemployment has been highest among those who finished less than upper secondaryeducation (64 percent).117 Graduates of tertiary education have had the lowestunemployment rate (14.9 percent).118 The positive correlation between educationalattainment and finding employment was acknowledged by many Kosovan youth; 63percent of the survey respondents ages 15 to 24 stated that completing educationpositively influences a person’s employability. Since youth are aware of the difficulty offinding a job, remaining in the education system has been an alternative tounemployment rather than a specific choice for some.119The perceived value of finishing their education was also clear. Youth were asked ifthey were offered a job while attending school, whether they would choose to take thejob or finish their education; 50 percent replied that they would finish their education.Graph 2.3 Percentage of 15-24-year-old respondents attending school, who would continue school or take a job offer114 International Labour Organisation, Young People’s Transition to Decent Work: Evidence from Kosovo, April 2007, p. 44.115 World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Actions, April 2010, p. ix.116 Statistical Office of Kosovo (SOK), Series 5: Social Statistics, Household Budget Survey 2009, Prishtinë/Priština, June 2010,p.21.117 Statistical Office of Kosovo (SOK), Series 5: Social Statistics, Results of the Labour Force Survey 2009, Prishtinë/Priština, July2010, p.37.118 Ibid.119 USAID, A Modern Workforce Development System is Key to Kosovo’s Growth, May 2009, p. 32.38 www.iksweb.org
  • 42. A major concern among young people was that their education failed to prepare themfor the labour market. Youth were concerned that curricula included little professionalpractice, both at university and vocational schools. ‘After four years of studyingarchitecture, I think we are only able to clean offices. We can do nothing,’ complainedMirand, a 19-year-old student at the Technical High School in Prizren.120 Vocationalschools were meant to offer a combination of school-based education and in-companytraining, achieved through close links with the labour market and businesses. In Kosovono such links existed between vocational schools and businesses, however, whichundermined the point of vocational education.The absence of practical training was not limited to vocational secondary schooleducation. Yllka, a 23-year-old student at the University of Prishtinë/Priština’s Facultyof Law, was also concerned about the insufficient practical training that she received: We have no practice at all. I am graduating from the Law Faculty, and I have never attended a hearing. The only time we arranged to go to the Assembly, the professor did not show up […]. If we have no practice, how are we supposed to prepare for the labour market? If we go to the court, a technician is going to be better than me because he practiced his profession. […] If you ask students in the Law Faculty what an ‘amendment’ is, they will answer by heart. If you ask them to change one, they are stuck as they have never practiced such a thing.121Transitioning into the labour market is never easy. However, in Kosovo it has taken anaverage young male ten years, whereas the same person would have taken only four tofive years in Macedonia.122 Preparedness can enable a smooth transition into the labourmarket. This does not solely involve knowledge about their profession, but alsotransferable skills and soft skills. The latter includes skills such as writing andpresenting a CV; experience with teamwork; and the ability to communicate withcolleagues and superiors. Such skills also include the ability to think critically, solveproblems, make calculations and grasp new things.Graph 2.4 Extent 15-24-year-olds agreed or disagreed that education does not equip one for work120 IKS Focus Group with students from gymnasium and professional schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.121 IKS Focus Group with university students and graduates in Gjakovë/Đakovica, 29 April, 2010.122 World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Actions, April 2010, p. 60.www.iksweb.org 39
  • 43. Most young people acknowledged the importance of education for their future career, asnoted previously. Nevertheless, as Graph 2.4 illustrates, 14 percent of the 15- to 24-year-olds surveyed ‘strongly agreed’ and 26.3 percent ‘agreed’ that education does notequip one for work. Conversely, 28.4 percent ‘disagreed’ or’ strongly disagreed’ withthe graph’s statement. Sixteen percent neither agreed nor disagreed and 15.3 percent didnot know how to respond. The high percentage of ‘don’t know’ responses could be dueto the way in which the question was formulated: youth may not have understood if thequestion meant in theory or in practice. This could benefit from further research,including some more specific follow-up questions.One way to improve one’s chances of finding a job could be to study abroad. More than71 percent of the respondents agreed that studying abroad could positively influenceone’s employability. Arbër, a 19-year-old student at Prizren Medical High School,commented: I think that young people who study abroad have better chances when it comes to getting a job. If you graduate in accounting in Kosovo you can be an accountant at Ben-af [supermarket] or some other market. But if you have studied abroad you get employment in the ministry or some other prestigious place.123Still, few students could afford to study abroad. Instead, they had the choice of studyingat the University of Prishtinë/Priština or at one of the private tertiary educationinstitutions that have sprouted like mushrooms throughout Kosovo in recent years.124Practice and internships can play a pivotal role in preparing youth for the labour market.Successful programmes enable youth readiness and confidence in taking initiatives. Thestudents of Gjon Nikolle Kazazi Professional High School in Gjakovë/Đakovica weremore satisfied with their education. They felt better prepared for the labour market thantheir counterparts in other professional schools because hands-on practice was includedin the curriculum. Shpejtim, an 18-year-old student of Gjon Nikolle Kazazi, talked abouthis future with certainty and confidence: I am planning to continue my studies in computer science, and I plan to set up my own business for office supply repairs as I specialize in computer repairs. There are plenty of these businesses around, but they lack the proper education and work with old methods. They don’t know the things we have recently learned.[…] I feel prepared to work and no different from somebody who already has such a business.125Gjon Nikolle Kazazi Professional High School has been financed by Swiss Caritas. Theschool has labs for all six of the professions it offers. Ekzotina, a 17-year-old student ofbusiness administration, commented: We have all the conditions we need. Business administration has its own laboratory, so does computer science. Students who study agriculture have their123 IKS Focus Group with students from the gymnasium and professional schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.124 Private tertiary education institutions, after the 2008 accreditation process conducted by the British Council, exist in the form of‘colleges,’ institutes,’ and ‘higher professional schools’ depending on their capacities and profiles.125 IKS Focus Group with students from gymnasium and professional schools in Gjakovë/Đakovica, 29 April, 2010.40 www.iksweb.org
  • 44. small greenhouse in the school yard and so on. We have two computer labs where we can do research or practice what we have learned. [During] the last two years of school, we have to do our practice once a week outside the school in different companies.126Ekzotina wanted to study marketing and to set up her own business.Similarly, one of the main differences between students from the University ofPrishtinë/Priština and the most prestigious private university, the American Universityin Kosovo (AUK), has been the mandatory inclusion of internships in the curriculum.At AUK students must complete 400 hours of internships within the four years of studyand 85 percent of students have been offered a job as a result of an internship. TheUniversity of Prishtinë/Priština, on the contrary, has not required internships for moststudy programs. Interested students have relied on their own contacts or the engagementof supportive professors.127Internships or in-business training can offer students the opportunity to learn about theirprofession in a realistic environment, as well as to understand labour market demands.According USAID’s survey of employers throughout Kosovo, ‘All firms believedgenerally that secondary schools, and even universities (with a couple of notableexceptions among the private universities) were outmoded, and were preparing studentsfor obsolete jobs.’128 Based on their experience interviewing potential employees, thefirms stated that very few candidates ‘possessed the adequate levels of technical skillsfor the jobs presented; all needed further training.’ Another problem was reportedly thelack of ‘soft skills’. Such skills were generally absent among existing workers and newrecruits. Several firms stated that they were offering internships, and all were interestedin being part of an internship program, but had not been approached by universities.129To further increase the relevance of education for employment, USAID suggestedincluding representatives from local businesses on school boards. This could enabletheir input into curriculum design and focus. Linkages between regional businesses andeducation have so far been entirely absent. For example, IKS’s research in themunicipality of Rahovec/Orahovac found that despite the strong regional focus on wineproduction, no vocational schools offered specialisations in wine-production relatedprofessions.130 Tailoring vocational education to the needs and provisions of eachmunicipality and including respective businesses in this process, would allow studentsto work in their home municipality, potentially decreasing rural-urban migration toPrishtinë/Priština. Further, it could enable local businesses to train the next generationof workers with the exact skills required.In order to make education more relevant to the labour market and thus facilitate thetransition from education to employment, the curricula of the schools and universitiesmust be adapted to labour market demands. Career guidance plays an important part inyoung people’s decisions about their future. Information about different options afterschool, such as additional educational opportunities, internships, work experience or126 Ibid.127 USAID, A Modern Workforce Development System is Key to Kosovo’s Growth, May 2009, p. 32.128 Ibid, p. 22 and p. 34.129 Ibid, p. 23.130 IKS, The Rahovec – Brussels Express, November 2009.www.iksweb.org 41
  • 45. professional courses, can be useful for youth in making informed career choices. Suchchoices must be informed by an accurate analysis of labour market demands.Anyhow, career guidance for students and graduates has been almost non-existent inKosovo. The few existing career guidance initiatives were donor run and financed. Theytherefore could not offer a sustainable solution for every municipality. Kosovo stilllacked reliable data about the labour market and the economy. Both the StatisticalOffice of Kosovo and the relevant ministries did not have adequate financial and humancapacities for collecting such data. The installation of career guidance counsellors inhigher secondary schools and universities, as in other countries, could provide youthwith the information needed to make informed decisions about their future careers.Information and training could include career guidance, learning to write CVs,practicing interviews and mandatory internships, especially at vocational schools anduniversities. Web-portals where youth can upload their CVs and employers canannounce job vacancies can marry labour market demands with existing skills. This is awidely used, successful practice in other countries.People I KnowInformality in hiring was another concern among young people. Granit, a disillusioned22-year-old, explained: ‘Unfortunately, in Kosovo a person’s qualifications are nottaken into consideration. Nobody asks you what you know, but rather who you are andwho you know, or in which party you are. I found the job I am doing right now throughpersonal connections as well.’131 The 22-year-old Milot expressed similar sentiments: It does not matter how qualified you are; it is very difficult to find a job in Prishtinë/Priština without personal connections. I have applied for every vacancy I saw but nobody ever got back to me or called for an interview. I can freely say that none of my friends who are working got their job by applying to a vacancy or through an interview; all of them got their jobs through their personal connections, and I am no exception.132Valdet, a 24-year-old student of banking and finance at a private college, also agreed,‘In general, businesses are family businesses and getting a job there requires [one] to berelated to those people.’133 Numerous youth felt similarly. Of the survey respondentsages 15 to 24, 76.5 percent agreed that contacts through family and acquaintancesenhance a person’s employability. Further, as Graph 2.5 illustrates, 38.3 percent ofrespondents ages 15 to 24 identified ‘knowing the right people’ as a career strategy,while 45.7 percent said ‘hard work’ and 40.9 percent said ‘have good education’ werecareer strategies.131 IKS interview with Granit Abdullahu, Prishtinë/Priština, 9 April, 2010.132 IKS interview with Milot Rexhepi, student of political sciences, Prishtinë/Priština, 9 April, 2010.133 IKS Focus Group with university and college students in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.42 www.iksweb.org
  • 46. Graph 2.5 Top three career strategies among surveyed youth ages 15-24Youths’ job-searching strategies and personal anecdotes illustrated their lack of trust inthe effectiveness of Public Employment Services (PES). Edona recalled, ‘for years now,whenever we went out, my mother always stopped by the employment office and saidshe needed to register. Now I have developed the opinion that you just go to theemployment office to register formally.’134 Indeed, of all the firms surveyed by USAID,only one reported having hired through an official vacancy posting with the PublicEmployment Services (PES).135The PES consists of seven regional centres, 23 municipal offices and six employmentsub-offices. They have been tasked with collecting vacancy notes and matching job-seekers to these vacancies as well as informing and advising the unemployed. On theother hand, their rate of success in actually securing jobs for the unemployed has beenlow due to their weak capacities in terms of human and financial resources. In 2009, oneKosovan employment officer had to take care of 1,862 unemployed, which is 12 timesmore than the European average.136 Further, most vacancies were not posted at the PES.The ones that were, on average per every month, 490 unemployed have competed pervacancy.137 Thus, the role of the PES in finding jobs has been negligible.138 This mayaccount for the low registration rates of unemployed people. In 2006, 84 percent of theyoung unemployed had never registered with PES. Among those who had, 88 percentreported receiving no assistance.139Insufficient data regarding labour market needs coupled with the inefficiency of the PEShas meant that the process of matching job-seekers to vacant positions has not happenedthrough the institutional channels of the PES, but rather through informal socialnetworks. This does not constitute a sustainable and equitable job search mechanism asit advantages people with the ‘right’ connections. Increasing the effectiveness of thePES may contribute to a decrease in this phenomenon. As an important link between jobseekers and the labour market, the PES needs to be strengthened. The PES requires asufficient budget for offering training courses, career guidance and labour marketinformation. They also need qualified and able staff who have a track record of self-starters and active in seeking out employment.134 Ibid.135 USAID, A Modern Workforce Development System is Key to Kosovo’s Growth, May 2009, p. 23.136 Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare, Labour and Employment 2009, p. 9.137 Ibid, p. xii.138 European Training Foundation, HRD Country Analysis Kosovo, Draft Working Paper, July 2009, p. 8.139 Kuddo, A., Labour Market and Employment Policy Options for Youth in Kosovo, Washington, D.C.: World Bank, 2008.www.iksweb.org 43
  • 47. The government’s response?The government’s mid-term priority for 2006 to 2008 was to reduce unemployment andcreate jobs for the quickly growing, young labour force. In order to reach this goal,macroeconomic and fiscal strategies were geared towards developing the private sectorand increasing international competitiveness. Though, the government has failed todeliver on this priority as the rising unemployment rates in Table 3 demonstrate.140Overall, the unemployment rate has increased from 41.4 percent in 2005 to 45.4 percentin 2009. Among youth ages 15 to 24, it has increased from 70.5 percent to 73 percent.Table 3. 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Unemployed (15-64) 41.4% 44.9% 43.6% 47.5% 45.4% Unemployed (15-24) 70.5% 75.5% 70% 73% 73% Source: SOK, Labour Force Surveys, 2005-2008Although youth unemployment has remained high, government priorities for the mid-term period of 2008 to 2011 changed. Thus, the budget line of the Department ofLabour and Employment Affairs within the Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare(MLSW) shifted as well. In 2009 the government allocated €159.9 million for MLSW,which meant an increase of 1.4 percent compared to the 2008 budget. However, theincrease was not reflected in the budget of the Department of Labour and Employment,responsible for youth policy design. On the contrary, the budget of this department in2009 (€2.7 million) was reduced by 36 percent compared to 2008 (€4.2 million). Thesame was true for the PES, which was the lead agency for implementing the KosovoYouth Employment Action Plan 2007-2010 (KYEAP), the flagship document for youthlabour policy in Kosovo.KYEAP contained the government’s main strategy for tackling youth unemployment by‘promoting employment,’ ‘increasing decent work opportunities’ and ‘preventing socialexclusion through targeted labour market measures.’ These targets were to beadministered and coordinated by MLSW and implemented through the PES. The Planforesaw the inclusion of non-governmental institutions and the creation of an Inter-Ministerial Committee on Youth Employment to oversee the implementation of thedocument and report to the individual ministries. Despite or perhaps because of itsambitions aims, the implementation mechanism was never established. Theimplementation of the action plan on youth employment was hampered by a lack ofinter-ministerial coordination. The administrative capacity of MLSW has remainedpoor.141So far no new strategy has been created as a follow-up to KYEAP, which ended in2010. The ambitious aims of the government, commendable as they are, have failed toproduce relevant outcomes in the fight against youth unemployment and no structuraldevelopments are visible. The shift in focus and shrinking of the Labour and140 For factors contributing to failures, see International Labour Office, Young People’s Transition to Decent Work: Evidence fromKosovo, April 2007, p. 43.141 European Commission, Kosovo under UNSCR 1244/99 2009 Progress Report, Brussels, October 2009.44 www.iksweb.org
  • 48. Employment Department’s budget raises questions regarding the government’s long-term commitment to economic and labour market reform more broadly and to curbingyouth unemployment specifically.International donors in Kosovo have also sought to reduce youth unemployment, mainlyby providing training courses and internships. Several donors have operated activelabour market programmes, the largest of which have been run by the United NationsDevelopment Programme (UNDP), German Technical Assistance (GTZ), EuropeanCommission (EC) and Lux Development.Active Labour Market Programmes (ALMP) aimed to support unemployed andvulnerable groups such as youth, the disabled and elderly to find jobs by stimulating thelabour market. The programmes can be roughly divided into active and passiveprogrammes. Passive programmes included unemployment benefits and employmentsubsidies whereas active programmes involved training, internships and public workprogrammes.142 Such programmes should be tailored to the specific needs andconditions of the country. Yet, past experience has shown that neither employmentsubsidies nor large public works schemes have succeeded in Kosovo due to the weakcapacities of the public administration and the lack of coordination between ministries,employers’ associations and social partners.143In Kosovo the implementation and financing of ALMPs have been mainly in the handsof donor agencies. However, some have worked with or through MLSW as the relevantministry, the PES or Municipal Employment Offices (MEO). Despite the fact that about€7 million have been spent on ALMPs in Kosovo every year, with 19 programmes since2000, the coverage of the programmes has remained limited.144 Since most programmeshave been small-scale, the cost of training each individual beneficiary has been around€700 per year. Poor donor coordination in programme approach and implementation, aswell as the absence of MLSW as a central organising force has precluded attention tosystematic programmes that could benefit more people and reduce costs. Althoughapproximately 10,000 youth benefited from ALMPs in 2007, this number onlyrepresents roughly 6.3 percent of all unemployed youth ages 15 to 24.Most ALMPs in Kosovo have tackled the Vocational Education Training sector (10programmes). On the other hand, the long-term success of these programmes has beenundermined by the continuously low demand for labour. Thus few trainees haveobtained jobs.145 The low demand for labour and poor educational attainment must beaddressed simultaneously in order to increase youths’ chances of securing employment.While the later can be supported by concerted, sustainable and long-term governmentand donor action, the former requires broader business reforms, including increasingincentives for businesses in Kosovo.146To leave or not to leave!Unemployment is not a novelty for Kosovans, even in Yugoslav times unemploymentrate was highest for Kosovo, hence the region was the least developed, leaving many142 Mukkavilli, S., Evaluation of Active Labour Market Programme for Youth in Kosova, 2008, pp. 9-10.143 European Training Foundation, HRD Country Analysis Kosovo, Draft Working Paper, July 2009, p. 9.144 World Bank, Kosovo Youth in Jeopardy, Being Young, Unemployed and Poor in Kosovo, September 2008, pp. 37-38.145 Ibid, p. 40.146 World Bank, Doing Business 2010, 2010, p. 2.www.iksweb.org 45
  • 49. people to look towards migration as early as 1970s. Migration has long enabledKosovo’s small labour market to release pressure.147 Europe’s ageing population mayrequire a young labour force in the very near future. The Government of Kosovo canenter into bilateral agreements with interested EU countries to identify labour marketdemands and establish programs for providing labour. Short-term migration can becoordinated, controlled and regulated bilaterally. MLSW should take the lead inestablishing a program on behalf of the Government of Kosovo. MSLW has already runa pilot project and as such was pioneering in this regard.Resulting from the survey, unemployment was youth’s greatest concern; the ratereaches 73 percent for age group 19-24 years old. Kosovan youth make their choices forfurther education mainly according to their perception of the labour market needs,lacking any professional advice or guidance regarding their careers choices. Thus, thereis an urgent need for career guidance to be set up in schools, followed by a base linestudy of labour market needs in Kosovo.Labour market demands need to be married with the existing skills. Web-portals whereyouth can upload their CVs and employers can announce job vacancies are a matchingpath, widely used as a successful practice in other countries. It can help reduceinformalities during the selection and recruitment processes. Such a website could beaccessible by youngsters throughout Kosovo. MLSW, in close cooperation withbusinesses, could initiate such a project.Further, to better prepare graduates for the labour market, compulsory internships mustbe part of the curricula at the university level. AUK has been an exceptional example inthis regard. Opportunities with international organisations present in Kosovo should beconsidered in terms of internship agreements. Other opportunities for initiatinginternship agreements between universities in Kosovo and the region should beexplored by MEST.The University of Prishtinë/Priština together with other private tertiary institutions inKosovo should arrange ‘Career Days.’ This initiative will serve as a platform that bringstogether businesses and potential future labour force - students. Students will have anopportunity to know companies and be properly informed about the labour market. Inthis way they can better identify what courses and internships they need. Companies, atthe same time, will promote their work and will become familiar with the potentiallabour force. Internship opportunities in those companies could also be promoted duringthe ‘Career Days.’ This initiative should not be limited only to business in Kosovo butshould be a platform connected to other businesses in the region and Europe. The roleof the embassies in Kosovo should be further explored.147 World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Actions, April 2010, p. 56.46 www.iksweb.org
  • 50. ENCOURAGING YOUTH PARTICIPATION ‘There are a lot of things that don’t go right for youth in Kosovo. The most concerning are prevailing unemployment and the exclusion of young people from decision-making processes.’ - Ilir, 22-year-old student from Prishtinë/PrištinaWithout official channels for representing their interests, disillusionment with the statusquo, including poor education and widespread unemployment, could make Kosovo’syouth brokers of instability rather than positive change. The improved integration ofyoung people in society and working life is essential for ensuring a return to consistentand sustainable growth.148In 2006 the UNDP Human Development Report argued that Kosovo’s youth had littleimpact on decision-making institutions for two reasons. First, institutions often do notfeel obliged to respect the rights of youth to participate, and second, young people donot consider their participation a civic responsibility.149This chapter considers both youths’ eagerness to participate in decision-makingprocesses and the government’s involvement of youth. It first examines earlyparticipation in decision-making within the family, which may impact youths’ broaderparticipation as active citizens. Second, it discusses youths’ eagerness to be involved indecision-making processes and their participation in youth organisations. Third, thechapter considers government’s response to youth and youths’ struggle to make theirvoices heard. Finally, some challenges for the future are reviewed.Developing a new generation of active citizens: Participation in the familyWithin their homes, children learn whether their voices count. The extent to whichchildren are involved in decision-making within their families may affect theirparticipation in decision-making processes later in life. Therefore, IKS examinedyouths’ participation within their families. Youth ages 10 to 14 were asked, ‘When adecision that concerns you is taken at home, do your parents take into considerationyour opinion?’ The children interpreted for themselves which decisions ‘concerned’them. As Graph 3.1 illustrates, 36.3 percent of respondents felt their opinion was alwaysconsidered. Most respondents (46.4 percent) said their opinion was sometimesconsidered, and 15.8 percent felt their opinion was never considered. Thus, most youthbelieved they had a say in decisions made within their families.148 European Commission, Communication from the Commission to the Council, Annex to the “Addressing the concerns of youngpeople in Europe – implementing the European Youth Pact and promoting active citizenship,” SEC (2005) 693, Brussels, 30 May,2005.149 UNDP, Youth: A New Generation for Kosovo. Human Development Report, 2006, p. 75.www.iksweb.org 47
  • 51. Graph 3.1 Participation in decision-making at home among 10-14-year-oldsMore girls (41.8 percent) than boys (30.8 percent) felt that their opinion was alwaystaken into consideration. Nonetheless, discussions during IKS’s focus groups suggestedthat the situation differed for girls in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša where a KosovanTurkish majority resides and in the rural area of Dragash/Dragaš.In Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša, attitudes towards girls’ participation in decision-makingand leisure time activities remained conservative.150 Decision-making norms within thefamily influenced how girls from the local high school spent their free time. Seda, an18-year-old science student explained, ‘For boys it is not a problem. They can do whatthey want and go where they want. We finish school, and we go straight to home.’ Theboys from her school are members of the local youth club, Aplerenler Genclik Dernegi(Alperenler Youth Club), which organises activities such as language and computercourses. Still, Ayşe remarked, ‘Girls do not go there. [...] We stay home, do thehousework, make lace or go to Koran courses.’ The girls expressed an interest inattending courses offered by the youth club, but explained that they could not go ontheir own. Thus, girls’ attendance of youth activities appeared to be a collective actionproblem: if more young women could organise to go together, they could have theopportunity to participate in social and learning activities outside the home.A similar situation existed in Dragash/Dragaš municipality.151 While boys were allowedthe freedom to do as they pleased, girls had to go straight home after school. InDragash/Dragaš, this was due in part to conservative attitudes towards girls’ behaviour,but was also related to security concerns. Limited public transportation made it difficultfor students to travel from school back to their villages, and parents did not want theirdaughters walking home unaccompanied or after dark.152Thus, gender norms in certain areas of Kosovo seemed to influence some youths’opportunities to participate in decision-making processes at home. This was particularlytrue for girls in rural areas and impacted upon their public participation. Better,affordable public transportation to and from schools and youth activities specifically150 IKS focus group with high school students from Ataturk High School in Mamuşa/Mamushë/Mamuša, 6 May, 2010.151 IKS focus group with high school students from Ruzhdi Berisha High School, Dragash/Dragaš municipality, 5 May, 2010.152 For more see education chapter.48 www.iksweb.org
  • 52. targeting young women could lessen concerns among parents and enable girls’ greaterparticipation in after-school activities.Youths’ eagerness to participate in decision-making processesIt goes without saying that youth organizations can play an important role inencouraging young women’s and men’s participation in public life.153 School councils,youth groups and extracurricular activities can enable youth from an early age todevelop skills in collective decision-making, democracy, leadership and advocacy. Inspite of this, IKS’s Kosovo-wide survey provided evidence to suggest that few Kosovanyouth participate in such activities. Only 16 percent of respondents ages 10 to 14 and 14percent of 15- to 24-year-olds participated in an organisation or club. In both agegroups, fewer female than male respondents participated.Among those who participated in organisations, sports, dance and music seemed to bethe most attractive activities for youth ages 10 to 14. As Graph 3.1 illustrates, 6.5percent participated in a sports club, 4.1 percent in a dance club and 3.2 percent in amusic club. About 2 percent were members of local youth clubs, 1.6 percent served on aschool council, 1.1 percent were involved in artistic organisations and 0.2 percent inreligious groups.Graph 3.2 Types of organisations in which youth ages 10-14 participatedSimilar trends existed among 15- to 24-year-olds. In the midst of the 14 percent whoparticipated in organized groups, sports clubs were also the most frequently attended(7.6 percent). Fewer youth were members of youth clubs (2 percent), artistic clubs (1.6percent), school councils (1.2 percent), NGOs (1.1 percent), political parties (0.2percent) and religious groups (0.2 percent).Overall, if so few youth participate in extracurricular activities, what do Kosovan youthdo with their free time? Oktay, an 18-year-old high school graduate, confirmed the153 Annica Holmberg, Secretary General of Forum SYD, Speech at the Forum Syd Second Regional Conference on Youth Policiesand Youth Civic Participation, 13-14 April, 2010.www.iksweb.org 49
  • 53. impression that any visitor to Kosovo might have: ‘Like every passive young person, Ispend my free time sitting in coffee houses. [T]here is no alternative.’154 When theywere outside their homes, cafes seemed to be the locale of choice for Kosovan youth togather with friends. Nearly 48 percent of youth ages 15 to 24 said that meeting friendswas their most common leisure-time activity.Youth also spent a great deal of time on computers, either at home or at internet cafes.IKS found that 23.2 percent of 10- to 14-year-olds enjoyed surfing the internet duringleisure time, and 60 percent of youth ages 15 to 24 spent two to three hours daily infront of a computer. More than 48 percent used computers for social networking,primarily for Facebook and MSN instant messenger.Although few Kosovan youth seemed to be involved in extracurricular activities,Engelbert, a young activist heading a successful youth organisation in Peja, believedthat youth wanted to participate. Yet, youth hesitated because they did not think thatthey had a right to participate, he said. He offered an example of a recent experience hisorganisation had: The initiative was to test young people for creative ideas […] for setting up businesses that might help them in the future. Young people from all over the city were applying to take the test, except for the young people of the neighbourhood where the test was taking place. They […] had no courage to come and ask what all this was about. I felt bad as I know many of the people in the neighbourhood, and [I] asked them why they were not applying. The answer I got was, ‘Nobody told me. Nobody asked me to go.’155The organisation had a very good information campaign. They placed posters aroundthe city and advertised the event on local radio. Engelbert elaborated: Young people of the neighbourhood had heard of it, but they simply did not think that they could be part of it, that the massage counted for them as well. Youth lack education regarding participation. They are not aware of the value and importance of their inclusion in processes that affect their lives. Youth hesitate to be part of processes [and] developments not because they don’t want to, but because they don’t think that their opinion counts.Youth have not always hesitated to participate in decision-making. On the contrary,during the 1980s and 1990s, youth were at the forefront of civil resistance in Kosovo,demanding better conditions at the University of Prishtinë/Priština, access to educationfor all and an end to human rights abuses.156 Then again, qualitative evidence suggeststhat youth participation has decreased with time.After the conflict, aid money flooded into Kosovo funding thousands of NGOs. As of2005 approximately 20 percent of all registered NGOs were youth organisations.157Alban, a former youth leader, described the spirit of activism and voluntarism thatexisted immediately after the war:154 IKS interview with Oktay Pomak, 18 year old, high school student, Prizren, 25 April, 2010.155 Engelbert Zefaj, IKS roundtable discussion with youth organisations, 20 May, 2010, Prishtinë/Priština.156 Clark, H., Civil Resistance in Kosovo, London: Pluto Press, 2000.157 United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Youth: A New Generation for Kosovo, Human Development Report, 2006, p.77.50 www.iksweb.org
  • 54. My first engagement started as an initiative of eight students in Malisheva. [W]e opened the youth centre, which was previously destroyed during the war. Swiss KFOR helped us build a small wooden house. […] The centre was a gathering point for youth activists. We organized recreational activities mainly. There were about 300 to 500 young people benefiting, yet it was logistically impossible to register all of them. We all worked voluntarily. It’s important to mention the enthusiasm of work back in those days.158Immediately after the war both youth activism and donor aid were available inabundance. The Kosovo Youth Network (KYN) was started as an umbrella organisationfor the various local youth organisations. KYN held its first congress in 2001. Itgathered momentum until 2004 when it was formerly registered. At the time, thenetwork had around 130 NGO members. The United Nations Development Programme(UNDP) supported the network, which provided a forum for discussions amongmembers, disseminated information and implemented projects at the local and nationallevels.Nevertheless, after 2005 KYN began to crumble. Albion, a former KYN director,explained, ‘In 2005/2006 the donors retreated and stopped their funding. This weakenedcivil society in general and youth organisations as well.’159 Youth organisationsstruggled to maintain, let alone increase their membership. As international donorslacked adequate exit strategies, cutbacks in funding forced many youth organisations toclose, including KYN members. For those that remained open, funding became tightand competition for resources intense. KYN’s decline coincided with a decrease inyouth activism throughout Kosovo, mainly due to frustration, according to Alban: [KYN] promoted mainly voluntarism and solidarity. The enthusiasm faded though after 2004 […]. That’s where the problems started. Youth issues were not included in the agenda of decision-makers. More important than this reason [was] the international support. Priorities for the youth sector were not made according to the needs and demands of youth. Priorities were not youth-oriented but donor-oriented. Elements such as multi-ethnicity, peace and tolerance were prioritized, not youth development.160Political decision-makers’ and donors’ failures to address needs identified by youthhave contributed to youth discouragement and disillusionment. The donor-drivenprogrammatic focus, heavy reliance on young activists’ undying volunteerism andgovernment sluggishness in attending to youths’ priorities left the active youthfrustrated and disillusioned. The ups and downs of the youth sector have left Kosovanyouth disaffected by the decision making institutions closely related to their life. Eventhough they do not feel that their voice counts, young Kosovans have not lost theoptimism and enthusiasm about Kosovo’s future and their willingness to build theircountry. Youth eagerness to participate, though, is closely dependent on Kosovaninstitutions establishing channels to engage youth to advocate for their interests.158 IKS interview with Alban Krasniqi, former Director of the Kosovo Youth Network (KYN), 04 March 2010, Prishtinë/Priština.159 IKS interview with Albion Zeka, former Director of KYN, 25 February, 2010. Prishtinë/Priština.160 IKS interview with Alban Krasniqi, former Director of KYN, 04 March, 2010. Prishtinë/Priština.www.iksweb.org 51
  • 55. Too little, too late!?Since the establishment of the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports (MCYS) in 2002,youth issues have fallen under the authority of the Department for Youth within MCYS.The Department is small with only four administrative and four managerial staff.161According to the Law on Empowerment and Participation of youth, each municipalityshould establish a Youth Official and a Directorate of Culture, Youth and Sports. Inspite of this, it has not been achieved in all municipalities.162 ‘The problems [regardingyouth sector] are big and this is only the start of a sustainable institutional approach tothe challenges,’ said Fatmir Hoxha, former director of the Youth Department.In 2006, MCYS initiated a three-year Kosovo Youth Development Project with supportfrom the World Bank. One of the project’s components was to improve the performanceand sustainability of existing youth centres.163 In 2010, there were 13 active youthcentres in Kosovo, seven of which lacked the necessary conditions for functioning.164Since the MCYS project began, fewer than five thousand youth have benefited from theyouth centres, a low figure considering that about half of Kosovo’s population is under25.165 Youth centres faced structural problems that made it difficult and sometimesimpossible for them to reach out to young people. Without their own budget, they reliedon funds from MCYS and international organisations. They depended on municipalsupport for free use of facilities and utilities. Very few of the municipalities offeredthem office space and covered certain expenses like electricity and water.For example, in Prishtinë/Priština the municipality paid the youth centre’s rent, so itcould operate in a private building. Even so, the youth centre fell upon troubled times in2006 due to cutbacks in funding from international donors. Linda, Director of thecentre, recalled: In 2006 and 2007 there was almost nobody frequenting the youth centre. Prishtinë/Priština youth centre has had a lot of difficulties with space. If one provides the adequate space, young people do come and spend time in the centre. [But] if young people don’t feel comfortable in the centre, they prefer to go and sit in cafes.166This and other youth centres have begun charging five to seven euros per month forforeign language courses in order to cover office expenses. Insufficient financial161 IKS interview with Fatmir Hoxha, former director of the Youth Department, Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sports (MCYS), 25February, 2010.162 GTZ study 2010, forthcoming.163 Without a clear statute, these centres were initially registered as NGOs. The new Law on Empowerment and Participation ofYouth (discussed later in this chapter) defines youth centres as spaces ‘functionalized for development of youth activities licensedby the municipal Directorate responsible for youth.’ The new law foresees that they will be licensed by municipal directorates ofculture, youth and sports (Article 12). Local Youth Action Councils are to assist the centres in securing financial resources andspace.164 IKS interview with Fatmir Hoxha, former director of Department of Youth, MCYS, 25 February, 2010.165 IKS interview with Ilir Hoxha, Kosovo Youth Development Project Coordinator, funded by World Bank, implemented byMCYS, 04 March, 2010, Prishtinë/Priština.166 Ibid.52 www.iksweb.org
  • 56. resources have impacted the quality of staff recruited by the centres,167 as well as theservices they are able to offer to youth.Beyond the World Bank funds for youth centres, the overall budget allocated to theYouth Department within MCYS has been miniscule. In 2006 the Government ofKosovo allocated €6.4 million to the MCYS out of which only 4.5 percent, a total of€289,454 went to the Department of Youth. In 2008, the Ministry’s budget increased to€9.4 million. Of this budget the Department of Youth received €342,040, which, at 3.6percent, represented a proportional decrease compared to the previous year.168 Thegovernment’s minimal investment has meant that most youth organisations and centreshave had to rely on donor funding, an uncertain and unsustainable source of income.Thus, at least historically, youth do not seem to have been a priority for the government.Recent developments suggest that the tide may be changing. About the time that youthactivism had begun to disintegrate and youth centres were scrambling for funds, thegovernment initiated efforts towards institutionalising youth policy and development. In2005, the Youth Policy Secretariat was established within the government. Enver Gashi,a local consultant, described this as a change in attitude by the government: After the war, the great number of young people was viewed as a disadvantage for the development of the country. Only recently has there been a development of youth strategies and action plans in order to channel youth actions in a more positive direction.169The main indicator of this change was the government’s initiative to begin drafting in2005 the Law on Youth Empowerment and Participation. The Law was drafted withextensive participation of many youth NGOs and civil society stakeholders.170 It hasfour main objectives: defining responsibilities for strengthening Kosovo’s youth sectorand increasing youth participation; establishing youth consultation mechanisms andinstitutions; defining voluntary work; and licensing youth centres.171The Law on Empowerment and Participation of Youth, adopted in September 2009,represented the strongest commitment by the government to youth development andinclusion to date. It has been complemented by the Kosovo Youth Strategy and theKosovo Youth Action Plan, passed in November 2009. Through the adoption ofadministrative directives in the near future, the Law foresees the establishment ofCentral and Local Youth Action Councils. The Central Youth Action Council (CYAC)will be an advisory structure to national government institutions and will represent theconcerns and needs of youth representatives.172 The Local Youth Action Councils(LYAC) will operate at the municipal level, sending representatives to the CYAC torepresent municipal priorities. The LYAC will represent NGOs active at the municipallevel, youth centres and students’ councils from local schools.167 Linda Loshi, Director of Prishtinë/PrištinaYouth Centre. IKS roundtable discussion with youth organisations, 20 May, 2010,Prishtinë/Priština168 In 2007 the budget for the Ministry of Culture, Youth and Sport was €7,267,852, and the budget allocated to the Department ofYouth was €331,166 (4.5 percent).169 Enver Gashi, speech at the Forum Syd Second Regional Conference on Youth Policies and Youth Civic Participation, 13-14April, 2010, Prishtinë/Priština.170 IKS interviews with Albion Zeka, former Director of KYN, 25 February 2010, Prishtinë/Priština and Fatmir Hoxha, formerdirector of the Department of Youth, MCYS, 25 February 2010, Prishtinë/Priština. The Department of Youth held more than 80meetings with young people, including representatives of youth organisations, NGOs and youth centres.171 Law on Empowerment and Participation of Youth, No. 03/L-145; Republic of Kosovo, 2009, Article 2.172 Law on Empowerment and Participation of Youth, No. 03/L-145; Republic of Kosovo, 2009 Articles 8 and 10.www.iksweb.org 53
  • 57. In order to promote youth participation from an early age, the draft Law on Pre-University Education has also foreseen the establishment of Pupils’ Councils withinlower and upper secondary schools. Councils will be comprised of a class presidentfrom each class, elected annually.173 The Council will represent students’ needs andconcerns to the school governing board. In order to increase the link between school andbroader youth participation, representatives of these Pupils’ Councils will berepresented at the municipal LYAC.174The Law on Empowerment and Participation of Youth has envisioned that LYAC andCYAC will create a clear chain of communication from these student councils, youthcentres and youth organisations at the municipal level through the CYAC to the nationalgovernment. The exact responsibilities and working mechanisms of the CYAC andLYAC will be determined by administrative directives. Working groups responsible fordrafting the administrative directives commenced work in January 2010, but the resultsof their labours have yet to be passed.175Many municipalities have proceeded in a proactive manner, establishing LYACs. In2010, 20 LYACs had been created and seven other municipalities were in the process ofestablishing LYACs. Without administrative directives to govern their work and supplyfunding, the existing LYACs were inactive.176 In order to establish goals for municipalwork, LYACs will eventually draft Local Youth Action Plans, which will have to beapproved by municipal assemblies together with an assigned budget to make theLYACs functional.Time will tell whether this ambitious and elaborate plan to filter youth priorities intodecision-making processes at the municipal and national levels will function asforeseen. However, the Government of Kosovo Program (2008-2011) does not bodewell for the government’s future attention to youth; the 55-page document settinggovernment priorities for its mandate, mentions ‘youth’ only eight times.177 Tellingly,only four sentences dealt with youth.Youths’ struggle to make their voices heardThe exclusion of youth from decision-making processes was a reoccurring themeamong youth during interviews and focus groups. ‘We have no access to decision-making processes,’ said Hereza, a 19-year-old student from Prishtinë/Priština. ‘Ourinterests and demands are hardly taken into consideration by decision-makinginstitutions. I think the problem rests with the leaders of our country who do not involveyouth.’178 Naim, a young activist, agreed; he did not feel represented by themunicipality of Prishtinë/Priština or the Vetëvendosja (Self-determination) movement inwhich he participated: ‘Nobody supports us,’ he said.179173 Draft Law on Pre-University Education; Republic of Kosovo, Article 18.174 Albion Zeka, IKS Workshop with Key Stakeholders of Youth Participation, 13 July, 2010.175 IKS interview with Fatmir Hoxha, former Director of the Youth Department, MCYS, 25 February, 2010.176 Meeting between GTZ and the municipality of Prishtinë/Priština, Department for Culture, Youth and Sports and youth NGOs, 19July, 2010.177 Government of Kosovo, Program of the Government of Republic of Kosovo 2008-2011, Prishtinë/Priština, April 2008.178 IKS interview with Hereza Sefaj, Law student at the University of Prishtinë/Priština, 06 April, 2010.179 IKS focus group with young people in Prishtinë/Priština, 18 May, 2010.54 www.iksweb.org
  • 58. Other youth also felt that politicians did not take their opinions and concerns seriously.Pal, a high school student from Prizren explained: If you and I and another 100 young people agree that this road [by the school] should be closed to car traffic, and we go to the mayor to hand in our request, the answer will be, ‘This is not your job. Go and finish school and after graduating come back and complain.’ 180Similarly, Albulena provided a concrete example: two years ago youth organized apetition with the aim of opening a cinema in Prizren. The petition was signed andhanded over to the municipal authorities, but no action was taken. The lack of politicalaction seemed ironic considering the amount of money dedicated to establishingPrizren’s reputation as a ‘Film City’ through the annual ‘Dokufest,’ an internationalfilm festival held there.181Serb youth were similarly disenchanted. Ivan, an active youth leader inGračanica/Graçanicë, commented: ‘It is very hard to be part of the decision-makingprocess. Even though we are very young, we are trying to be active and to raise ourvoice.’182Overall, as Graph 3.3 illustrates, only 5.5 percent of the survey respondents aged 15 to24 believed that the interests and needs of young people were ‘very much’ consideredby decision-making institutions. Almost 32 percent felt that their concerns wereconsidered ‘to some extent.’ Though, 28.3 percent felt their concerns were ‘little’considered, and 19.7 percent said their needs were not considered ‘at all.’ In comparisonto youth of other non-Albanian ethnicities, Serbs had far lower odds of feeling thatdecision-makers considered their views.183A rather high percentage of respondents, 14.8 percent, did not know if institutionsconsidered their interests. The odds of answering ‘don’t know’ were 364 percent higherfor a Serb than an Albanian and 183 percent higher than for a youth of otherethnicities.184 Further research could examine more specifically such uncertaintiesamong youth, particularly Serb citizens.Graph 3.3 Extent to which youth ages 15-24 believed their interests were considered by decision-making institutions180 IKS Focus Group with Students from Gymnasium and Professional Schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.181 http://www.dokufest.com/2010/182 IKS Focus Group with youth of Kosovo Serb community in Gračanica/Graçanicë, 12 May, 2010.183 There was a statistically significant relationship at the five percent level between being Serb and all responses except ‘not at all’(p ≤ 0.008). The relationship between being Albanian and responses to this question was not particularly clear.184 For Serb respondents, there was a statistically significant relationship at the five percent level between ethnicity and not knowingwhether decision-makers considered youths’ interests (p = 0.001).www.iksweb.org 55
  • 59. An important element of citizens’ participation in decision-making is voting, which iscrucial for representation in political processes. During interviews and focus groups,young people evidenced their belief in the importance of voting. As Erzen, an 18-year-old high school student from Dragash/Dragaš, commented ‘The right to vote is one ofthe most valuable rights that an individual earns in life. We can have a voice only whenwe vote. [If] we don’t vote, we lose the right to ask for accountability from theauthorities.’185 Albulena from Prizren agreed, ‘I believe that the vote of a citizen is veryvaluable. Regardless of having choices [of candidates] or not, voting is an obligationthat we as citizens have to fulfil.’186 Perhaps not all young people would describe thesignificance of voting so impressively.As Graph 3.4 illustrates, 46.5 percent of the respondents to the Kosovo-wide survey feltvoting was ‘very effective’ or ‘rather effective’ for improving their country. However,18.8 percent said it was ‘neither effective nor ineffective’, 10.9 percent felt it was‘rather ineffective,’ and 8.8 percent said it was ‘very ineffective.’ Albanians were muchmore likely than youth of all other ethnicities to believe that voting in elections waseffective.187 Compared to youth of other ethnicities, Serbs tended to be more apathetic;only 1.5 percent of the Serb respondents thought that voting was effective, whereas 58.7percent of Albanians and 36.2 percent of youth of other ethnicities thought it waseffective. Substantially, 15.1 percent of the respondents said they did not know whethervoting was effective or not. In comparison to other ethnic groups, a slightly higherpercentage of Serbs responded ‘don’t know.’Discussions with Kosovo Serbs suggest that many still feel that their future in Kosovoremains somewhat unclear politically. Since the war, both the Albanian majorityGovernment of Kosovo and the Government of Serbia have vied for their attentions inthe struggle over the governance of Serb-majority municipalities and villages ofKosovo. This may contribute to apathy or lack of knowledge regarding the extent towhich any government really seeks to address their concerns (see p. 59), and thus theirbelief in the usefulness of voting as well.Graph 3.4 Youths’ belief in the effectiveness of voting for improving their country, 15-24-year-olds185 IKS Focus Group with high school students in Dragash/Dragaš , 5 May, 2010.186 IKS Focus Group with students from the gymnasium and professional schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.187 There is a statistically significant relationship between ethnicity and youths’ belief in the effectiveness of voting (for Albaniansbelieving that voting is effective, p 0.001).56 www.iksweb.org
  • 60. In practice, the percentage of youth eligible to vote who participated in the 2004 generalelections was 49 percent,188 roughly similar to the percent of respondents who felt theirvote was effective. Overall, voter turnout was low, at 53 percent. Youths’ comparativelylower rate may be indicative of their doubts that voting is effective or disappointmentwith politicians, though further research is needed to explore such relationships. Ifyouth do not trust that politicians will address their concerns, they may not have anincentive to participate in elections. Indeed, as 22-year-old Milot said, ‘I don’t trust anyof these institutions. All they do is make promises during the elections. It has becomelike a tradition, they promise, steal our votes and then forget us.’189The sporadic attention given to youth during election campaigns contributed tofrustration among youth.190 Comprising a large percentage of the voting population,election years were among the rare occasions that politicians reached out to youth, atleast discursively. Every election, candidates promised to pay greater attention to issuesfacing youth, but their promises were regularly broken. Albulena, 19-year-old highschool student, fumed: ‘When it is time to collect votes, all the politicians come and askabout our concerns [and] listen to us. Once the elections are over, they forget about us!’Turning promises to practicesEmpowering youths’ greater participation in decision-making processes remains a long-term development challenge facing Kosovan society. If Kosovan youth are to beentrusted with the future governance of the country, their leadership and participationmust be encouraged now. In their efforts to forge a stable democracy, the governmentand key stakeholders, such as: donors, namely USAID, WB and SIDA, youth centresand NGOs must be innovative. Evidence suggests that cafes are a good location fortargeting youth with information campaigns about participation opportunities orreaching out to youth. Considering youths’ broad usage of modern communicationtechnologies, the internet could also be used more extensively to involve young people.At the same time, the research findings suggest that securing young people’s trust willbe among the most crucial challenges to increasing their participation. Despite therhetoric, decision-makers’ assertions that youth are a priority have yet to be translatedinto action. Kosovan youth still feel that they have very limited influence on decision-making processes. In order to build trust with youth, decision-makers must followthrough with their promises and address youths’ identified needs. Such actions willlikely encourage greater youth involvement in decision-making processes in the future.With the Law on Empowerment and Participation of Youth, the Government of Kosovohas made a commendable attempt to institutionalize efforts towards empowering youth.However, the commitments made on paper must now be put to practice. The insufficientbudget allocated to the Department of Youth to date has been one indicator thatgovernment discourse remains separate from the reality. The Government needs to putsits promises to practice by allocating a sufficient budget to the Department of Youthwithin MCYS. Additionally, considering the lack of attention regarding youth intocurrent Government Program, the next Government Program could further follow-188 Central Elections Commission, Election Results 2004.189 IKS interview with Milot Rexhepi, student of political sciences, Prishtinë/Priština, 09 April, 2010.190 IKS interviews and focus groups with young people in Prizren, Gjakovë/Đakovica, Dragash/Dragaš, Prishtinë/Priština, April-May 2010.www.iksweb.org 57
  • 61. through on its commitments by giving more prominent attention to the needs andpriorities of youth.Youth participation is about the meaningful influence of young people in institutionsand decision-making processes in particular processes related to their future, not abouttheir passive presence as attendants in a number of meetings. Simply, it is about thequality of participation, as well as about quantity. In order to attain both qualitative andquantitative participation of youth into relevant decision-making processes parallelefforts should be made by both: institutions being pro-active in efforts to stimulateyouth participation; and youth channelling their energy towards this participation. Thisalso includes efforts by young people to plan programs of their own choosing and byinstitutions to involve youth in their decision-making processes. Only the intertwiningof these efforts will enable youth to be the actors of change and take the lead in furtherdeveloping their country.58 www.iksweb.org
  • 62. KOSOVAN YOUTH FACE THEIR FUTURE ‘I don’t feel myself as a “Young European,” maybe because I never had the chance to go to Europe.’ 22-year-old studentThis chapter considers Kosovan youths’ overall satisfaction with their lives and howthey see their future. The chapter first explores the extent to which youth are satisfiedwith their lives and their optimism about the future. It then discusses youths’perceptions of Kosovo and its future as a newborn country. Considering their previouslydetailed dreary prospects in education and employment, as well as the history ofemigration from Kosovo, it then investigates youths’ propensity to migrate. Finally, thechapter examines Kosovan youths’ opinions towards EU integration.My future looks bright?The youngest respondents, ages 10 to 14 years old, were asked if they were happy withtheir lives. About 90 percent replied that they were happy. Most were happy ‘most ofthe time’ (78.2 percent), 18.2 percent were happy ‘sometimes’, 2.3 percent did notknow, and 1.4 percent said they were never happy.While ‘happiness’ and satisfaction with life are not exactly the same thing, the average15- to 24-year-old seemed to view life more critically than the 10- to 14-year-old. AsGraph 4.1 illustrates, a majority were ‘satisfied’ (54.6 percent) or ‘very satisfied’ (20percent) with their life. Still, 19 percent were ‘neither satisfied nor unsatisfied’, 3.9percent were ‘unsatisfied’ and 2.2 percent were ‘very unsatisfied’. Only 0.4 percent saidthey did not know.Graph 4.1 Satisfaction with life youth ages 15-24Follow-up questions asked youth about their satisfaction with their financial situationand work. About half of the respondents said they were satisfied with each. However,17 percent were dissatisfied with their financial situation and about 15 percent weredissatisfied with their work.www.iksweb.org 59
  • 63. Graph 4.2 offers insight into how positively respondents ages 15 to 24 saw their future.While the majority agreed that their future looked bright (52.8 percent), almost 26.9percent were undecided, and five percent stated they did not know. More than 15percent did not have a positive outlook on their future.Graph 4.2 My future looks bright among youth ages 15-24There is a statistically significant relationship between youths’ optimism about thefuture and their ethnicity. While Albanian youth191 as well as youth from other minorityethnic groups192 tended to agree that their future looked bright, young Serbs193 tended todisagree. Participants in the focus group in Gračanica/Graçanicë similarly expresseduncertainty regarding their future. Ivan from Gračanica/Graçanicë explained: ‘Welearned that it is not so easy to achieve your own goals, and unfortunately in these tenyears we learned that somebody else is controlling our destinies. That is why it is alsovery hard to plan your future.’194 On average, Serb respondents mirrored Ivan’sstatement,195 disagreeing that they had the freedom to control their future, 59.4 percentdisagreed with the statement that people in Kosovo can choose their own lives.Youths’ optimism also varied from region to region. While young people inPrishtinë/Priština tended to agree that their future looked bright,196 young people inPrizren197 and Gjakovë/Đakovica198 tended to neither agree nor disagree. The leastpositive outlook was in Gjilan/Gnjilane199 where young people, on average, disagreedthat their future would be bright.A factor influencing optimism in Prishtinë/Priština may have been its comparativelybetter employment opportunities. Perparim, a 24-year-old from Prizren, explained, ‘Ilove to live in Prizren, but most probably I will have to go to Prishtinë/Priština.191 p 0.001192 p = 0.048193 p 0.001194 IKS Focus Group with Kosovo Serb youth in Gračanica/Graçanicë, 12 May, 2010.195 p 0.001196 p 0.001197 p 0.001198 p = 0.012199 p 0.00160 www.iksweb.org
  • 64. Prishtinë/Priština offers more prospects. In Prizren you need to have networks. I havethree friends in Prishtinë/Priština that are doing quite well. I will go as well, as the jobmarket is in Prishtinë/Priština.’200Kosovo through my eyesAs the newest country in the world, Kosovo faces many challenges. Youths’ satisfactionwith their country can serve as an additional indicator of their overall life satisfactionwhile providing an initial indication of youths’ propensity to migrate. When asked abouttheir satisfaction with the general situation in Kosovo, 36.1 percent of youth ages 15 to24 said they were satisfied, 32.4 percent were dissatisfied, 29.9 percent were neithersatisfied nor dissatisfied, and 1.6 said they did not know.Although some Kosovan youth were critical of the general situation in Kosovo, mosthad faith that life would improve. As Graph 4.3 illustrates, approximately 67.5 percentof 10- to 14-year-olds believed that Kosovo would be a better place to live in the future.About eight percent did not expect any change, whereas less than six percent saidKosovo would be a worse place to live. Nearly 19 percent said they did not know whatthe future would hold.Graph 4.3 Optimism regarding Kosovo’s futureWhen asked why they thought Kosovo would be a better place to live in the future, 46percent of 10- to 14-year-olds mentioned economic development, 21.3 percent betterstandards of living, 15.3 percent that they liked their country, 7.7 percent less socialproblems and four percent less pollution. As illustrated in Graph 4.4, about six percentdid not know.200 IKS interview with Përparim Abrashi, 24 year old, Prizren, 25 April, 2010.www.iksweb.org 61
  • 65. Graph 4.4 Perceived reasons why Kosovo would be a better place to live in the future, among youth ages 10-14As Graph 4.3 has shown, most respondents ages 15 to 24 were also optimistic aboutKosovo’s future; 65.7 percent said Kosovo would be a better place to live.Approximately 12 percent were sceptical that it would change, 12 percent stated thatthey did not know and 10 percent believed Kosovo would be a worse place to live.When asked why Kosovo would be a better place, approximately half of the optimisticrespondents similarly hoped for a better economic situation and 41.6 percent mentionedbetter standards of living. The percentage of youth ages 15 to 24 believing that Kosovowould be a worse place to live in, was relatively low in comparison to those who wereoptimistic about the future of Kosovo. Less than 4 percent mentioned social problemsand 3.4 percent mentioned economic situation as the main reasons for Kosovo being aworse place to live in the future.A statistically significant relationship existed between ethnicity and optimism aboutKosovo’s future.201 While Albanians and youth of other ethnicities tended to believethat Kosovo would be a better place to live, on average Serb youth were more likely tothink Kosovo would remain unchanged or be a worse place to live. On the other hand, athird of the Serb respondents said they did not know, which means that drawingdecisive conclusions in this regard is difficult. Further research could focus morespecifically on the priorities of young Serbs and investigate the tendency for acomparatively high percentage of them to respond with ‘don’t know’ answers.Migration: Youths’ safety valveMigration has been a livelihood strategy for Kosovans for decades. Throughout the 20thcentury, Kosovan men lived abroad as migrant workers in construction, agriculture orservice industries. In the socialist era many emigrated to Zagreb or Belgrade. In the late1960s, they emigrated to Europe as guest workers. In the 1990s migration accelerateddue to the conflict and culminated in 1999 when hundreds of Kosovan Albanians were201 p 0.00162 www.iksweb.org
  • 66. expelled from Kosovo. In 2010, Kosovo had one of the highest emigration rates amongthe transition economies, with migrants moving primarily to Western Europe.202The prospects for continued emigration among Kosovan youth remain high.Considering that half of Kosovo’s population is estimated to be under age 25, this couldpotentially involve a sizeable percentage of the population. As Graph 4.5 illustrates,13.7 percent of the 10- to 14-year-old respondents, 21.7 percent of 15- to 19-year-oldsand 23.6 percent of 20- to 24-year-olds hoped to live abroad in the future. Thus, youthappeared more likely to consider migrating as they grew older. The difference may beattributed to youth becoming more aware with age of the limitations to receiving a goodeducation and finding employment in Kosovo.Graph 4.5 Percent of respondents who wanted to live abroad in the futureYoung people of other minority communities were more interested in living abroad thanKosovo Albanians and Kosovo Serbs; 40.2 percent wanted to live abroad compared to20.3 percent of Kosovo Albanians and 10.5 percent of Kosovo Serbs. Interestingly, 18percent of Kosovo Serbs said they did not know where they would like to live,compared to 3.4 percent and 3.9 percent of Kosovo Albanians and respondents of otherethnicities, respectively.According to the World Bank, poverty and high unemployment rates have mademigration an attractive option for many people, especially youth.203 Indeed these wereissues identified by youth during interviews and focus groups. ‘If I was given theopportunity to study and work abroad, I would never come back to Kosovo,’ saidAlbulena, a 19-year-old student who dreamed of becoming a successful economist.204 ‘Idon’t think I am going to stay in Kosovo. I want to go to my uncle in Switzerland,’ saidMirand, a 19-year-old high school student.205 He believed that his prospects there werebetter than in his small village outside Prizren.Like Mirand many young people have relatives living abroad; one in every fourhouseholds has at least one household member living outside Kosovo.206 Having such202 World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Action, April 2010, p. 71.203 World Bank, Kosovo Youth in Jeopardy: Being Young, Unemployed and Poor in Kosovo, A report on Youth Employment inKosovo. Report No. 43596-XK, September, 2008, pp. 22-23.204 IKS Focus Group with Students from Gymnasium and Professional Schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.205 Ibid.206 World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Action, April 2010, p. 71.www.iksweb.org 63
  • 67. social networks abroad could facilitate youths’ future migration. The main destinationshave traditionally been Germany and Switzerland. Perhaps unsurprisingly, about 30percent of the 15- to 24-year-old respondents who wanted to migrate said they wantedto live in Germany and 17 percent in Switzerland. Others hoped for destinationcountries such as USA and UK (12.2 percent respectively) and Sweden, Italy andFrance (4.9 percent respectively).Nonetheless, migration may not offer youth the opportunities they have imagined. Notall hopes of migration will be fulfilled; evidence suggests that strict immigrationpolicies and inadequate social networks abroad often prevent people from migrating,particularly the poor.207 Further, in recent years, migrants have been among the mostlikely to be unemployed, which has impacted young people as well.208While unemployment and poverty may be driving forces behind emigration, youth alsomigrated to acquire an education. Some youth did dream of moving abroad for good,but others planned to return after attending higher education. For example, Pal, a 19-year-old high school student from Prizren planned to continue his studies abroad, butwanted to return to contribute to his country. ‘I want to live in Prizren, as it is abeautiful city,’ he said. ‘Given the present situation I would not want to live in Prizren,Prishtinë/Priština or Kosovo. But I live with the hope that things will get better.’209Naim, a university student from Prishtinë/Priština, shared a similar opinion, ‘If I decideto go abroad it will be only for studies and to get a better education. But I will definitelycome back to Kosovo and contribute to my country.’ While many youth wanted to studyabroad, a persisting trend was returning to ‘contribute to Kosovo.’210A desire for higher education and better job opportunities were also recurring themesamong focus group participants living in the villages of Dragash/Dragaš. Few saw afuture in Dragash/Dragaš. Arber, a 19-year-old high school student, wanted to migrateto Prishtinë/Priština to study computer science, ‘With the profession I have chosen Idon’t think that I will live in Dragash/Dragaš. I will live somewhere else in Kosovo.’211While his classmate Anesa remained undecided about her future profession, what shechose would determine where she lived: ‘If I study psychology, I don’t think I will livein Kosovo, but if I study literature, then I can work here as a professor.’ Filloretawanted to continue her studies abroad and then return to Kosovo: ‘I want to studyphysiotherapy in Turkey. I want to come back and maybe live in Prishtina, but not inDragash/Dragaš.’212 Youth mobility within the country or abroad was very muchdepending on the opportunities offered in the labour market.The World Bank has argued that migration has had positive effects on labour marketoutcomes in Kosovo. Besides alleviating labour market pressures (as most migrants areunskilled and unemployed), the economy has benefited from ‘brain gain’ from the (few)207 For example, see Castles, S., International Encyclopaedia of the Social Behavioural Sciences, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2001.208 According to World Bank the average age of migrants has been raising since 1990; the average age used to be 19 years in theearly 1990s, and gradually increased to 29 in 2009. In the recent years, more than 90 percent of all migrants are 20–35 years old,thus affecting a high number of youth. World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Action, April 2010,p. 72.209 IKS Focus Group with Students from Gymnasium and Professional Schools in Prizren, 28 April, 2010.210 IKS focus groups and in-depth interviews with Kosovo youth, April-May, 2010.211 IKS Focus Group with high school students in Dragash/Dragaš, 05 May, 2010.212 Ibid.64 www.iksweb.org
  • 68. returning migrants.213 However, given the high youth unemployment rate, ‘braindrain’214 may be more of a problem in the future, according to the World Bank.Despite the magnitude and history of migration, migration policies are still lacking inKosovo. The Government of Kosovo should establish sound emigration policies, as wellas a strategic vision on the role that migration should play in Kosovo, such as regulatedand controlled migration. In-depth research should inform these strategies, drawingfrom lessons learned historically and elsewhere but focusing on the specificities ofKosovo today. Migration can play an important role in enhancing capacities and skillsin Kosovo. As research showed, for young Kosovans was the motive to migrate wasdriven by the desire to acquire skills and education abroad. Thus the government canassist by developing programs that support young people to study abroad and bring theacquired skills and their potential back to Kosovo. Signing of a contract between thegovernment and the individual that would require youth to work for five years for thegovernment after the completion of the studies, would be a good controllingmechanism.Remittances have played an important role as a source of income for many Kosovanfamilies. While they have had a crucial impact on decreasing poverty, there is littleindication of their impact in stimulating economic activity. Remittances have beenmainly used for food and clothing.215 A more business-friendly environment andflexible financial sector could set the stage for remittances to be used for investment andthe creation of new jobs.‘Kosovo: The Young Europeans’ EU accession has been a driving force behind reforms in Kosovo. Yet, Kosovo stillfaces major challenges that make EU integration a distant dream. The 2009 EuropeanCommission progress report identified an extensive list of areas in need of reform:establishing and consolidating the rule of law; establishing a track record in the fightagainst corruption; strengthening public administration; improving the businessenvironment; and establishing a macro-economic and fiscal policy.216The prominent political discourse in Kosovo suggests that hopes are high for Kosovo’sfuture EU integration. Kosovo’s young population has been regularly featured at thecentre of such efforts. Most conspicuously, the international promotional campaign forKosovo, launched on 26 October 2009, aired its slogan, ‘Kosovo: The YoungEuropeans’, on six stations in Europe and the United States, including CNN, BBC,Euronews, Bloomberg and Eurosport. The campaign sought to brand Kosovo as a newnation, focusing on the power of young people. While they were labelled ‘Young Europeans’ by the campaign, some Kosovan youthfelt they were living the least of Europe. As Milot commented: I don’t feel myself as a ‘Young European,’ maybe because I never had the chance to go to Europe and see the similarities and differences between us and213 World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Action, April 2010, p. 75.214 Brain drain is the emigration of highly skilled or qualified people from a country. The return home of these people who gainedfurther education abroad is brain gain.215 World Bank, Kosovo, Unlocking Growth Potential: Strategies, Policies, Action, April 2010, p. 79.216 European Commission, Kosovo under UNSCR 1244/99 2009 Progress Report, Brussels, October 2009.www.iksweb.org 65
  • 69. my European counterparts. If I compare myself to the people who live abroad I can say that they are more open to new things. They live in countries where survival is not an issue and deal with their own things such as their education and their personal development.217Indeed, few youth were alive or could remember the former Yugoslavia, when allKosovans could travel freely throughout Europe. Few have had the opportunities thattheir parents had to travel abroad. The new Kosovo passport, first issued by the KosovoGovernment in July 2008, is one of the least useful travel documents worldwide. Itsholders can travel to only five countries without a visa: Albania, Montenegro,Macedonia, Turkey and Haiti.218 Thus, in 2010, Kosovo has remained among the mostisolated places on earth.This isolation shaped many young Kosovans’ perceptions of their Europeancounterparts. As Rona, a 20-year-old student in Prishtinë/Priština, stated, ‘thedifferences among Kosovan youth and European youth are huge, starting with the waythey live, the quality of education, their independence, not to mention economic andtechnology development.’219 For Maylinda, a 22-year-old reporter, living in adeveloping and isolated country put youth in jeopardy: In Europe youth have a lot of space. They live in economically developed countries and are involved in all spheres of life. [They] have more developed technology and have a different mentality. They are more open. They are not isolated, and above all they are independent. For Kosovo youth none of these exist.220Survey respondents similarly saw a gap between Kosovan and European youth. Nearlyseven percent of the 15- to 24-year-olds said they had nothing in common with theirEuropean counterparts and 38.8 percent said they were ‘not so similar.’ As Graph 4.6illustrates, one-third felt they were similar in some aspects. Only four percent thoughtthey were very similar, and 17.6 percent did not know whether they were similar or not.Graph 4.6 Kosovan youths’ perceptions of similarities with European youth, among 15-24- year-olds217 IKS interview with Milot Rexhepi, student of political sciences, Prishtinë/Priština, 09 April, 2010.218 European Stability Initiative, Isolating Kosovo? Kosovo vs. Afghanistan 5:22, Berlin, Prishtinë/Priština, November 2009.219 IKS interview with Rona Kelmendi, student, Prishtinë/Priština, 06 April, 2010.220 IKS interview with Maylinda Kosumovic, reporter, Prishtinë/Priština, 07 April, 2010.66 www.iksweb.org
  • 70. Regarding their commonalities, 34.7 percent of respondents said Kosovan youth weresimilar to other European youth due to their age (e.g., ‘we are all young’). Others (21.5percent) said they faced similar age issues. Yet, 22.2 percent of the respondents saidthey did not know how Kosovan youth were similar to their European counterparts.When asked how they differed, 45.4 percent said other European youth had a bettereconomic situation and were more developed. Others mentioned differences in cultureand tradition (43.3 percent). More than 40 percent said their European counterparts had‘a better life’ and 37 percent mentioned ‘better education.221 Other respondents saidEuropean youth had ‘more opportunities’ (22.2 percent), were more informed (16.8percent), dressed differently (10.7 percent) or differed in every aspect (9.8 percent).Approximately 19 percent of the respondents did not know how they differed fromother European youth.EU accession would decrease Kosovans’ isolation and offer new opportunities ineducation and economic development. Most surveyed youth looked forward to joiningthe EU. As Graph 4.7 illustrates, more than 80 percent of the 15- to 24-year-oldrespondents agreed with Kosovo entering the EU. Less than 10 percent did not knowand few disagreed (5.6 percent) or were undecided (3.3 percent). Similarly, 70 percentof 10- to 14-year-old respondents agreed with Kosovo entering the EU. Approximately25 percent of the younger respondents said they did not know, likely due to lack ofknowledge about the EU at their young age.Graph 4.7 Youths’ perceptions as to whether Kosovo should enter the EU, among 15-24-year-oldsSome youth hoped that EU membership would help Kosovo. For example, Selda, a 21-year-old student of marketing had never been to Europe. She drew her perception ofEuropean youth from her friends who lived abroad: I have a lot of friends and acquaintances who live abroad. Regarding education they are way ahead of us. Their critical thinking is very developed, and [they]221 This was a close-ended question where multiple responses were possible.www.iksweb.org 67
  • 71. have a broader horizon for their future […]. I think that we lack a lot of opportunities as we are isolated, and our parents struggle for our survival. I think that when Kosovo becomes a member of the EU then we will have a lot of opportunities. The change is obvious with young people from Kosovo who go and study abroad come back and share their experiences.222Indeed, by studying abroad and returning, many youth have gained the experience andknowledge necessary for bringing Kosovo closer to joining the EU. During focusgroups, youth expressed hopes that Kosovan institutions would involve youth who hadbeen educated abroad so that they could share their knowledge and contribute to thecountry. The Government of Kosovo may indeed do well to explore additional channelsfor incorporating returning youths’ social capital223 and stimulating ‘brain gain’.In the end, EU accession depends on change from within the country. European policy-makers have disputed the idea that the EU will help Kosovo solve its numerousaforementioned problems.224 Parliamentarians have declared that neither the financialresources nor political commitment exist.225 Yet, eventual EU accession will require acombination of the Kosovan leadership meeting the criteria set forth and politicalwillingness on behalf of Europe. Kosovo can only pursue its European dream byinvesting, empowering and unleashing the potential of its natural fountain of youth.Even though young people expressed their strong belief that Kosovo should be an EUmember, many lacked basic information regarding EU institutions and values.Therefore, initiatives for opening more EU information and cultural centres226 in otherplaces outside of Prishtinë/Priština should be encouraged. As a matter of fact, both EUand Government of Kosovo should utilize this momentum of the positive attitudes ofyoung Kosovans towards EU. In addition, to more centres, they could draft curriculaand organize compulsory classes of EU integration (institutions and values) for thesecondary school attendees, as part of the relevant subject of the social sciences or evenas a separate subject.In the eyes of young people, economic and social conditions served as a yardstick formeasuring quality of life in Kosovo. Both age groups considered a better economicsituation and standard of living reasons why Kosovo would be a better place to live inthe future. Conversely, social problems and poverty were mentioned as reasons whyKosovo might be a worse place to live. If Kosovo is to pursue its path towards EuropeanIntegration and be a competitive economy in the European market, the education,integration and empowerment of the young generations is a ‘must’ it should fulfil. It ishigh time for Kosovo to unleash the potential of its youth and placing them at the heartof the government’s policies would give an opportunity for Kosovo to be transformedfrom the only country in the region without a contractual relationship with the EU to a‘fast tracked’ towards EU.222 IKS interview with Selda Sylejmani, student, Prishtinë/Priština, 08 April, 2010.223 In migration literature ‘social remittances are the ideas, behaviours, identities, and social capital that flow from receiving tosending-country communities.’ See Levitt, P., ‘Social remittances: migration driven local-level forms of cultural diffusion,’International Migration Review, 1998, 32(4), p. 926.224 For example, see the speaking points of Ingeborg Grässle, Member of the European Parliament, Panel Discussion, ‘EUEnlargement and the Western Balkans: A Fast Track or Slow Lane Approach?’ organized by London School of Economics andPolitical Institute, LSEE - Research on South Eastern Europe, London, 18 March, 2010.225 Ibid.226 First EU Information and Cultural Centre opened in Prishtinë/Priština, on 05 October, 2010. For more information see:http://www.delprn.ec.europa.eu/?cid=2,49,995.68 www.iksweb.org
  • 72. AREAS FOR FURTHER RESEARCHAccurate analysis of labour market demands is imperative. In order to make educationmore relevant to the labour market and thus facilitate the transition from education toemployment, the curricula of schools and universities must be adapted to labour marketdemands.Further qualitative research could explore in-depth reasons why few youth participate indecision-making processes, as well as why decision-makers have seldom involvedthem. This could result in more pointed recommendations on how to further empoweryouth participation.A detailed analysis of the Kosovo Budget could result in more specificrecommendations regarding where budget line adjustments could be made towardimproving education, the quality of the employment centres and financial support forthe Directorate of Youth. Clear recommendations could be used in advocacy campaignsinvolving youth and other citizens in calling for changes to the present budget.Within broader current debates surrounding the relationship between migration anddevelopment, further attention is needed to the positive and negative effects ofemigration, including the particular results of youth migration.Drug use and violence in schools are under-researched areas.Finally, no research is perfect and all contains some margin of error. We sought tominimize error as well as to estimate where possible the extent to which error waspresent and why. Any known areas of sizeable error, uncertainty, and inconclusivefindings present opportunities for future research. For example, the percentage of non-response and ‘don’t know’ answers was rather high on some questions. Also somequestions were double-barrelled227 or poorly worded. Further research, perhaps withmore carefully worded questions, could reduce error. For future use, the questionnairecould benefit from some revisions, particularly with assistance from an expert in surveyquestionnaire design. This could enhance the reliability and validity of the researchfindings. Carrying out the same survey using the same sampling strategy every five toten years could enable comparisons across years.227 A double-barreled question asks multiple questions as a single question. This is problematic because respondents may not knowwhich part of the question to answer or may feel differently about different parts of the question.www.iksweb.org 69
  • 73. Annex I. Additional graphs resulting from the Kosovo-wide surveyGraph 1. Identity-shapers considered ‘very important’ among youth ages 15-24Graph 2. The most important values youth ages 10-14 were encouraged to learn at home70 www.iksweb.org
  • 74. Graph 3. Values young people were ‘very much’ encouraged to learn at home, among 15-24-year-oldsGraph 4. Important aspects that provide meaning in youths’ lives, among 15-24-year-oldswww.iksweb.org 71
  • 75. Graph 5. Extent to which youth agree that ‘There should be stricter rules...’Graph 6. Easiness of discussing problems at school, among youth ages 15-2472 www.iksweb.org
  • 76. Graph 7. Young people discussed their problems with their…Graph 8. The level of trust in the following institutions for youth ages 15-24www.iksweb.org 73
  • 77. Graph 9. TV usage during the week among youth ages 10-14Graph 10. Parents’ control over children’s TV usage, ages 10-14Graph 11. Programs most often watched on TV by youth ages 10-1474 www.iksweb.org
  • 78. Graph 12. Time spent on the computer each day among youth ages 10-14Graph 13. Types of computer usage among youthwww.iksweb.org 75
  • 79. Graph 14. Parents’ control of computer usage among youth ages 10-14 My parents...Graph 15. Dissatisfaction with communal services, among youth ages 15-2476 www.iksweb.org
  • 80. Graph 16. Knowledge of children’s rights among youth ages 10-14Graph 17. Percentage of youth ages 10-14 that were aware of children’s rightswww.iksweb.org 77
  • 81. Graph 18. Places youth would prefer to live in the futureGraph 19. Preoccupation with unemployment by ethnicity for youth ages 15-2478 www.iksweb.org
  • 82. Graph 20. The difference between K-Albanian and K-Serb respondents ages 15-24 who would choose continuing school or taking a job offer while studyingGraph 21. The difference between male and female youth ages 15-24 who would choose continuing school or taking a job offer while studyingwww.iksweb.org 79
  • 83. Graph 22. Extent youth ages 15-24 of different ethnicity agreed or disagreed that education does not equip one for workGraph 23. Extent to which Kosovo Albanian and Kosovo Serb youth ages 15-24 believed their interests were considered by decision-making institutions80 www.iksweb.org
  • 84. ANNEX II. Questionnaire for Youth Ages 10-14Informed Consent has been provided by: 1. Mother 2. Father 3. Male guardian 4. Female guardianPL1. Let’s talk about your everyday life, are you happy? 1. Yes, I am happy 2. I am neither happy nor unhappy 3. I am unhappy 4. Don’t know/no answerPL2. How often you feel happy? 1. Most of the time 2. Only sometimes 3. Almost never 4. Never 5. Don’t know/ no answerPL3. When/ in which occasions do you feel happier?(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.) PL3a________ PL3b________ 1. Free time/leisure time [free time/leisure time (not specified), holidays/sea, when there is no school/weekends/ after school, pursuit of hobby (all except sports), doing sports, watching TV/going to the cinema, when I’m playing, computer/computer games, when I go for trip/excursion/travelling, when I go for a walk, others] 2. Family [when I am with my family, visits to/from relatives, family is well/happy, family is at home, family celebrations, others] 3. Friends [when I am with friends, having fun with friends/playing with friends, others] 4. School [at school (not specified), when I get good grades, good performance at school, school activities, others] 5. Money [when I have money, when I get pocket money, others] 6. Praise/rewards/presents [when I am praised by parents or others, when I get rewards, when I get presents, when someone buys me something, others] 7. Other _____________________________(specify) 8. Don’t know, no answerwww.iksweb.org 81
  • 85. PL4. When do you feel unhappy?(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.) PL4a_________ PL4b_________ 1. Problems with family [when there are problems/quarrels at home, problems/quarrels with parents, problems/quarrels with siblings, father/family member away from home, family members feel sad/unwell, others] 2. Problems with friends [problems/quarrels with friends (not specified), when my friends feel bad, when something bad happens to my friends, when I don’t see my friends, others] 3. At school [at school (not specified), difficulties at school, quarrels at school, bad grades/ when I am doing badly in school, homework, exams, when I have to go to school, others] 4. Punishment/lack of freedom [when I am punished, when I am told off, not allowed to…, forced to do something, other] 5. Negative feelings [I am alone, I am bored, I am teased, others laugh at me, my feelings are hurt, physically hurt/beaten, unable to achieve a goal, trouble/grief, wishes don’t come true, guilty/bad conscience (done something bad/wrong),others] 6. Death/illness [a family member dies, someone I like dies, illness of family member, illness of friend/someone I like, when I am ill, others] 7. Other______________________________(specify) 8. Don’t know/ no answerPA1. Why do you go to school?(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.) PL5a________ PL5b________1. To learn [to learn (not specified), to learn new things, to learn foreign languages, to be able to go to university/higher education, to learn for life/to be ready for life/for my future, to get good grades/marks, to get a good education, to become smart/clever/intelligent, others]2. Improve personal skills [to be well educated/a cultivated person, to become a good man/woman, to manage things in life, to be independent, to be disciplined/well-bred/to always to well, to be honest/diligent, not to be a fool/not to be stupid, not to stand behind others/because of society, to become a responsible person, others]3. Professional ambitions [to get a profession (not specified), to get an interesting job, to get training opportunities, to become somebody in life, to become successful, others]4. Better financial situation [to earn more money in the future, others related to financial situation]5. Family [to make my family proud, be ensure my family a better a good/better life in the future, to take care of my family/future family, other related to family]82 www.iksweb.org
  • 86. 6. Other reasons_____________________________________ (specify)7. Don’t know/ no answerPA2. How is your relationship with: Very good Good Average Bad Very Bad No answer12.1 Teachers12.2 Female schoolmates12.2 Male schoolmatesPA3. Why do you consider that your relationship with your teachers is poor/verypoor? (Multiple response) 1. Lack of communication 2. Bad treatment 3. Too demanding 4. Bad teachers 5. I don’t like school 6. Other reasons___________________________ (specify) 7. Don’t know/ no answerPA4. Why do you consider that your relationship with your male schoolmates ispoor/very poor? (Multiple response) 1. No mutual understanding 2. Don’t treat me well 3. Their character 4. I can’t trust them 5. They are bullying me 6. Other reasons________________________________ (specify) 7. Don’t know/ no answerPA5. Why do you consider that your relationship with your female schoolmates ispoor/very poor? (Multiple response) 1. No mutual understanding 2. Don’t treat me well 3. Their character 4. I can’t trust them 5. They are bullying me 6. Other reasons________________________________ (specify) 7. Don’t know/ no answerPA6. When you have problems in school who do you first talk to? (Multipleresponse) 1. Friends 2. Teachers 3. Parents / family 4. School directory 5. Student Counsels 6. Other _____________________________________ (specify) 7. Don’t know/ no answerwww.iksweb.org 83
  • 87. PA7. How satisfied are you with the quality of education you are receiving? 1. Very satisfied 2. Satisfied 3. Neither satisfied nor unsatisfied 4. Unsatisfied 5. Very unsatisfied 6. Don’t know/ no answerPA8. How satisfied are you will the following issues regarding your school?(1-very unsatisfied, 2-unsatisfied, 3-neither satisfied nor unsatisfied, 4-satisfied, 5-verysatisfied, 6 don’t know/no answer) VU U NN S VS DK a. Learning of new things 1 2 3 4 5 6 b. Hygienic/sanitary conditions 1 2 3 4 5 6 c. Schedule 1 2 3 4 5 6 d. Curricula 1 2 3 4 5 6 e. Classrooms/labs/sport equipment 1 2 3 4 5 6 f. Desks/chairs/class equipment 1 2 3 4 5 6 g. Books and learning material 1 2 3 4 5 6 h. Heating in classroom 1 2 3 4 5 6 i. Teachers’ conduct 1 2 3 4 5 6 j. Administrative personnel conduct 1 2 3 4 5 6 k. Directors conduct 1 2 3 4 5 6 l. Social activities 1 2 3 4 5 6PA9. In your school do you have access to/do you use? Yes No There is no Don’t Know a. Computers 1 2 3 4 b. Internet 1 2 3 4 c. Library 1 2 3 4 d. Lab 1 2 3 4 e. Sports space 1 2 3 4 f. Health care (vaccination, etc.) 1 2 3 4PA10. How strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statements?(1-stronlgy disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5 stronglyagree, 6 don’t know/no answer) SD D NN A SA DK a. Teachers are motivated for work 1 2 3 4 5 6 b. Teachers are well qualified to teach 1 2 3 4 5 6 their courses c. The behavior of teachers with regards 1 2 3 4 5 6 to pupils is very authoritative d. My teachers show interest in my progress 1 2 3 4 5 6 e. They are taking into account individual needs,1 2 3 4 5 6 my personal strengths and support my talent84 www.iksweb.org
  • 88. f. Teachers grade pupils fairly 1 2 3 4 5 6 g. Teachers treat girls and boys equally h. There is enough cooperation with parents 1 2 3 4 5 6 i. There should be stricter rules against 1 2 3 4 5 6 smoking in schools j. There should be stricter rules against cell phone use in schools 1 2 3 4 5 6 k. There are too many students in the classroom 1 2 3 4 5 6 l. There should be stricter rules about wearing student uniform 1 2 3 4 5 6PA11. Do you take any training courses outside school? 1. Yes 2. NoPA11a. If yes, what kind of training courses do you take? 1. Foreign language course 2. Computer course 3. Music course 4. Dancing course 5. Other_______________________ (specify)PI1. Are you part of any organized group, club, or association? 1. Yes 2. NoPI1a. If yes, what kind of group is it/are they? (Do not read out. Record the mentions falling under the following categories.) 1. Sports club/group 2. Dance club/group 3. Musical group 4. Artistic club/group [painting, pottery, acting/theatre, book/literature] 5. Youth club 6. School counsels 7. Religious groups 8. Other______________________________ (specify)PI2. How do you spend your free time? (Do not read out. Multiple response) 1. Playing with friends 2. Watching TV 3. Playing computer games 4. Navigating internet 5. Doing sports 6. Pursuit of a hobby [painting, acting, playing music] 7. Reading books 8. Other____________ (specify)www.iksweb.org 85
  • 89. PI3. How would you describe your relationship with: Very Bad Bad Average Good Very Good 1. Mother 1 2 3 4 5 2. Father 1 2 3 4 5PI4. Why do you say that your relationship with mother is good/very good?(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.) PI4a________ PI4b________ 1. Communication/understanding [good relationship, listens to me, understand me, can discuss things freely/clearly/nicely, takes my opinion into consideration, we share everything, we are friends] 2. Treats me well [doesn’t make me do what I don’t want to do, no quarrels/arguments, doesn’t shout at me if I do something bad/a mistake, doesn’t forbid be anything, let’s me do more things than my father, let’s me do what I want/gives me freedom, is strict but not rude/never pushes her will, raises me/is proud, other] 3. Cares [is always there for me/always with me, takes care of me, looks after me, worries about me/my future/my health, does everything for me, gives me advice/direction, works hard to look after me, brought me up, educated me, other] 4. Gives me money/presents/things [gives me money/pocket money/is generous/finances me, gives/buys me things/presents, I get what I want, other] 5.Common activities [we do things together, spends time with me, we have fun together, takes me everywhere/to places, teaches me things, shows interest in my things, other] 6.Love/good character [loves me, I love her, is important to me, has a good character, is nice/the best/excellent person/intelligent/perfect, good mood/happy/ joyful, other] 7. Other_______________________________(specify) 8. Don’t know/no answerPI5. Why do you say that your relationship with father is good/very good?(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.) PI5a________ PI5b________ 1. Communication/understanding [good relationship, listens to me, understand me, can discuss things freely/clearly/nicely, takes my opinion into consideration, we share everything, we are friends]86 www.iksweb.org
  • 90. 2. Treats me well [doesn’t make me do what I don’t want to do, no quarrels/arguments, doesn’t shout at me if I do something bad/a mistake, doesn’t forbid be anything, let’s me do more things than my mother, let’s me do what I want/gives me freedom, is strict but not rude/never pushes his will, raises me/is proud, other] 3. Cares [is always there for me/always with me, takes care of me, looks after me, worries about me/my future/my health, does everything for me, gives me advice/direction, works hard to look after me, brought me up, educated me, other] 4. Gives me money/presents/things [gives me money/pocket money/is generous/finances me, gives/buys me things/presents, I get what I want, other] 5.Common activities [we do things together, spends time with me, we have fun together, takes me everywhere/to places, teaches me things, shows interest in my things, other] 6.Love/good character [loves me, I love him, is important to me, has a good character, is nice/the best/excellent person/intelligent/perfect, good mood/happy/ joyful, other] 7. Other_______________________________ (specify) 8. Don’t know/no answerPI6. Why do you say that your relationship with your mother is average/bad/very bad?(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.) PI6a_________ PI6b_________ 1. Lack of communication/ No understanding [we have different opinion about things, lack of (good)communication, don’t understand each other/cannot discuss things, we have different interests/opinions/tastes, doesn’t understand me/my needs, doesn’t listen to me, doesn’t let me speak, other] 2. Doesn’t treat me well [scolds me, shouts at me, is unfair to me, is too strict with me, forbids me to do things, other] 3. Doesn’t care/help [doesn’t care about me, does not look after me, doesn’t help me, doesn’t give me money, not generous, other] 4. Character [has a bad temper, is too demanding/asks too much, has no patience, worries too much about things, interferes in everything, our character are ill matched] 5.Never at home, no time for me [is never at home, see her too little, rarely spends time with me/has no time for me, is at work most of the time/works too much, is often stressed/wants to be left alone, other] 6. Is not my real mother 7. Other_______________________________ (specify) 8. Don’t know/no answerwww.iksweb.org 87
  • 91. PI7. Why do you say that your relationship with your father is average/bad/very bad? (Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.) PI7a_______ PI7b_______ 1. Lack of communication/ No understanding [we have different opinion about things, lack of (good)communication, don’t understand each other/cannot discuss things, we have different interests/opinions/tastes, doesn’t understand me/my needs, doesn’t listen to me, doesn’t let me speak, other] 2. Doesn’t treat me well [scolds me, shouts at me, is unfair to me, is too strict with me, forbids me to do things, other] 3. Doesn’t care/help [doesn’t care about me, does not look after me, doesn’t help me, doesn’t give me money, not generous, other] 4. Character [has a bad temper, is too demanding/asks too much, has no patience, worries too much about things, interferes in everything, our character are ill matched] 5.Never at home, no time for me [is never at home, see her too little, rarely spends time with me/has no time for me, is at work most of the time/works too much, is often stressed/wants to be left alone, other] 6. Is not my real mother 7. Other 8. Don’t know/no answerPI8. When a decision that concerns you is taken at home, do your parents take in consideration your opinion? 1. Yes, they always consider my opinion 2. It depends, sometimes yes, sometimes no 3. No, they never consider my opinion 4. Other____________________________ (specify) 5. Don’t know/no answerPI9. On what subject would you like to be more consulted when a decision that concerns you is taken at home?(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.) PI9a_______ PI9b_______ 1. General topics/ everything that concerns me [everything that concerns me, whether I agree with something, my opinion, my feelings, my interests, my needs, my private life, other] 2. School [whether I have to go to/continue school, which school to go to, my home work, how much to learn,88 www.iksweb.org
  • 92. which lessons to attend/what I want to do at school, school performance, my grades, other related to school] 3. Family [family matters, relationship between my parents/divorce, what the family does, where to live/moving to another place, others related to family] 4. Purchase decisions [shopping in general, purchase decisions concerning me, purchase decisions concerning the household, other] 5. Clothes/fashion appearance [my clothes, how to dress, haircut, make up, other] 6. Don’t know/no answerPI10. Do you have a TV set at home that you are allowed to use? 1. Yes 2. NoPI11. How much do you watch TV during the week? 1. As much as you want 2. A few hours a day 3. An hour or less a day 4. No special habits/ it depends 5. Not allowed at all 6. Don’t know/no answerPI12. How much do you watch TV during the weekend? 1. As much as you want 2. A few hours a day 3. An hour or less a day 4. No special habits/ it depends 5. Not allowed at all 6. Don’t know/no answerPI13. Do your parents 1. They allowed me to watch anything that I want 2. Select some of the programs watched on TV 3. Tell exactly what you should watch 4. Does not allow you at all to watch TV 5. Don’t know/no answerPI14. What do you usually watch on TV? 1. Cartoons 2. Children programs 3. Movies 4. Anything 5. Other___________________________ (specify) 6. Don’t know/no answerwww.iksweb.org 89
  • 93. PI15. Do you have a computer at home that you are allowed to use? 1. Yes 2. NoPI16. How many hours do you spend on the computer? 1. As much as you want 2. A few hours a day 3. An hour or less a day 4. No special habits/ it depends 5. Not allowed at allPI17. What do you use computer for?(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.) 1. Play games PI17a________ 2. Navigate internet, specify: _____________ PI17b________ 3. Networking [Chat rooms, facebook, msn) 4. Learning new things 5. Listening to music 6. Other___________________________ (specify)PI18. Which of the following statesmen is valid for your parents? 1. My parents allow me to spend time on computer as much as I want 2. My parents allow me to spend limited time on computer 3. My parents spend time with me on computer 4. My parents do not know how to use the computerPI19. From you point of view, what are the most important things, values, principles that your family has taught you?(Do not read out. Record first three mentions falling under the following categories.) 1. Hard work PI19a_______ 2. Responsibility PI19b_______ 3. Tolerance and respect for other people PI19c_______ 4. Thrift 5. Endurance 6. Religious faith 7. Unselfishness 8. Honesty 9. Loyalty 10. Self-discipline 11. Entrepreneurship90 www.iksweb.org
  • 94. PI20. Do you know who takes care of cleaning the streets, green areas/parks,collecting the garbage, and transportation? 1. Yes, _______________________________ (specify) 2. NoPI21. Do you think that your opinion and your friends opinion is taken intoconsideration when your municipal/local government, makes a decision thatconcerns children in the neighborhood? 1. Yes, completely 2. Yes, partially 3. Not enough 4. Not at all 5. Don’t know/no answerPI22. On what particular subject would you like your municipal/local governmentto consult you?(Do not read out. Record first three mentions falling under the following categories.) PI22a________ PI22b________ PI22c________ 1. Better offer of leisure activities [better offer of leisure activities regarding sports, playgrounds, cultural activities, youth clubs, other] 2. Environment [protection of environment, pollution, more parks, better protection of existing parks, site/building development, cleanliness of the neighborhood/city, other] 3. Traffic/infrastructure [public traffic, school bus, traffic regulations, check/improve of roads] 4. Education/school [education/school (not specified), better education, educational system, needs and problems at school, better school equipment/facilities, others] 5. Children’s rights 6. Improvement of living conditions [improving of living conditions (not specified), to have electricity/water, other] 7. Other___________________________ (specify) 8. Don’t know/no answerPI23. Do you think voting in election is an effective way to improve things in yourcountry? 1. Very effective 2. Yes, rather effective 3. Neither effective nor ineffective 4. No, rather ineffective 5. No, very ineffective 6. Don’t know/I cannot say/no answerwww.iksweb.org 91
  • 95. PI24. How much do you know about children’s rights? 1. A lot 2. Some 3. Very little 4. I don’t know anythingPI25. Which rights of the child are you aware of? (Do not read out. Multiple answer.) 1. Right of life 2. Right of education 3. Right of name and identity 4. Right to be raised by one’s family 5. Right to express their opinion freely 6. Right to play 7. Other_________________________________(specify)PI26. In your opinion is your right (ask for each right mentioned in previousquestion) respected in Kosovo? 1. Yes 2. No 3. Don’t know/no answerPEA1. Thinking of your life in future, what kind of profession/job will you like tohave?(Do not read out. Single answer.) 1. Scientist/engineer [scientist (not specified, computer engineer/IT, archeologist, economist, engineer, other] 2. Medical Sector [doctor, nurse, vet, psychologist, pharmacist, other] 3. Protection/Security [policemen, firemen, soldier/officer, lawyer other] 4. Business person [businessman/business woman, manager, bank clerk, salesman/ saleswoman, accountant, other] 5. Artist [artist (not specified), singer/musician, actor/actress, painter, writer, other] 6. Fashion [model, hairdresser, cosmetician/beautician, designer/stylist, tailor, other] 7. Sports person [sportsman/sportswoman, professional athlete, football player, basketball player, formula one driver, karate fighter, coach, other] 8. Education [teacher, professor, nursery school, kindergarten teacher, other] 9. Transport [car driver, crane driver, locomotive driver, pilot, other] 10. Politician [politician, diplomat, other] 11. Media [journalist, speaker,other] 12. Other____________________________ (specify)PEA2. Do you think that in the future you will have better life than your parents? 1. Much better 2. Better 3. About the same 4. Worse 5. Much worse 6. Don’t know/ I cannot say/ no answer92 www.iksweb.org
  • 96. PEA3. Do you think that in the future Kosovo will be 1. A much better place to live in 2. A better place to live in 3. It will remain unchanged 4. A worse place to live in 5. A much worse place to live in 6. Don’t know/ I cannot answer/ no answerPEA4. Why do you think that Kosovo will be a much better place/better place tolive in?(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.) 1. Better economic situation 2. Better standard of living 3. Less social problems 4. Less pollution 5. I like my country 6. Don’t know/no answer 7. Other___________________________(specify)PEA5. Why do you think that Kosovo will be a much worse/worse place to live in?(Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.) 1. Social problems 2. Economic situation 3. Politicians fight too much 4. Traffic infrastructure 5. More pollution 6. Don’t know/no answer 7. Other___________________________(specify)PEA6. Which are the greatest threats to Kosovo in the future? 1. Environmental pollution 2. Poverty 3. Drug abuse 4. Unemployment 5. Organised crime 6. Corruption 7. Other___________________________(specify)PEA7. What are the greatest potentials of Kosovo? Why is Kosovo a goodcountry? 1. Young people / Population 2. Mines / Natural resources 3. Energy 4. Beautiful country (tourism, etc.) 5. Other______________________________ (specify)www.iksweb.org 93
  • 97. PEA8. Where would you like to live in? 1. In the town I live in now 2. Somewhere else in my country 3. Live abroad 4. Abroad for periods, but will always return home 5. In the city 6. In countryside 7. In the capital city 8. Don’t know/no answerPEA9. If you want to live abroad, in which country would you like to live? Pleasetell me the most preferred. _____________________________________PEA10. How similar are Kosovan young people to their European counterparts? 1. Very similar/there is no difference 2. Similar in some aspects 3. Not so similar 4. Not similar at all/ have nothing in common 5. Don’t know/no answerPEA11. In what ways are the Kosovan young people similar to their Europeancounterparts?(Do not read out. Multiple answer) 1. Appearance and dressing 2. Opinions, wishes, aspirations 3. Have the same rights and freedom 4. We all get an education 5. Behavior, communication, character 6. We are all children 7. Way we have fun 8. Intelligence, information, knowledge 9. Traditions 10. Same age issues 11. Others__________________________ (specify) 12. No answer / don’t knowPEA12. In what ways are Kosovan young people different from their Europeancounterparts? (Do not read out. Multiple answer) 1. Culture/language/traditions 2. Have a better life 3. More polite/well behaved 4. Better Economy/Development/Higher technology 5. More opportunities 6. Appearance/dressing 7. Better education/better schools 8. More informed 9. Different in every aspect 10. Don’t know /no answer 11. Others_____________________________ (specify)94 www.iksweb.org
  • 98. PEA13. Do you agree with Kosovo entering EU? 1. Strongly agree 2. Agree 3. Neither agree nor disagree 4. Don’t agree 5. Strongly disagree 6. No answer / don’t knowPEA14. What does it mean for Kosovo entering EU?(Do not read out. Multiple answer) 1. Economic development 2. Free movement to other countries 3. Freedom to study in other countries 4. Freedom to work in other countries 5. Better respect for human rights 6. More democracy 7. Cultural and social exchange 8. Better justice system 9. Open market 10. Don’t know 11. Others___________________________(specify)www.iksweb.org 95
  • 99. ANNEX III. Questionnaire for Youth Ages 15-24Informed Consent has been provided by: 1. Mother 4. Female guardian 2. Father 5. The respondent aged 18-24 3. Male guardianPL1. How satisfied or discontent are you with the following aspects of your life? (1-very unsatisfied, 2-unsatisfied, 3-neither satisfied nor unsatisfied, 4-satisfied, 5-verysatisfied) VU U NN S VS DK/NA 1. Your life as a whole 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. Your finances 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. Your health 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. Your education 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. Your work 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. Your leisure time 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. Your friends 1 2 3 4 5 6 8. Your family 1 2 3 4 5 6 9. The general situation in Kosovo 1 2 3 4 5 6PL2. How important are the following in order to provide meaning in your life?(1-very unimportant, 2- unimportant, 3-neither important nor unimportant, 4-important,5 very important) VU U NN I VI DK/NA 1. Work 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. Studies 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. Spare time 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. Family 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. Friends 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. Material possessions 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. Dreams and ambitions 1 2 3 4 5 6 8. Religion 1 2 3 4 5 6PL3. Thinking about life in Kosovo today and comparing it to what you think itwas like 5 years ago, would you say that the situation today is 1. Much better 2. Better 3. About the same 4. Worse 5. Much worse 6. Don’t know/can’t say/no answer96 www.iksweb.org
  • 100. PL4. How important do you feel that the following factors are for your identity? 1-5 scale(1-very unimportant, 2- unimportant, 3-neither important nor unimportant, 4-important,5 very important) VU U NN I VI DK/NA 1. Nationality 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. Ethnic group 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. Religion 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. Education 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. Language 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. Family 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. Friends 1 2 3 4 5 6 8. Age 1 2 3 4 5 6 9. Marital status 1 2 3 4 5 6 10. Profession 1 2 3 4 5 6 11. Sexual orientation 1 2 3 4 5 6 12. Place of origin 1 2 3 4 5 5PL5. Here is a list of qualities that young people can be encouraged to learn athome. In your family how much were you encouraged to learn?(1-very little, 2-little, 3-average, 4-much, 5-very much) VL L A M VM DK/NA 1. Independence 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. Hard work 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. Responsibility 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. Tolerance respect 1 2 3 4 5 6 for other people 5. Thrift 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. Endurance 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. Religious faith 1 2 3 4 5 6 8. Unselfishness 1 2 3 4 5 6 9. Curiosity 1 2 3 4 5 6 10. Honesty 1 2 3 4 5 6 11. Loyalty 1 2 3 4 5 6 12. Self-discipline 1 2 3 4 5 6 13. Entrepreneurship 1 2 3 4 5 6PL6. A good life means that I…(1-completely disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree, nor disagree, 4-agree, 5-completely agree) CD D NN A CA DK/NA 1. am healthy and in good shape 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. become famous 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. can get an exciting and meaningful job 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. can have a family and children 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. can live and eat well 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. can realise my ideas 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. can spend time with my friends 1 2 3 4 5 6 8. have a lot of money 1 2 3 4 5 6 9. will not have to work 1 2 3 4 5 6www.iksweb.org 97
  • 101. PE1. Are you currently enrolled in school or another education program? 1. Yes 2. NoPE1.a If yes, where?Public School Private School 1.Secondary (gymnasium) 1. Secondary (gymnasium) 2. Secondary professional 2. Secondary professional 3. Tertiary 3. Tertiary 3. Post graduate /master/PhD 3. Post graduate/master/PhD 4. Other type, __________________________________________ (specify)PE2. What are the reasons for getting an education? For me, the most importantreasons to get an education are(1-completely disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree, nor disagree, 4-agree, 5-completely agree) SD D NN A SD DK/NA 1. To develop myself 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. To get an interesting job 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. To earn more money 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. To make my family proud 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. To get a better social status 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. Other _________________________________ (specify)PE3. How satisfied are you with the quality of education you are receiving? 1. Very satisfied 2. Satisfied 3. Neither satisfied nor unsatisfied 4. Unsatisfied 5. Very unsatisfied 6. Don’t know/ No answerPE4. How satisfied are you with the following issues regarding yourschool/faculty?(1-very unsatisfied, 2-unsatisfied, 3-neither satisfied nor unsatisfied, 4-satisfied, 5-verysatisfied) VU U NN S VS DK/NA 1. Quantity of knowledge 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. Quality of knowledge 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. Hygienic/sanitary conditions 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. Schedule 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. Curricula 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. Classrooms/labs/sport equipment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. Desks/chairs/class equipment 1 2 3 4 5 6 8. Books and learning material 1 2 3 4 5 6 9. Heating in classroom 1 2 3 4 5 6 10. Teachers’ conduct 1 2 3 4 5 6 11. Administrative personnel conduct 1 2 3 4 5 6 12. Directors conduct 1 2 3 4 5 698 www.iksweb.org
  • 102. PE5. In your school do you have access to/do you use Yes No There is no Don’t Know 1. Computers 1 2 3 4 2. Internet 1 2 3 4 3. Library 1 2 3 4 4. Lab 1 2 3 4 5. Sports space 1 2 3 4 6. Health care (dentist, etc.) 1 2 3 4 7. Don’t know/ no answerPE6. When thinking about the work of teachers, tell me how satisfied are you withtheir method of teaching/lecturing? (1-very unsatisfied, 2-unsatisfied, 3-neithersatisfied nor unsatisfied, 4-satisfied, 5-very satisfied) VU U NN S VS DK/NA 1. Method of teaching/lecturing 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. Method of evaluation 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. Method of consulting 1 2 3 4 5 6PE7. How strongly do you agree or disagree with the following statements?(1-stronlgy disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5 stronglyagree) SD D NN A SA DK/NA1. Teachers/professors are motivated for work 1 2 3 4 5 62. Teachers/professors are well qualified to teach 1 2 3 4 5 6 their courses3. The behavior of teachers with regards 1 2 3 4 5 6 to students is very authoritative4. Attendance in private courses organized by 1 2 3 4 5 6 school professors is a precondition for earning a course grade at my school5. My teachers show interest in my progress 1 2 3 4 5 66. Teachers treat girls and boys equally 1 2 3 4 5 67. The grading/assessment process is 1 2 3 4 5 6 real and objective8. Subject contents that we learn in school l 2 3 4 5 6 are too old and don’t have a practical application9. School is offering more theoretical and less l 2 3 4 5 6 practical skills10. Education does not equips one for work l 2 3 4 5 611. It is much easier to find a job with courses l 2 3 4 5 6 than with a school degree12. The school stays isolated from community 1 2 3 4 5 6 and there is no enough cooperation with parents13. There should be stricter rules against 1 2 3 4 5 6 smoking in schools14. There should be stricter rules against 1 2 3 4 5 6www.iksweb.org 99
  • 103. drug use in schools15. There should be stricter rules against cell phone 1 2 3 4 5 6 use in schools16. There are too many students in the classroom 1 2 3 4 5 617. The reforms till now were not successful l 2 3 4 5 6 greater changes are required18. The reforms till now were successful l 2 3 4 5 6 we should continue this way19. There should be stricter rules for using uniforms l 2 3 4 5 6 at schoolPE8. Do you agree with “The education I have/am getting right now helped/willhelp me…” (1-stronlgy disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5 stronglyagree) SD D NN A SA DK/NA 1. find an interesting job 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. have a better future 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. have better financial situation 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. improve personal skills 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. fulfill my personal ambitions 1 2 3 4 5 6PE9. How easy or difficult is it for you to discuss students’ problems and needs inyour school/faculty? 1. Very easy 2. Easy 3. Average 4. Difficult 5. Very difficult 6. Don’t know/no answerPE10. When you have problems in school who do you first talk to? (Multipleresponse) 1. Friends 2. Teachers/professors 3. Parents 4. School directory 5. Student Counsels 6. Other __________________________ (specify) 7. Don’t know/ no answerPP1. Do you do any job (no matter what type of job) that you are paid for? If yes,is it 1. A full time job 2. A regular part time job 3. Occasional job or occasional part-time job100 www.iksweb.org
  • 104. PP2. What is your main reason for working? 1. I have to earn my living 2. I have a family to take care of 3. I am just doing an internship / I want to develop and train my skills 4. I want to contribute to my country’s well-being and economy 5. I like the work that I do 6. Other ______________________________(specify)PP3. If you are working, in which sector are you working? 1. Manufacturing industry 2. Public administration 3. Media 4. Retail 5. Childcare, healthcare, etc. 6. Police and justice 7. Travel and tourism 8. Construction 9. Professional services (management consulting, accounting, etc.) 10. Schooling and education 11. NGOs (social movements, labour organisations, etc.) 12. Research and development 13. Transportation and logistics 14. Banking, finance and insurance 15. Agriculture and forestry 16. OtherPP4. In Kosovo, how much do the following elements affect a person’semployability?(1-very little, 2-little, 3-average, 4-much, 5-very much) VL L A M VM DK/NA 1. Completed education l 2 3 4 5 6 2. Family and acquaintances l 2 3 4 5 6 3. Studying in Kosovo l 2 3 4 5 6 4. Studying abroad l 2 3 4 5 6 5. Personal and social skills l 2 3 4 5 6 6. Political affiliations l 2 3 4 5 6PP5. How much are you preoccupied with the problem of unemployment? 1. Very preoccupied 2. Preoccupied 3. Neither preoccupied nor not preoccupied/I don’t care 4. Not so preoccupied 5. Not preoccupied at all 6. Don’t know/no answerPP6. If you are studying and you had a chance to get a good job, would you getemployed or you would continue schooling? 1. I would get the job 2. I would continue my studies 3. Don’t know/no answerwww.iksweb.org 101
  • 105. PP7. Do you take any training courses outside school with the aim of improvingyour future employment opportunities? 1. Yes 2. NoPP8. If yes, what kind of training courses do you take? (Do not read out. Multipleresponse.) 1. Language course 2. Computer course 3. Course in trading 4. Course for professional subjects 5. Vocational training 6. Other_______________________ (specify) PP9.What kind of courses do you think are more needed in Kosovo? (Do not read out. Multiple response.) 1. Language course 2. Computer course 3. Course in trading 4. Course for professional subjects 5. Vocational training 6. Other_______________________(specify) PP10. Which of the following aspects are important for your present/futurecareer? (Read out. Multiple answer.) 1. To have a job with high status 2. Interesting and meaningful work 3. To have employment security 4. To have a job with high salary 5. To have a nice and healthy working environment 6. To have a job with a lot of holidays and free time 7. To have a job with a lot of responsibility 8. Other_______________________(specify)PP11. What are your career strategies? To succeed in my life, I need to…(1-stronlgy disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5 stronglyagree) SD D NN A SA DK/NA 1. Look good l 2 3 4 5 6 2. Take all the chances I get l 2 3 4 5 6 3. Have good education right qualifications l 2 3 4 5 6 4. Constantly renew myself l 2 3 4 5 6 5. Get along with other people l 2 3 4 5 6 6. Work hard l 2 3 4 5 6 7. Know the right people l 2 3 4 5 6 8. Live up to the expectations of others l 2 3 4 5 6 9. Other_______________________(specify)102 www.iksweb.org
  • 106. PP12. What are you planning on achieving in the next 5 years? You can choosemultiple options. 1. Starting a company 2. Earning a lot of money 3. Moving abroad 4. Completing a university degree or other postsecondary education 5. Completing a doctoral degree 6. Having children 7. Becoming a manager or team leader 8. Owning a house/flat 9. None of the above 10. Other_______________________(specify) 11. Don’t knowPPJ1. Are you part of any organized group, club, or association? 1. Yes 2. No[ Go to question PPJ2]PPJ1a. If yes, what kind of group is it/are they?(Do not read out. Record the mentions falling under the following categories.) 1. Sports club/group 2. Artistic club/group [music, dance, painting, pottery, acting/theatre, book/literature] 3. Youth club/center 4. School counsels 5. Political organisation 6. Political party 7. NGO 8. Religious Group 9. Other______________________________ (specify)PPJ2. Do you have a computer at home? 1. Yes 2. NoPPJ3. How many hours do you spend on the computer? _________________ (specify)PPJ4. What do you use computer for? 1. Play games 2. Navigate internet, specify: _____________ 3. Networking [Chat rooms, facebook, msn) 4. Learning new things 5. Listening to music 6. Other___________________________(specify)www.iksweb.org 103
  • 107. PPJ5. How do you spend your free time?(Do not read out. Record first three mentions falling under the following categories.) 1. Spending time with your family PPJ5a_______ 2. Going out with friends PPJ5b_______ 3. Watching TV PPJ5c_______ 4. Playing computer games 5. Surfing internet 6. Doing sports 7. Pursuit of a hobby [painting, acting, playing music] 8. Reading books 9. Music 10. Going to movies/theatre/cultural activities 11. Other____________ (specify)PPJ6. To what extent do you trust the following groups and institutions?(1-very little, 2-little, 3-average, 4-much, 5-very much) VL L A M VM DK/NA 1. Your family l 2 3 4 5 6 2. Your friends l 2 3 4 5 6 3. Your teachers/professors l 2 3 4 5 6 4. The religious authorities l 2 3 4 5 6 5. The national government l 2 3 4 5 6 6. The municipal government l 2 3 4 5 6 7. The president/head of state l 2 3 4 5 6 8. KFOR l 2 3 4 5 6 9. FSK l 2 3 4 5 6 10. Kosovo police l 2 3 4 5 6 11. Justice system/courts l 2 3 4 5 6 12. Media l 2 3 4 5 6PPJ7. Do you think voting in election is an effective way to improve things in yourcountry? 1. Very effective 2. Yes, rather effective 3. Neither effective nor ineffective 4. No, rather ineffective 5. No, very ineffective 6. Don’t know/I cannot say/no answerPPJ8. In your opinion, to what extent the interests and needs of young peopletaken into consideration by the decision-making institutions in Kosovo? 1. Very much 2. Somewhat 3. A little 4. Not at all 5. Don’t know/no answer104 www.iksweb.org
  • 108. PPJ9. How active do you think are young persons in the decision-making processesin political institutions? 1. Very much 2. Somewhat 3. A little 4. Not at all 5. Don’t know/no answerPPJ10. How satisfied are you with the following communal services?(1-very unsatisfied, 2-unsatisfied, 3-neither satisfied nor unsatisfied, 4-satisfied, 5-verysatisfied) VU U NN S VS DK/NA 1. Water supply 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. Electricity 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. Sewage system 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. Buildings 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. Green areas/parks 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. Roads and transport 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. Garbage collection 1 2 3 4 5 6PPJ11. To what extent do you agree with the following statements?(1-stronlgy disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5 stronglyagree) SD D NN A SA DK/NA 1. My future looks bright 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. People in Kosovo have the 1 2 3 4 5 6 opportunity to choose their own lives 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. I have complete freedom and control 1 2 3 4 5 6 over my own future 4. I am confident I will have a good job 1 2 3 4 5 6 in the future 5. It is acceptable to break the law to defend 1 2 3 4 5 6 one’s rights or to fight injustice in society 6. Family is the foundation of society 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. I am prepared to pay the taxes needed 1 2 3 4 5 6 to pay the pensions of older generationsPPJ12. To what extent do you agree with the following statements?(1-stronlgy disagree, 2-disagree, 3-neither agree nor disagree, 4-agree, 5 stronglyagree) SD D NN A SA DK/NA 1. It is important for me to look good 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. It is important to live up to the 1 2 3 4 5 6 expectations of others 3. It is important for me to live up to 1 2 3 4 5 6 my own expectations 4. I always do what I want 5. It is important to have specific life 1 2 3 4 5 6www.iksweb.org 105
  • 109. goals to strive for 6. It is very important to me that I achieve 1 2 3 4 5 6 a better material standard than my parents 7. It is very important to me that I do not have 1 2 3 4 5 6 a lower material standard than my parents 8. It is important for me that my family 1 2 3 4 5 6 accepts my spouse/girlfriend/boyfriendPPJ13. Regarding Kosovo, do you think that in the future Kosovo will be 1. A much better place to live in 2. A better place to live in 3. It will remain unchanged 4. A worse place to live in 5. A much worse place to live in 6. Don’t know/ I cannot answer/ no answerPPJ14. Why do you think that Kosovo will be a much better place/better place tolive in? (Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.) 1. Better economic situation PPJ14a______ 2. Better standard of living PPJ14b______ 3. Less social problems 4. Less pollution 5. I like my country 6. Don’t know/no answer 7. Other___________________________(specify)PPJ15. Why do you think that Kosovo will be a much worse/worse place to live in? (Do not read out. Record first two mentions falling under the following categories.) 1. Social problems PPJ15a______ 2. Economic situation PPJ15b______ 3. Politicians fight too much 4. Traffic infrastructure 5. More pollution 6. Don’t know/no answer 7. Other___________________________ (specify)PPJ16. Which are the greatest threats to Kosovo in the future?(Do not read out. Single response.) 1. Environmental pollution 2. Economic situation/ Poverty 3. Drug abuse 4. Unemployment 5. Organized crime 6. Corruption 7. Other___________________________ (specify)106 www.iksweb.org
  • 110. PPJ17. What are the greatest potentials of Kosovo?(Do not read out. Single response.) 1. Young people / population 2. Mines / natural resources 3. Energy 4. Beautiful country 5. Other______________________________ (specify)PPJ18. Where would you like to live in? 1. in the town I live in now 2. somewhere else in my country 3. live abroad 4. abroad for periods, but will always return home 5. in the city 6. in countryside 7. In capital City 8. Don’t know/no answerPPJ19. If you want to live abroad, in which country would you like to live? Pleasetell me the most preferred. _____________________________________ (specify)PPJ20. How similar are Kosovan young people to their European counterparts? 1. Very similar/there is no difference 2. Similar in some aspects 3. Not so similar 4. Not similar at all/ have nothing in common 5. Don’t know/no answerPPJ21. In what ways are the Kosovan young people similar to their Europeancounterparts? (Do not read out. Multiple answer) 1. Appearance and dressing 2. Opinions, wishes, aspirations 3. Have the same rights and freedom 4. We all get an education 5. Behavior, communication, character 6. We are all children 7. Way we have fun 8. Intelligence, information, knowledge 9. Traditions 10. Same age issues 11. Others 12. No answer / Don’t knowwww.iksweb.org 107
  • 111. PPJ22. In what ways are Kosovan young people different from their Europeancounterparts? (Do not read out. Multiple answer) 1. Culture/language/traditions 2. Have a better life 3. more polite/well behaved 4. Better Economy/Development/Higher technology 5. More opportunities 6. Appearance/dressing 7. Better education/better schools 8. More informed 9. Different in every aspect 10. Others 11. No answer / Don’t knowPPJ23. Do you agree with Kosovo entering EU? 1. Strongly agree 2. Agree 3. Neither agree nor disagree 4. Don’t agree 5. Strongly disagree 6. Don’t know/no answerPPJ24. What does it mean for Kosovo entering EU?(Do not read out. Multiple answer) 1. Economic development 2. Free movement to other countries 3. Freedom to study in other countries 4. Freedom to work in other countries 5. Better respect for human rights 6. More democracy 7. Cultural and social exchange 8. Better justice system 9. Open market 10. Others 11. Don’t know108 www.iksweb.org
  • 112. ANNEX IV. Focus Group Discussion Guide Young Voices Opinion Poll 2010 Focus Group Discussion Guide 14 April 2010 I. Introduction by Moderator (10 min) Greeting remarks Present plans for the sessions Brief outline of topics II. Session I (50 min) Education Employment 1. Why do you think education is important? Are you satisfied with the education you are receiving? 2. How would you evaluate your teacher’s methods of teaching, evaluation and consulting? Are your teachers well qualified to teach their courses? What about teachers conduct, are they authoritative, do they show interest in your progress? Do they organize private courses outside of school for the same subject? Is that a precondition to earn a course grade? 3. Are you satisfied with conditions in your school? Do you have access to computers, internet, library, labs, and sports facilities? Are you satisfied with your classroom equipment, sanitary conditions, heating, chairs etc? How strict are rules against smoking, drug use and cell phone use in schools? 4. Are you satisfied with learning material, schedule and curricula in your school? Do you think that the content of the curricula can be applied in your life? How would you evaluate reforms until now? Have things changed after the reforms? What do you think should be done and by whom? 5. What are the main problems you face in your school? How do you discuss problems in your school? What is being done to solve your issues? Who deals mostly with students problems in your school? Do you have student councils? How active and efficient are they? 6. Do you think that people who are graduated abroad are better prepared than those graduated in Prishtinë/Priština University or other public universities in Kosovo? Why? Do you think that those who are graduated abroad have more chances to get employed than those who are graduated in Kosovo?www.iksweb.org 109
  • 113. 7. Do you think that the education you are receiving is enough to equip you for work? Do you think that a school degree is enough to jet a job? How preoccupied are you for your future employment? How do you evaluate your future employment opportunities? What do you need to have in order to get a good job? Are you confident that you will have a good job in the future? Do you think that you will have a better material standard than that of your parents? Why? 8. Do any of you work or have worked before? What type of work have you done and what are/were the main reasons for working? If you had a chance to work, would you continue your school or would you get the job? Why? Have you ever taken any training courses outside school? What kind of training? Do you think that informal education offers better chances of employment than formal education? What kind of other courses do you think are needed in Kosovo in order to better equip young people and prepare them for the labour market? What are your plans for next five years? Do you want to work in private or public sector? Reasons? III. Session II (50 min) Participation in Decision-Making, Future Perspectives 1. Are you part of any organized, club or association? Are you part of any youth center or NGO? What kind of group is it? Why did you choose to go in these specific groups? What are the main activities you do within the group? What are the needs that you have within the group? Do you face any difficulties? Who are the main supporters of your organisation? What are the beneficiaries of being part of these organisations? 2. How are decisions taken within your family? Is your opinion considered? 3. Do you think that voting in elections is an effective way to change things in Kosovo? Do you think that the interest and the needs of young people are taken into consideration by the decision-making institutions in Kosovo? How active do you think you are in the decision-making processes in political institutions? Are you member of any political party, forum or other political organisation? How much is your voice heard there? 4. Have you ever been consulted by your municipality on any issue? Are you satisfied with the communal services that your municipality offers (green areas, roads and transportation, garbage collection, sewage system etc.) How much do you trust your municipality? How satisfied are you with cultural and sports activities in your municipality? What should be changed? 5. What are the main challenges that youth in Kosovo faces today?110 www.iksweb.org
  • 114. 6. What do you think about your future in Kosovo? Why? Would you like to live here or abroad? For what reasons? What do you think are the greatest problem Kosovo faces now and will face in the future? What potentials/ advantages do you think Kosovo has compared to other countries in the region? 7. What do you think about you counterparts in Europe? How similar or different you think you are with them? Why? Do you agree with Kosovo entering EU? According to you what does it mean for Kosovo to enter EU? IV. Thanking and sharing incentiveswww.iksweb.org 111
  • 115. ANNEX V. EU-FUNDED PROJECTSTable 4. Supporting the Education Sector in Kosovo 2004-2009228Project name Year Amount in Euro Programme Main ObjectiveInfrastructure 2004-07 16 million IPA (2007) Support forsupport at municipalmunicipal level infrastructure as designed by municipalitySupport for 2008-09 8 million IPA (2007) Follow-updevelopment of infrastructureeconomic and programme tosocial upgrade a numberinfrastructure in of schoolsMunicipalitiesKOSVET III 2006-09 2 million European Agency Support to for Reconstruction Vocational (EAR) Education Training (VET)KOSVET IV 2007-09 1.5 million EAR Support to VETStrengthening civil 2004-08 2 million EAR Building thesociety and capacity ofnetworks selected civil society organisationsEducation in 2008 1.55 million IPA (2007) StrengtheningKosovo: Inter- interculturalculturalism and the understandingBologna Process among all communitiesEducation and 2008 10 million IPA (2008) Support to KosovoEmployment Government in improving quality and efficiency of the provisions of education and training servicesMunicipal 2008 14 million IPA (2008) Infrastructureinfrastructure development, schools building programmeLegal Education 2008 3.5 million IPA (2008) Support toSystem reform curricula developmentErasmus-Mundus 2008 0.5 million for IPA (2008) To fosterExternal Kosovo institutionalCooperation (6 million cooperation in theWindow allocated for field of higher Western Balkans) educationThe Tempus IV 2008 1.8 million for IPA (2008) To promoteprogram Kosovo voluntary (19.55 allocated convergence with for Western EU developments Balkans) in higher education228 As compiled by IKS referring to email conversation with Sophie Beaumont, ECLO and www.delprn.ec.europa.eu. EU FundedProjects supporting the Education Sector in Kosovo 2010.112 www.iksweb.org
  • 116. The Tempus office 2008 12.3 million IPA (2008) To utilise ECin Kosovo funded higher education programs in KosovoEU support to 2009 3.5 million IPA (2009) To strengthen andTeacher Training improve quality ofin Kosovo higher education in KosovoTotal 2004-09 76.6 million EAR/IPAwww.iksweb.org 113
  • 117. ABOUT IKSThe Kosovar Stability Initiative (IKS) is an independent, not-for-profit think tankfocusing on empirical research and analysis of socio-economic developments inKosovo. Founded in 2004, IKS offers innovative and policy-relevant research with theaim of initiating debates on issues of importance for Kosovos future.We believe that evidence-based public debates stand at the core of democratic decisionmaking.Since summer 2004, IKS has expanded its team to eight full-time analysts andresearchers, with a growing network of part time researchers and associates. The workof IKS is also supported by the Board of Directors including Kosovar and internationalanalysts and practitioners.Since its inception IKS’s work has focused on issues of governance, economicdevelopment, urban planning, corruption in post-war reconstruction, education,environmental issues and Kosovo’s image problem. IKS is also part of an ESI-inspirednetwork of think-tanks across South East Europe.All reports are freely available on our website. Kosovar Stability Initiative — IKS Phone: + 381 38 222 321 E-mail: info@iksweb.org www.iksweb.org Address: Rr. Garibaldi H11/6, Prishtinë, Kosovë114 www.iksweb.org

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