The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
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Reform achievements and challenges in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine - UNICEF Regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe/Commonwealth of Independent States (June 2010)

Reform achievements and challenges in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine - UNICEF Regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe/Commonwealth of Independent States (June 2010)

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The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries Document Transcript

  • OPY NCEC ADVA THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKRAINE
  • This report is based on an analysis of assessments commissioned by the UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine in 2008 and 2009. It was drafted by Mr. Daniel O’Donnell, independent consultant, in collaboration with and under the supervision of Séverine Jacomy-Vité, Child Protection Specialist and Jean-Claude Legrand, Child Protection Regional Advisor, UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS. Mr. O’Donnell, an American-Irish national, is a lawyer with 30 years experience in human rights. He studied law at the State University of New York at Buffalo and was admitted to the Bar of New York in 1980. Mr. O’Donnell began his career in 1978 as a prisoners’ rights specialist with a Federal Court in the United States. After this, he worked for several non-governmental organizations, including the International Commission of Jurists, the Inter-American Institute for Human Rights and Defence for Children International. Since 1992 he has worked as a consultant for NGOs and several United Nations organizations, on assignments covering investigation, research and writing, training and programme design and evaluation. Mr. O’Donnell has been collaborating with UNICEF in the drafting of numerous studies and evaluations in the field of juvenile justice over the last three years. © The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), June 2010 Front cover photos: UNICEF Armenia/2006/Onnik Krikorian UNICEF/Geo-2010/Amruvelashvili UNICEF Moldova/2010/Paul Hodorogea UNICEF Albania/2008/Robert Few
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKRAINE UNICEF Regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe/Commonwealth of Independent States June 2010
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE CONTENTS FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Box: Key UNICEF strategies............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12 INTRODUCTION: WHY THESE ASSESSMENTS? ......................................................................................................................................................... 13 SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15 CONTEXT .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 PART I. FOUNDATIONAL ISSUES: POLICY, LAW REFORM, TRAINING, COORDINATION, DATA AND RESEARCH............................................................................................................................................. 20 1..Juvenile.justice.policy ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 2..Law.reform ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22 3..Intersectoral.coordination ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 4..Training.and.capacity-building ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 25 5..Data.management.and.research ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 27 PART II. DEMOCRACY AND RULE OF LAW .......................................................................................................................................................................... 31 1..The.impact.of.ombudspersons.and.other.accountability.mechanisms ........................................................................ 31 2..The.soft.but.essential.role.of.civil.society ........................................................................................................................................................... 32 3..The.gradual.specialization.of.judges.and.courts ......................................................................................................................................... 35 4..The.success.of.legal.aid ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 36 5..The.remaining.challenge.of.secondary.prevention.................................................................................................................................. 37 PART III. HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS .................................................................................................................... 39 1..Child.rights.legislation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 39 2..Grave.concerns.about.interrogation.and.detention ................................................................................................................................ 40 3..Good.and.bad.news.about.correctional.facilities ....................................................................................................................................... 47 PART IV. CORE JUVENILE JUSTICE APPROACHES: PARAMETERS OF JUVENILE JUSTICE, DIVERSION, SENTENCES AND RETURN TO THE COMMUNITY ............................................................................................................. 52 1..The.parameters.of.juvenile.justice ................................................................................................................................................................................. 52 2..Diversion ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53 3..Alternative.sentences ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 54 4..Duration.of.custodial.sentences ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 59 5..Conditional.early.release.(parole) ................................................................................................................................................................................... 61 PART V. THREE LEGACIES OF THE SOVIET ERA .......................................................................................................................................................... 63 1..Juvenile.police ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 63 2..‘Reception.and.distribution.centres’ ............................................................................................................................................................................ 65 3..‘Special.schools’ ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 66 CONCLUSIONS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 69 ANNEX 1. Schematic overview of the juvenile justice systems in the five countries .............................................. 72 ANNEX 2. Trends in different forms of detention ..................................................................................................................................................... 76 ANNEX 3. UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS publications on juvenile justice .......................................................... 77 ANNEX 4. CD Rom containing the individual country assessments 3
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Foreword Foreword.to.come 4
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE Executive Summary The.historic.social,.political.and.economic.transformations.that.coincided.in.Eastern.Europe.and.the. Soviet.Union.with.the.adoption.of.the.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.in.1989.led.to.reforms.of. legislation,.law.enforcement,.the.administration.of.justice.and.corrections.on.an.unprecedented.scale.. This.created.unique.opportunities.to.advance.the.human.rights.and.child.rights.agenda..During.the. 1990s,.juvenile.justice.was.not.a.priority.for.countries.in.the.region,.but.most.are.now.engaged.in.the. process.of.developing.juvenile.justice.systems.compatible.with.international.standards..Experiences. with. de-institutionalization. and. growing. expertise. in. child. rights. have. enabled. UNICEF. to. make. a. special.contribution.to.these.reforms,.with.the.support.of.European.and.other.international.actors.. The. present. overview. summarizes. the. results. of. assessments. carried. out. in. Armenia,. Azerbaijan,. Georgia,.Moldova.and.Ukraine.in.2008–2009.in.order.to.inform.future.strategies.and.decision-making. at.country.level,.and.share.experiences.with.European.and.international.agencies,.which.cooperate. in.supporting.the.development.of.juvenile.justice.. Foundational issues The.basic.parameters.of.juvenile.justice.in.these.countries.meet.the.relevant.international.standards:. children.under.age.14.may.not.be.prosecuted.and.children.under.age.18.may.only.be.prosecuted.as. juveniles,.not.as.adults..Children.aged.14–15.years.may.only.be.charged.for.more.serious.offences.. However,. children. aged. 11–14. years. who. lack. ‘criminal. responsibility’. but. are. alleged. to. have. been. involved.in.criminal.conduct.may.still.be.sent.to.closed.educational.institutions.. Only. Georgia. has. a. specific. strategy. for. the. development. of. juvenile. justice,. adopted. in. 2009.. In. Ukraine,. a. presidential. decree. calling. for. the. creation. of. a. juvenile. justice. system. was. issued. in. 2008,. but. the. action. plan. it. called. for. has. not. been. prepared.1. In. Armenia,. the. National. Plan. of. Action. for. the. Protection. of. the. Rights. of. the. Child. only. calls. for. the. creation. of. a. juvenile. justice. system,.and.the.National.Programme.for.the.Prevention.of.Crime.contains.few.provisions.concerning. children..In.Moldova,.‘streamlining.the.system.of.justice.for.minors’.is.an.element.of.the.Strategy.for. Strengthening.the.Judicial.System.approved.in.2007,.as.part.of.the.government’s.commitments.to.the. European. Union. 2. Azerbaijan. has. no. national. plan. or. strategy. so. far.. Broader. strategies. containing. some.elements.of.juvenile.justice.have.had.a.positive.though.limited.impact,.but.in.some.cases.they. have.slowed.or.interfered.with.the.development.of.juvenile.justice. 3. None.of.the.five.countries.covered.by.this.report.have.a.framework.law.on.juvenile.justice:.the.legal. framework. for. juvenile. justice. must. still. be. construed. from. provisions. of. the. Criminal. Code,. the. Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.and.legislation.on.prisons,.probation,.administration.offences.and.child. protection..Most.of.this.legislation.has.been.extensively.rewritten.during.the.last.two.decades,.and. is.now.more.compatible.with.human.rights.and.child.rights..Experts.in.juvenile.justice.usually.have. a.minor.role.in.the.drafting.of.such.laws,.and.invariably.some.provisions.applicable.to.both.children. and.adults.do.not.adequately.protect.the.rights.of.children.. 1 . Presidential.Decree.No..411/2008.of.5.May.2008.on.Measures.to.Ensure.Protection.of.Rights.and.Legal.Interests.of.Children.. Paragraph.8(2).mandated.the.Ministry.of.Justice.to.“during.the.first.half.of.2008.develop.a.draft.of.the.National.Programme. of.Juvenile.Justice.Development.” 2 . Judiciary.System.Strengthening.Strategy,.adopted.by.the.Parliament.of.Moldova.in.Decision.No..174-XVI.of.19.July.2007. 3 . In.Georgia,.for.example,.a.Criminal.Justice.Reform.Strategy.prepared.with.the.support.of.the.European.Union.and.adopted. in.2005.contained.only.one.brief.mention.of.juveniles,.indicating.that.juvenile.prisoners.shall.enjoy.the.rights.recognized. by.international.human.rights.law..The.action.plan.adopted.the.following.year.included.one.objective.that.was.opposed.by. UNICEF.and.the.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child..The.failure.to.take.the.special.needs.of.children.into.account.in.the. Criminal.Justice.Reform.Strategy.was.not.only.a.lost.opportunity,.but.led.to.a.situation.where.advocacy.for.the.rights.of. juveniles.required.introducing.modifications.into.the.larger.reform.process. 5
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES The. effective. functioning. of. a. juvenile. justice. system. requires. coordination. of. the. activities. of. many. agencies. and. institutions,. including. the. police,. prosecutors,. the. courts,. probation. services,. the. correctional. system,. and. others.. Cooperation. between. some. of. them. may. be. spontaneous,. but. good.cooperation.across.the.entire.system.cannot.be.ensured.without.a.coordination.mechanism..All. five.countries.have.established.bodies.of.this.kind,.but.the.effectiveness.of.most.of.them.has.been. limited.. Effectiveness. would. require. an. increased. sense. of. ownership. amongst. the. participating. national. agencies. and. institutions,. and. enhanced. political. commitment. to. juvenile. justice. and. the. role.of.the.body.in.question. In. all. of. these. countries,. a. considerable. amount. of. training. was. provided. to. justice. professionals. potentially.dealing.with.children,.initially.mostly.through.ad hoc.in-service.training..Progress.is.now. being.made.in.the.incorporation.of.training.in.child.rights.and.juvenile.justice.into.the.curricula.of.the. institutions.that.train.all.judges,.prosecutors,.police.and.correctional.officers..This.process.is.more. advanced.in.some.countries.than.others..The.impact.of.training.is.rarely.evaluated.objectively.. To. be. effective,. policies,. legislation. and. plans. regarding. juvenile. offending. and. juvenile. justice. must. be.based.on.relevant.and.accurate.information..A.decade.ago,.data.collection.and.analysis.were.very. poor.. Some. progress. has. been. achieved,. but. much. more. is. needed.. In. Armenia,. various. agencies. compile. relevant. data,. but. none. of. these. data. are. published. on. a. regular. basis.. In. Georgia,. only. the. Supreme. Court. regularly. publishes. data,. which. are. limited. to. convicted. offenders,. and. data. released. by.the.relevant.ministries.on.an.ad hoc.basis.are.very.contradictory..In.Moldova,.two.ministries.and.the. courts.publish.statistics,.but.plans.to.establish.a.centralized.database.failed.due.to.reluctance.to.share. data..In.Ukraine,.the.State.Statistics.Committee.publishes.every.three.years.a.report.on.juvenile.justice. containing.data.provided.by.the.courts,.the.prosecutor.and.relevant.ministries.4..The.best.set.of.regularly. released.data.is.that.contained.in.Crimes and Offence in Azerbaijan, published.by.the.State.Statistical. Committee.since.2004..Still,.in.all.of.these.countries,.there.are.important.gaps.in.the.data.available..The. development. of. additional. indicators,. tools. and. integrated. systems. for. data. collection. and. analysis. is. urgently.needed.to.inform.decisions.and.measure.the.impact.of.new.policies,.laws.and.programmes.. In. Armenia,. Azerbaijan. and. Ukraine,. field. studies. based. in. part. on. the. views. and. experiences. of. children. in. contact. with. the. juvenile. justice. system. have. been. carried. out. in. recent. years.. The. information.they.contain,.about.positive.and.negative.experiences,.is.essential.for.the.development. of. juvenile. justice. systems.. These. studies. clearly. represent. a. ‘best. practice’. that. needs. to. be. consolidated.and.further.developed.and.expanded.. Democracy and rule of law Many. safeguards. have. been. introduced. to. protect. the. rights. of. juvenile. suspects. in. police. custody. and.accused.juveniles.in.pretrial.detention..They.have.helped.reduce.abuse,.but.have.not.eradicated. it.. Progress. has. been. greater. in. detention. and. correctional. facilities.. Abuse. by. the. police. has. been. more. difficult. to. deter.. One. reason. is. that,. in. three. of. the. five. countries,. police. may. hold. suspects. without. a. court. order. for. more. than. 24. hours.. Good. practices. include. legislation. (in. Armenia,. Georgia,. Moldova). requiring. the. presence. of. a. defence. attorney. during. interrogation,. as. well. as. the. inadmissibility. of. confession. as. proof. during. trial.. However,. implementation. of. new. legislation. remains.a.challenge.and.such.safeguards,.even.if.put.into.practice,.do.not.suffice.to.eliminate.abuse. if.there.is.tolerance.and.impunity. Human.rights.ombudspersons.exist.in.all.five.countries..In.Azerbaijan,.Georgia,.Moldova.and.Ukraine. they.reportedly.visit.correctional.and.detention.facilities.regularly,.and.their.activities.have.helped.reduce. violence.against.juvenile.suspects,.detainees.and.prisoners..In.Armenia,.two.independent.community- based. bodies,. having. a. statutory. mandate. to. monitor. the. treatment. of. persons. deprived. of. liberty,. 4 . A.semi-annual.report.on.the.economy.also.includes.a.section.on.crime. 6
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE have.been.particularly.effective.in.documenting.abuse.of.prisoners,.including.juveniles.5..However,.the. effectiveness.of.such.bodies.depends.on.the.strong.follow-up.action.by.prosecutors.and.the.heads.of. the.law.enforcement.bodies.on.cases.referred.to.them.and,.ultimately,.on.a.strong.political.commitment. at.the.highest.level.to.ensure.accountability..This.appears.to.be.still.lacking.in.most.countries. Civil. society. organizations. play. an. important. role. in. juvenile. justice. in. all. five. countries,. especially. in. documenting. the. need. for. change,. delivering. training. and. providing. services. to. juveniles. in. correctional.facilities. 6..Best.practices.include:.studies.on.juvenile.justice.and.development.of.police. curriculum.by.the.NGO.Alliance.for.Children’s.Rights.in.Azerbaijan;.policy.development.support.by. the.Institute.for.Penal.Reform.in.Moldova;.research.by.the.Centre.of.Social.Expertise.and.development. of. mediation. by. the. NGO. Centre. for. Common. Ground. in. Ukraine;. activities. carried. out. in. juvenile. correctional. facilities. by. the. NGOs. Empathy. in. Georgia. and. Trtu. in. Armenia;. the. transformation. by. the.Fund.for.Armenian.Relief.of.the.short-term,.multipurpose.residential.facility.for.children.formerly. operated. by. the. police,. and. the. Community. Justice. Centres. set. up. by. Project. Harmony. Armenia. to. provide. assistance. to. offenders. and. children. at. risk.. In. Armenia,. Azerbaijan,. Georgia. and. Ukraine,. NGOs.organize.or.participate.in.activities.within.juvenile.correctional.facilities,.which.also.give.them. an.opportunity.to.informally.monitor.conditions.and.treatment.. None.of.the.five.countries.have.specialized.juvenile.courts,.but.most.have.either.judges.designated. specifically.to.handle.cases.involving.accused.juveniles.(Moldova,.Ukraine).or.require.judges.hearing. such. cases. to. have. special. training. (Georgia).. In. Armenia,. one. judge. from. each. court. was. trained,. although. there. is. no. requirement. that. each. court. has. a. specially. trained. or. designed. judge. for. juveniles..Some.judges.also.have.participated.in.training.activities.in.juvenile.justice.in.Azerbaijan,.but. there.are.no.judges.especially.designated.to.handle.juvenile.cases..This.is.a.step.in.the.right.direction,. although.in.each.of.the.five.countries.the.juvenile.caseload.is.large.enough.to.warrant.the.creation.of. at.least.one.specialized.court.where.the.incidence.of.serious.and.repeat.offending.is.highest. None.of.these.countries.had.legal.aid.programmes.for.juvenile.offenders.until.recently..In.the.past,.the. right.to.legal.assistance.of.defendants.unable.to.pay.for.the.services.of.defence.counsel.was.met.by. assigned.attorneys,.usually.poorly.remunerated,.who.provided.poor.quality.representation..This.has. begun.to.change..Publicly.funded.legal.aid.programmes.have.been.established.in.Armenia,.Georgia. and. Moldova.. Each. provides. free. legal. services. to. juvenile. suspects. and. accused. juveniles. and,. in. Moldova,.the.service.has.recently.hired.lawyers.specialized.in.juvenile.justice..In.Azerbaijan,.a.small. Children’s.Rights.Legal.Clinic.and,.in.Ukraine,.two.large.legal.aid.programmes.have.been.established. on.a.pilot.basis..The.creation.of.such.programmes.has.led.to.a.marked.improvement.in.the.quality.of. services.provided.to.juveniles,.and.needs.to.be.consolidated..The.fact.that.the.governments.of.three. countries.have.decided.to.fund.such.programmes.on.the.national.level.is.an.essential.step.forward. What. was. and. still. is. largely. missing. are. community-based,. non-residential. programmes. for. children. and. adolescents. at. higher. risk. of. offending,. which. would. offer. individual. assessments. and. comprehensive. multidisciplinary. activities,. including. psychosocial. support,. remedial. education,. life. skills. training,. and. individual. and. family. counselling.. A. few. pilot. services. of. this. kind. have. been. established,.but.to.date.most.of.them.operate.as.diversion.or.alternative.sentences.for.adolescents.who. have.already.begun.to.get.involved.in.minor.offending..The.Community.Justice.Centres.in.Armenia.are. a.positive.exception.as.they.have.the.purposes.and.functions.of.both.prevention.and.diversion.. 5 . The.functions.and.powers.of.the.Group.of.Public.Observers.Conducting.Public.Monitoring.of.Penitentiary.Institutions.and. Bodies.of.the.Ministry.of.Justice.of.the.Republic.of.Armenia.and.the.Group.of.Public.Observers.at.the.Detention.Facilities.of. the.Police.System.are.recognized.by.law..Their.mandate.includes.physical.abuse.of.individuals.and.conditions.of.detention.. Both.prepare.annual.reports,.‘current’.reports.and,.when.an.urgent.case.arises,.‘ad hoc ’.reports. 6 . NGOs.generally.do.not.play.a.similar.role.in.pretrial.detention.facilities.in.these.countries,.which.is.unfortunate,.in. particular.when.detention.is.for.an.extended.period. 7
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Human rights and fundamental freedoms The.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.forms.part.of.the.national.legal.order.in.all.five.countries,. and.Armenia,.Azerbaijan.and.Moldova.have.adopted.laws.on.the.rights.of.children..These.laws.contain. provisions.concerning.juvenile.justice,.thus.helping.to.make.public.opinion,.and.children.themselves,. aware.of.the.essential.rights.and.principles.that.must.be.respected.with.regard.to.children.at.risk.and. juvenile.offenders. Some. important. measures. have. been. taken. in. order. to. prevent. and. deter. torture. and. ill-treatment.. It.appears.that.juveniles.are.no.longer.subject.to.physical.abuse.in.the.prison.and.pretrial.detention. centres. operated. by. the. ministry. of. justice.. However,. information. from. various. sources. indicates. that.physical.abuse.and.even.torture.are.still.inflicted.on.suspects,.including.juveniles,.by.the.police. before.the.suspects.are.placed.in.investigative.custody.facilities. In. general,. physical. conditions. of. detention. or. imprisonment,. even. when. somewhat. substandard,. are.not.so.bad.as.to.be.considered.cruel,.inhuman.or.degrading.treatment..However,.the.legislation. and.regulations.of.all.five.countries.allow.solitary.confinement.to.be.used.as.a.disciplinary.measure. for.juveniles,.which.the.United.Nations.Rules.for.the.Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty. classifies.as.cruel,.inhuman.and.degrading.7 Important. challenges. also. persist. regarding. detention. before. and. during. legal. proceedings.. Despite. the. measures. taken. in. some. countries,. such. as. barring. the. detention. of. juveniles. accused. of. minor. offences.or.limiting.the.validity.of.detention.orders.to.a.few.months,.the.number.of.accused.juveniles.in. detention.remains.relatively.high,.and.prolonged.detention.remains.a.problem..In.Georgia,.for.example,. one. third. of. all. juveniles. prosecuted. are. detained. before. trial. and,. in. Moldova,. at. the. time. of. the. UNICEF.assessment.mission.the.number.of.detained.juveniles.was.twice.the.number.of.those.serving. sentences,.although.the.use.of.detention.on.remand.has.decreased..The.six-month.limit.between.the. filing.of.charges.and.the.final.decision,.recommended.by.the.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.is. not.rigorously.applied.in.any.of.these.countries..Efforts.have.been.made.to.improve.access.to.education. during. detention. but,. in. most. of. these. countries,. if. not. all,. conditions. in. juvenile. detention. facilities. are.harsher.than.in.juvenile.correctional.facilities..Prolonged.confinement.in.cells.and.lack.of.physical. exercise. are. common. problems.. For. instance,. in. the. main. detention. centre. in. Chisinau. juveniles. are. detained.in.conditions.that.are.unsanitary.and.inhuman,.and.injuries.resulting.from.fights.are.a.regular. occurrence..The.lack.of.full.separation.from.adults.is.another.concern..In.Azerbaijan.and.Ukraine,.for. example,.adult.detainees.are.sometimes.placed.in.the.juvenile.section.to.help.maintain.discipline.. At. the. same. time,. some. of. the. main. achievements. of. the. last. decade. are. significant. decreases. in. the.percentage.of.convicted.juveniles.receiving.custodial.sentences.and.in.the.number.of.juveniles. serving. sentences. in. correctional. facilities.. The. number. of. juvenile. prisoners. has. fallen. by. 50. per. cent.to.80.per.cent.in.all.five.countries.except.Georgia,.where.a.‘zero.tolerance’.policy.towards.crime. announced.in.2005.led.to.an.increase.. Policies,. programmes. and. material. conditions. in. juvenile. correctional. facilities. have. improved.. Prisoners.have.better.access.to.education,.cultural.activities.and.religious.services..Staff.has.received. training. in. child. rights,. and. psychologists. and. social. workers. are. being. added. to. staff.. Corporal. punishment. as. a. disciplinary. measure. is. no. longer. legal.. Acceptance. of. the. presence. of. NGOs. has. increased.transparency.and.enriched.the.range.and.quality.of.activities.available.. Still,. insofar. as. correctional. facilities. are. concerned,. one. of. the. main. challenges. is. the. absence. of. coherent,. clearly. defined. policies. and. programmes. for. the. rehabilitation. of. juvenile. offenders. and. 7 . United.Nations.Rules.for.the.Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty.(Havana.Rules),.Rule.67..(Rule.95.3. of.the.European.Rules.for.juvenile.offenders.subject.to.sanctions.or.measures.also.bans.the.use.of.solitary.confinement.. of.juvenile.prisoners.) 8
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE the.prevention.of.re-offending..The.considerable.international.assistance.that.has.been.provided.has. focused.on.improving.infrastructure.and.ensuring.humane.treatment,.but.not.on.how.such.facilities. should.approach.their.essential.function..Psychological.evaluations.are.rudimentary.or.non-existent,. individual.plans.are.not.prepared.and,.except.for.the.length.of.their.sentence,.thieves,.sex.offenders. and. murderers. receive. the. same. treatment.. Furthermore,. with. the. exception. of. one. programme. in. Ukraine,.post-release.support.is.non-existent.. The.number.of.girls.in.detention.and.correctional.facilities.is.small.and,.as.a.result,.they.are.kept.in. facilities.for.adult.women..Although.they.may.be.housed.separately.from.adults,.there.is.inevitably. contact. in. common. areas.. This. is. not. necessarily. a. violation. of. international. norms,. if. contact. is. managed.so.as.to.be.in.the.best.interests.of.the.girls.concerned.–.but.it.may.also.lead.to.abuse.and. should. be. carefully. monitored.. In. addition,. girls. who. are. detained. or. serving. custodial. sentences. often. have. less. access. to. programmes. than. boys,. especially. educational. programmes.. Cost. and. administrative. considerations,. no. matter. how. legitimate,. do. not. excuse. such. discrimination,. and. ways.must.be.found.to.ensure.equal.access.to.all.programmes.. Core juvenile justice approaches In.all.of.the.countries.covered.by.this.report,.prosecutors.have.discretion.not.to.prosecute.juveniles. in. specific. circumstances,. even. when. there. is. sufficient. evidence. to. prosecute.. Traditionally,. the. diversionary. measures. most. often. used. were. warning. or. supervision. by. parents. or. the. juvenile. police.. Most. countries. still. do. not. have. community-based,. non-residential. programmes. to. assist. juveniles.diverted.from.the.juvenile.justice.system..Efforts.to.develop.such.programmes.have.begun. in.Armenia,.Azerbaijan.and.Moldova.. Conditional. sentences. and. sentences. of. ‘supervision’. have. long. been. used,. and. used. extensively.. Until.recently,.however,.little.assistance.was.provided..In.Georgia.and.Moldova,.probation.services. have. been. established. in. order. to. provide. more. support. to. convicted. prisoners. given. non- custodial.sentences,.including.juveniles;.in.Ukraine,.a.special.unit.of.the.State.Department.of.Penal. Implementation.has.similar.functions..These.are.promising.developments,.but.one.big.challenge.is. to.reduce.caseloads.to.the.point.where.staff.has.sufficient.time.to.provide.real.assistance.to.children.. In.all.five.countries,.restitution.and.reparation.of.the.victim.are.recognized.as.a.ground.for.absolving. an. accused. of. responsibility. for. an. offence,. or. as. an. alternative. sentence.. With. the. exception. of. Moldova,. such. dispositions. are. only. available. when. the. offence. is. not. a. serious. one. and/or. the. offender. has. no. prior. record.. In. most. countries,. services. to. facilitate. victim-offender. mediation. do. not.exist.or.are.not.yet.recognized,.and.such.dispositions.are.rare.. Similarly,. in. all. five. countries. courts. have. discretion. to. impose. ‘educational’. measures. on. juvenile. offenders,. rather. than. sentences.. Such. measures. may. be. non-custodial,. or. may. involve. placement. in.a.closed.educational.facility.that.is.not.part.of.the.correctional.system,.or.in.closed.rehabilitation. facilities. for. persons. with. substance. abuse. or. psychosocial. disabilities.. The. main. challenge. is. that,. in. some. countries,. the. programmes. and. facilities. envisaged. by. the. legislation. –. other. than. closed. schools.and.supervision.–.simply.do.not.exist.. It. is. not. easy. to. evaluate. the. compatibility. of. law. and. practice. regarding. custodial. sentences. with. international. standards. because. such. standards. are. vague.. The. law. concerning. the. sentencing. of. juveniles. is. complex. in. these. countries.. The. main. emphasis. is. on. the. age. of. the. offender. and. the. nature. of. the. offence,. but. the. law. also. provides. that. the. prior. record. of. the. offender,. the. circumstances. of. the. offence. and. the. apparent. need. for. rehabilitation. must. be. taken. into. account.. The. maximum. sentence. that. can. be. imposed. on. a. juvenile. offender. convicted. of. serious. crimes. is. . 9
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES 10. years. in. Armenia,. Azerbaijan. and. Ukraine,. 12. years. and. 6. months. in. Moldova. and. 15. years. in. Georgia..Where.data.are.available,.they.indicate.that.few.offenders.receive.the.maximum.sentence.. The. fact. that. the. population. of. juvenile. correctional. facilities. is. declining. reinforces. the. impression. that. law. and. practice. in. these. five. countries. are. within. the. parameters. of. what. is. considered. acceptable. by. European. countries.. Whether. further. progress. is. needed. would. require. clarification. of. how. the. `shortest. appropriate. period. of. time’. principle 8. should. be. interpreted. and. applied. as. well.as.a.more.detailed.analysis.of.the.sentences.imposed.and.served.and.the.factors.that.influence. sentencing.in.practice.. Three legacies of the Soviet era Finally,. the. compatibility. of. three. institutions. characteristic. of. the. Soviet. era. –. juvenile. police,. ‘reception. and. distribution. centres’. and. ’special. schools’. –. with. juvenile. justice. principles. is. considered..All.three.have.survived.in.the.countries.covered.by.this.report,.but.their.usefulness.and. compatibility.with.the.rights.of.children.are.controversial.. In. the. five. countries,. the. role. of. juvenile. police. is. limited. to. prevention,. and. does. not. include. the. investigation.of.offences.committed.by.juveniles..Consequently,.the.existence.of.specialized.police. departments. has. no. direct. impact. on. the. treatment. of. juvenile. suspects.. Juvenile. police. can. make. a. useful. contribution. to. prevention. but. should. not. be. expected. to. assume. primary. responsibility. for. it,. and. the. resources. allocated. to. them. should. not. come. at. the. expense. of. other. community-. and.school-based.programmes..Furthermore,.the.attention.given.to.new.child-friendly.practices.and. the. treatment. of. child. victims. (e.g.,. ‘green. rooms’). should. not. distract. attention. from. the. need. to. eradicate.abuses.committed.by.unspecialized.officers.against.juvenile.suspects.and.street.children. ‘Reception. and. distribution. centres’. are. multipurpose. residential. facilities. operated. by. the. juvenile. police..They.provide.secure.(i.e.,.generally.closed).shelter.for.limited.periods.of.time.for.a.wide.range. of.children.–.illegal.migrants,.repatriated.children,.children.who.have.escaped.from.residential.schools,. street. children,. children. who. have. committed. an. offence. but. are. too. young. to. be. prosecuted,. and. children.removed.from.their.homes.for.protection.before.a.decision.is.taken.by.guardianship.bodies. or.courts.on.longer.term.measures..Conditions.in.some.such.facilities.are.very.good.–.the.‘Children’s. Support.Centre’.operated.by.the.Fund.for.Armenian.Relief.pursuant.to.an.agreement.with.the.police.is. a.good.example.in.this.respect..However,.these.facilities.are.governed.mainly.by.regulations.that.give. the.police.very.broad.discretion.as.to.the.reasons.for.and.duration.of.placement..There.is,.no.doubt,.a. need.for.child-friendly.emergency.shelters.in.the.kind.of.situations.mentioned.above,.but.it.is.important. that.they.be.governed.by.clear.legal.standards.and.procedures,.and.that.the.services.provided.remain. temporary.by.nature,.while.more.sustainable.solutions.are.being.sought.for.such.children. ‘Special.schools’.are.residential.schools.for.children.involved.in.offending.or.‘anti-social’.behaviour,. operated. by. the. ministry. of. education,. not. the. prison. department.. The. assessment. covered. them. for. three. reasons:. they. are. part. of. state. efforts. to. assist. children. at. risk;. some. of. the. students. are. children.who.became.involved.in.offending.(especially.theft).while.too.young.to.be.prosecuted,.and. placement.in.them.is.a.recognized.(though.seldom.used).alternative.sentence.for.juvenile.offenders.. Traditionally,. special. schools. violated. the. rights. of. children. because. of. the. criteria. and. procedures. that. governed. placement,. because. separation. of. children. from. their. families. generally. became. permanent,.because.children.were.not.treated.as.individuals.and,.sometimes,.because.of.substandard. material.conditions.and.repressive.policies.. 8 . Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Article.37(b).. 10
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE In.some.of.the.five.countries,.changes.in.the.legislation,.greater.awareness.of.child.rights.and.other. factors. have. greatly. reduced. the. population. of. such. schools.. Impressive. reforms. have. taken. place. in. a. few. of. them:. the. Samtredia. special. school. in. Georgia. and. School. No.. 1. in. Armenia. are. two. good. examples.. Yet,. alternative. community-based. programmes. should. be. developed. as. a. priority. even. though. the. need. for. residential. services. may. not. be. completely. eliminated.. The. environment. of.some.children.is.such.that.separation.from.parents.may.be.necessary.in.order.to.provide.the.help. required.. Placement. in. a. facility. that. embraces. the. goal. of. returning. the. child. to. his/her. family. as. soon.as.possible.and.works.towards.that.aim.with.the.family.and.the.child.using.the.most.effective. methods.known.can.be.an.effective.option..It.is.essential,.however,.to.ensure.that.the.aims,.criteria. and.procedures.for.placement.are.compatible.with.children's.rights.. Conclusions Significant. progress. has. been. made,. but. it. has. been. more. rapid. in. some. areas. than. others.. One. of. the.most.remarkable.advances.has.been.the.improvement.of.conditions.in.correctional.facilities.for. convicted.juveniles.and.the.reduction.in.the.number.of.juvenile.prisoners. In.other.areas,.despite.noteworthy.progress,.gaps.and.difficulties.remain..Legal.aid.programmes.are. one.example..Probation.services.and.diversion.programmes.are.another..Training.in.child.rights.and. juvenile.justice.is.being.mainstreamed,.but.its.impact.is.seldom.evaluated.and.specific.requirements. as. to. knowledge. or. skills. are. rare.. Important. progress. has. been. made. in. law. reform,. but. further. reforms.are.necessary.to.prohibit.solitary.confinement,.restrict.the.duration.of.police.custody.to.24. hours.or.less.and.limit.pretrial.detention.to.six.months.. Greater.efforts.are.urgently.needed.in.some.areas,.such.as.the.development.of.secondary.prevention;. reduced.use.of.pretrial.detention.and.better.respect.for.the.rights.of.juveniles.detained.on.remand,. including. separation. from. adults;. the. development. of. effective. community-based. programmes. to. assist. offenders. diverted. from. prosecution. or. given. alternative. sentences;. the. development. of. evidence-based. programmes. for. the. prevention. of. re-offending. in. correctional. settings;. and. the. development.of.effective.post-release.programmes.. Another.key.challenge.concerns.the.establishment.of.adequate.systems.for.the.collection.and.analysis. of. data. on. offending. and. on. the. functioning. and. impact. of. juvenile. justice. institutions. in. order. to. ensure.‘evidence-based’.programmes.and.policies..Other.challenges.include.how.to.best.ensure.the. right.of.accused.juveniles.to.‘child-friendly’.proceedings.and.clarify.the.role.and.functions.of.juvenile. police.units,.special.schools.and.multipurpose.short-term.shelters.for.children. Ensuring. accountability. for. abuse. is. an. urgent. problem.. Monitoring. by. ombudspersons,. legislation. requiring.the.presence.of.lawyers.during.interrogation,.mandatory.medical.examinations.of.detainees. and. training. in. the. rights. of. children. have. all. helped,. but. have. not. been. sufficient. to. overcome. impunity..In.the.final.analysis,.the.solution.lies.in.creating.political.will.at.the.highest.level.to.respect. the.rights.of.all.children.. Lessons.that.can.be.drawn.from.the.experiences.documented.in.this.report.include.the.importance. of.intersectoral.coordination.bodies,.the.value.of.comprehensive.juvenile.justice.strategies.and.the. significant.contribution.civil.society.can.make.to.the.development.of.all.aspects.of.juvenile.justice.. There.are,.fortunately,.good.practices.that.should.be.consolidated.and,.where.necessary,.extended.–. as.well.as.promising.practices.that,.after.further.monitoring.and.evaluation.of.their.impact,.may.well. prove.worthy.of.consolidation.and.expansion. 11
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Box: Key UNICEF strategies Armenia • Mainstreaming juvenile justice concerns:. Advocacy. by. UNICEF. helped. ensure. inclusion. of. objectives.concerning.juvenile.justice.in.the.National.Planof.Action.for.the.Protection.of.the.Rights. of.the.Child.covering.the.years.2004–2015. • Keeping juvenile justice on UNICEF’s agenda:. Support. to. the. development. of. juvenile. justice,. consisting.largely.of.training,.was.mainstreamed.into.UNICEF’s.Child.Protection.Programme. Azerbaijan • Kick-starting the reform:. Despite. limited. funds. and. the. absence. of. a. pre-defined. strategy. for. juvenile.justice.reform,.UNICEF.made.a.key.contribution.to.the.process.of.creating.a.juvenile.justice. system.through.a.situation.analysis.(2006),.advocacy,.training.and.some.well-chosen.pilot.projects. • Closely cooperating with national NGOs:.Reliance.mainly.on.the.NGO.Alliance.for.Children’s.Rights. was. a. good. strategic. decision,. which. has. helped. ensure. that. UNICEF’s. aims. and. strategies. are. appropriate,.while.also.building.capacity.and.encouraging.government-civil.society.cooperation. Georgia • Building upon a solid base-line: A. situation. analysis. financed. by. UNICEF. led. to. a. three-year. €. 750,000. project. funded. by. the. Dutch. Government. focusing. on. policy. development,. law. reform,. training. and. pilot. projects. on. diversion. and. alternative. sentencing,. followed. by. a. two-year. . €. 1.27. million. programme. funded. by. the. European. Commission. focusing. on. the. development. of. correctional.and.probation.services.for.juvenile.offenders.. • Intersectoral mobilization and dialogue:.The.negative.consequences.of.a.governmental.policy.of. ‘zero.tolerance’.towards.crime.adopted.as.the.projects.began.have.been.overcome.through.close. cooperation.with.the.reconstituted.Criminal.Justice.Reform.Inter-Agency.Coordination.Council.. Moldova • Self-correction and extended partnerships:.The.unrealistic.goals.of.a.first.UNICEF.juvenile.justice. project. were. timely. modified. when. new. legislation. came. into. force. and. national. NGOs. played. a. large.role.in.implementing.this.project,.which.strengthened.the.capacity.and.role.of.civil.society.in. the.field.of.juvenile.justice.. • Consulting, consulting, consulting:. A. situation. analysis. prepared. as. part. of. the. first. project. served. to. define. the. aims. of. a. second. project. (2008–2011).. An. intersectoral. Consultative. Council. on. Juvenile. Justice. has. been. established,. and. a. Presidential. decree. calls. for. the. preparation. of. a. National. Programme. of. Juvenile. Justice. Development.. Research. on. the. experiences. of. juvenile. offenders.has.been.conducted.and.will.help.guide.implementation.of.this.project.. Ukraine • Building upon the recommendations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child:. The. situation. analysis. prepared. by. UNICEF. and. related. advocacy. designed. to. reinforce. the. comments. of. the. Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.put.the.issue.of.juvenile.justice.on.the.national.agenda.. • Persevering:.In.a.difficult.political.environment,.UNICEF’s.persistence.and.flexibility.has.maintained. momentum.even.though.delete.several.important.goals.have.not.been.achieved.. • Cooperation with other human rights agencies:.UNICEF.cooperated.effectively.with.the.Office.of. the.United.Nations.High.Commissioner.for.Human.Rights. 12
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE Introduction: Why these Assessments? When. the. Convention. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. was. adopted,. two. decades. ago,. few. if. any. countries.had.juvenile.justice.systems.that.were.fully.compatible.with.the.relevant.provisions.of.the. Convention.. When. States. parties. to. the. Convention. began. to. present. their. implementation. reports. to. the. Committee. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child,. the. Committee. invariably. made. recommendations. concerning. the. need. to. transform. laws,. policies. and. practices. regarding. the. treatment. of. juvenile. offenders,.regardless.of.whether.the.country.was.rich.or.poor,.democratic.or.totalitarian,.from.Africa,. Asia,.Europe.or.the.Americas.. UNICEF. first. began. supporting. juvenile. justice. reform. in. Latin. America. during. the. 1990s.. In. the. CEE/CIS. region,. it. started. supporting. the. development. of. juvenile. justice. systems. at. the. beginning. of. the. new. millennium.. Involvement. in. juvenile. justice. in. this. region. grew. out. of. work. on. de- institutionalization. initiated. during. the. 1990s.. It. also. reflected. support. to. the. participation. of. civil. society.in.the.process.of.monitoring.the.implementation.of.the.Convention..During.a.period.of.severe. economic. crisis. and. social. insecurity,. child. rights. organizations. were. concerned. by. the. repressive. and.often.inhuman.treatment.of.street.children.and.adolescents.involved.in.petty.crime.. The.historic.social,.political.and.economic.transformations.that.coincided.in.Eastern.Europe.and.the. Soviet.Union.with.the.adoption.of.the.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.in.1989.led.to.reforms.of. legislation,.law.enforcement,.and.the.administration.of.justice.and.corrections.on.an.unprecedented. scale.. This. created. unique. opportunities. to. advance. the. human. rights. and. child. rights. agenda.. During. the. 1990s,. juvenile. justice. was. not. a. priority. for. most. countries. in. the. region,. but. most. are. now. engaged. in. the. process. of. developing. juvenile. justice. systems. compatible. with. international. standards..The.recommendations.of.the.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.have.been.instrumental. in.putting.juvenile.justice.on.the.agenda.. UNICEF.began.supporting.activities.related.to.juvenile.justice.in.1998.in.Armenia,.in.2001.in.Georgia. and. Moldova,. in. 2003. in. Ukraine. and. in. 2005. in. Azerbaijan.. Experience. with. de-institutionalization. during. the. 1990s. and. growing. expertise. in. child. rights. have. enabled. UNICEF. to. make. a. special. contribution.to.these.reforms,.with.the.support.of.European.and.other.international.actors.. Among.the.twenty-two.countries.under.the.mandate.of.the.UNICEF.CEE/CIS.Regional.Office,.fifteen. are.members.of.the.Council.of.Europe, 9.two.are.members.of.the.European.Union,10.three.are.European. Union.candidate.countries,11.four.are.European.Union.acceding.countries12.and.six.participate.in.the. European. Neighbourhood. Policy. (ENP).13. Throughout. most. of. the. region,. European. standards. are. as.relevant.as.United.Nations.standards,.and.United.Nations.and.European.actors.are.working.side. by.side.to.support.the.development.of.legal.and.social.institutions.and.policies.that.respect.human. rights.. One.of.UNICEF’s.strengths.is.its.commitment.to.evaluating.the.impact.of.its.interventions..In.2007,.the. UNICEF.CEE/CIS.Regional.Office.decided.to.review.the.experience.of.four.country.activities.in.order. to. identify. lessons. that. could. be. learned. from. their. efforts. to. support. the. development. of. fair. and. 9 . Albania,.Armenia,.Azerbaijan,.Bosnia.and.Herzegovina,.Bulgaria,.Croatia,.Georgia,.Moldova,.Montenegro,.Romania,.the. Russian.Federation,.Serbia,.The.former.Yugoslav.Republic.of.Macedonia,.Turkey.and.Ukraine.. 10 . Bulgaria.and.Romania. 11 . Croatia,.The.former.Yugoslav.Republic.of.Macedonia.and.Turkey. 12 . Albania,.Bosnia.and.Herzegovina,.Montenegro.and.Serbia. 13 . Armenia,.Azerbaijan,.Belarus,.Georgia,.Moldova.and.Ukraine. 13
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES humane.juvenile.justice.systems.14.In.2008,.the.attempt.to.document.the.changes.operated.in.juvenile. justice,. identify. good. practices. and. draw. lessons. continued. with. assessments. of. juvenile. justice. reforms.in.Albania,.Azerbaijan,.Kazakhstan,.Turkey.and.Ukraine..In.2009,.assessments.were.carried. out.in.four.additional.countries.–.Armenia,.Georgia,.Kosovo.and.Moldova..Further.assessments.are. planned.for.2010.15 The. present. overview. summarizes. the. results. of. the. assessments. carried. out. in. five. of. the. six. European.Neighbourhood.Policy.countries:.Azerbaijan.and.Ukraine.(2008).and.Armenia,.Georgia.and. Moldova.(2009)..It.has.two.main.purposes.. The. first. is. to. facilitate. the. sharing. of. information. and. experiences. between. the. UNICEF. country. offices.involved.in.this.area.and.their.partners.in.government.and.civil.society;.to.provide.information. likely. to. help. them. adopt. more. effective. strategies. and. make. more. informed. decisions. about. difficult.policy.questions.arising.in.the.process.of.creating.new.juvenile.justice.systems;.to.identify. successful.experiences.that.can.serve.as.models;.and.to.locate.resources.–.legislation,.programmes,. individual. experts,. training. materials. and. curricula,. and. so. on. –. to. be. used. regionally. as. well. as. locally.. Two. regional. meetings. have. taken. place. and. are. contributing. to. the. creation. of. a. ‘critical. mass’.of.countries.committed.to.the.development.of.juvenile.justice.systems.that.are.both.efficient. and.respectful.of.the.rights.of.children.16. The. second. is. to. share. our. experiences. with. European. and. other. international. agencies,. which. cooperate. in. supporting. the. development. of. juvenile. justice,. or. support. activities. closely. related. to. juvenile. justice,. in. areas. such. as. the. administration. of. justice,. law. enforcement. and. corrections.. While.inter-agency.cooperation.and.coordination.have.not.been.a.focus.of.these.assessments,.they. clearly.demonstrate.the.value.of.good.cooperation.and.coordination.as.well.as.the.risks.of.inadequate. coordination..In.addition,.the.five.countries.covered.by.this.report.have.strong.commonalities.both. in. terms. of. justice. systems. and. policy. priorities.. It. is. important. to. give. juvenile. justice. adequate. attention. and. visibility. in. these. contexts. when. important. budget. support. from. European. partners. aims.at.strengthening.the.rule.of.law.and.democracy..We.need.to.ensure.that.juvenile.offenders.and. children.at.risk.also.benefit.from.broader.reform.agendas.. 14 . See.Thematic Evaluation of UNICEF’s Contribution to Juvenile Justice System Reform in four countries: Montenegro, Romania, Serbia and Tajikistan,.Development.Researchers’.Network.and.UNICEF.CEE/CIS.Regional.Office,.Geneva,.2007. 15 . They.will.include.Bosnia.and.Herzegovina,.The.former.Yugoslav.Republic.of.Macedonia.and.two.Central.Asian.countries.. 16 . The.first.meeting.took.place.in.Geneva.in.July.2008,.and.the.second.in.Istanbul.in.June.2009.. 14
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE Scope and Methodology The.scope.and.methodology.used.for.these.assessments.were.prepared.in.2008.by.an.international. consultant. working. in. close. collaboration. with. concerned. field. UNICEF. child. protection. officers.. In. each.country,.the.international.consultant.and.a.local.consultant.formed.the.assessment.team..The. local.consultant.in.principle.participated.fully.in.all.aspects.of.the.mission,.advised.the.international. consultant.on.national.law.and.other.relevant.matters,.and.participated.in.the.revision.and.finalization. of.the.country.report.17. The. exercise. covered. three. main. areas:. the. process. of. juvenile. justice. reform,. the. juvenile. justice. system,.and.UNICEF’s.support.to.juvenile.justice.reform..A.fourth.area.–.data collection and analysis –. was.added.at.a.later.stage.to.assess.whether.the.national.authorities.have.the.data.needed.to.develop. policies.and.monitor.the.functioning.of.the.various.components.of.juvenile.justice.systems.and,.if.so,. to. what. extent. the. data. are. used. appropriately.. This. allowed. checking. the. relevance. and. utility. of. existing.regional.and.international.indicators.18 Recognizing. the. importance. of. the. experience. and. opinions. of. children. whose. lives. have. been. marked,. for. better. or. worse,. by. contacts. with. juvenile. justice. authorities,. UNICEF. also. decided. to. support.surveys.of.the.experience.of.such.children.in.the.countries.covered.by.the.assessments.. During. each. of. the. two-week. country. missions,. the. assessment. team. interviewed. representatives. of. all. ministries,. agencies. and. institutions. concerned. with. juvenile. justice. –. typically. the. ministries. of.justice.and.internal.affairs,.the.national.police,.the.prison.department,.the.probation.department. or.equivalent,.the.judiciary,.the.office.of.the.prosecutor,.in.some.cases.the.child.welfare.department. or. a. representative. of. the. ministry. of. education,. and. a. representative. of. the. national. juvenile. justice. coordination. council. or. committee,. where. one. exists.. Parliamentarians,. ombudspersons,. representatives.of.institutions.responsible.for.the.training.of.police,.judges.and.prosecutors.as.well. as.national.statistical.agencies.were.interviewed,.whenever.possible.. Representatives.of.national.and.international.non-governmental.organizations.interested.in.juvenile. justice.were.interviewed,.as.were.UNICEF.staff.and.representatives.of.other.United.Nations,.European. or.bilateral.agencies.and.organizations.active.in.areas.such.as.child.rights.and.support.to.law.reform,. administration. of. justice,. prison. reform. and. similar. areas.. Visits. were. made. to. courts,. pretrial. detention.facilities,.juvenile.correctional.facilities,.women’s.prisons.(where.convicted.adolescent.girls. serve. their. sentences),. reform. schools. for. offenders. too. young. to. be. prosecuted. as. juveniles,. and. projects.offering.prevention.services,.diversion,.mediation.or.placement.for.alternative.sentences..A. list.of.persons.interviewed.and.documents.consulted.is.appended.to.each.assessment.. 17 . The.local.consultants.were.Lilit.Petrosyan,.Armenia;.Dr..Nabil.Seyidov,.Azerbaijan;.Teona.Kuchara,.Georgia;.and.Prof.. Vasile.Rotary,.Moldova..(In.Ukraine.the.local.consultant.did.not.participate.fully.in.the.mission.or.drafting.of.the.report.due. to.other.commitments;.in.Georgia.the.local.consultant.was.unable.to.participate.in.part.of.the.mission.for.health.reasons. and.in.Moldova.Prof..Rotaru.was.replaced.by.Prof..V..Zaharia.for.part.of.the.assessment.mission.) 18 . Regional and International Indicators on Juvenile Justice: Their applicability and relevance in selected countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia,.UNICEF.Regional.Office.for.CEE/CIS,.Geneva,.2009. 15
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Context Armenia,.Azerbaijan,.Georgia,.Moldova.and.Ukraine.became.independent.of.the.former.Union.of.Soviet. Socialist.Republics.in.1991..They.are.all.Member.States.of.the.United.Nations,.the.Council.of.Europe,. and.the.Organization.for.Security.and.Co-operation.in.Europe.(OSCE),.and.they.are.all.included.in.the. European. Union’s. European. Neighbourhood. Policy. (ENP).. They. are. all. parties. to. both. the. European. Convention. for. the. Protection. of. Human. Rights. and. Fundamental. Freedoms. and. the. European. Convention.for.the.Prevention.of.Torture.and.Inhuman.or.Degrading.Treatment.or.Punishment.19 They.vary.greatly.in.size.and.economic.and.demographic.indicators.. GNI per capita Population Total Countries (purchasing aged 0–18 Territory 23 population 21 power parity)20 years 22 Armenia US$.6,310 3.08.million 26.per.cent 29,800.km2 Azerbaijan US$.7,770 8.68.million 31.per.cent 86,600.km2 Georgia US$.4,850 4.36.million 22.per.cent 69,700.km2 Moldova US$.3,210 .6.36.million 13.per.cent 33,800.km2 Ukraine US$.7,210 46.26.million 18.per.cent 603,600.km2 The.years.following.independence.were.marked.by.a.sharp.decline.in.social.and.economic.indicators. in. all. of. these. countries.. Even. if. their. economies. have. grown. stronger. during. the. last. decade,. a. significant. part. of. their. populations. remain. in. poverty.. The. population. of. Georgia,. Moldova. and. Ukraine.is.decreasing, 24.and.in.all.five.countries.emigration.is.relatively.high. 25 19 . Armenia.and.Azerbaijan.ratified.both.treaties.in.2002;.Georgia.ratified.the.former.in.1999.and.the.latter.in.2000;.Moldova. ratified.the.former.in.1997.and.the.latter.in.1998;.and.Ukraine.ratified.both.in.1997..See.http://www.conventions.coe.int/ Treaty/Commun/ChercheSig.asp?NT=126&CM = 8&DF=18/03/2010&CL= ENG.accessed.31.May.2010. 20 . World.Bank.Data.Profile,.2008. 21 . Ibid. 22 . United.Nations.Children’s.Fund,.The State of the World’s Children 2009,.UNICEF,.New.York,.2009,.Table.6.(calculation.based. on.total.population.as.per.World.Bank.Data.Profile,.supra). 23 . World.Bank.Data.Profile,.2008. 24 . From.2000.to.2006,.according.to.World.Bank.estimates,.the.population.of.Georgia.has.fallen.by.370,000;.the.population.of. Moldova.has.fallen.by.360,000;.and.that.of.Ukraine.has.fallen.by.3.9.million.. 25 . The.average.emigration.rate.for.the.CEE/CIS.region.is.9.5.per.cent.(United.Nations.Development.Programme,.Human Development Report 2009,.Country.fact.sheets,.UNDP,.2009.).See.http://www.hdr.undp.org/en/countries /alphabetical/,. accessed.31.May.2010. 16
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE Population below national Countries GDP 2000 26 GDP 2008 27 Emigration 29 poverty line 2000–2006 28 Armenia US$.1.91.billion US$.11.96.billion 50.9.per.cent 20.3.per.cent Azerbaijan US$.5.27.billion US$.46.26.billion 49.6.per.cent 14.3.per.cent Georgia US$.3.06.billion US$.12.79.billion 54.5.per.cent 18.3.per.cent Moldova US$.1.29.billion US$.6.05.billion n/a 14.3.per.cent Ukraine US$.31.26.billion US$.180.35.billion 19.5.per.cent 10.9.per.cent Most. of. the. five. countries. were. also. marked. by. political. turmoil. and. armed. conflict.. Conflict. over. Nagorno. Karabakh. broke. out. in. 1991. and. ended. in. 1994. with. the. signing. of. a. peace. agreement. by. Armenia. and. Azerbaijan.. When. Georgia. became. independent,. separatist. conflicts. broke. out. in. Abkhazia.(North-West.Georgia).and.in.South.Ossetia..Ceasefire.agreements.came.into.effect.in.1994. and.1992,.respectively,.but.in.August.2008.Russian.forces.entered.Abkhazia.and.South.Ossetia,.and. the.Russian.Federation.recognized.them.as.independent.States..In.Moldova,.separatist.movements. broke.in.the.Transnistria.region.(Eastern.Moldova).and.in.Gagauzia.(Southern.Moldova)..A.ceasefire. was.negotiated.in.Transnistria.in.1992,.and.the.region.remains.under.the.control.of.an.unrecognized. government..In.1994,.Gagauzia.was.recognized.as.a.semi-autonomous.region.. In. Georgia,. protests. following. national. elections. in. 2003. led. to. the. resignation. of. the. President,. marking. a. transformation. of. national. politics. known. as. the. ‘Rose. Revolution’.. In. Ukraine,. protests. known.as.the.‘Orange.Revolution’.resulted.in.new.presidential.elections.in.2004.and.opened.a.period. of. broad. political,. social,. economic. and. legal. reforms.. In. 2007,. however,. differences. between. the. President.and.the.Prime.Minister.led.to.a.prolonged.political.crisis.in.which.the.adoption.of.legislative. and.other.reforms.was.very.difficult.. In. Armenia,. the. resignation. of. the. President. in. 1998. and. assassination. of. the. Prime. Minister. the. following. year. led. to. several. years. of. political. instability.. Demonstrations. culminating. in. several. deaths. marked. the. most. recent. national. elections,. in. 2008. 30. In. Moldova,. discontent. with. the. 2009.electoral.results.led.to.protests.that.ended.in.the.partial.destruction.of.the.Parliament.and.office. of.the.President.. Offending.increased.significantly.in.three.of.the.five.countries.during.the.decade.after.independence,. according.to.available.data,.but.fell.drastically.during.the.following.decade,.or.the.second.half.of.the. new.decade. 31 26 . The.World.Bank,.World.Development.Indicators.database,.Country.Profiles..See.web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/ DATASTATISTICS/0,,contentMDK:20535285~menuPK:1192694~pagePK:64133150~piPK:64133175~theSitePK:239419,00. html,.accessed.31.May.2010. 27 . Ibid. 28 . UNDP.Country.fact.sheets,.supra. 29 . Ibid. 30 . Commission.of.the.European.Communities,.Implementation.of.the.European.Neighbourhood.Policy.in.2008,.Progress. Report.Armenia,.SEC(2009).511/2,.2009,.p..3. 31 . Data.on.offending.by.juveniles.in.these.countries.are.incomplete,.and.the.data.available.must.be.treated.with.caution.. 17
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES In. Armenia,. for. example,. data. on. offending. for. the. first. two. years. after. independence. are. not. available,. but. for. the. rest. of. the. decade. they. show. that. the. number. of. juvenile. offenders. and. the. number. of. offences. committed. by. juveniles. decreased. from. 1993. to. 1995,. peaked. in. 1997,. then. fell. sharply. in. 1998. and. remained. low. for. the. rest. of. the. decade. 32. The. number. of. offences. registered. by. the. General. Investigative. Department. of. the. Police. of. the. Republic. of. Armenia. in. recent. years. . (2004–2008).suggests.that.the.decline.in.offending.has.continued. 33 Moldova. registered. a. 60. per. cent. increase. in. offending. by. juveniles. during. the. decade. following. independence. 34. The. number. of. juveniles. convicted. of. an. offence. appears. to. have. been. relatively. stable.during.the.1990s,.however,.raising.questions.as.to.the.reliability.or.significance.of.the.increase. in. offending. 35. Offending. by. juveniles. peaked. in. 2004,. and. has. subsequently. fallen. to. below. the. number. reported. in. 1992. –. a. decrease. of. 45. per. cent. over. five. years. 36. The. number. of. homicides,. however,. did. not. diminish. and. the. number. of. rapes. rose. dramatically. 37. In. Ukraine,. the. number. of. offences. committed. by. juveniles. increased. considerably. from. 1992. to. 2003,. and. has. fallen. sharply. since.then. 38.In.Azerbaijan,.data.on.offending.by.juveniles.during.the.years.following.independence. are.not.available,.but.the.number.of.offences.committed.by.juveniles.over.the.last.decade.has.been. relatively. low. and. generally. in. decline. 39. Georgia. is. an. exception:. data. show. a. large. increase. in. convictions.between.2005.and.2006,.when.a.‘zero.tolerance’.policy.towards.crime.was.announced..In. 2005,.475.juveniles.were.convicted.and.104.given.custodial.sentences;.in.2006,.1,002.were.convicted. and.340.given.custodial.sentences.–.i.e.,.123.per.cent.increase.in.convictions.and.325.per.cent.increase. in.custodial.sentences.40.Since.then,.the.number.of.convictions.has.grown.slightly. 41.Many.observers. agree.that.the.upsurge.in.convictions.of.juveniles.in.2006.reflects.a.real.crime.wave.and.cannot.be. attributed. entirely. to. stricter. law. enforcement.. The. fourfold. increase. in. convictions. of. juveniles. for. homicides. and. the. 30. per. cent. increase. in. convictions. for. all. crimes. of. violence. between. 2005. and. 2006.confirm.a.real.escalation.in.serious.offending.by.juveniles.at.that.time.42 32 . 436.offences.committed.by.552.juvenile.offenders.in.1993,.and.420.offences.committed.by.444.juveniles.in.1995;.741. offences.committed.by.975.juveniles.in.1997;.589.offences.committed.by.479.juveniles.in.1998..See.Giles,.G.,.Report on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency in Armenia,.UNICEF.Yerevan,.2001.(hereinafter.‘situation.analysis’),.citing.unpublished. Ministry.of.Justice.data. 33 . 175.offences.committed.by.211.offenders.in.2004;.150.offences.committed.by.185.juveniles.in.2005;.161.offences. committed.by.199.juveniles.in.2006;.189.offences.committed.by.261.juveniles.in.2007.and.174.offences.committed.by.223. juveniles.in.2008.(unpublished.data.provided.to.the.UNICEF.assessment.team.by.the.General.Investigative.Department). 34 . From.1,652.cases.in.1992.to.2,684.in.2001,.according.to.data.cited.in.Juvenile Justice in the Republic of Moldova – Evaluation Report 2002–2003,.UNICEF,.2003,.p..10. 35 . Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Consideration.of.reports.submitted.by.States.parties.under.Article.44.of.the. Convention,.Initial.report.of.the.Republic.of.Moldova,.CRC/C/28/Add.19,.2002,.para..391..There.was.a.sharp.increase.in. convictions.in.2000.and.2001.(1,934.and.1,894,.respectively). 36 . 2,753.in.2004.and.1,502.in.2008,.according.to.the.publication.of.the.National.Bureau.of.Statistics,.The situation of children in the Republic of Moldova in 2008,.No..08-06/126,.2009,.Table.7.. 37 . E.g.,.12.homicides.in.2004.and.the.same.number.in.2008;.25.rapes.in.2004.and.115.in.2008..(For.the.most.recent.data,.see. Bulletin of the Supreme Court of Justice, No. 3,.March.2009.) 38 . Number.of.offences.committed.by.juveniles:.11,620.in.1992;.21,800.in.2003,.11,170.in.2007,.in.Amdzhadin,.L.,.and. Honcharuk,.O.,.Social Practices and Legislation in the Area of Juvenile Delinquency,.National.Academy.of.Sciences,. Institute.of.Sociology,.Centre.of.Social.Expertise,.UNICEF,.Kyiv,.2008..There.has.been.some.controversy.as.to.the. implications.of.these.data.during.recent.years.because.the.threshold.for.theft.depends.on.the.value.of.the.item.stolen,. which.is.affected.by.changes.in.economic.indicators.. 39 . From.601.in.1998.to.485.in.2007..The.lowest.number.during.this.decade.was.412,.in.2003..See.State.Statistical.Committee,. Crimes and Offences in Azerbaijan,.Baku,.2008,.Table.4.2.. 40 . Unpublished.Supreme.Court.data.provided.to.UNICEF.Georgia..Fragmentary.data.from.the.1990s.indicate.that.the.annual. number.of.convictions.was.closer.to.300..See.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Consideration.of.reports.submitted.by. States.parties.under.Article.44.of.the.Convention,.Initial.report.of.Georgia,.CRC/C/41/Add.4/Rev.1,.1998,.para..294. 41 . 1,060.convictions.in.2007.and.1,166.in.2008.–.increase.of.1.per.cent.or.less.. 42 . Ibid..(From.5.to.21.and.from.24.to.82,.respectively.) 18
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE European. Neighbourhood. Policy. Action. Plans. were. adopted. for. Moldova. in. 2005. and. for. Armenia,. Azerbaijan. and. Georgia. in. 2006.. With. one. exception,. they. do. not. contain. aims. specifically. related. to. juvenile. justice.. The. European. Union-Armenia. Action. Plan. contains. a. number. of. objectives,. which.in.principle.should.benefit.juvenile.suspects,.offenders.and.prisoners.as.well.as.adults.(e.g.,. strengthening. the. human. rights. ombudsperson. and. legal. aid. programmes). and. some. objectives. specifically.concerning.children,.but.none.specifically.related.to.juvenile.justice..The.European.Union- Moldova.Action.Plan.contains.several.objectives.regarding.social.programmes.for.children,.but.none. related. to. juvenile. justice,. and. only. a. few. (e.g.,. human. rights. training,. development. of. mediation). that.might.be.expected.to.have.significant.indirect.benefits.for.juvenile.suspects.and.offenders..The. European.Union-Azerbaijan.Action.Plan.does.not.contain.any.objectives.specifically.related.to.juvenile. justice.. The. European. Union-Georgia. Action. Plan,. adopted. in. 2006,. called. for. the. development. and. implementation. of. a. strategy. aiming. to. reform. the. criminal. justice. system. but,. as. indicated. below,. this.strategy.had.negative.as.well.as.positive.consequences.for.juvenile.justice..The.European.Union- Ukraine. Action. Plan. on. Justice,. Freedom. and. Security,. adopted. in. 2007,. is. the. only. plan. in. force. in. any. of. these.countries. to.contain.a. specific. commitment.to.“Ensure. full.implementation.of.juvenile. justice.standards.in.line.with.relevant.international.standards.”43. 43 . European.Union-Ukraine.Action.Plan,.section.2.1(10). 19
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES PART I. Foundational Issues: Policy, Law Reform, Training, Coordination, Data and Research Before. presenting. the. findings. of. the. assessments. undertaken. in. the. five. countries. covered. by. the. present.report,.this.chapter.considers.issues.that.influence.the.development.of.juvenile.justice,.such. as. national. policies,. law. reform,. training,. coordination. mechanisms,. the. collection. and. use. of. data. and.research.. 1. Juvenile justice policy The.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.has.stressed.that.the.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child. “requires.States.parties.to.develop.and.implement.a.comprehensive.juvenile.justice.policy.”44. None.of.the.five.countries.covered.by.the.present.report.have.such.a.policy,.at.present,.and.Georgia. is.the.only.one.to.have.a.juvenile.justice.strategy.document.. In.Georgia,.a.Criminal.Justice.Reform.Strategy.prepared.with.the.support.of.the.European.Union.was. adopted.in.2005,.and.an.action.plan.for.implementing.the.Strategy.was.adopted.in.2006..The.Strategy. contained. components. on. the. police. and. crime. prevention,. prosecution,. legal. aid,. the. courts. and. judiciary,.the.Criminal.Code.and.the.Code.of.Criminal.Procedure,.the.prison.system,.probation,.legal. education.and.the.Public.Defender.(autonomous.human.rights.monitor)..Unfortunately,.it.contained. only.one.brief.mention.of.juveniles,.indicating.that.juvenile.prisoners.shall.enjoy.the.rights.recognized. by.international.human.rights.law. 45. While. many. elements. of. the. Strategy. are. beneficial. for. both. juveniles. and. adults,. some. elements. that.may.be.appropriate.for.adults.(e.g.,.allowing.the.police.to.detain.suspects.for.48.hours.without. a.court.order).are.not.compatible.with.the.rights.of.juveniles. 46.The.proposed.introduction.of.trial.by. jury.for.persons.accused.of.serious.offences.is.another.example.of.a.reform.that.is.inappropriate.for. the. trial. of. juveniles. 47. The. section. of. the. Strategy. on. crime. prevention. makes. no. special. reference. to.juveniles..The.action.plan.even.called.for.the.establishment.of.a.correctional.facility.for.offenders. aged. 12−14. years,. although. both. UNICEF. and. the. Committee. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. opposed. bringing.children.under.age.14.into.juvenile.justice.precisely.because.no.such.facility.existed. 48. Failure. to. take. into. account. the. special. needs. of. children. in. the. preparation. of. the. Criminal. Justice. Reform.Strategy.was.a.lost.opportunity..Moreover,.it.led.to.a.situation.where.advocacy.for.the.reforms. 44 . Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Children’s.rights.in.juvenile.justice,.General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.2007,. paras..4−5. 45 . Strategy.for.the.Reform.of.the.Criminal.Legislation.of.Georgia,.Tbilisi,.2005,.p..17. 46 . The.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.has.indicated.that.children.taken.into.custody.must.be.presented.within.24. hours.to.a.court.or.other.authority.having.competence.to.determine.the.legality.of.the.deprivation.of.liberty..See.General. Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.para..83. 47 . The.participation.of.a.jury.–.lay.persons.whose.role.is.to.represent.the.community.−.does.not.seem.in.harmony.with.the. principle.that.proceedings.concerning.accused.juveniles.should.be.confidential.(Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,. Article.40(2)(b)(vii);.United.Nations.Standard.Minimum.Rules.for.the.Administration.of.Juvenile.Justice.(the.Beijing.Rules),. Rule.8;.and.General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.paras..64−66),.nor.with.the.principle.that.courts.that.try.juvenile. offenders.should.be.specialized.(General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.paras..40.and.93)..Trial.by.jury.is.rare.in. juvenile.courts,.in.jurisdictions.where.jury.trials.are.recognized.as.a.right.of.the.defendant.in.ordinary.criminal.cases..One. article.about.juvenile.justice.in.the.United.States.indicated.that.only.16.states.(out.of.50).allow.jury.trials.for.juveniles,.and. the.actual.use.of.juries.is.not.common.(see.Ainsworth,.Janet.E.,.‘Re-imagining.Childhood.and.Reconstructing.the.Legal. Order:.The.Case.for.Abolishing.the.Juvenile.Court’,.in.S..Randall.Humm,.et.al.,.eds.,.Child, Parent, and State,.University.of. Pennsylvania.Press,.1994).. 48 . In.2010,.the.legislation.was.amended.to.return.the.minimum.age.for.prosecution.to.14.years. 20
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE needed. to. make. the. justice. system. compatible. with. the. rights. of. juveniles. required. introducing. modifications.into.the.larger.reform.process.. A. Juvenile. Justice. Working. Group. was. established. to. prepare. a. national. strategy. and. action. plan.. The. Strategy. was. adopted. in. May. 2009.. It. is. comprehensive,. addresses. the. need. for. prevention,. diversion,. reduction. of. pretrial. detention,. more. ‘child-friendly’. hearings,. greater. use. of. alternative. sentences. (including. community. service. and. restorative. justice),. improved. conditions. in. detention. and. correctional. facilities,. reform. of. the. early. release. system,. programmes. to. assist. offenders. continue.their.education.or.find.employment.and.the.further.training.of.juvenile.justice.professionals.. The.Strategy.responds.positively.to.many.of.the.recommendations.of.the.Committee.on.the.Rights.of. the.Child.as.well.as.to.recommendations.made.by.the.situation.analysis.and.this.report..In.particular,. it. calls. for. the. minimum. age. for. prosecution. as. a. juvenile. to. be. raised. to. 14. years.. It. is. based. on. a. frank. assessment. of. recent. data. on. offending. and. sentencing,. while. also. recognizing. the. need. to. collect.data.on.additional.indicators.and.to.improve.the.reliability.of.data.. In. Moldova,. no. national. policy. on. juvenile. justice. has. been. adopted.. A. national. Strategy. for. Strengthening.the.Judicial.System.was.approved.by.the.Parliament.in.2007,.as.part.of.the.government’s. commitments.to.the.European.Union. 49.“Streamlining.the.system.of.justice.for.minors”.is.one.of.the. nine. components. of. the. Strategy. 50. Four. specific. objectives/activities. are. identified:. evaluate. the. needs.in.terms.of.staff.and.infrastructure;.reform.the.law.to.increase.due.process.and.simplify.legal. proceedings;.improve.the.specialization.of.judges.and.train.staff;.and.establish.the.infrastructure.for.a. well.functioning.juvenile.justice.system. 51.This.section.calls.for.improvement.in.cases.in.which.children. are.victims.or.in.which.they.are.accused..Some.aims.mentioned.in.other.sections.of.the.Strategy,.in. particular.reducing.the.delay.in.trials,.would.also.be.very.beneficial.for.juvenile.defendants.. These.aims.are.good,.although.their.real.value.depends.on.the.kind.of.measures.adopted.to.achieve. them,. which. are. not. identified.. The. explicit. call. for. the. creation. of. specialized. economic. courts. throughout.the.country.in.another.section,.for.example,.contrasts.with.the.vagueness.of.references. to.specialization.and.to.the.establishment.of.a.juvenile.justice.system.. The. National. Development. Strategy. for. the. years. 2008–2011. calls. for. the. strengthening. of. juvenile. justice,.in.particular.by.“Improving.the.legislative.framework.in.the.area.of.minors’.rights.protection. by.developing.proposals.for.uniform.regulation.aimed.at.streamlining.proceedings.and.increasing.the. procedural.guaranties.granted.to.minors.[and].Creating.the.infrastructure.for.the.proper.functioning. of.juvenile.justice.by.a.specialization.of.judges.and.other.categories.of.staff.within.the.judicial.system. and. by. creating. a. documentation. and. information. centre. accessible. to. professionals. in. the. area. of. juvenile.justice.”52.These.goals.are.vague,.but.very.relevant.. The. Strategy. also. recommends. that. the. police. prevent. offending. through. “special. measures. and. programmes. for. minors. and. their. families. living. in. an. environment. with. an. increased. risk. of. delinquency...”53. Recognition. that. more. needs. to. be. done. to. prevent. offending. is. positive,. but. the. failure.to.recognize.that.a.much.more.comprehensive,.evidence-based.approach.is.necessary.confirms. the.importance.of.improved.advocacy.on.prevention.. 49 . Judiciary.System.Strengthening.Strategy,.adopted.by.the.Parliament.of.Moldova.in.Decision.No..174-XVI.of.19.July.2007. 50 . Ibid.,.Annex,.section.7. 51 . Ibid.,.section.7(d). 52 . National.Development.Strategy.for.the.years.2008–2011,.adopted.by.Law.No..295-XVI.of.21.December.2007,.section. 1.2.3(iv). 53 . Ibid.,.section.1.1.3(vi). 21
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES In.Armenia,.there.is.no.national.strategy.on.juvenile.justice.per se..The.National.Plan.for.the.Protection. of.the.Rights.of.the.Child.2004–2015.does.call.for.the.“establish[ment].of.a.juvenile.justice.system.”54. Part.VII,.on.‘Violation.of.law.and.justice’.calls,.inter alia,.for.greater.use.of.alternative.sentences,.the. reduction. in. the. number. of. juveniles. in. the. correctional. system. and. better. cooperation. among. the. responsible. ministries. and. between. the. statistical. and. correctional. services. 55. Some. of. these. aims. have.been.achieved.. The.National.Programme.for.the.Prevention.of.Crime.2008–2012.also.includes.activities.specifically. designed. to. prevent. offending. by. juveniles.. There. are. still,. however,. a. number. of. policy. questions. that.need.to.be.resolved.–.ideally.in.the.context.of.a.coherent.and.comprehensive.strategy.on.juvenile. offending.and.juvenile.justice.. In. Ukraine,. a. presidential. decree. calling. for. the. creation. of. a. juvenile. justice. system. was. issued. in. 2008. 56.Thus.far,.however,.the.plan.called.for.by.the.decree.has.not.yet.been.finalized.and.adopted.. In.Azerbaijan,.there.is.no.document.containing.a.national.policy.on.juvenile.justice.. 2. Law reform The. need. for. legislation. and. other. legal. standards. specifically. concerning. juvenile. offenders. is. recognized.by.the.Beijing.Rules,.“Efforts.shall.be.made.to.establish,.in.each.national.jurisdiction,.a. set.of.laws,.rules.and.provisions.specifically.applicable.to.juvenile.offenders…”57.This.provision.was. incorporated.into.Article.40(3).of.the.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.which.provides,.“States. Parties. shall. seek. to. promote. the. establishment. of. laws,. procedures,. authorities. and. institutions. specifically.applicable.to.children.alleged.as,.accused.of,.or.recognized.as.having.infringed.the.penal. law…”. The. Committee. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. has. recognized. the. importance. of. law. reform. in. establishing.juvenile.justice.systems,.and.has.recommended.that.international.standards.on.juvenile. justice,.in.particular.the.United.Nations.Rules.for.the.Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty,. be.“incorporate[d].….into….national.law.and.regulations.”58 None. of. the. five. countries. have. a. framework. law. on. juvenile. justice.. The. legal. framework. for. juvenile. justice. must. be. constructed. from. the. relevant. provisions. of. the. criminal. code,. the. code. of. criminal. procedure,. legislation. on. prisons. and. other. sentences,. such. as. probation,. legislation. on. administration.offences.and.legislation.on.child.protection.. In. all. of. these. countries,. new. criminal. codes. and. codes. of. criminal. procedure. have. been. adopted. during.the.last.two.decades..In.Armenia.and.Georgia,.new.codes.on.the.execution.of.sentences.also. have. been. adopted.. Other. new. legislation. that. affects. juvenile. justice. adopted. during. this. period. includes.the.Law.on.Probation.and.the.Law.on.Mediation.approved.in.Moldova.. Some. of. this. legislation. led. to. significant. improvements. in. juvenile. justice.. The. Criminal. Code. adopted.by.Moldova.in.2002,.for.example,.provides.that.prison.sentences.are.no.longer.mandatory. for. convicted. juveniles. who. are. not. first. offenders,. and. the. new. Code. of. Criminal. Procedure. limits. 54 . National.Plan.for.the.Protection.of.the.Rights.of.the.Child.2004–2015,.UNICEF,.Yerevan,.2005,.p..5. 55 . Ibid.,.pp..16.and.17. 56 . Presidential.Decree.No..411/2008.of.5.May.2008.on.Measures.to.Ensure.Protection.of.Rights.and.Legal.Interests.of.Children.. Para..8(2).mandated.the.Ministry.of.Justice.to.“during.the.first.half.of.2008.develop.a.draft.of.the.National.Programme.of. Juvenile.Justice.Development.” 57 . United.Nations.Standard.Minimum.Rules.for.the.Administration.of.Juvenile.Justice.(the.Beijing.Rules),.Rule.2.3. 58 . General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.paras..88,.90.and.91. 22
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE pretrial.detention.to.juveniles.accused.of.a.serious.offence.and.reduces.from.six.to.four.months.the. length. of. time. a. juvenile. may. be. detained. before. trial.. However,. other. provisions. of. the. new. codes. made. the. juvenile. justice. system. harsher.. The. new. Moldovan. Criminal. Code,. for. example,. greatly. expanded.the.number.of.offences.for.which.juveniles.aged.14.or.15.years.could.be.prosecuted,.from. 39.exceptionally.serious.crimes.to.over.100.serious.crimes..It.also.increased.from.10.to.15.years.the. maximum.sentence.for.many.offences.and.restricted.to.certain.offences.the.discretion.of.the.court.to. suspend.sentences. 59 It. is. not. easy. to. develop. a. juvenile. justice. system. fully. compatible. with. international. standards. through. legislation. drafted. primarily. with. adult. offenders. in. mind.. In. particular,. it. is. difficult. to. identify. all. the. provisions. that. should. be. adapted. or. qualified,. in. order. to. ensure. their. compliance. with.the.rights.of.children.. The. experience. of. these. countries. provides. examples.. Criminal. codes,. for. example,. often. contain. provisions.to.the.effect.that.the.commission.of.an.offence.jointly.with.other.persons,.or.victimizing. a.child,.are.aggravating.factors.that.must.be.taken.into.account.in.sentencing..Committing.offences. under.the.influence.of.peers.or.adults.should.be.a.mitigating.factor.for.adolescents.as.they.lack.adults’. capacity.to.resist.such.pressures..Similarly,.when.adolescents.commit.offences.in.which.the.victims. are.also.adolescents,.the.legal.consequences.should.not.be.the.same.as.when.adults.victimize.a.child.. Insofar. as. criminal. procedures. are. concerned,. the. limits. to. the. duration. of. various. stages. of. legal. proceedings.are.the.same.for.adults.and.juveniles,.regardless.of.whether.the.suspect/accused.is.at. liberty.or.in.detention..Even.if.the.law.recognizes.the.general.principle.that.the.detention.of.juveniles. shall. be. exceptional. and. for. the. shortest. appropriate. period. of. time,. practitioners. (especially. judges. and. prosecutors). generally. pay. more. attention. to. concrete. rules. than. general. principles.. Since. deprivation. of. liberty. has. a. greater. impact. on. juveniles. than. adults,. most. juveniles. are. not. autonomous. members. of. society. but. reside. with. their. families,. and. most. offences. committed. by. juveniles.are.not.difficult.to.investigate,.there.should.be.separate.rules.on.the.duration.of.proceedings. concerning.juveniles,.especially.when.they.are.deprived.of.liberty.. A.final.example,.concerning.juveniles.serving.sentences:.most.legislation.allows.solitary.confinement. as.a.disciplinary.measure,.albeit.for.a.shorter.period.than.for.adults..The.United.Nations.Rules.for.the. Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty.classifies.solitary.confinement.of.juveniles.as.cruel,. inhuman.or.degrading.treatment,.and.the.European.Rules.for.juvenile.offenders.subject.to.sanctions. or.measures.also.bans.solitary.confinement.of.juvenile.prisoners.60 All. of. these. issues. could,. of. course,. be. resolved. by. amending. the. criminal. code,. code. of. criminal. procedure. or. legislation.on. prisons..The.point.is. that. they.illustrate.how. difficult.it.is. to. bring. such. codes.completely.into.compliance.with.the.rights.of.children..Experts.in.juvenile.justice.and.juvenile. corrections.generally.have.a.minor.role.in.the.drafting.of.such.laws..And.once.a.new.criminal.code. or.code.of.criminal.procedure.has.been.drafted,.or.adopted,.so.much.is.at.stake.that.resistance.may. be.considerable.to.making.the.amendments.needed.to.ensure.conformity.with.the.rights.of.children.. Furthermore,.when.the.only.legal.standards.concerning.juvenile.justice.are.contained.in.codes.having. broader.aims.and.application,.it.is.more.difficult.to.develop.a.coherent.legal.framework.covering.all. aspects.of.juvenile.justice,.from.prevention.to.rehabilitation.. 59 . Juvenile Justice in the Republic of Moldova – Evaluation Report 2002–2003,.supra,.p..18,.comparing.Article.43.of.the.old. Code.with.Article.90.of.the.new.Code.enacted.in.2003,.which.restricted.this.option.to.intentional.offences.punishable.by. sentences.of.five.years.and.non-intentional.offences.by.sentences.of.up.to.seven.years.. 60 . United.Nations.Rules.for.the.Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty.(Havana.Rules),.Rule.67;.European.Rules.for. juvenile.offenders.subject.to.sanctions.or.measures,.Rule.95.3. 23
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Laws.specifically.on.juveniles.are.necessarily.complimentary.to.other.laws..No.law.on.juvenile.justice. contains.a.list.of.offences.that.supplants.offences.defined.in.the.criminal.code,.for.example..Nor.do. juvenile.justice.laws.guarantee.the.existence.of.a.juvenile.justice.system.that.is.completely.coherent. with.the.relevant.international.standards..Juvenile.justice.laws.that.are.too.general.may.not.resolve.all. the.problems.arising.from.incongruent.provisions.of.complimentary.legislation..Nevertheless,.they. deserve.more.serious.consideration.as.a.possibly.more.appropriate.method.for.developing.a.juvenile. justice. system. whose. component. parts. fit. together. well. and. are. based. on. a. greater. awareness. of. international. standards. and. deeper. understanding. of. the. needs. and. characteristics. of. children. at. risk,. juvenile. suspects,. accused. juveniles,. juvenile. witnesses. and. victims,. and. juveniles. offenders,. probationers,.prisoners.and.former.prisoners.. 3. Intersectoral coordination The response to juvenile delinquency should be planned, coordinated and delivered by local partnerships comprising the key public agencies – police, probation, youth and social welfare, judicial, education, employment, health and housing authorities – and the voluntary and private sector. Council of Europe, Recommendation Rec(2003)20 of the Committee of Ministers to member states concerning new ways of dealing with juvenile delinquency and the role of juvenile justice, para. 21. The.effective.functioning.of.a.juvenile.justice.system.requires.cooperation.between.or.coordination.of. the.activities.of.many.independent.agencies.and.institutions,.including.the.police,.prosecutors,.courts,. probation.services,.the.correctional.system,.child.welfare/child.protection/child.rights.authorities,.the. educational.system.and.civil.society..Cooperation.between.some.of.these.actors.may.be.spontaneous,. but.good.cooperation.across.all.the.agencies.and.institutions.that.play.a.part.in.juvenile.justice.cannot. be. ensured. without. a. coordination. mechanism.. As. a. government. official. in. one. of. the. countries. covered.by.this.report.said.to.the.UNICEF.assessment.team,.“Each.sector.works.separately….there.is. no.teamwork.”.An.NGO.representative.agreed,.stating,.“More.continuity.of.services.is.needed.” Most.countries.covered.by.this.report.have.established.such.bodies..In.Azerbaijan,.a.Juvenile.Justice. Task. Force. was. established. after. the. 2008. UNICEF. assessment. mission.61. The. Task. Force. meets. quarterly.and.has.been.working.on.a.new.draft.law.on.juvenile.justice,.regulations,.indicators.and.the. evaluation.of.a.pilot.project.on.diversion.. In.Georgia,.a.Criminal.Justice.Reform.Inter-Agency.Coordination.Council.was.established.by.Presidential. decree. in. December. 2008.62. The. Inter-Agency. Council. in. turn. established. a. Juvenile. Justice. Working. Group.63.Its.mandate.included.the.development.and.adoption.of.a.juvenile.justice.strategy.“in.line.with. international.standards.(CRC.recommendations)”.and.an.implementation.action.plan.aiming.to.improve. the.living.conditions.and.access.to.education.of.juvenile.prisoners.and.detainees,.to.develop.a.programme. 61 . Members.include.the.Ministry.of.Justice,.the.Ministry.of.Internal.Affairs,.the.Ministry.of.Education,.the.Ministry.of.Labour. and.Social.Protection,.the.State.Committee.on.Family,.Women.and.Children’s.Affairs,.the.Office.of.the.Prosecutor.General,. the.Commissioner.for.Human.Rights.(Ombudsperson),.members.of.Parliament,.the.NGO.Alliance.for.Children’s.Rights.and. international.agencies,.including.the.Office.of.the.High.Commissioner.for.Human.Rights,.(OHCHR),.the.Organization.for. Security.and.Co-operation.in.Europe.(OSCE).and.UNICEF..The.judiciary.and.the.university.are.not.represented. 62 . Members.include.high-ranking.representatives.of.the.Ministry.of.Justice,.the.Ministry.of.Internal.Affairs,.the.Ministry. of.Education.and.Science,.the.Ministry.of.Health,.Labour.and.Social.Affairs,.the.Penitentiary.Department,.the.Probation. Service,.the.Legal.Aid.Service,.the.General.Prosecutor,.the.Parliament,.the.Supreme.Court.and.the.Public.Defender.. Representatives.of.civil.society.and.the.international.community,.including.UNICEF,.also.participate.in.the.work.of.the. Council. 63 . It.has.18.members,.nearly.evenly.divided.between.national.authorities,.international.organizations.and.civil.society,. including.the.Ministry.of.Internal.Affairs,.the.Ministry.of.Justice,.the.Penitentiary.Department,.the.Probation.Service,. the.Legal.Committee.of.Parliament,.the.Public.Defender,.UNICEF,.the.European.Commission,.OSCE.and.Penal.Reform. International.(PRI). 24
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE for.the.training.of.probation.officers.working.with.juveniles.and.to.prepare.relevant.inputs.for.the.2010. national.budget..The.Juvenile.Justice.Working.Group.is.playing.a.positive,.dynamic.role,.and.is.largely. responsible.for.a.2010.amendment.to.the.Criminal.Code.increasing.the.minimum.age.for.prosecution.64. In. three. countries,. such. bodies. have. been. set. up,. but. have. had. limited. impact.. In. Ukraine,. a. Consultative. Council. on. Juvenile. Justice. was. established. in. 2006.. The. Secretariat. of. the. Council. is. provided. by. the. Parliament’s 65. Institute. of. Legislation.66. The. Council. is. a. useful. forum. for. the. exchange.of.information.and.ideas,.but.does.not.seem.to.have.played.a.leading.role.in.reform.thus. far.. In. Moldova,. a. National. Council. for. the. Protection. of. the. Rights. of. the. Child. was. established. in. 1998.67.In.2001,.the.Council.established.a.Juvenile.Justice.Working.Group..Both.the.Council.and.the. Working. Group. became. inactive. when. international. funding. ceased.. In. Armenia,. the. National. Child. Protection.Committee.has.a.mandate.to.“submit.proposals.on.activities.of.state.governance.bodies. and. non-governmental. organizations. related. to. prevention. of. juvenile. delinquency.”. It. has. not. met. regularly,.however,.apparently.due.to.lack.of.political.commitment.. In. conclusion,. intersectoral. coordination. bodies. can. play. a. valuable. role. in. the. development. of. juvenile.justice,.provided.there.is.a.sense.of.ownership.amongst.the.participating.national.agencies. and. institutions. and. sufficient. political. commitment. to. juvenile. justice. and. the. role. of. the. body. in. question..Participation.of.civil.society.and.strong,.sustainable.leadership.by.the.chair.or.secretariat. have.been.key.factors.in.the.success.of.such.bodies.. 4. Training and capacity-building The.importance.of.interdisciplinary.training.for.the.staff.of.agencies.and.institutions.that.form.part. of. the. juvenile. justice. system. has. long. been. recognized.. The. Beijing. Rules. provides,. “Professional. education,.in-service.training,.refresher.courses.and.other.appropriate.modes.of.instruction.shall.be. utilized. to. establish. and. maintain. the. necessary. professional. competence. of. all. personnel. dealing. with. juvenile. cases.”. The. commentary. to. this. rule. adds. that. training. for. judges. should. include. sociology,.psychology,.criminology.and.behavioural.sciences,.in.addition.to.law.. The.Beijing.Rules.also.singles.out.the.need.to.train.police.officers,.“…police.officers.who.frequently. or. exclusively. deal. with. juveniles. or. who. are. primarily. engaged. in. the. prevention. of. juvenile. crime. shall.be.specially.instructed.and.trained.”68 Insofar. as. the. staff. of. detention. and. correctional. facilities. for. juveniles. is. concerned,. the. United. Nations. Rules. for. the. Protection. of. Juveniles. Deprived. of. their. Liberty. provides,. “The. personnel. should. receive. such. training. as. will. enable. them. to. carry. out. their. responsibilities. effectively,. in. particular.training.in.child.psychology,.child.welfare.and.international.standards.and.norms.of.human. rights. and. the. rights. of. the. child,. including. the. present. Rules.. The. personnel. should. maintain. and. improve.their.knowledge.and.professional.capacity.by.attending.courses.of.in-service.training,.to.be. organized.at.suitable.intervals.throughout.their.career.”69 64 . See.section.on.law.reform,.p..24. 65 . The.Parliament.is.also.called,.in.English,.the.Supreme.Rada.or.Supreme.Council. 66 . Participants.include.the.Supreme.Court,.the.Ministry.of.Justice,.the.Ministry.of.Family,.Youth.and.Sport,.the.State. Department.of.Penal.Implementation,.the.Office.of.the.General.Prosecutor,.the.juvenile.police,.UNICEF.and.selected.NGOs.. 67 . Members.include.the.Ministry.of.Justice,.the.Ministry.of.the.Interior,.the.Ministry.of.Social.Protection,.Family.and.Child,.the. Ministry.of.Education.and.Youth.and.representatives.of.the.Supreme.Court,.the.General.Prosecutor’s.Office,.UNICEF.and. NGOs. 68 . United.Nations.Standard.Minimum.Rules.for.the.Administration.of.Juvenile.Justice.(the.Beijing.Rules),.Rules.21.1.and.12.1. 69 . United.Nations.Rules.for.the.Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty.(Havana.Rules),.Rule.85. 25
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES In.most.of.these.countries,.a.considerable.amount.of.training.has.been.provided,.especially.during. the. last. decade.. Initially,. this. was. achieved. through ad hoc. training. activities,. often. supported. by. international. agencies,. and. frequently. drawing. on. the. expertise. of. civil. society. experts. and. NGOs.. The. issue. now. is. the. incorporation. of. training. in. child. rights,. juvenile. justice. and. related. issues. into. the. curricula. of. the. institutions. responsible. for. the. training. of. judges,. prosecutors,. police. and. correctional.officers..This.process.is.more.advanced.in.some.countries.than.others.. In.Armenia,.the.topic.of.child.rights.has.been.incorporated.into.the.curriculum.of.the.Police.Academy,. and.a.manual.on.the.treatment.of.juvenile.offenders.and.child.victims.of.crime.is.in.use..In.Azerbaijan,. the.training.institutes.operated.by.the.judiciary,.the.police.and.the.Ministry.of.Justice.have.incorporated. training. in. juvenile. justice. into. their. curricula. in. some. way.. In. Moldova,. the. training. programme. for. judges.and.prosecutors.of.the.National.Institute.of.Justice.includes.a.32-hour.course.on.juvenile.justice.. In.Georgia.and.Ukraine,.training.materials.have.been.developed..While.a.great.deal.of.ad hoc.training.has. taken.place,.training.had.not.yet.been.institutionalized.at.the.time.of.the.UNICEF.assessment.missions. Another. issue. is. whether. professionals. involved. in. juvenile. justice. are. formally. required. to. have. certain.training,.or.demonstrate.certain.knowledge.or.competences..In.Azerbaijan,.the.law.requires. that. all. judges. dealing. with. accused. juveniles. receive. appropriate. training.. In. Georgia,. the. training. centre. for. correctional. staff. and. probation. officers. has. developed. a. special. eight-hour. course. on. juveniles..Internal.regulations.stipulate.that.correctional.staff.should.be.trained.70.A.test.is.applied.at. the.end.of.the.training..Staff.members.whose.score.does.not.meet.minimum.standards.are.given.a. second.chance,.but.those.who.fail.on.the.second.exam.are.dismissed.. The.relevance,.quality.and.effectiveness.of.training.is.another.important.issue..In.general,.anecdotal. evidence.suggests.that.the.training.of.the.police,.judges.and.prison.staff.has.had.a.positive.impact.. Actual.training.evaluations.are.rare,.however..One.exception.was.an.evaluation.of.the.police.officers’. training.carried.out.in.Azerbaijan,.which.is.described.below.as.a.‘good.practice’.. Good practice: Impact evaluation of police training in Azerbaijan Two.hundred.officers.who.participated.in.one.or.more.training.activities.were.interviewed.as. part.of.an.independent.assessment.on.the.impact.of.the.training..Although.most.respondents. (85. per. cent). evaluated. the. training. positively,. only. 50. per. cent. declared. that. they. used. the. information.acquired.“often,”.21.per.cent.said.that.they.“never”.used.it.and.30.per.cent.that. they. used. it. “sometimes.”71. In. response. to. another. question,. 79. per. cent. of. the. respondents. considered. most. of. the. materials. presented. as. “inapplicable”. in. their. daily. work. and. 15. per. cent.found.that.the.course.was.“too.far.from.our.reality”.or.“too.theoretical.and.not.suitable. for. practical. use.”72. Among. the. factors. that. interfere. with. the. application. of. the. information. acquired. during. trainings,. the. respondents. mentioned. deficiencies. in. the. law,. the. lack. of. necessary.conditions.and.staff.turnover.73 These.results.were.taken.into.account.by.the.NGO.Alliance.for.Children’s.Rights.in.designing. the.training.programme.that.was.subsequently.incorporated.into.the.curriculum.of.the.Police. Academy.. 70 . Department.heads.are.exempt.. 71 . Assessment.of.effectiveness.of.training.for.police.inspectors.on.international.juvenile.justice.standards,.SIGMA.Survey. Centre,.Baku,.undated,.p..17. 72 . Ibid.,.p..19. 73 . Ibid.,.p..20. 26
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE In.conclusion,.a.great.deal.of.training.has.taken.place.and,.in.three.of.the.five.countries,.substantial. progress.has.been.achieved.in.incorporating.the.juvenile.justice-related.subjects.into.the.curriculum. of.relevant.training.institutions..In.the.two.countries.where.progress.has.lagged.behind,.the.matter.is. at.least.on.the.agenda.. Issues. revealing. large. discrepancies. in. the. practice. and. calling. for. more. attention. include:. which. officials. have. to. be. trained,. how. much. training. is. needed. and. what. kind. of. training. should. be. provided.. Where. in-service. training. is. mandatory,. requirements. to. demonstrate. certain. knowledge. or.competences.in.order.to.remain.qualified.are.rare.. Although.there.is.considerable.anecdotal.evidence.highlighting.the.positive.impact.of.training,.some. observers.remain.critical.and.have.commented.that.training.is.often.seen.as.a.formality,.or.that.only. younger. professionals. volunteer. for. optional. training.. Uncertainty. as. to. the. real. impact. of. training. stresses.the.importance.of.permanently.monitoring.its.effectiveness.. 5. Data management and research For.policies,.legislation.and.plans.regarding.juvenile.offending.and.juvenile.justice.to.be.effective,.it. is.essential.that.they.be.based.on.relevant.and.accurate.information..This.has.long.been.recognized.. Beijing. Rule. 30. on. ‘Research. as. a. basis. for. planning,. policy. formulation. and. evaluation’. provides,. “Efforts.shall.be.made.to.organize.and.promote.necessary.research.as.a.basis.for.effective.planning. and.policy.formulation..Efforts.shall.be.made.to.review.and.appraise.periodically.the.trends,.problems. and.causes.of.juvenile.delinquency.and.crime.as.well.as.the.varying.particular.needs.of.juveniles.in. custody.. Efforts. shall. be. made. to. establish. a. regular. evaluative. research. mechanism. built. into. the. system.of.juvenile.justice.administration.and.to.collect.and.analyse.relevant.data.and.information.for. appropriate.assessment.and.future.improvement.and.reform.of.the.administration.”. Reflecting.on.fourteen.years.of.experience.in.reviewing.States.parties.reports.on.the.implementation. of.the.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.the.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.wrote,.“The. Committee.is.deeply.concerned.about.the.lack.of.even.basic.and.disaggregated.data.on,.inter.alia,.the. number.and.nature.of.offences.committed.by.children,.the.use.and.the.average.duration.of.pretrial. detention,.the.number.of.children.dealt.with.by.resorting.to.measures.other.than.judicial.proceedings. (diversion),. the. number. of. convicted. children. and. the. nature. of. the. sanctions. imposed. on. them.. The. Committee. urges. the. States. parties. to. systematically. collect. disaggregated. data. relevant. to. the. information. on. the. practice. of. the. administration. of. juvenile. justice,. and. necessary. for. the. development,.implementation.and.evaluation.of.policies.and.programmes.aiming.at.the.prevention. and.effective.responses.to.juvenile.delinquency.in.full.accordance.with.the.principles.and.provisions. of.the.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.” 74 5.1. Data collection and publication In. Armenia,. data. concerning. juvenile. justice. are. compiled. by. at. least. four. agencies:. the. Police. of. RA,. the. General. Prosecutor’s. Office,. the. Judicial. Department. and. the. Penitentiary. Department. of. the.Ministry.of.Justice..None.of.these.data.are.published.regularly,.but.they.are.not.confidential.and. are. provided. to. interested. NGOs. and. international. organizations. on. request.. The. data. collected. by. these. institutions. concern. the. core. of. the. juvenile. justice. system.. They. do. not. include. information. on. the. placement. of. children. at. risk. and. younger. offenders. in. the. special. schools. or. the. Children’s. Support.Centre,.nor.on.children.diverted.to.community-based.programmes.such.as.the.Community. Justice.Centres..One.of.the.functions.of.the.newly.established.Child.Protection.Units.is.to.maintain. 74 . General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.para..98. 27
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES a. database. on. ‘beggar,. vagrant. and. delinquent. adolescents’,. although. at. the. time. of. the. UNICEF. assessment.mission.the.directive.had.not.been.implemented.75.Data.are.not.centralized..This.tends.to. confirm.that.they.are.not.used.to.inform.comprehensive.national.policies.on.juvenile.offending.and. juvenile.justice.. In. Azerbaijan,. data. on. offending. are. collected. by. the. Ministry. of. Internal. Affairs,. the. Ministry. of. Justice. and. the. Office. of. the. Prosecutor. General.. Since. 2004,. the. State. Statistical. Committee. has. published.an.annual.bilingual.compilation.of.data.received.from.these.sources,.entitled.Crimes and Offence in Azerbaijan, which.contains.a.great.deal.of.valuable.data.. In. Georgia,. data. on. offending. by. juveniles. and. the. operation. of. juvenile. justice. are. very. limited,. and. reliable. information. even. more. so.. Only. the. Supreme. Court. regularly. publishes. relevant. data,. which.are.limited.to.convicted.juveniles.76.No.official.data.are.released.on.a.regular.basis.on.reported. offending. by. juveniles,. nor. on. the. number. of. juveniles. arrested,. charged,. prosecuted,. detained. before. trial. or. serving. sentences.. Information. issued. on. an. ad hoc. basis,. even. recent. information,. reveals.significant.discrepancies..According.to.the.Ministry.of.Justice,.there.are.plans.to.develop.a. case.management.data.system.that.will.also.be.used.to.generate.data.on.all.key.aspects.of.juvenile. justice.. In. Moldova,. data. on. juvenile. justice. are. compiled. and. published. separately. by. the. Ministry. of. the. Interior. and. the. Ministry. of. Justice.. A. UNICEF. document. prepared. in. 2002. observed,. “Statistical. data. gathering. on. children. in. the. justice. system. is. in. complete. disarray. …. with. insufficient. and. contradictory. information.”77. In. 2003,. the. Superior. Council. of. the. Magistracy. began. to. publish. data. on. juvenile. offenders. and,. in. 2004,. the. National. Bureau. of. Statistics. started. compiling. and. releasing.some.data.from.these.three.sources..The.announced.aim.of.establishing.a.comprehensive. computerized.data.management.system.failed,.however,.due.to.the.reluctance.of.some.ministries.to. share. information.78. The. fact. that. data. are. published. separately. by. the. institutions. responsible. for. law.enforcement,.prosecution,.adjudication.and.sentencing.and.prisons.discourages.analysis.of.the. interrelationship. between. the. different. components. of. the. system,. and. does. not. provide. a. holistic. vision.of.juvenile.justice..This.is.particularly.so.since.no.interinstitutional.coordination.mechanism.is. operational..According.to.a.senior.public.official.interviewed.by.the.assessment.team.in.2009,.“Data. are.being.collected.all.the.time..The.problem.is.that.there’s.no.capacity.to.analyse.them.” In.Ukraine,.the.State.Statistics.Committee.publishes.a.report.on.juvenile.justice.every.three.years.79. The.report.is.based.on.data.obtained.from.the.Ministry.of.Internal.Affairs,.the.Ministry.of.Education. and. Science,. the. Ministry. of. Family,. Youth. and. Sport,. the. courts,. the. State. Department. of. Penal. Implementation.and.the.regional.offices.of.the.State.Statistics.Committee..At.the.time.of.the.UNICEF. assessment. mission,. in. 2008,. the. State. Statistics. Committee. was. strengthening. its. database. on. juvenile. justice. in. order. to. provide. information. that. would. be. useful. in. the. process. of. creating. a. juvenile.justice.system.and.to.monitor.the.workings.of.the.system.once.established.. 75 . Joint.Directive.of.the.Ministry.of.Regional.Governance.and.Ministry.of.Labour.and.Social.Issues.‘On.approving.of.sample. charters.of.child.protection.departments.of.marz authorities.(Yerevan.municipality).of.the.Republic.of.Armenia’,. 17.November.2005,.Sample.Charter.[Annex],.Article.7(g). 76 . These.data.are.published.quarterly.on.the.website.of.the.Supreme.Court. 77 . Project.Proposal.–.Reform.of.the.Juvenile.Justice.System.in.Moldova,.UNICEF,.Chisinau,.2002,.p..12. 78 . Malby,.S.,.Evaluation.of.UNICEF.Project:.Reform.of.the.Juvenile.Justice.System.in.Moldova,.Children’s.Legal.Centre.and. UNICEF,.Chisinau,.mimeo,.September.2006,.p..21. 79 . A.semi-annual.report.on.the.economy.also.includes.a.section.on.crime. 28
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE In.conclusion,.greater.efforts.are.indispensable.in.all.of.these.countries.to.develop.comprehensive,. integrated.systems.of.data.collection.and.analysis..Indicators.should.be.reviewed.and.new.indicators. developed. to. ensure. that. the. information. needed. to. inform. policy. decisions. is. available. and. that. indicators. reflect. changes. in. the. legislation,. such. as. the. introduction. of. diversion.. Gaps. and. inconsistencies.between.the.data.collected.by.different.authorities.must.be.identified.and.eliminated.. The.information.compiled.should.be.published.to.ensure.transparency.and.facilitate.the.participation. of.civil.society.in.debates.about.juvenile.justice.and.offending.. 5.2. Documenting the experiences of children As.the.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.has.pointed.out,.“It.is.important.that.children.are.involved. in. evaluation. and. research,. in. particular. those. who. have. been. in. contact. with. parts. of. the. juvenile. justice.system.”80.In.all.five.countries,.UNICEF.has.either.commissioned.or.supported.methodologically. initiatives.to.document.the.views.and.experiences.of.children.in.contact.with.the.justice.system. In. Azerbaijan,. the. NGO. Alliance. for. Children’s. Rights. published. Monitoring the Juvenile Justice Administration in Azerbaijan,. an. important. report. based. in. part. on. interviews. with. juveniles. in. pretrial.detention.facilities.and.in.the.juvenile.correctional.facility..Four.women.in.the.women’s.prison. who. had. entered. as. juvenile. offenders. were. also. interviewed.. In. 2008,. an. additional. survey. based. on. questionnaires. and. focus. group. discussions. with. 102. children. was. supported. by. UNICEF.. The. information.obtained.shed.light.on.important.issues.that.are.generally.difficult.to.document,.such.as. the.limited.frequency.of.visits.by.family.members,.corporal.punishment,.and.nocturnal.mistreatment. by.peers.. In.Ukraine,.the.Centre.of.Social.Expertise.of.the.National.Academy.of.Sciences.was.commissioned.by. UNICEF.in.2008.to.undertake.a.study.on.juvenile.justice.based.mainly.on.interviews.with.offenders,. their.parents.and.juvenile.justice.professionals.and.practitioners. 81.The.study.contains.case.studies. on. 17. offenders. (including. 4. girls. and. 13. boys),. 8. of. whom. were. confined. in. schools. for. social. rehabilitation. and. 9. in. juvenile. correctional. facilities.. The. information. –. both. positive. information. such.as.the.opinion.of.many.juveniles.concerning.the.treatment.received.in.the.penal.colonies,.and. information.about.problems.such.as.children’s.views.of.conditions.in.the.special.schools.and.parents’. complaints. regarding. police. corruption. –. is. very. relevant. to. the. process. of. developing. a. juvenile. justice.system.. In.Armenia,.a.survey.of.91.children.and.adults.(who.had.come.into.contact.with.the.juvenile.justice. system.as.children).was.carried.out.in.2009.by.a.local.research.institute,.with.the.support.of.OSCE. 82. The.study.documented.the.treatment.of.juveniles.by.the.police.and.the.experiences.and.opinions.of. prisoners. in. the. juvenile. correctional. facility,. juveniles. placed. on. probation,. students. in. a. ‘special. school’. and. children. who. participated. in. a. community-based. prevention/diversion/rehabilitation. programme.. A. number. of. adults. serving. prison. sentences. who. had. previously. served. sentences. in. the. juvenile. correctional. facility. were. also. interviewed.. The. results. (e.g.,. confirmation. of. the. frequency. of. police. abuse,. ratification. of. the. positive. impact. of. the. Community. Justice. Centres. and. recommendations. of. juveniles. about. the. way. sentences. are. implemented). are. very. relevant. to. important.policy.decisions.that,.at.this.writing,.are.pending.. 80 . General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.para..99. 81 . Amdzhadin,.L.,.and.Honcharuk,.O.,.Social Practices and Legislation in the Area of Juvenile Delinquency,.National.Academy. of.Sciences,.Institute.of.Sociology,.Centre.of.Social.Expertise,.UNICEF,.Kyiv,.2008. 82 . Juvenile.Justice.in.Armenia:.Perspective.of.Children.in.Conflict.with.the.Law,.Advanced.Social.Technologies.NGO,.Yerevan,. 2010.in.Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Armenia,.UNICEF.Regional.Office.for.CEE/CIS.and.OSCE,. January.2010. 29
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES In. Moldova,. a. study. entitled. Situation of Children in Places of Detention. was. published. in. 2005. 83. One. chapter. analyses. the. respect. for. due. process,. the. performance. of. defence. lawyers,. conditions. of. detention. and. the. experience. of. juveniles. on. probation,. on. the. basis. of. information. provided. by. juveniles. 84.More.recently,.the.views.of.children.in.the.justice.system.have.been.collected.by.UNICEF. and. partners. in. Georgia,. Moldova. and. Ukraine,. as. part. of. the. drafting. of. the. Council. of. Europe. Guidelines.on.Child-Friendly.Justice,.and.are.yet.to.be.analysed. 85 5.3. Other research In. Azerbaijan,. little. or. no. academic. research. on. offending. by. juveniles. has. been. conducted. since. independence.. In. Armenia,. one. study. on. the. family. background. of. 80. juvenile. offenders. detained. between. 2002. and. 2006. was. published. in. 2006. 86. The. 2005. study. on. juvenile. justice. in. Moldova,. mentioned.above,.cites.only.one.other.piece.of.research.carried.out.since.independence. 87. Interventions with juvenile offenders should, as much as possible, be based on scientific evidence on what works, with whom and under what circumstances. Council of Europe, Recommendation Rec(2003)20 of the Committee of Ministers to member states concerning new ways of dealing with juvenile delinquency and the role of juvenile justice, para. 5. Several. conclusions. can. be. drawn.. First,. although. it. is. now. rare. to. find. information. on. juvenile. justice.that.is.classified.as.confidential,.much.of.the.data.available.to.those.who.request.them.are.not. published..Transparency.and.democratic.decision-making.are.best.served.by.the.periodic.publication. of. all. available. data. likely. to. be. of. interest. to. the. public. and. academic. researchers.. The. regular. publication. of. data. also. helps. ensure. accuracy.. Second,. more. needs. to. be. done. to. centralize. data. collected. by. different. agencies. and. to. ensure. the. compatibility. of. such. data,. in. order. to. construct. a. robust. and. comprehensive. overview. of. juvenile. justice.. Third,. an. intersectoral. body. should. have. responsibility.not.only.for.compiling.such.data,.but.for.analysing.them..National.statistical.agencies. rarely.have.that.capacity..Fourth,.further.efforts.should.be.made.in.order.to.identify.indicators.that. will.help.develop.effective.preventive.programmes.and.monitor.the.usefulness.of.the.actions.taken. by.different.institutions.at.different.stages.of.the.treatment.of.juvenile.offenders.. 83 . Dolea,.I.,.Vulpescu,.A.,.Grosu,.V.,.Rotaru,.V.,.and.Zaharia,.V., Situation of Children in Places of Detention,.Institute.for.Penal. Reform.and.UNICEF,.Chisinau,.2005. 84 . Rotaru,.V.,.Observance.of.the.Rights.of.Juvenile.Delinquents.Interviewed.by.Mobile.Teams.. 85 . See.http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/standardsetting/childjustice/default_en.asp.accessed.31.May.2010. 86 . Gavukchyan,.L.,.in.Law and Reality,.General.Prosecutor’s.Office,.Yerevan,.June.2006. 87 . Vulpescu,.A.,.Chief.of.the.Social.Reintegration.Service.of.the.Department.of.Penitentiary.Institutions,.’Criminological.Outline. and.Prevention.of.Juvenile.Delinquency’,.citing.Psychological Coordinates Determining the Return to the Penitentiary of Juveniles Discharged from Correction Centres,.by.Vulpescu,.A.,.and.Laiu,.L.,.Bucharest,.2003.(publisher.not.identified).. 30
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE PART II. Democracy and Rule of Law 1. The impact of ombudspersons and other accountability mechanisms The.United.Nations.General.Assembly.has.repeatedly.encouraged.States.to.establish.and.strengthen. “effective,. independent. and. pluralistic. national. institutions. for. the. promotion. and. protection. of. human.rights...”88. The.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.has.emphasized.the.importance.of.statutory.human.rights. and.child.rights.ombudspersons.or.defenders.for.the.effective.protection.of.the.rights.of.children. 89. All.five.countries.covered.by.this.report.have.established.human.rights.ombudspersons..In.general,. the.activities.of.these.institutions.have.helped.reduce.violence.against.juvenile.suspects,.detainees. and.prisoners..Some.have.been.more.proactive.and.effective.than.others..In.Armenia.and.Ukraine,. other.institutions.have.played.a.more.valuable.role.in.improving.the.treatment.of.juvenile.suspects,. detainees.and.prisoners. Ombudspersons.and.other.statutory.human.rights.defenders.clearly.play.a.useful.role.in.improving.the. treatment.of.children.deprived.of.liberty.by.monitoring.the.conditions.of.detention.and.correctional. facilities. for. juveniles.. To. increase. public. confidence. in. the. independence. of. the. institution. and. to. guarantee.its.accountability.it.is.necessary.to.ensure.transparency.in.the.investigation.of.complaints. and.monitoring.of.activities..Transparency.and.monitoring.have.a.positive.impact.on.the.treatment. of. detainees. and. prisoners. and,. to. a. lesser. extent,. on. suspects. held. by. the. police.. These. activities. are. not. sufficient,. however.. The. responsible. authorities. must. be. prepared. to. pursue. criminal. and. administrative.investigations.promptly.and.efficiently..If.they.fail.to.do.so,.accountability.will.remain. weak..This,.in.turn,.requires.a.strong.political.commitment.at.the.highest.level.. In. Armenia,. a. Human. Rights. Defender. was. established. in. 2003,. but. has. no. unit. specialized. in. child. rights. and. receives. few. complaints. of. violations. of. the. rights. of. children.. Two. other. independent. groups.monitor.the.treatment.of.persons.deprived.of.liberty,.including.juveniles..One.was.established. in.2004.for.prisons.and.pretrial.detention.facilities.under.the.Ministry.of.Justice,.and.the.other.in.2006. for. the. investigative. custody. facilities. operated. by. the. Police. of. RA. 90. Their. functions. and. powers. as. independent. monitors. are. recognized. by. law. 91. Both. produce. annual. reports,. ‘current’. reports. and,. when. an. urgent. case. arises,. ‘ad hoc’. reports.. Their. mandate. comprises. both. physical. abuse. of. individuals. and. detention. conditions.. The. activities. of. these. groups. have. made. a. significant. contribution.to.improving.the.treatment.of.prisoners.and.detainees,.including.juveniles,.and.can.be. considered.a.‘good.practice’. In.Azerbaijan,.the.Commissioner.for.Human.Rights.(Ombudsperson).has.established.a.Child.Rights. Unit. that. makes. regular. visits. to. facilities. where. juveniles. are. detained. or. serving. sentences.. Independent. sources. interviewed. indicate. that,. in. their. opinion,. these. visits. have. had. a. positive. impact.on.the.treatment.of.juvenile.suspects,.detainees.and.prisoners..However,.information.about. the.number.of.complaints.received,.the.recommendations.made.by.the.Commissioner.and.the.action. 88 . See.United.Nations,.Resolution.adopted.by.the.General.Assembly:.63.172..National.institutions.for.the.promotion.and. protection.of.human.rights,.A/RES/63/172.of.30.March.2009,.para..2. 89 . See,.generally,.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.The.role.of.independent.national.human.rights.institutions.in.the. protection.and.promotion.of.the.rights.of.the.child,.CRC/C/GC/2002/2,.15.November.2002.. 90 . Their.full.names.are.Group.of.Public.Observers.at.the.Detention.Facilities.of.the.Police.System.and.Group.of.Public.Observers. Conducting.Public.Monitoring.of.Penitentiary.Institutions.and.Bodies.of.the.Ministry.of.Justice.of.the.Republic.of.Armenia. 91 . Law.on.Treatment.of.Arrestees.and.Detainees.of.6.February.2002,.Article.47;.Criminal.Executive.Code.of.Armenia,.Article.21. 31
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES taken.by.the.responsible.authorities.are.not.made.public..This.lack.of.transparency.makes.it.difficult. to. evaluate. objectively. the. effectiveness. of. the. Ombudsperson’s. efforts. and. deprives. the. public. of. information.it.deserves. In. Georgia,. the. Public. Defender,. an. autonomous. body. responsible. for. promoting. and. protecting. human. rights,. was. established. in. 1996. 92. The. Public. Defender. investigates. complaints. of. human. rights’.violations.and,.if.it.considers.the.complaint.founded,.forwards.it.to.the.responsible.body.with.a. recommendation.as.to.the.action.required..It.has.three.regional.offices,.in.addition.to.the.main.office. in.the.capital..Visiting.prisons.and.detention.facilities.is.a.priority..Rigorous.monitoring.of.conditions. in. prison. and. detention. facilities. by. the. Public. Defender. is. one. of. the. main. causes. of. the. reduced. level.of.violence.by.the.police.and.prison.staff,.according.to.independent.sources.interviewed.by.the. assessment.team.. In. Moldova,. the. Centre. for. Human. Rights. comprised. of. three. ombudspersons. was. established. in. 1997. 93. A. fourth. ombudsperson. having. a. mandate. on. child. rights. was. added. in. 2008. 94. Staff. of. the. Centre.regularly.visits.the.correctional.facility.for.juveniles.and.the.pretrial.detention.centres..Heads. of.correctional.facilities.are.required.to.inform.the.Centre.each.time.certain.security.measures.(e.g.,. handcuffs). are. used.. No. complaints. of. abuse. were. made. against. staff. of. the. correctional. facility. during.the.year.prior.to.the.UNICEF.assessment.mission,.and.the.ombudsperson’s.recommendations. focused. on. living. conditions. and. education.. The. authorities. do. not. always. respond. positively. to. the.recommendations.of.the.ombudsperson..One.example.concerned.a.request.that.the.prosecutor. investigate.the.case.of.an.11-year-old.boy.who.complained.of.a.beating.after.being.apprehended.for. theft,.and.identified.the.police.officer.responsible..The.initial.response.of.the.prosecutor.was.to.open. an.investigation.of.the.alleged.theft,.but.not.the.abuse..This.complaint.was.still.under.investigation.at. the.time.of.the.UNICEF.assessment.mission.. In. Ukraine,. the. Office. of. the. General. Prosecutor. monitors. public. authorities’. respect. for. the. law.. A. special. team. of. five. prosecutors. was. established. in. 1995. to. monitor. the. treatment. of. children.. They. claim. that. schools. and. detention. and. correctional. facilities. for. accused. juveniles. and. juvenile. offenders. are. visited. regularly.. The. most. common. violations. identified. include. detaining. children. without. a. court. order. and. for. longer. than. the. maximum. period. allowed. by. law.. The. parliamentary. ombudsperson. in. Ukraine. also. takes. an. active. interest. in. child. rights,. and. the. unit. responsible. for. monitoring. prisons. gives. some. priority. to. facilities. for. juvenile. offenders.. The. most. recent. case. involving. cruel. treatment. of. a. juvenile. was. reported. in. 2006.. The. responsible. staff. member. was. convicted.and.is.now.serving.a.sentence.. 2. The soft but essential role of civil society Civil.society.can.and.should.play.a.significant.role.in.the.prevention.of.offending.and.the.rehabilitation. of. juvenile. offenders.. The. Beijing. Rules. indicates,. “Sufficient. attention. shall. be. given. to. positive. measures.that.involve.the.full.mobilization.of.all.possible.resources,.including.the.family,.volunteers. and.other.community.groups,.as.well.as.schools.and.other.community.institutions,.for.the.purpose. of.promoting.the.well-being.of.the.juvenile,.with.a.view.to.reducing.the.need.for.intervention.under. the.law,.and.of.effectively,.fairly.and.humanely.dealing.with.the.juvenile.in.conflict.with.the.law.”95 92 . Constitution.of.Georgia,.Article.43. 93 . United.Nations,.International.Human.Rights.Instruments,.Core.document.forming.part.of.the.reports.of.States.parties:. Republic.of.Moldova,.HRI/CORE/1/Add.114,.April.2001,.para..40..(The.ombudspersons.are.also.referred.to.as.’parliamentary. advocates’.). 94 . Law.No..56-XVI.of.20.March.2008. 95 . Rule.1.3 32
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE Civil.society.does.play.a.significant.role.in.juvenile.justice.in.Armenia,.Azerbaijan,.Georgia,.Moldova. and.Ukraine..Their.role.is.perhaps.most.evident.in.research,.advocacy.and.training,.in.the.programmes. for.the.prevention.of.offending.and.in.the.rehabilitation.of.juvenile.offenders.. 2.1. Research, advocacy and training In. Azerbaijan,. two. studies. on. juvenile. justice. prepared. by. the. NGO. Alliance. for. Children’s. Rights. made. an. important. contribution. to. raising. awareness. about. the. need. to. improve. juvenile. justice. 96. Subsequently,.the.NGO.Alliance.played.a.key.role.in.the.preparation.of.a.curriculum.on.child.rights. and.training.materials.for.the.Police.Academy,.law.students.and.legal.practitioners..In.Georgia,.the. Bar.Association.sponsored.a.juvenile.justice.training.for.lawyers..In.Moldova,.the.Institute.for.Penal. Reform,. a. national. NGO,. played. a. vital. role. in. putting. juvenile. justice. reform. on. the. agenda. and. shaping. the. discussion. on. what. was. needed. to. bring. juvenile. justice. into. greater. conformity. with. international. standards.. This. was. accomplished. in. part. through. a. research. project. 97. The. Institute. for.Penal.Reform.also.helped.design.and.develop.the.community-based.groups.that.provide.victim- offender. mediation. in. cases. involving. juvenile. offenders. (see. below).. In. Ukraine,. the. Centre. of. Social. Expertise,. which. is. part. of. the. Institute. of. Sociology. of. the. National. Academy. of. Sciences,. carried. out. an. important. study. intended. to. provide. the. competent. authorities. with. the. information. required.to.plan.the.development.of.a.juvenile.justice.system.in.line.with.international.standards. 98.It. incorporates.statistical.data.and.interviews.with.juvenile.justice.professionals.as.well.as.interviews. with. offenders. and. their. parents.. NGOs. also. have. played. a. significant. role. in. training.. Youth. for. Democracy.developed.training.materials.for.probation.officers.working.with.juvenile.offenders,.and. the. Ukrainian. Centre. for. Common. Ground. provided. training. on. victim-offender. mediation.. The. All- Ukrainian.Foundation.for.Children’s.Rights.developed.training.materials.that.have.been.used.to.train. judges,.prosecutors,.law.enforcement.officers,.social.services.personnel.and.NGO.staff.involved.in. two.pilot.projects.. 2.2. Prevention of offending In.Armenia,.the.NGO.Project.Harmony.has.played.a.leading.role.in.the.implementation.of.two.projects. designed.to.prevent.offending..Both.were.carried.out.in.close.cooperation.with.the.relevant.government. bodies,.in.particular.the.Juvenile.Police..One.is.a.school-based.project.that.aims.to.prevent.offending. by.making.adolescents.more.aware.of.the.law.and.the.risks.involved.in.offending..The.other.involves. the.creation.of.‘Community.Justice.Centres’,.which.provide.assistance.to.offenders.as.well.as.children. at.risk.of.offending..In.Georgia,.a.similar.school-based.programme.was.carried.out.in.2008.. In.Azerbaijan,.a.community-based.project.designed.for.the.rehabilitation.of.offenders.diverted.from. the.justice.system.has.been.used.to.provide.services.mainly.to.children.at.risk.of.offending.referred. by. the. police. through. ‘Commissions. on. Minors’.. The. quality. of. the. services. provided. is. good,. although. it. remains. to. be. seen. whether. the. main. focus. will. be. the. prevention. of. offending. or. the. prevention.of.re-offending. In.Ukraine,.the.Centre.for.Common.Ground.has.organized.pilot.projects.involving.‘peer.mediation’.in. schools,.as.a.measure.to.reduce.conflict.and.offending..The.results.are.considered.positive,.although. the.projects.have.not.been.taken.to.scale.. 96 . NGO.Alliance.for.Children’s.Rights,.Filling in the Gap: Protecting the Rights of Juveniles in Conflict with the Law,.Baku,.2006;. NGO.Alliance.for.Children’s.Rights,.Monitoring the Juvenile Justice Administration in Azerbaijan,.Baku,.2007. 97 . Dolea,.I.,.Vulpescu,.A.,.Grosu,.V.,.Rotaru,.V.,.and.Zaharia,.V.,.Situation of Children in Places of Detention,.Institute.for.Penal. Reform.and.UNICEF,.Chisinau,.2005. 98 . Amdzhadin,.L.,.and.Honcharuk,.O.,.Social Practices and Legislation in the Area of Juvenile Delinquency,.National.Academy. of.Sciences,.Institute.of.Sociology,.Centre.of.Social.Expertise,.UNICEF,.Kyiv,.2008. 33
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES 2.3. Rehabilitation and social reintegration Civil. society. does. play. a. significant. role. in. the. rehabilitation. of. juvenile. offenders. in. most. of. these. countries,. through. community-based. programmes. as. well. as. programmes. within. correctional. facilities.for.juvenile.offenders.. In. Armenia,. Community. Justice. Centres. set. up. by. the. NGO. Project. Harmony. provide. day. services. to.adolescents.involved.in.minor.crimes.instead.of.referring.them.for.prosecution..(They.also.offer. preventive. services. to. children. at. risk,. as. indicated. above.). The. services. made. available. in. these. Centres.are.of.excellent.quality.and.help.fill.an.important.gap.in.the.juvenile.justice.system.. In.Georgia,.specialized.probation.services.for.juvenile.offenders.are.being.piloted..One.such.project. is.being.implemented,.with.excellent.results,.by.the.local.NGO.Democracy.Institute.. In.Armenia,.the.police.transferred.responsibility.for.operating.a.centre.for.children.at.risk.–.the.kind. of. short-term,. multipurpose. residential. facility. often. referred. to. in. other. countries. as. a. ‘reception. and.distribution.centre’.–.to.an.NGO,.the.Fund.for.Armenian.Relief.(FAR)..This.NGO.has.transformed. the.centre.to.one.that.provides.services.very.much.in.harmony.with.the.rights.of.children,.although. problems.remain.regarding.the.legal.grounds.and.procedures.for.placement.. In. Armenia,. NGOs. also. provide. services. in. the. juvenile. correctional. facility,. in. particular. training. in. crafts.. The. programme. and. the. contact. with. its. staff. are. greatly. appreciated. by. the. prisoners. 99. Similarly,. in. Georgia. the. NGO. Rehabilitation. Centre. for. Victims. of. Torture. RCT/EMPATHY. provides. handicraft. courses. in. the. correctional. facility. for. juvenile. offenders,. and. thus. informal. counselling. and.community.oversight.on.conditions.and.treatment.. In. Azerbaijan,. the. Code. on. the. Execution. of. Sentences. adopted. in. 2000. opened. the. door. to. civil. society. activities. in. correctional. facilities.. A. Council. of. Trustees. on. the. Right. of. Young. Offenders. created.by.this.law.monitors.juvenile.offenders’.conditions.in.the.correctional.facility,.supports.the. involvement. of. NGOs,. organizes. events. and. seeks. donations.. Membership. of. the. Council. includes. the.Commissioner.for.Human.Rights.(Ombudsperson),.the.State.Committee.for.Family,.Women.and. Children’s.Affairs,.the.Soros.Foundation,.the.NGO.Alliance.for.Children’s.Rights,.the.Association.of. Young.Lawyers,.the.Parent-Teacher.Association,.other.national.NGOs.and.UNICEF.. Similarly,.in.Ukraine,.‘caring.councils’,.composed.of.NGOs.and.other.community-based.groups,.visit. the.juvenile.correctional.facilities.to.monitor.conditions.and.help.prepare.juveniles.for.return.to.the. community.. The.presence.of.NGOs.in.juvenile.correctional.facilities.often.has.two.aims:.participate.in.rehabilitation. and,.perhaps.informally,.monitor.the.conditions.in.the.facility.and.the.treatment.of.prisoners.. The. active. participation. of. civil. society. in. juvenile. justice. has. been. one. of. the. most. important. developments.of.the.last.two.decades..Governments’.recognition.of.the.contribution.they.can.make. is.very.positive,.and.the.international.community.should.continue.to.support.NGOs.having.an.interest. in.this.area.. 99 . Juvenile.Justice.in.Armenia:.Perspective.of.Children.in.Conflict.with.the.Law,.supra,.p..59. 34
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE 3. The gradual specialization of judges and courts Article. 40.3. of. the. Convention. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. provides,. “States. Parties. shall. seek. to. promote.the.establishment.of.laws,.procedures,.authorities.and.institutions.specifically.applicable.to. children.alleged.as,.accused.of,.or.recognized.as.having.infringed.the.penal.law…”.The.Committee.on. the.Rights.of.the.Child.has.indicated,.“A.comprehensive.juvenile.justice.system.further.requires.the. establishment.of.specialized.units.within.….the.judiciary,.the.court.system,.the.prosecutor’s.office...”. adding,. “The. Committee. recommends. that. the. States. parties. establish. juvenile. courts. either. as. separate.units.or.as.part.of.existing.regional/district.courts..Where.that.is.not.immediately.feasible. for. practical. reasons,. the. States. parties. should. ensure. the. appointment. of. specialized. judges. or. magistrates.for.dealing.with.cases.of.juvenile.justice.”100 Although.none.of.the.countries.covered.by.this.report.have.specialized.juvenile.courts,.four.of.them. have.taken.steps.to.ensuring.that.accused.juveniles.are.tried.before.a.judge.who.has.received.special. training.or.has.been.designated.to.handle.cases.involving.juveniles.. In.Moldova,.the.Supreme.Court.adopted.a.decision.in.2004.on.the.proceedings.concerning.juvenile. offenders,.which.led.to.the.appointment.of.48.juvenile.judges..The.same.year,.the.General.Prosecutor. ordered.each.district.to.designate.a.prosecutor.to.handle.cases.of.accused.juveniles..These.decisions. appear.to.have.had.a.positive.impact.on.the.treatment.of.juveniles.in.the.juvenile.justice.system..The. impact.is.limited,.however,.in.part.because.judges.designated.as.juvenile.judges.have.scant.training. and.because.many.of.them.handle.a.rather.small.number.of.cases.involving.juveniles.101 In.Georgia,.the.Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.was.amended.in.2007.to.require.that.criminal.proceedings. regarding. juveniles. be. “conducted. by. only. those. judges,. prosecutors. and. investigators. who. have. taken.special.training.in.pedagogy.and.psychology.”102.This.provision.came.into.force.in.July.2008.. Each.trial.court.reportedly.now.has.at.least.one.judge.who.has.been.trained.in.juvenile.justice.103 In.Ukraine,.as.in.Moldova,.the.Supreme.Court.decided.in.2003.to.designate.one.judge.in.each.court. to. handle. cases. involving. accused. juveniles.. The. process. of. designating. them. was. completed. in. 2005.. Anecdotal. evidence. indicates. that. some. designated. juvenile. judges. take. this. responsibility. seriously.ensuring.that.juvenile.defendants.and.offenders.are.treated.in.accordance.with.the.relevant. international.standards.and.principles;.others.do.not.. In.Armenia,.training.in.juvenile.justice.was.provided.to.one.judge.from.each.trial.court.in.2004..The. Judicial. School. organized. an. in-service. training. course. on. child. rights. in. 2008,. and. twenty. judges. have.graduated.since.a.course.on.juvenile.justice.was.added.to.the.curriculum..There.is,.however,.no. regulation.or.policy.requiring.that.in.each.trial.court.there.be.at.least.one.judge.trained.in.child.rights. or.juvenile.justice.. The.exception.is.Azerbaijan.where,.at.the.time.of.the.UNICEF.assessment.mission,.no.steps.had.been. taken.to.designate.or.train.particular.judges.to.handle.proceedings.involving.accused.juveniles..The. possibility. of. establishing. a. juvenile. court. or. designating. specialized. judges. is. now. being. studied,. however.. 100 . General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.paras..92.and.93. 101 . In.2008,.only.two.courts.outside.the.capital.handled.more.than.one.juvenile.case.per.week.and.17.district.courts.handled. fewer.than.one.case.per.month,.on.average,.according.to.unpublished.data.provided.to.the.assessment.team. 102 . Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.of.Georgia,.Article.654. 103 . Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Georgia,.UNICEF.Regional.Office.for.CEE/CIS,.Geneva,.2010,.p..22. 35
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES The.question.of.how.to.guarantee.that.all.juveniles.accused.of.offences.have.access.to.judges.who. understand. the. relevant. rights. and. principles,. and. possess. the. necessary. skills. and. values,. has. no. simple. answer.. The. creation. of. juvenile. courts,. or. possibly. child. and. family. courts,. which. handle. only. cases. involving. children. and. have. specialized. staff. and. appropriate. infrastructure,. is. the. ideal. solution.. In. many. countries,. however,. the. number. of. juvenile. cases. that. need. to. be. adjudicated. – allowing. for. diversion. –. is. not. large. enough. to. justify. the. creation. of. a. nationwide. network. of. specialized.juvenile.courts.. The. designation. of. specific. judges. –. and. prosecutors. –. is. a. positive. step.. However,. the. benefits. for. accused. juveniles. depend. on. the. selection. criteria. and. the. training. provided.. Judges. who. are. designated.to.handle.juvenile.cases,.but.whose.caseload.consists.mainly.of.adult.criminal.cases.and. who.receive.a.minimum.of.training,.cannot.really.be.considered.specialized.. In. most. countries,. the. caseload. is. large. enough. to. justify. the. creation. of. at. least. one. specialized. court,. or. possibly. more,. in. the. urban. areas. where. the. incidence. of. serious. and. repeat. offending. is. highest.. The. designation. of. specialized. judges. therefore. should. be. seen. as. an. interim. solution. for. the.capital.cities,.and.perhaps.some.other.cities.in.the.larger.countries.with.higher.rates.of.juvenile. offending..It.may.be.the.long-term.solution.for.less.populous.areas.with.low.levels.of.offending..In. any.event,.it.is.necessary.to.establish.appropriate.criteria.for.the.selection.and.training.of.all.judges. authorized.to.try.accused.juveniles,.as.well.as.the.prosecutors.authorized.to.handle.juvenile.cases.. Ensuring.that.appellate.courts.have.judges.specialized.in.juvenile.justice.is.a.safeguard.that.can.help. to.promptly.correct.the.errors.made.by.designated.juvenile.judges.. 4. The success of legal aid The.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.recognizes.the.right.of.every.child.accused.of.an.offence.to. “…legal.or.other.appropriate.assistance.in.the.preparation.and.presentation.of.his.or.her.defence,”.as. well.as.the.right.to.legal.or.other.appropriate.assistance.during.legal.proceedings.104. The. Committee. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. has. indicated,. “A. comprehensive. juvenile. justice. system. further.requires.the.establishment.of.….specialized.defenders.or.other.representatives.who.provide. legal.or.other.appropriate.assistance.to.the.child.”105 None. of. the. five. countries. had. legal. aid. programmes. for. juvenile. offenders. until. recently.. In. the. past,. the. right. to. legal. assistance. of. defendants. unable. to. pay. for. the. services. of. defence. counsel. was. met. by. assigned. attorneys,. who. usually. were. poorly. remunerated. and. provided. poor. quality. representation..This.has.begun.to.change.. In. Moldova,. a. publicly. funded. legal. assistance. programme,. overseen. by. the. National. Council. for. Legal. Assistance. designed. to. guarantee. its. independence,. became. operational. in. 2008.. In. 2009,. it. hired.a.number.of.lawyers.specifically.to.handle.cases.involving.juveniles..In.Armenia,.too,.a.Public. Defender’s.Office.was.established.in.2005..There.are.no.staff.specialized.in.juvenile.cases,.but.free. representation. is. provided. to. accused. juveniles.106. In. Georgia,. a. Legal. Aid. Service. was. established. in. 2007.. It. has. 12. offices. throughout. the. country,. and. about. 30. per. cent. of. its. clients. are. accused. juveniles.107 104 . Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Article.40,.para..2(b)(ii).and.(iii). 105 . General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC.10,.supra,.para..92. 106 . Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Armenia,.UNICEF.Regional.Office.for.CEE/CIS,.Geneva,.2010,.p..23.. 107 . Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Georgia,.supra,.p..24. 36
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE In.Azerbaijan,.a.small.Children’s.Rights.Legal.Clinic.was.established.with.private.funding.in.2007..It. now.functions.in.the.capital.and.three.other.cities.108.Similarly,.in.Ukraine,.at.the.time.of.the.UNICEF. assessment. mission,. legal. aid. services. were. operating. in. two. cities. on. a. pilot. basis,. with. financial. support.of.the.Open.Society.Institute..They.did.not.have.staff.specialized.in.juvenile.cases,.but.did. provide.services.to.accused.juveniles.. The. fact. that. some. steps. have. been. taken. to. ensure. the. right. of. all. juvenile. suspects,. defendants. and. prisoners. to. services. provided. by. a. legal. assistance. programme. is. positive,. and. the. fact. that. the. governments. of. three. countries. have. decided. to. fund. such. programmes. on. the. national. level. is. very. important.. Hopefully,. the. countries. where. pilot. projects. exist. will. take. such. programmes. to. scale. with. public. funding,. and. other. countries. will. follow. the. example. of. Moldova. in. establishing. specialized.units.for.accused.juveniles.. 5. The remaining challenge of secondary prevention During. Soviet. times,. social. and. recreational. programmes. for. children. and. adolescents. (free. or. inexpensive. camps,. clubs. and. similar. activities). played. a. role. in. the. prevention. of. offending.. For. the. most. part. they. were. directed. to. the. child. and. adolescent. population. in. general,. rather. than. individuals. or. groups. identified. as. having. a. higher. risk. of. offending.. Consequently,. they. can. be. considered. as. primary. prevention.. Services. benefiting. children. deemed. to. be. at. a. greater. risk. of. offending. (secondary. prevention). were. missing.. Instead,. children. considered. at. risk. were. either. placed. under. supervision. by. the. police. or,. when. parents. were. judged. unable. to. provide. adequate. upbringing,.placed.in.closed.facilities.of.one.kind.or.another.. What. was. and. still. is. largely. missing. are. community-based,. non-residential. programmes. for. children.and.adolescents.at.higher.risk.of.offending,.which.offer.more.than.supervision,.sports.and. recreation,.i.e.,.programmes.providing.individual.assessments.and.comprehensive.multidisciplinary. programmes,.including.psychosocial.support,.remedial.education,.life.skills.training,.individual.and. family.counselling,.and.so.on.. A. few. pilot. programmes. of. this. kind. have. been. established,. but. to. date. most. of. them. operate. as. diversion. programmes. for. adolescents. who. have. begun. to. get. involved. in. minor. offending,. not. those. at. risk. of. offending.. A. few. provide. services. to. offenders. given. alternative. sentences.. This. type.of.programme.is.especially.needed.for.pre-adolescent.children.and.those.in.early.adolescence. who. demonstrate. behaviours. and/or. psychosocial. problems. closely. associated. with. early-onset. offending109.and.who,.because.of.their.age,.are.–.and.should.remain.–.protected.from.contact.with.the. juvenile.justice.system.as.such.. The.Community.Justice.Centres.in.Armenia.are.an.exception:.they.have.the.purposes.and.functions. of.both.prevention.and.diversion..They.are.described.below.as.a.‘good.practice’.. 108 . Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Armenia,.supra,.p..22. 109 . See,.e.g.,.Rutter.M.,.Giller,.H.,.and.Hagell,.A.,.Antisocial Behaviour by Young People,.Cambridge.University.Press,.October. 1998;.or.Heilbrun,.K.,.Sevin.Goldstein,.N..E.,.and.Redding,.R..E.,.Juvenile Delinquency: Prevention, Assessment and Intervention,.Oxford.University.Press,.2005. 37
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Good practice: Community Justice Centres in Armenia Secondary. prevention. is. one. of. the. main. functions. of. the. Community. Justice. Centres. in. Armenia,. together. with. diversion.. . The. Centres,. which. now. operate. in. six. cities,. provide. services.to.children.aged.9–18.years..Most.children.are.referred.to.the.Centres.by.teachers.or. the.Juvenile.Police.for.conducts.such.as.truancy,.vandalism,.fighting.and.minor.theft... Upon.referral,.the.child.and.his/her.parent(s).must.sign.an.agreement.regarding.participation.. The.duration.of.participation.depends.on.the.progress.made,.typically.from.two.to.five.months.. Most. attend. once. or. twice. a. week,. for. one. or. two. hours. per. visit.. Services. provided. include. victim-offender.mediation,.crafts,.computer.literacy,.chess,.sports,.recreational.activities.and. informal.counselling..Agreement.of.the.victim.to.participate.in.mediation.is.not.a.prerequisite. for.referral..The.participation.of.the.victim.is.sought.after.referral.has.been.made,.and.services. are. provided. even. if. the. victim. does. not. agree. to. participate. (about. one. third. do).. Cases. in. which. the. victim. is. not. a. physical. person. (e.g.,. defacing. a. public. monument,. theft. from. the. railroad).are.also.accepted.. The.project.has.a.strong.ethos.of.community.responsibility.in.the.prevention.of.offending.and. rehabilitation.of.juvenile.offenders.and.in.showing.children.at.risk.and.offenders.that.important. members. of. the. community. are. concerned. about. them.. Reintegration. into. the. community. is. a. key. part. of. the. approach. used.. The. Board. of. the. Centre. visited. by. the. assessment. team. includes.a.psychologist,.a.medical.doctor,.artists.and.a.writer..The.head.of.the.Juvenile.Police. and.Board.members.participate.directly.in.the.work.of.the.Centre..In.some.cases,.parents.are. referred.to.appropriate.services.(e.g.,.employment,.substance.abuse.treatment).. An.independent.survey.of.the.experiences.of.children.involved.with.the.juvenile.justice.system. found.that.for.many.who.had.attended.the.Centres.the.experience.was.valuable:. •. I.have.learnt.to.control.my.emotions;.I.am.not.‘explosive’.any.more. •. [I.have.found].a.mental.balance..I.have.tried.to.commit.suicide.before. •. We. learn]. to. communicate. with. everyone.. I. used. to. communicate. very. little. before,. but. now.I.have.started.to.communicate.more. •. [We.learn].how.to.behave.in.different.situations,.whom.to.trust,.how.to.value.the.efforts.of. our.parents.. •. My.attitude.towards.people.has.become.better..Now.I.am.trying.to.trust.people.. •. I. am. attending. the. school. more. willingly.. The. attitude. of. many. people. towards. me. has. changed.for.the.better. 110 . Except.for.the.last.paragraph,.this.section.is.based.on.Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Armenia,.supra. 111 . One.Centre.visited.by.the.assessment.team.had.handled.32.cases.since.it.opened.in.2006:.15.cases.referred.for.theft,.5.for. crimes.of.violence.(two.cases.of.‘bodily.injury’,.one.of.theft.by.threat.of.violence.and.cases.of.attempted.sexual.abuse),.2. for.damage.to.property,.3.for.begging.and.7.for.truancy..Seventeen.were.14.years.of.age.or.older.and.15.were.between.the. ages.of.9.and.13..Three.of.the.32.re-offended.by.committing.thefts,.and.two.returned.to.begging. 112 . Juvenile.Justice.in.Armenia:.Perspective.of.Children.in.Conflict.with.the.Law,.supra,.p..55. 38
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE PART III. Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms 1. Child rights legislation Armenia,.Azerbaijan,.Georgia,.Moldova.and.Ukraine.are.all.parties.to.the.Convention.on.the.Rights. of.the.Child.and,.in.each.of.the.five.countries,.the.Convention.forms.part.of.the.national.law..All.are. parties.to.the.European.Convention.for.the.Protection.of.Human.Rights.and.Fundamental.Freedoms. and.thus.subject.to.the.jurisdiction.of.the.European.Court.of.Human.Rights.. The.Constitutions.of.some.of.these.countries.also.recognize.the.rights.of.children,.at.least.in.general. terms..Article.34.of.the.Constitution.of.Azerbaijan.provides,.inter alia,.“Mothers,.fathers,.children.shall. be.protected.by.Law.”.Article.36(3).of.the.Constitution.of.Georgia.provides,.“The.rights.of.the.mother. and. the. child. shall. be. protected. by. law.”. Article. 50. of. the. Constitution. of. Moldova. acknowledges. the. right. of. children. to. “special. form. of. assistance. in. the. pursuit. of. their. rights,”. prohibits. the. exploitation. of. children,. and. obliges. the. authorities. to. enable. the. participation. of. young. people. in. social,. economic. and. cultural. life.113. Article. 52. of. the. Constitution. of. Ukraine. provides. that. any. act. of. violence. or. exploitation. against. child. shall. be. prosecuted;. the. right. of. children. to. protection. is. recognized.in.more.general.terms.by.Articles.24.and.51.. Three. of. these. countries. –. Armenia,. Azerbaijan. and. Moldova. –. have. adopted. laws. on. the. rights. of. children.. The. Law. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. of. Armenia,. adopted. in. 1996,114. contains. a. list. of. the. rights. of. children,. incorporates. provisions. of. international. treaties. concerning. children. into. the. national. law. and. defines. in. general. terms. the. corresponding. duties. of. the. State,. parents. and. civil. society.. Article. 31.recognizes.the.inviolability.of.the.person;.provides.that.arrest,.search.or.detention.must.be.legal;. that.the.parents.or.guardians.of.a.child.deprived.of.liberty.must.be.informed.immediately;.that.children. may.not.be.compelled.to.testify.against.themselves.or.against.close.relatives;.provides.that.convicted. children. have. the. right. to. appeal;. and. that. children. may. not. be. detained. with. adults.. Article. 32,. on. the.rights.of.children.in.special.educational.facilities,.which.is.peripherally.related.to.juvenile.justice,. acknowledges.their.right.to.respect,.education,.health.care.and.contact.with.parents.115 In. Azerbaijan,. the. Law. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child,. adopted. in. 1998,116. emphasizes. the. best. interests. of. the. child,. provides. that. other. laws. and. regulations. “cannot. restrict. the. rights. and. freedoms. of. the.child.as.defined.in.this.Law”.and.that.any.Act.that.restricts.the.rights.and.interests.of.the.child. “shall.be. deemed. invalid.”.117.In.addition,.it. provides.that.any.provision.of.the.Law.on.the.Rights.of. the. Child. is. invalid. if. it. violates. an. international. treaty. in. force. for. Azerbaijan.118. It. also. contains. a. number.of.provisions.related.to.juvenile.justice..Article.12.of.the.Law.recognizes.the.child’s.right.to. freedom.and.personal.integrity,.and.provides, inter alia,.that.the.arrest.or.detention.of.children.must. be.legal.and.exceptional..Article.40.provides.that.a.humanistic.approach.shall.be.taken.with.regard. to. children. who. commit. administrative. offences. and. that. their. age,. living. conditions,. education,. health.and.mental.condition.as.well.as.the.circumstances.of.the.case.shall.be.taken.into.account.in. 113 . Constitution.of.Georgia,.Article.50,.paras..2,.4.and.5,.respectively..(In.addition,.Article.49(3).recognizes.the.obligation.of.the. State.to.“protect.motherhood,.children.and.young.people,.by.fostering.the.development.of.the.required.institutions.”) 114 . Law.HO-59,.29.May.1996. 115 . Strangely,.the.government.claims.that.this.article.does.not.apply.to.any.existing.facility. 116 . Presidential.Decree.No..761.of.24.August.1998. 117 . Ibid.,.Articles.2.and.4,.respectively. 118 . Ibid.,.Article.45. 39
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES deciding.what.measures.to.adopt..Article.41,.on.the.rights.of.children.in.special.education.facilities. and. specialized. medical. centres,. recognizes. their. right. to. be. treated. humanely. and. in. accordance. with.the.law.as.well.as.their.right.to.health.care,.education,.vacations.and.contact.with.their.families.. Article.42,.which.is.more.directly.related.to.juvenile.justice,.provides.that.“investigations.involving. children”. must. respect. their. dignity. and. self-esteem. and. take. into. account. their. age. and. personal. characteristics;. that. children. have. the. right. to. an. attorney. as. from. the. time. they. are. detained. or. arrested;.that.mental.or.physical.pressure.to.confess.or.testify.is.prohibited;.that.children.deprived.of. liberty.shall.not.be.confined.with.adults;.and.that.conditions.in.places.of.detention.shall.be.designed. to.help.children.grow.into.honest.and.worthy.citizens.. In.Moldova,.Article.28.of.the.Law.on.Child.Rights,.adopted.in.1994,119.concerns.juvenile.justice..It.provides,. inter alia,. that. arrest. or. detention. of. children. must. be. exceptional. and. legal;. that. arrested. or. detained. children. shall. be. kept. separately. from. adults. and. convicted. children;. and. that. the. participation. of. a. defence.counsel.and.an.educator.is.mandatory.in.judicial.proceedings.120.Article.31.of.the.Law.provides. that,.in.case.of.conflict,.the.provisions.of.international.treaties.prevail.over.provisions.of.the.law.. The. idea. of. incorporating. an. article. on. the. rights. of. children. into. the. constitution. is. a. good. one,. in. principle,. because. it. raises. the. rights. of. children. to. the. pinnacle. of. the. hierarchy. of. rights.. The. provisions. on. child. rights. contained. in. the. four. constitutions. cited. above,. however,. do. not. capture. the.essential.nature.of.child.rights.as.enshrined.in.the.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.121. The. laws. on. child. rights. adopted. by. three. of. the. five. countries. make. a. useful. contribution. to. the. development. of. juvenile. justice. systems. respectful. of. the. rights. of. children.. In. strictly. legal. terms,. the. effect. of. incorporating. a. few. basic. principles. and. standards. on. juvenile. justice. into. laws. on. the. rights. of. children. is. no. greater. than. that. of. incorporating. similar. provisions. into. any. other. law.. Nevertheless,. introducing. them. into. a. law. on. child. rights. helps. make. broader. sectors. of. society,. including.children.themselves,.aware.of.the.essential.rights.and.principles.that.should.be.respected. with.regard.to.children.at.risk.and.juvenile.offenders..Countries.where.such.a.law.was.not.adopted. (i.e.,.Georgia.and.Ukraine).might.well.wish.to.consider.doing.so.. 2. Grave concerns about interrogation and detention 2.1. Torture and ill-treatment All.five.countries.covered.by.this.report.are.parties.to.the.European.Convention.for.the.Prevention.of. Torture.and.Inhuman.or.Degrading.Treatment.or.Punishment,.and.to.the.United.Nations.Convention. against. Torture. and. other. Cruel,. Inhuman. or. Degrading. Treatment. or. Punishment. and. its. Optional. Protocol.. Article. 37(a). of. the. Convention. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. also. prohibits. torture. and. other. cruel,. inhuman. or. degrading. treatment. or. punishment.. Torture. and. cruel,. inhuman. and. degrading. treatment.are.prohibited.by.law.in.all.five.countries.122. Some. important. measures. have. been. taken. in. order. to. prevent. and. deter. torture. and. ill- treatment.123. Suspects. detained. by. the. police. for. investigation. may. not. be. kept. in. police. stations.. They. must. be. transferred. to. a. police. detention. centre,. where. they. are. examined. by. medical. personnel..Independent.monitoring.bodies.with.full.access.to.all.places.of.detention.also.have.been. . 119 . Law.on.Child.Rights.of.Moldova,.No..338-XIII.of.15.December.1994. 120 . Ibid.,.para..(2),.(3).and.(5),.respectively. 121 . Compare,.for.example,.with.section.28.of.the.Constitution.of.South.Africa,.cited.in.O’Donnell,.D., Law Reform and Implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child,.UNICEF.Innocenti.Research.Centre,.Florence,.2007,.p..14. 122 . See,.e.g.,.Article.17.of.the.Constitution.of.Armenia;.Article.46.of.the.Constitution.of.Azerbaijan;.Article.17.of.the. Constitution.of.Georgia;.Article.24.of.the.Constitution.of.Moldova;.and.Article.28.of.the.Constitution.of.Ukraine. 123 . In.this.section,.the.term.‘ill-treatment’.is.used.as.a.synonym.for.‘cruel,.inhuman.and.degrading.treatment’. 40
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE established.(see.Part.I.1)..However,.as.mentioned.above,.they.do.not.have.access.to.police.stations. because.they.are.not.intended.for.that.use. It.appears.that,.in.Armenia,.juveniles.are.no.longer.subject.to.physical.abuse.in.the.prison.and.pretrial. detention. centre. operated. by. the. Ministry. of. Justice.. However,. information. from. various. sources. indicates.that.physical.abuse.and.even.torture.by.the.police.are.still.inflicted.on.suspects,.including. juveniles,. before. their. placement. in. investigative. custody. facilities.. A. recent. survey. of. juvenile. offenders.(and.other.children.having.been.in.contact.with.the.police).suggests.that.violence.is.routine: The majority of the respondents have mentioned that they were beaten at the police station. As some of them mentioned, the police officers usually beat the juveniles to make them admit (or to take responsibility for) the crime or name the persons who have participated in the action (theft, fight etc.). The respondents who said no violence was inflicted on them explained it by the fact that they had admitted their guilt immediately.124 No. police. officer. has. been. publically. sanctioned,. or. prosecuted,. for. torture. or. cruel. and. inhuman. treatment.of.a.suspect,.whether.juvenile.or.adult.125 The.Monitoring.Groups.perform.a.valuable.service.in.deterring.ill-treatment.–.and,.indeed,.represent. a. ‘good. practice’. deserving. to. be. emulated. in. other. countries. –. but. their. efforts. have. not. sufficed. to. ensure. accountability.. The. Public. Defender. informed. the. assessment. team. that,. in. some. cases,. courts. have. excluded. statements. obtained. through. coercion.. An. NGO. stated. that,. in. many. cases,. courts. ignore. claims. of. abuse. by. defendants.. Although. detainees. are. examined. by. a. physician. on. admission. to. the. police. detention. centre,. since. he/she. is. not. independent,. this. is. not. an. effective. deterrent.against.abuse.during.the.period.immediately.following.arrest.. In. Georgia,. defence. lawyers. informed. the. assessment. team. that,. although. police. violence. against. juvenile. suspects. has. not. been. eliminated. completely,. it. is. now. “extremely. rare.”. In. their. view,. this. is. due. in. part. to. changes. in. the. legislation,. but. mainly. to. political. will.. Cases. of. violence. are. “investigated.thoroughly,”.even.if.the.sanctions.imposed.are.not.always.proportionate.to.the.offence.. In. Moldova,. the. United. Nations. Committee. against. Torture. expressed. concern. that. “the. reported. failure.of.the.State.….to.ensure.prompt,.impartial.and.full.investigations.into.the.numerous.allegations. of. torture. and. ill-treatment. [is]. contributing. to. a. culture. of. impunity. among. law. enforcement. officials.”126. Investigations. by. the. European. Committee. for. the. Prevention. of. Torture,. most. recently. in.2007,.have.concluded.that.beatings.by.the.police.of.persons.taken.into.custody,.including.juvenile. suspects,.continue.to.be.common.127. 124 . Juvenile.Justice.in.Armenia:.Perspective.of.Children.in.Conflict.with.the.Law,.supra,.p..57..(The.survey.is.based.on. interviews.with.91.persons.who.had.been.in.the.juvenile.prison,.a.Community.Justice.Centre,.on.probation.or.in.No..1. Educational.Complex.between.2002.and.2009.) 125 . See.Commission.of.the.European.Communities,.Implementation.of.the.European.Neighbourhood.Policy.in.2008,.Progress. Report.Armenia,.SEC(2009).511/2,.2009,.p..4..(“Four.criminal.cases.were.opened.in.2008,.but.no.one.has.so.far.been. convicted.for.offences.related.to.torture.and.ill-treatment.”) 126 . Committee.against.Torture,.Consideration.of.reports.submitted.by.States.parties.under.Article.19.of.the.Convention,. Conclusions.and.recommendations.on.the.initial.report.of.the.Republic.of.Moldova,.CAT/C/CR/30/7,.2003,.para..5(e). 127 . Rapport.au.Gouvernement.de.la.République.de.Moldova.relatif.à.la.visite.effectuée.en.Moldova.par.le.Comité.européen. pour.la.prévention.de.la.torture.et.des.peines.ou.traitements.inhumains.ou.dégradants.(CPT).du.14.au.24.septembre.2007,. CPT/Inf(2008).39,.Conseil.de.l’Europe,.Strasbourg,.décembre.2008,.para..13..(The.Committee.specifically.reported.that. about.one.third.of.the.detainees.interviewed.in.private.indicated.that.they.had.been.physically.mistreated,.usually.during. interrogation.in.police.stations,.and.that.most.of.those.who.didn’t.report.abuse.attributed.this.to.the.fact.that.they.had. promptly.confessed.) 41
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Responsibility. for. the. investigation. of. crimes,. including. abuse. of. juveniles. by. the. police. or. other. public.servants,.lies.with.the.General.Prosecutor..The.Office.of.the.General.Prosecutor.informed.the. assessment.team.that.a.campaign.against.torture.had.started.some.two.years.ago,.and.that.progress. had.been.made..Complaints.against.police.officers.are.investigated.by.prosecutors.from.a.different. district.in.order.to.safeguard.against.tolerance.or.complicity..The.number.of.police.officers.prosecuted. has.increased,.and.some.have.been.given.prison.sentences.for.the.abuse.of.adult.suspects..Complaints. against.police.officers.for.abusing.juvenile.suspects.reportedly.are.“much.less.common.”.However,. they. could. not. point. to. any. case. in. recent. years. in. which. criminal. or. administrative. sanctions. had. been.imposed.for.the.abuse.of.a.juvenile.suspect.by.a.police.officer..Representatives.of.the.Ministry. of.the.Interior.indicated.that.during.the.last.two.to.three.years.no.complaints.about.police.misconduct. against.children.had.been.received..This.kind.of.blanket.denial.not.only.lacks.credibility,.but.reinforces. the.impression.that.there.is.little.political.will.to.eradicate.abuse.. In.Ukraine,.the.Centre.of.Social.Expertise.carried.out.a.study.in.2008.based.in.large.part.on.interviews. with. children. who. had. been. detained. as. suspects. and. their. parents.. The. study. concluded. that. intimidation,. threats. and. degrading. treatment. as. well. as. psychological. pressure. were. deliberately. used.by.the.police.in.‘investigation.isolators’.to.‘break’.the.personality.of.juvenile.suspects.128. In. all. five. countries,. safeguards. designed. to. prevent. intimidation. and. abuse. of. suspects. have. been. introduced.or.reinforced.in.recent.years..Some.of.the.most.important.safeguards.aim.to.reduce.the. length.of.time.a.juvenile.suspect.may.be.detained.by.the.police.without.a.court.order.and.to.require. the.presence.of.a.defence.attorney.and/or.educator.or.psychologist.during.questioning.. In.general,.physical.conditions.of.detention.or.imprisonment,.even.when.somewhat.substandard,.are. not.so.bad.as.to.be.considered.cruel,.inhuman.or.degrading..However,.in.all.five.countries.legislation. and. regulations. allow. solitary. confinement. to. be. used. as. a. disciplinary. measure. for. juveniles.. This. practice.is.classified.as.cruel,.inhuman.and.degrading.by.the.United.Nations.Rules.for.the.Protection. of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty.129. It.seems.fairly.certain.that.the.measures.taken.to.reduce.the.use.of.torture.and.ill-treatment.during.the. last.decade.or.more.have.had.some.success..Training,.reinforced.by.the.activities.of.ombudspersons.and. other.national.monitoring.mechanisms,.has.contributed.to.improve.the.treatment.of.juvenile.prisoners.. Physical.and.psychological.abuse.is.less.common.than.it.was,.especially.in.juvenile.correctional.facilities. and.other.detention.centres,.but.eliminating.the.use.of.violence.by.the.police.has.been.more.difficult.. One. factor. that. no. doubt. contributes. to. the. persistence. of. police. violence. is. the. length. of. time. juvenile. suspects. are. held. without. a. court. order.. In. 2007,. the. Committee. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. recommended. that. detention. without. a. court. order. should. be. limited. to. 24. hours.130. Two. of. the. countries.covered.by.this.report.allow.the.police.to.keep.juvenile.suspects.without.a.court.order.for. 72. hours,. and. one. country,. for. 48. hours.. In. all. three. cases,. this. is. the. result. of. legal. norms,. which. apply. to. juveniles. and. adults. alike. and. clearly. do. not. take. into. account. the. greater. vulnerability. of. suspects.who.are.not.yet.mature.adults..(See.following.sections.on.interrogation.and.detention.). Recognition. of. the. right. to. legal. (and. other). assistance. during. questioning. or. interrogation. is. a. valuable. safeguard,. but. it. is. well. known. that. juvenile. suspects. are. very. vulnerable. and. can. easily. 128 . Social Practices and Legislation in the Area of Juvenile Delinquency,.supra,.pp..110.and.111. 129 . United.Nations.Rules.for.the.Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty.(Havana.Rules),.Rule.67..(Rule.95.3.of.the. European.Rules.for.juvenile.offenders.subject.to.sanctions.or.measures.also.bans.the.use.of.solitary.confinement.of. juvenile.prisoners.) 130 . General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.para..83.. 42
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE be. persuaded. to. renounce. their. rights,. if. they. are. permitted. to. do. so.. Consequently,. making. the. presence. of. a. lawyer. obligatory. is. a. stronger. safeguard. than. making. it. simply. a. right.. Establishing. legal. assistance. programmes. strengthens. the. impact. of. this. safeguard. because. dedicated. public. defenders.(like.paid.counsel).tend.to.be.more.zealous.in.raising.issues,.such.as.illegal.interrogation. practices,.than.lawyers.appointed.by.the.court.to.represent.juvenile.offenders. The.requirement.that.suspects.undergo.medical.examinations.also.is.a.good.one,.but.one.that.can.be. undermined.when.the.persons.conducting.the.exam.are.not.independent.. The. experience. of. all. five. countries. also. underlines. the. important. role. that. prosecutors. play,. or. should.play,.in.the.struggle.against.impunity.for.torture.and.ill-treatment..Juvenile.victims.are.even. more.vulnerable.than.adults.to.pressures.not.to.cooperate.in.investigations.of.abuse..Consequently,. progress.in.the.struggle.against.police.violence,.especially,.depends.to.a.large.extent.on.a.commitment. to. investigate. all. cases. where. there. is. evidence. of. torture. or. ill-treatment,. even. in. the. absence. of. cooperation. by. the. victim.. To. do. so. is. a. basic. state. obligation. under. Article. 12. of. the. European. Convention.for.the.Prevention.of.Torture.and.Inhuman.or.Degrading.Treatment.or.Punishment.. In. the. final. analysis,. all. the. safeguards. and. deterrents. mentioned. above. are. useful,. but. their. effectiveness.depends.to.a.large.degree.on.the.political.commitment.to.respect.the.rights.of.children. suspected. of. or. charged. with. an. offence.. Where. this. commitment. exists. at. the. highest. levels,. the. effectiveness. of. such. safeguards. will. be. multiplied;. where. it. does. not,. effectiveness. will. be. undermined.at.every.turn.. 2.2. Detention and interrogation of juvenile suspects There.have.been.improvements.in.the.treatment.of.juvenile.suspects.in.all.the.countries.covered.by. this.report,.but.in.general.much.more.needs.to.be.done.to.respect.the.rights.of.juveniles.in.this.stage. of.proceedings.. Length of detention without a court order According.to.the.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.“Every.child.arrested.and.deprived.of.his/her. liberty.should.be.brought.before.a.competent.authority.to.examine.the.legality.of.the.(continuation. of).this.deprivation.of.liberty.within.24.hours.”131.The.reason.for.such.requirement.is.not.only.to.avoid. arbitrary.or.illegal.deprivation.of.liberty,.but.also.to.prevent.torture.and.ill-treatment. Only.Moldova.and.Ukraine.meet.this.standard..In.Ukraine,.police.may.detain.children.caught.in.the. act.of.committing.an.offence.for.up.to.eight.hours;.children.brought.to.the.police.station.for.general. suspicion. may. not. be. detained. for. more. than. three. hours.132. In. 2006,. Moldova’s. Code. of. Criminal. Procedure.was.amended.to.reduce.from.72.hours.to.24.hours.the.length.of.time.a.juvenile.may.remain. in.police.custody.after.being.apprehended.133 In.Azerbaijan,.any.person.may.be.detained.for.questioning.for.three.hours,.at.which.point.the.police. must. decide. whether. or. not. to. declare. the. person. a. suspect.. The. police. have. authority. to. detain. suspects. for. 24. hours,. but. in. certain. circumstances. (e.g.,. residence. unknown). detention. may. be. extended.to.48.hours.by.order.of.a.prosecutor.or.investigator.134. 131 . General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.para..82. 132 . Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Ukraine,.UNICEF.Regional.Office.for.CEE/CIS,.Geneva,.2009,.p..12. 133 . Law.on.modification.of.certain.legislative.acts,.Article.II.2,.modifying.Article.166.of.the.Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.of. Moldova. 134 . Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Azerbaijan,.UNICEF.Regional.Office.for.CEE/CIS,.Geneva,.2009,. p..16.. 43
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES In.Armenia,.police.may.detain.suspects.without.a.court.order.for.72.hours,.whether.they.are.juveniles. or.adults.. In. Georgia,. the. police. may. detain. juveniles. suspected. of. involvement. in. an. offence. for. 48. hours.135. At. that. point,. the. juvenile. must. be. released,. or. the. case. must. be. referred. to. the. prosecutor,. who. has. 24. hours. to. refer. the. matter. to. a. judge. if. he/she. believes. there. is. reason. to. detain. the. juvenile. further.. Thus,. in. practice,. juveniles. (like. adults). may. be. detained. during. 72. hours. for. investigation. and.interrogation.without.a.court.order..Once.a.juvenile.suspect.has.been.detained,.the.police.have. no.discretion.to.release.him/her.during.the.48-hour.period.mentioned.above.. In.those.countries.where.the.standard.recommended.by.the.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.is. not.met.–.such.as.Armenia,.Azerbaijan.and.Georgia.–.priority.should.be.given.to.bringing.their.law. and.practice.into.compliance.with.it.. Presence of defence counsel and others during interrogation In.Armenia,.suspects.(whether.juveniles.or.adults).have.the.right.to.an.attorney.as.from.the.time.of. detention. and. during. interrogation,. even. if. the. suspect. is. not. deprived. of. liberty.136. In. Azerbaijan,. every.suspect.(juvenile.or.adult).has.the.right.to.legal.assistance.as.from.the.first.interrogation.and. an. accused. person. as. from. the. time. charges. are. placed.137. A. psychologist. or. pedagogue. must. be. present. during. the. interrogation. of. juveniles. under. age. 16. as. well. as. those. aged. 16–17. years. who. show. signs. of. mental. disability.138. In. Georgia,. the. presence. of. a. defence. attorney. is. mandatory. as. from. the. initial. interrogation. of. a. juvenile.139. Interrogation. may. not. continue. for. more. than. two. hours.without.a.break,.nor.exceed.four.hours.per.day.140.Officers.who.interrogate.children.are.to.be. specially.trained,.and.a.lawyer.must.be.present.whenever.a.child.is.interrogated.in.connection.with. an.offence.141.In.Moldova,.children.may.be.held.in.police.stations.for.24.hours,.but.a.prosecutor.must. be. notified. within. three. to. six. hours. and. assume. responsibility. for. interrogation.142. Children. may. not.be.questioned.for.more.than.two.hours.at.a.time,.and.four.hours.per.day.143.The.presence.of.an. attorney.and.a.psychologist.or.teacher.during.questioning.is.mandatory.144.In.Ukraine,.suspects.and. accused.persons.under.age.18.may.only.be.questioned.in.the.presence.of.their.defence.counsel.and. not.for.more.than.two.hours.without.a.break,.or.for.more.than.four.hours.per.day.145.The.juvenile’s. parent.or.guardian.may.be.present.at.his/her.request,.or.at.the.juvenile’s.request.146.A.psychologist.or. special.educator.(‘pedagogue’).must.be.present.when.a.child.is.interrogated.147 135 . Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.of.Georgia,.Article.12.3. 136 . Constitution.of.Armenia,.Article.20;.Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.of.Armenia,.Articles.63.2(4).and.(6),.65.2(3).and.(5),. and.211. 137 . Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.of.Azerbaijan,.Article.19.4.1. 138 . Ibid.,.Article.432.5..The.law.is.silent.as.to.the.role.such.persons.play.during.interrogation,.suggesting.that.their.presence.is. intended.to.prevent.intimidation.and.to.provide.the.juvenile.with.moral.support.. 139 . Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.of.Georgia,.Articles.645.and.647. 140 . Ibid.,.Article.647. 141 . Ibid.,.Articles.654.and.645,.respectively. 142 . Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.of.Moldova,.Articles.166(6).and.167(1)..(There.is.an.ambiguity.as.to.whether.the.three-hour. limit.for.notifying.the.prosecutor.begins.with.the.actual.apprehension.or.after.the.three-hour.limit.for.deciding.whether.. to.treat.the.child.as.a.suspect.or.release.him/her.) 143 . Ibid.,.Article.479(1). 144 . Ibid.,.Article.479(2). 145 . Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.of.Ukraine,.Article.503. 146 . Ibid. 147 . Ibid.,.Article.504.. 44
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE The. legislation. of. all. five. countries. recognizes. the. essential. safeguard. that. no. juvenile. suspect. shall. be. interrogated. without. the. presence. of. his/her. attorney.. Unfortunately,. little. information. is. available.on.compliance.with.this.rule..Independent.surveys.of.the.experiences.of.juvenile.offenders. in. Armenia. and. Ukraine. indicate. that. physical. and. psychological. abuse. of. suspects. by. the. police. has. not. been. eliminated. and,. in. Armenia,. is. commonplace.148. This. suggests. that. lawyers’. presence. during.questioning.is.not.guaranteed.in.practice.. The. additional. safeguards. against. psychological. pressure,. in. particular. regarding. the. length. of. questioning,.are.positive.developments,.which.should.be.adopted.by.all.countries..Little.information. is. available. on. the. practice. and. practical. benefits. of. the. presence. of. pedagogues. or. psychologists. during.questioning.. Separation from adult detainees As.mentioned.earlier,.in.Armenia,.suspects.are.not.detained.in.police.stations,.but.in.police.detention. centres..These.centres.do.not.have.separate.areas.for.juveniles.(or.women)..Each.detainee.is.confined. in. an. individual. cell,. in. principle,. and. there. are. no. group. activities.. This. prevents. contact. between. juveniles. and. adults,. but. it. also. in. effect. amounts. to. the. juvenile’s. solitary. confinement,. which. is. prohibited.by.international.standards.149. In. Azerbaijan,. as. most. police. stations. do. not. have. special. rooms. for. children,. juveniles. may. be. detained. in. close. contact. with. adult. suspects.. After. the. 2008. UNICEF. assessment. mission,. three. police.stations.set.up.‘child-friendly’.rooms.staffed.by.specially.trained.officers,.on.a.pilot.basis..The. legislation. provides,. “The. investigation. concerning. a. minor. shall. be. conducted,. as. far. as. possible,. by. special. departments. of. the. investigating. authorities. or. by. persons. who. have. relevant. work. experience.with.minors.”150.However,.neither.the.prosecutor.nor.the.police.have.special.departments. for.the.investigation.of.crimes.committed.by.juveniles.. In.Moldova,.police.stations.lack.facilities.that.would.allow.them.to.detain.juveniles.separately.from. adults..Children.may.be.detained.in.police.stations.for.24.hours.. In. Ukraine,. police. may. not. detain. juvenile. suspects. for. more. than. eight. hours.. At. the. time. of. the. assessment,.in.2008,.special.rooms.for.holding.juveniles.during.this.time.did.not.exist.. In.Georgia,.police.may.detain.juvenile.suspects.for.72.hours..The.assessment.team.did.not.receive. permission.to.visit.the.‘isolators’.in.which.juvenile.suspects.are.detained.. 2.3. Detention of accused juveniles before and during legal proceedings Progress. has. been. made,. in. some. countries,. with. regard. to. certain. aspects. of. the. detention. of. accused.juveniles.before.and.during.legal.proceedings,.but.not.in.others.. In. most. countries,. legislation. adopted. in. the. last. decade. or. so. does. not. authorize. the. detention. of. juveniles. charged. with. minor. offences.. In. Georgia,. for. example,. accused. juveniles. may. not. be. detained.unless.the.offence.charged.carries.a.sentence.of.three.years.or.more..Procedures.designed. 148 . See.Social Practices and Legislation in the Area of Juvenile Delinquency,.supra,.pp..97.and.98,.and.Juvenile.Justice.in. Armenia:.Perspective.of.Children.in.Conflict.with.the.Law,.supra,.p..57. 149 . United.Nations.Rules.for.the.Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty.(Havana.Rules),.Rule.67..(The.Rule.prohibits. solitary.confinement.as.a.disciplinary.measure,.but.the.intent.is.to.make.an.exception.regarding.solitary.confinement.for. protection.or.for.medical.reasons,.not.in.order.to.facilitate.an.investigation.) 150 . Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.of.Azerbaijan,.Article.432.1. 45
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES to. prevent. unnecessary. prolongation. of. detention. before. trial. have. also. been. introduced. in. some. countries.. In. Armenia,. for. example,. court. orders. approving. detention. are. valid. for. two. months.. Authorization.can.be.extended.for.up.to.one.year,.but.only.in.increments.of.two.months..The.reasons. must.be.recorded.and.the.detainee.has.a.right.to.be.heard..In.Georgia,.too,.detention.orders.are.valid. for.two.months..They.can.be.renewed,.but.the.maximum.length.of.detention.is.four.months.before. trial.plus.five.months.during.trial.and.appeal.. Despite. such. measures,. the. number. of. accused. juveniles. in. detention. remains. relatively. high. in. most. countries. and. prolonged. detention. is. a. problem.. In. Moldova,. for. example,. the. number. of. accused.juveniles.placed.in.detention.has.declined.from.an.average.of.178.per.year.at.the.beginning. of. the. decade. to. 82. in. 2008. (8. per. cent. of. the. juveniles. prosecuted. that. year).. This. is. impressive.. Nevertheless,. the. number. of. juveniles. in. detention. at. the. time. of. the. UNICEF. assessment. mission. was.twice.the.number.serving.sentences..In.Georgia,.nearly.one.third.of.all.juveniles.prosecuted.are. detained.before.trial..The.number.of.juveniles.in.detention.at.the.time.of.the.assessment.mission.was. about.half.the.number.serving.sentences. According. to. the. international. standard,. any. deprivation. of. liberty. shall. not. exceed. the. “shortest. appropriate.period.of.time.”151.The.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.takes.the.position.that.the. time.between.the.filing.of.charges.or.formalization.of.an.accusation.and.the.final.decision.should.not. exceed. six. months.152. Most. countries. fail. to. meet. this. standard.. In. Armenia,. for. example,. detention. for. twelve. months. is. common.153. Detention. before. trial. may. not. exceed. four. months. in. Moldova,. but. there. is. no.limit.to.the. duration. of.detention. during.trial.and.appeal..At. the.time.of.the. UNICEF. assessment.mission,.one.juvenile.had.been.detained.for.a.year,.in.very.harsh.conditions..In.Ukraine,. there. is. no. limit. to. the. length. of. detention. before. and. during. legal. proceedings,. and. detention. for. six.to.twelve.months.is.common..Although.the.facilities.of.the.detention.unit.for.juveniles.visited.by. the. assessment. team. were. relatively. good. compared. to. those. in. other. countries. (access. to. a. gym,. classes),.the.Director.of.the.detention.centre.was.adamant.that.detention.for.more.than.six.months. was.inhuman.and.should.be.prohibited..In.Azerbaijan,.the.limit.for.completing.a.criminal.investigation. is,. in. principle,. two. to. four. months,. depending. on. the. gravity. of. the. case.154. Delays. caused. by. the. defence.are.not.taken.into.account,.however,.and.extensions.of.up.to.14.additional.months.may.be. granted.in.complex.cases.155.These.time.limits.apply.to.adults.and.juveniles.alike,.whether.or.not.the. accused.is.deprived.of.liberty.156 In. most. countries,. the. measures. taken. to. prevent. contact. between. juvenile. and. adult. detainees. appear.effective.for.that.purpose..Exceptions.are.Azerbaijan.and.Ukraine,.where.the.practice.of.using. selected.adult.prisoners.to.maintain.order.in.the.juvenile.section.of.the.main.detention.complex.has. not.been.eliminated..In.some.facilities,.however,.the.consequences.of.isolation.within.a.larger.facility. designed.mainly.for.adults.(e.g.,.spending.more.time.in.cells,.lack.of.access.to.yards).make.conditions. of.confinement.significantly.more.onerous.for.juveniles. 151 . Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Article.37(b).. 152 . General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.para..83..(This.provides.greater.protection.to.the.rights.of.accused.juveniles. than.the.six-month.limit.between.remand.in.custody.and.the.beginning.of.trial.contained.in.para..16.of.Recommendation. Rec(2003)20.of.the.Council.of.Europe’s.Committee.of.Ministers.to.member.states.concerning.new.ways.of.dealing.with. juvenile.delinquency.and.the.role.of.juvenile.justice.). 153 . Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Armenia,.supra,.p..19. 154 . Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.of.Azerbaijan,.Article.218.1–218.2. 155 . Ibid.,.Articles.218.4.and.218.6–218.8. 156 . They.also.apply.whether.or.not.the.accused.is.deprived.of.liberty. 46
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE In. most. if. not. all. countries,. conditions. in. juvenile. detention. centres. are. harsher. than. in. juvenile. correctional. facilities.. Deprivation. of. access. to. sports. facilities. is. a. common. problem.. In. Armenia. and.Georgia,.the.right.to.outdoors.exercise.means.the.right.to.spend.two.hours.a.day.in.a.cell.with. no.roof,.with.no.equipment..In.Armenia,.juveniles.in.pretrial.detention.are.not.allowed.any.contact. with. juvenile.detainees. other. than.their.cellmates.. In.Moldova.and.Ukraine,.juvenile.detainees. now. have.access.to.educational.programmes.and.exercise.facilities,.but.they.are.much.poorer.than.those. offered.in.correctional.facilities.for.juveniles.. 3. Good and bad news about correctional facilities 3.1. Decrease in the number of custodial sentences and juvenile prisoners In. four. of. these. countries,. the. percentage. of. convicted. juveniles. receiving. custodial. sentences. has. decreased. considerably. and/or. the. number. of. juveniles. serving. sentences. in. juvenile. correctional. facilities.has.fallen.drastically.157. In. Armenia,. for. example,. there. were. 82. juveniles. serving. custodial. sentences. in. 1998,. and. 18. at. the. time. of. the. UNICEF. assessment. mission,. in. 2009.158. In. Azerbaijan,. the. percentage. of. convicted. juveniles. receiving. ‘conditional’. or. suspended. sentences. more. than. doubled. a. decade. ago. –. from. 19. per. cent. in. 1999. to. 51. per. cent. in. 2002.159. At. the. time. of. the. assessment. mission,. the. juvenile. correctional. facility. had. a. population. of. 47,. one. third. of. its. capacity.160. In. Moldova,. the. number. of. juveniles.serving.sentences.in.the.juvenile.correctional.facility.decreased.from.262.in.1993.to.153.in. 1999.161. Thirty-two. juveniles. were. serving. sentences. at. the. time. of. the. assessment. in. 2009.. This. is. due.in.part.to.an.amnesty,.but.the.number.of.convicted.juveniles.given.custodial.sentences.also.fell. from.194.in.2004.to.100.in.2008.162.In.Ukraine,.the.average.population.of.the.11.correctional.facilities. for.juvenile.offenders.during.the.period.1993–1997.was.3,600;.at.the.time.of.the.assessment.mission. in.2008,.the.total.population.was.1,819.. The.exception.is.Georgia,.where.a.‘zero.tolerance’.policy.towards.crime.was.launched.in.2005..The. percentage.of.convicted.juveniles.given.custodial.sentences.rose.from.22.per.cent.in.2005.to.40.per. cent. in. 2007,. before. falling. back. to. 33. per. cent. in. 2008.163. Since. the. number. of. juveniles. convicted. during. this. period. was. also. much. higher,. custodial. sentences. increased. dramatically. from. 104. in. 2005.to.426.in.2007.164. The.very.substantial.decrease.in.the.number.of.juvenile.prisoners.–.from.50.per.cent.to.80.per.cent.in. all.the.countries.but.one.–.is.an.extraordinary.accomplishment.. 157 . Both.indicators.–.the.number.of.prisoners.and.the.percentage.of.convicted.juveniles.given.custodial.sentences.–.are. relevant,.but.due.to.the.limitations.of.data.collection.systems,.it.is.not.possible.to.present.both.kinds.of.data.from.all.five. countries.. 158 . Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Armenia,.supra,.p..24. 159 . Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Azerbaijan,.UNICEF.Regional.Office.for.CEE/CIS,.Geneva,.2009,.p..24. 160 . Ibid.,.p..25. 161 . Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Initial.report.of.the.Republic.of.Moldova,.CRC/C/28/Add.19,.paras..400.and.405.. (The.number.was.much.lower.in.2000.and.2001,.due.to.an.amnesty.) 162 . The situation of children in the Republic of Moldova in 2008,.supra,.Table.10. 163 . Data.provided.to.UNICEF.by.the.Supreme.Court..(The.percentage.in.2006.was.similar.to.2008:.34.per.cent.).To.put.these. figures.in.a.longer.perspective,.in.the.1990s.the.percentage.of.convicted.juveniles.given.custodial.sentences.was.around.27. per.cent.(in.1994).and.28.per.cent.(in.1997)..See.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Initial.report.of.Georgia,.CRC/C/41/ Add.4/Rev.1,.para..294. 164 . Data.provided.to.UNICEF.by.the.Supreme.Court. 47
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES 3.2. Improved conditions in correctional facilities In.each.of.the.five.countries,.the.UNICEF.assessment.team.visited.one.or.more.correctional.facilities. for. juveniles.. Azerbaijan,. Armenia,. Georgia. and. Moldova. have. one. correctional. facility. each. for. juvenile.boys;.girls.serving.sentences.are.confined.in.women’s.prisons..In.Ukraine,.the.team.visited. two.of.the.eleven.correctional.colonies.for.juvenile.boys.. In. general,. policies,. programmes. and. material. conditions. in. juvenile. correctional. facilities. have. improved.. Prisoners. have. access. to. education,. sports,. medical. care,. and. cultural. activities.. Senior. staff.has.received.training.in.child.rights,.and.appears.to.have.appropriate.attitudes.and.values..No. reports.were.received.of.corporal.punishment,.physical.abuse.or.violence.by.staff.or.other.prisoners.. Innovative. programmes. and. policies. have. been. introduced. in. some. juvenile. correctional. facilities.. In. Ukraine,. for. example,. there. are. small. apartments. for. prisoners. to. receive. visits. from. family. members..Each.facility.offers.prisoners.the.chance.to.participate.in.one.or.more.‘interest.groups’.165. ‘Caring. councils’. consisting. of. NGOs. and. other. community-based. groups. visit. the. facilities.166. In. Azerbaijan,.cultural.activities,.including.theatre,.have.been.introduced,.and.some.juvenile.prisoners. who.participated.in.a.special.educational.programme.were.accepted.into.a.technical.college.. In.Armenia,.the.introduction.of.crafts.programmes.provided.by.NGOs.has.improved.the.quality.of.life. in.the.juvenile.prison..The.library.had.copies.of.textbooks.on.human.rights..Prisoners.have.cupboards. to.store.personal.belongings.. In.Moldova,.17.different.programmes.are.available.for.the.juvenile.prisoners,.who.numbered.40.at.the. time.of.the.UNICEF.assessment.mission.167.The.staff.included.11.social.workers.and.psychologists,.11. teachers.of.academic.subjects.and.9.vocational.education.instructors..The.juvenile.prisoners.produce. a.newsletter,.and.cats.roamed.freely.in.the.facility.. In.Armenia.and.Ukraine,.independent.surveys.have.documented.the.views.and.experiences.of.juvenile. prisoners..In.Ukraine,.many.stated.that,.except.for.the.lack.of.freedom,.conditions.in.the.correctional. facility.were.better.than.in.their.homes;.most.reported.a.positive.relationship.with.their.psychologist. and.expressed.gratitude.for.the.services.provided.168.In.Armenia,.juvenile.prisoners.indicated.that.the. experience. of. imprisonment. was. generally. negative. and. they. did. not. believe. it. helped. rehabilitate. them.169.On.the.other.hand,.they.spoke.positively.about.the.staff.and.informed.researchers.that.they. “did.not.have.difficulties.concerning.the.protection.of.their.rights.”170 Georgia.again.is.an.exception.to.the.rule..The.presence.in.the.juvenile.correctional.facility.of.an.NGO. that.offers.craft.classes.and.counselling.is.an.improvement..However,.the.facility.is.overcrowded.and. internal.security,.in.particular.nocturnal.supervision.of.dormitories,.was.inadequate.at.the.time.of.the. UNICEF.assessment.mission,.in.2009. 165 . Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Ukraine,.supra,.p..19. 166 . Ibid. 167 . This.number.included.14.convicted.as.juveniles.who.were.over.age.18.. 168 . Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Ukraine,.supra,.p..19. 169 . Juvenile.Justice.in.Armenia:.Perspective.of.Children.in.Conflict.with.the.Law,.supra,.p..60. 170 . Ibid.. 48
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE 3.3. The lack of rehabilitation in juvenile correctional facilities In. none. of. the. juvenile. correctional. facilities. visited. in. these. countries. did. the. direction. provide. the. UNICEF. assessment. team. with. a. coherent. explanation. of. a. methodology. of. rehabilitation,. re- socialization.or.prevention.of.re-offending..Significantly,.the.only.such.approaches.or.methodologies. that. were. explained. were. those. being. applied. in. other. settings,. such. as. the. Community. Justice. Centres.and.School.No..1.in.Armenia,.and.the.Samtredia.special.school.in.Georgia.. The.approach,.which.is.implicit.in.the.programmes.offered.in.juvenile.correctional.facilities,.includes. the.following.components: –.education.(as.per.the.national.curricula) –.remedial.education –.vocational.training –.discipline.(in.the.sense.of.being.obliged.to.follow.a.daily.routine.and.respect.rules) –.building.positive.personal.relationships.between.staff.and.prisoners. –.sports.and.cultural.activities. –.access.to.religious.services.. There. are. some. differences. between. activities. and. programmes.. In. Moldova,. for. example,. juvenile. prisoners. are. allowed. to. work. outside. the. facility. for. private. employers. and. to. keep. their. earnings.. In. Ukraine,. the. approach. to. rehabilitation. developed. by. the. pioneering. educator. Anton. Makarenko. during.the.1920s.is.an.influence..In.Azerbaijan.and.Ukraine,.community-based.groups.have.a.presence. in.correctional.facilities. Juvenile.correctional.facilities.have.begun.to.add.psychologists.and.social.workers.to.their.staff.but,. in.general,.they.play.little.or.no.role.in.rehabilitation..In.some.facilities,.this.is.in.part.because.their. caseload.is.too.large.and,.in.some.cases,.staff.psychologists.are.not.qualified.to.provide.therapy..In. Georgia,. psychologists. from. NGOs. impart. psychosocial. counselling. in. two. facilities,. including. the. juvenile.unit.of.one.pretrial.detention.centre,.and.in.Moldova,.counselling.is.regularly.given.to.girls. serving.sentences.in.the.women’s.prison,.but.these.are.exceptions.. The.activities.listed.above.are.all.positive.ones.that.should.form.part.of.any.programme.designed.to. help.prisoners.return.to.the.community.and.avoid.re-offending..Nevertheless,.juvenile.correctional. facilities.do.not.give.the.impression.of.having.a.clearly.defined.mission.and.methodology.for.achieving. reintegration..Modern.research.and.theories.about.the.causation.of.offending.in.juveniles.and.about. ‘what.works’.in.rehabilitation.appear.to.be.unknown.to.the.management.of.penitentiary.facilities.in. these. countries.. In. one. pretrial. detention. centre. visited. by. the. assessment. team,. a. member. of. the. medical.staff.estimated.that.perhaps.one.third.of.the.juvenile.detainees.had.psychological.conditions. and,.in.another,.a.member.of.the.medical.staff.considered.that.half.did..Yet.no.psychosocial.diagnosis. is.made.when.juveniles.are.admitted.to.correctional.facilities..Individual.plans.of.treatment.are.not. prepared,.even.though.the.population.of.some.of.the.facilities.is.quite.small.(Armenia,.18;.Azerbaijan,. 47;. Moldova,. c.. 100).171. Prevailing. ideas. about. causation. emphasize. poverty. and. a. bad. family. environment,. but. no.effort. is.made.to.address.the. problems. of.the. family. or. the.relations.between. the.prisoner.and.his/her.parents..There.is.no.difference.in.the.treatment.of.thieves,.sex.offenders.or. murderers..No.research.is.done.on.the.impact.of.custodial.sentences.on.juveniles.. 171 . Individual.plans.are.prepared.in.the.women’s.prison.in.Moldova,.where.some.girls.serve.sentences.. 49
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Much. international. assistance. has. been. received,. but. it. has. been. directed. to. making. prisons. more. humane,. providing. training. on. the. rights. of. prisoners,. improving. substandard. conditions. and. eliminating.ill-treatment..Little.if.any.attention.has.been.paid.to.improving.the.way.prisons.perform. their.essential.task,.that.of.rehabilitating.juvenile.offenders.and.helping.them.avoid.re-offending.. 3.4. Female juveniles in detention and correctional facilities The. Beijing. Rules. provides,. “Young. female. offenders. placed. in. an. institution. deserve. special. attention. as. to. their. personal. needs. and. problems.. They. shall. by. no. means. receive. less. care,. protection,.assistance,.treatment.and.training.than.young.male.offenders..Their.fair.treatment.shall. be.ensured.”172 None.of.the.countries.covered.by.this.report.have.separate.facilities.for.the.detention.of.girls.accused. of.an.offence,.and.Ukraine.is.the.only.one.that.has.a.separate.facility,.within.a.women’s.prison,.for. girls.serving.custodial.sentences.. In. general,. adolescent. girls. are. in. close. contact. with. adult. women. in. detention. and. correctional. facilities.. When. they. are. detained. in. separate. cells,. they. nevertheless. have. contact. with. adults. during. recreational. and. other. collective. activities.. In. addition,. they. invariably. are. denied. access. to. programmes.for.juvenile.offenders,.in.particular.schooling.. The. problem. of. what. to. do. with. girls. who. are. detained. while. awaiting. trial. or. serving. custodial. sentences.is.a.complex.one..Throughout.the.world,.the.rate.of.offending.by.females.is.much.lower. than.that.of.males,.whether.in.adolescence.or.adulthood..Except.the.large.countries,.the.number.of. female.juvenile.offenders.who.have.to.be.detained.before.trial.or.deserve.a.custodial.sentence.is.too. small.to.warrant.facilities.specifically.for.them.. In. Azerbaijan,. for. example,. no. adolescent. girls. were. serving. custodial. sentences. at. the. time. of. the. UNICEF.assessment.mission.in.2008..In.Armenia,.four.convicted.adolescents.were.serving.sentences. in. the. women’s. prison. at. the. time. of. the. 2009. UNICEF. assessment. mission.. In. Georgia,. there. were. four.adolescent.girls.serving.sentences.in.the.women’s.prison,.and.three.in.pretrial.detention.in.the. same.facility..In.Moldova,.four.adolescents.were.serving.sentences.in.the.women’s.prison,.and.one. girl. was. detained. while. awaiting. trial. in. the. women’s. section. of. the. detention. centre. in. the. capital.. When.more.than.one.girl.is.detained,.they.are.housed.in.a.separate.cell.in.the.corridor.where.boys. are.confined.before.trial.. In.circumstances.such.as.these,.it.would.not.make.sense.to.build.special.facilities.for.female.juvenile. offenders..To.do.so.might.well.increase.the.number.of.girls.detained.and.serving.custodial.sentences.. The rule of international human rights law requiring that children who are deprived of liberty should be separated from adults is not a categorical one. Article 37(c) of the Convention on the Rights of the Child provides, “Every child deprived of liberty shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human person, and in a manner which takes into account the needs of persons of his or her age. In particular, every child deprived of liberty shall be separated from adults unless it is considered in the child’s best interest not to do so…”.(emphasis.added) Moreover,. it. is. only. one. of. several. rules. regarding. the. housing. of. prisoners:. convicted. prisoners. should. be. separated. from. unconvicted. ones;. dangerous. prisoners. should. be. separated. from. vulnerable. ones;. males. should. be. separated. from. females;. and. prisoners. should. be. confined. in. facilities.near.their.communities,.whenever.possible.. 172 . United.Nations.Standard.Minimum.Rules.for.the.Administration.of.Juvenile.Justice.(the.Beijing.Rules),.Rule.26.4. 50
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE Where.adolescent.girls.are.concerned,.all.these.principles.must.be.taken.into.account,.which.means. that.none.can.be.applied.rigidly..Choices.should.be.based.primarily.on.the.‘best.interests’.principle..It. certainly.seems.likely.that.this.would.mean.that.it.is.preferable.for.adolescent.girls.to.be.confined.with. women.rather.than.adolescent.boys..Some.girls.interviewed.by.the.assessment.team.indicated.that. they.were.content.to.be.detained.with.women.prisoners,.and.some.prison.psychologists.interviewed. declared.that,.in.their.opinion,.adolescent.girls.were.well.treated.by.women.prisoners..Whether.this. is. the. case. depends,. to. some. extent,. on. the. policies. followed. by. the. facility.. The. confinement. of. adolescent. girls. with. adult. women. is. not. without. risk.. If,. due. to. the. circumstances,. it. is. the. best. solution. available,. precautions. must. be. taken.. In. some. situations,. establishing. separate. units. for. unconvicted. and. convicted. female. juveniles. may. be. feasible. and. preferable. to. confining. juveniles. with.adult.women.. Two.issues.are.clear..First,.the.fact.that.adolescent.girls.deprived.of.liberty.often.end.up.in.women’s. facilities. is. yet. another. reason. to. develop. non-custodial. alternative. sentences. suitable. for. female. juvenile.offenders,.and.to.weigh.carefully.their.appropriateness.in.all.cases.involving.juvenile.girls.. Second,. when. it. is. necessary. to. confine. girls. and. women. in. the. same. facility,. juvenile. offenders. should. have. access. to. all. the. programmes. to. which. every. child. deprived. of. liberty. is. entitled.. In. particular,.some.way.must.be.found.to.ensure.equal.access.to.education.. 3.5. Post-release assistance The.European.Rules.for.juvenile.offenders.subject.to.sanctions.or.measures.provides,.“All.juveniles. deprived.of.their.liberty.shall.be.assisted.in.making.the.transition.to.life.in.the.community.”173.“From. the.beginning.of.the.deprivation.of.liberty,.the.institutional.authorities.and.the.services.and.agencies. that.supervise.and.assist.released.juveniles.shall.work.closely.together.to.enable.them.to.re-establish. themselves. in. the. community,. for. example. by:. a.. assisting. in. returning. to. their. family. or. finding. a. foster. family. and. helping. them. develop. other. social. relationships;. b.. finding. accommodation;. c.. continuing. their. education. and. training;. d.. finding. employment;. e.. referring. them. to. appropriate. social.and.health-care.agencies;.and.f..providing.monetary.assistance.”174 Programmes. designed. to. assist. juvenile. offenders. reintegrate. into. the. community. do. not. exist. in. most. of. the. countries. covered. by. this. report.. Ukraine. is. an. exception.. Guidelines. on. cooperation. between. the. State. Department. of. Penal. Implementation. and. the. State. Social. Services. for. Family,. Children. and. Youth,. prepared. with. inputs. from. juvenile. offenders,. were. adopted. in. 2006.. Prior. to. release,.offenders.are.asked.to.sign.a.voluntary.agreement.to.seek.assistance.from.the.local.social. services. centre. after. returning. to. the. community.. Most. do,. but. only. about. half. of. them. cooperate. actively.with.such.centres.after.release..In.addition,.‘caring.councils’,.incorporating.representatives. of. the. local. government. and. NGOs,. have. access. to. the. juvenile. correctional. facilities. in. order. to. provide.released.offenders.with.assistance.in.the.transition.to.living.in.the.community.. Assistance. in. reintegration. to. the. family. or. community,. to. education. or. employment,. is. vital. to. preventing.re-offending..The.development.of.programmes.for.this.purpose.is.of.crucial.importance. and.should.be.given.priority. 173 . European.Rules.for.juvenile.offenders.subject.to.sanctions.or.measures,.Rule.101.1. 174 . Ibid.,.Rule.102.1. 51
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES PART IV. Core Juvenile Justice Approaches: Parameters of Juvenile Justice, Diversion, Sentences and Return to the Community 1. The parameters of juvenile justice International. instruments. on. the. rights. of. children. recognize. that. younger. children. should. not. be. subject.to.prosecution,.not.even.as.juveniles,.but.do.not.establish.a.specific.age-based.threshold.for. prosecution.or.‘criminal.responsibility’. The. Committee. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. has. stated,. “A. minimum. age. of. criminal. responsibility. below. the. age. of. 12. years. is. considered. by. the. Committee. not. to. be. internationally. acceptable,”. and.encourages.States.to.increase.the.minimum.age.for.prosecution.as.a.juvenile.“to.a.higher.age. level.”175. None. of. the. five. countries. covered. by. this. report. allow. children. under. age. 12. to. be. prosecuted. as. juveniles,. thus. satisfying. the. Committee’s. minimum. standard.. The. Committee. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child.has.also.stated.that.all.persons.under.age.18.at.the.time.of.the.alleged.commission.of.an.offence. are.entitled.to.be.treated.as.juvenile.offenders.176.All.five.countries.also.satisfy.this.requirement.. In. Armenia,. Azerbaijan. and. Moldova,. only. persons. aged. 14–15. years. may. be. prosecuted. for. listed. serious.offences,.and.persons.aged.16–17.years.may.be.prosecuted,.as.juveniles,.for.any.offence. The. Committee. also. urged. States. whose. legislation. establishes. a. higher. threshold. for. prosecution. not.to.lower.it.to.the.age.of.12.177.In.2007,.an.amendment.to.the.Georgian.Criminal.Code.lowered.the. minimum.age.for.prosecution.for.certain.serious.offences.from.14.to.12.years.178.The.Committee.on. the.Rights.of.the.Child.expressed.“deep.regret”.at.this.development.179.In.2010,.the.law.was.amended. again.to.return.the.minimum.age.to.14.years.180. Ukrainian.law.governing.the.prosecution.of.adolescents.aged.14–18.years.is.similar.to.that.of.Armenia,. Azerbaijan. and. Moldova.. In. addition,. the. courts. have. discretion. to. impose. educational. measures,. including. placement. in. a. ‘school. for. social. rehabilitation’,. on. children. aged. 11–14. years. involved. in. criminal. conduct.. Such. placement. does. not. involve. a. finding. of. criminal. liability.. This. approach. to. the. participation. of. younger. adolescents. in. conduct. that. is. criminal. in. nature. has. the. advantage. of. respecting.due.process.and.the.right.not.to.be.deprived.of.liberty.by.an.administrative.body,.without. a.fair.hearing..However,.it.is.not.sufficient.to.ensure.respect.for.all.the.rights.of.such.children.because. the.courts.are.not.specialized.and.the.schools.for.social.rehabilitation.are.poorly.equipped.to.meet. the. needs. of. children. placed. there.. In. addition,. there. is. an. emerging. practice. of. parents. directly. placing.their.children.in.such.closed.institutions,.without.compliance.with.any.procedure.. 175 . General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.para..32. 176 . Ibid,.para..36. 177 . Ibid,.para..33. 178 . Criminal.Code.of.Georgia,.Article.80. 179 . Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Consideration.of.reports.submitted.by.States.parties.under.Article.44.of.the. Convention,.Concluding.Observations:.Georgia,.CRC/C/GEO/CO/3,.23.June.2008,.para..72. 180 . Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Georgia,.supra,.p..7. 52
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE 2. Diversion The.United.Nations.Standard.Minimum.Rules.for.the.Administration.of.Juvenile.Justice.(the.Beijing. Rules). prescribes. diversion. in. these. terms:. “The. police,. the. prosecution. or. other. agencies. dealing. with.juvenile.cases.shall.be.empowered.to.dispose.of.such.cases,.at.their.discretion,.without.recourse. to.formal.hearings,.in.accordance.with.the.criteria.laid.down.for.that.purpose.in.the.respective.legal. system.…”181.They.add,.“In.order.to.facilitate.the.discretionary.disposition.of.juvenile.cases,.efforts. shall.be.made.to.provide.for.community.programmes,.such.as.temporary.supervision.and.guidance,. restitution,. and. compensation. of. victims.”182. Furthermore,. “Any. diversion. involving. referral. to. appropriate. community. or. other. services. shall. require. the. consent. of. the. juvenile,. or. her. or. his. parents.or.guardian.”183. The.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.refers.to.diversion,.without.using.the.term,.as.“measures. for.dealing.with.such.children.[i.e.,.those.“alleged.as,.accused.of.or.recognized.as.having.infringed. the.penal.law”].without.resorting.to.legal.proceedings.”184 It. follows. that. the. term. ‘diversion’,. properly. understood,. does. not. apply. to. programmes. or. procedures.for.children.who.could.not.be.prosecuted.as.juvenile.offenders,.either.because.they.are. not.suspected.of.an.offence.or.because.of.their.age.185.Similarly,.although.the.term.diversion.is.now. commonly.used.to.refer.to.decisions.taken.at.an.early.stage.of.legal.proceedings,.it.is.not.appropriate. for. dispositions. taken. at. the. end. of. a. trial,. which. are. better. described. as. ‘alternative. sentences’. or. ‘alternative.measures’.186. Diversion. does. not. necessarily. involve. referral. to. a. programme,. as. Beijing. Rule. 11.3. indicates.. Warnings,.if.used.before.legal.proceedings.as.an.alternative.to.prosecution,.are.a.form.of.diversion.. Where.diversion.involves.referral.to.a.programme.intended.to.help.the.child.overcome.problems.that. may.lead.to.offending.or.re-offending,.the.content.of.the.programme.may.well.be.similar.or.identical. to.that.of.a.prevention.programme,.or.an.alternative.sentence..The.differences.lie.not.in.the.nature.of. the.services.provided,.but.in.the.path.into.the.programme,.and.the.place.it.occupies.or.the.function.it. has,.with.regard.to.juvenile.justice.. In. all. the. countries. covered. by. this. report,. prosecutors. have. discretion. not. to. prosecute. juveniles. in. specific. circumstances,. even. though. there. is. sufficient. evidence. to. prosecute.. Traditionally,. the. diversionary. measures. most. often. used. were. warning. or. supervision.. Only. some. countries. have. begun. to. develop. community-based,. non-residential. programmes. to. assist. juveniles. who. are. not. prosecuted.. In.Ukraine,.prosecutors.have.discretion.to.impose.“compulsory.measures.of.an.educational.nature”. in. certain. circumstances,. rather. than. prosecute.187. The. accused. must. be. a. first. offender. accused. of. a. minor. offence. or. one. of. moderate. gravity;. he/she. and. his/her. parents. must. consent;. and. the. decision.must.be.confirmed.by.a.judge..These.measures,.which.can.be.agreed.to,.include.warnings,. restrictions.on.behaviour,.supervision,.compensation.of.the.victim.and,.if.the.child.is.under.age.15,. 181 . United.Nations.Standard.Minimum.Rules.for.the.Administration.of.Juvenile.Justice.(the.Beijing.Rules),.Rule.11.2. 182 . Ibid.,.Rule.11.4. 183 . Ibid.,.Rule.11.3. 184 . Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Article.40.3(b). 185 . Programmes.for.such.children.are.addressed.in.the.section.on.secondary.prevention. 186 . Alternative.sentences.are.addressed.below. 187 . Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.of.Ukraine,.Article.510. 53
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES placement.in.a.special.educational.or.correctional.institution,.placement.under.parental.supervision. or. placement. in. a. foster. family.188. However,. at. the. time. of. the. UNICEF. assessment. mission,. there. were. no. community-based,. non-residential. programmes. to. assist. children. benefiting. from. such. decisions.189 In. Georgia,. prosecutors. also. have. discretion. not. to. prosecute.. It. is. not. clear. that. this. represents. diversion,. in. the. sense. of. requiring. admission. of. responsibility. and. voluntary. acceptance. of. some. measure.in.exchange.for.dropping.charges..No.community-based.diversion.programmes.exist.190. In. Azerbaijan,. prosecutors. have. discretion. not. to. prosecute. when. a. first. offender. shows. remorse,. recognizes. his/her. guilt,. has. reconciled. with. and. compensated. the. victim,. or. no. longer. represents. a.danger.to.society.191.A.pilot.diversion.project.was.established.by.an.NGO.in.2007..It.has.five.staff,. including.a.psychologist,.a.teacher,.a.social.worker.and.a.sports.trainer..Activities.include.counselling. (group,.individual.and.family),.social.work.with.families,.art.therapy,.IT.training,.teaching.of.English,. sports. and. recreational. outings.. Some. children. attend. the. project. two. or. three. days. a. week. and. others.five.days.a.week,.according.to.an.individual.plan.established.after.their.referral..At.the.time.of. the.UNICEF.assessment.mission,.however,.the.vast.majority.of.children.referred.to.the.project.were. below.the.minimum.age.for.prosecution.and/or.had.been.referred.for.conduct.such.as.truancy,.not. because.they.had.committed.an.offence..A.few.were.sent.after.sentencing..Thus,.the.project.was.not. really.functioning.as.a.diversion.programme. In. Moldova,. prosecutors. have. discretion. not. to. prosecute. accused. juveniles. if. they. conclude. that. the. child. could. be. rehabilitated. without. prosecution.192. Community. Justice. Centres. offer. victim- offender.mediation.in.cases.in.which.juveniles.are.accused.of.an.offence,.as.diversion:.if.mediation. is.successful,.the.charges.are.dropped..Centres.of.this.kind,.which.are.non-governmental,.existed.in. 17.communities.throughout.the.country.at.the.time.of.the.UNICEF.assessment.mission,.in.2009..The. assessment. team. did. not. obtain. detailed. information. on. their. capacity,. caseload. and. success. rate,. but.was.favourably.impressed.by.the.quality.of.the.services.provided.in.one.centre.visited.193. The.programme.in.Armenia.that.fulfils.the.functions.of.secondary.prevention.for.children.too.young. to. be. prosecuted. and. children. who. are. at. risk. but. have. not. committed. any. offence. also. provides. services. to. children. who. have. committed. minor. offences,. as. an. alternative. to. prosecution.. (See. section.on.secondary.prevention.) 3. Alternative sentences The. term. ‘alternative. sentence’. is. generally. used. as. a. synonym. of. non-custodial. sentence,. i.e.,. one. that. does. not. involved. deprivation. of. liberty.. The. most. relevant. international. norm. is. the. ‘last. resort’.principle.set.forth.in.Article.37.of.the.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.which.provides,. . “The.….detention.or.imprisonment.of.a.child.….shall.be.used.only.as.a.measure.of.last.resort.…”. 188 . Criminal.Code.of.Ukraine,.Article.105.2.. 189 . The.only.programmes.of.this.kind.were.two.small.pilot.projects.on.mediation.. 190 . Article.89.of.the.Criminal.Code.of.Georgia.allows.a.juvenile.who.has.committed.a.minor.offence.to.be.“released.from. criminal.liability.if.he/she.has.reconciled.with.the.victim.”.In.practice,.this.provision.is.applied.rarely,.and.at.the.end.of. criminal.proceedings..It.is.not.clear.whether.it.might.be.construed.as.authorizing.diversion..See.Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Georgia,.supra,.p..21. 191 . Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.of.Azerbaijan,.Article.40.2.and.Criminal.Code.of.Azerbaijan,.Articles.72.1,.73–74. 192 . Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.of.Moldova,.Article.483(1),.referring.to.Article.54.of.the.Criminal.Code,.cited.in Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Moldova,.supra,.p..21. 193 . Ibid.,.p..22. 54
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE This. provision. is. based. on. Beijing. Rule. 19.1,. which. provides,. “The. placement. of. a. juvenile. in. an. institution.shall.always.be.a.disposition.of.last.resort.…”.Rule.18.1.lists.a.range.of.“measures.that.shall. be.made.available.to.the.competent.authority,.allowing.for.flexibility.so.as.to.avoid.institutionalization. to. the. greatest. extent. possible.”. They. include:. care,. guidance. and. supervision. orders;. probation;. community.service.orders;.financial.penalties,.compensation.and.restitution;.intermediate.treatment. and. other. treatment. orders;. orders. to. participate. in. group. counselling. and. similar. activities;. and. orders.concerning.foster.care,.living.communities.or.other.educational.settings. It. should. be. noted. that. not. all. these. measures. are,. strictly. speaking,. non-custodial.. Placement. in. an. ‘educational. setting’. usually. involves. a. deprivation. of. liberty. as. most. such. facilities. are. closed.. Sentences.of.probation.(and.its.equivalents).are.only.conditionally.non-custodial;.they.are.backed.by. a.prison.sentence.that.the.offender.may.avoid.serving.by.meeting.certain.conditions.. 3.1. Thresholds for custodial sentences In.some.of.the.countries.covered.by.this.report,.custodial.sentences.may.not.be.imposed.on.juveniles.in. certain.cases,.which.are.defined.primarily.in.terms.of.the.prior.record.of.the.offender.and.the.nature.of.the. offence..In.other.words,.the.imposition.of.an.alternative.sentence.of.some.kind.is.mandatory,.in.certain. cases..In.Armenia,.custodial.sentences.may.not.be.imposed.on.juveniles.convicted.of.minor.offences..In. Ukraine,.custodial.sentences.may.not.be.imposed.on.first.offenders.convicted.of.minor.offences.. 3.2. Probation In.the.countries.covered.by.this.report,.the.most.widely.used.alternative.sentences.traditionally.were. conditional. sentences. and. sentences. of. ‘supervision’. by. the. competent. authority,. which. usually. took. the. form. of. ‘registration’. by. the. police. and. periodic. meetings. with. them.. These. sentences. are. nearly.identical.to.probation..The.difference.was.that.the.offender.received.little.or.no.assistance.in. rehabilitation.or.social.reintegration,.in.addition.to.supervision.. In. Georgia. and. Moldova,. probation. services. have. been. established. recently. and,. in. Ukraine,. a. special. department. for. supervising. offenders. serving. conditional. sentences. exists. within. the. State. Department.of.Penal.Implementation.. In. Georgia,. a. Probation. Department. was. established. in. 2003. within. the. Ministry. of. Justice.. In. 2007. it. was. transformed. into. the. National. Service. of. Execution. of. Non-Custodial. Punishment. and. Probation.(‘Probation.Service’)..At.the.end.of.2008,.the.Probation.Service.had.a.staff.of.143,.including. . 87.officers.who.are.in.direct.contact.with.the.prisoners..The.caseload.of.the.Probation.Service.at.the. time.of.the.UNICEF.assessment.mission.was.approximately.23,000.persons.(an.average.of.264.cases. per.probation.officer).. Most. of. the. caseload. consists. of. convicted. offenders. given. ‘conditional. sentences’.. The. Probation. Service.also.has.responsibility.for.supervising.sentences.of.community.service,.which.are.very.rare;. prisoners. granted. ‘conditional. early. release’. from. prison;. and. offenders. given. a. ‘mixed. sentence’. (i.e.,.one.that.includes.a.term.of.imprisonment.followed.by.a.period.of.supervision).. The. caseload. of. the. average. probation. officer. is. so. large. that. they. only. provide. basic. supervision. (i.e.,.periodically.meeting.with.probationers.to.ensure.that.they.are.residing.in.the.jurisdiction).. The. caseload. included. approximately. 800. juveniles,. including. 21. girls.. Juveniles. may. receive. a. suspended. sentence. only. if. they. are. first. offenders.. Tbilisi. is. the. only. probation. office. where. designated. probation. officers. are. assigned. specifically. to. juvenile. probationers.. Three. probation. officers.handle.a.caseload.of.350.(i.e.,.a.caseload.of.116.juveniles.per.officer). 55
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Pilot.projects.for.juvenile.probationers.have.been.established,.with.UNICEF’s.support,.to.develop.a. methodology.aimed.at.providing.appropriate.assistance.to.this.caseload..The.methodology.includes. the.preparation.of.individual.monthly.plans,.psychosocial.and.vocational.counselling.of.the.offenders,. life.skills.training,.preparation.for.higher.education.entrance.exams,.individual.and.group.meetings. with. parents,. referral. to. appropriate. vocational. training. programmes,. legal. aid. and. social. services.. The. local. government. provides. assistance. in. health. care. and. housing,. when. needed.. Participation. usually.lasts.six.months..Reintegration.of.the.child.to.his/her.family.is.an.important.aim,.since.many. offenders.have.weak.ties.with.their.families..Staff.indicates.that.parents.are.happy.with.the.results. of.the.projects.and.report.better.communication.with.their.children,.while.participants.often.declare. that.their.parents.treat.them.with.more.respect..In.short,.although.the.pilot.projects.look.successful,. given. the. large. caseload. of. most. probation. workers. the. feasibility. of. taking. these. projects. to. scale. seems.very.problematic,.in.the.short.term.. In.Moldova,.the.responsibility.for.supervising.offenders.given.suspended.sentences.was.transferred. from.the.Ministry.of.the.Interior.to.the.Ministry.of.Justice.in.2004..A.Law.on.Probation.was.adopted. in. 2007. and. a. Probation. Service. has. been. established.. Suspended. sentences. are. available. only. for. first-time.offenders,.and.only.if.the.crime.is.not.a.serious.one..In.deciding.whether.to.give.a.convicted. offender. a. suspended. sentence,. the. judge. must. take. into. account. both. the. “circumstances. of. the. case.and.personality.of.the.offender.”194.Probation.is.for.a.fixed.term.of.between.one.and.five.years.. If.the.probationer’s.conduct.has.been.exemplary,.after.serving.one.half.the.sentence.the.Probation. Service.may.request.the.court.to.cancel.the.conviction.and.criminal.record..195 In. Ukraine,. a. sentence. of. supervision. may. be. imposed. when. a. juvenile. is. convicted. of. an. offence. punishable.by.five.years.or.less..It.is.the.most.frequently.imposed.sentence..At.the.time.of.the.UNICEF. assessment. mission. in. 2008,. some. 5,310. juvenile. offenders. were. under. supervision,. compared. to. some.1,800.serving.custodial.sentences.196.The.duration.of.probation.is.one.to.two.years,197.and.the. caseload.is.about.60.clients.per.staff.member..There.are.no.officers.specialized.in.juvenile.offenders,. but. supervision. is. done. in. close. cooperation. with. social. services. centres. and,. in. approximately. one. quarter. of. the. caseload,. with. NGOs.198. The. creation. of. a. probation. service. has. been. under. consideration.for.some.years.and.a.draft.law.has.been.before.the.Parliament.for.some.time. In. Armenia,. ‘conditional. punishment’. may. be. imposed. when. a. sentence. of. imprisonment. has. been. assigned,.but.the.court.concludes.that.“the.correction.of.the.convict.is.possible.without.serving.the. sentence.”199. This. is. the. most. common. sentence. imposed. on. juveniles.. Supervision. is. done. by. the. Ministry.of.Justice’s.Department.for.the.Enforcement.of.Alternative.Sentences,.and.consists.mainly. of. supervision.. In. Azerbaijan,. too,. more. conditional. sentences. are. imposed. on. juvenile. offenders. than.any.other.type.of.sentence.. 194 . Criminal.Code.of.Moldova,.Article.90(1). 195 . Ibid.,.Articles.90(5).and.90(8)..(The.conditions.that.may.be.imposed.as.part.of.a.probation.sentence.are.listed.in.para..6.of. this.Article.).If.the.offender’s.conduct.has.been.exemplary,.probation.may.be.concluded.earlier. 196 . Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Ukraine,.supra,.pp..4.and.20. 197 . Criminal.Code.of.Ukraine,.Article.104.3. 198 . Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Ukraine,.supra,.p..20. 199 . Criminal.Code.of.Armenia,.Article.70.1. 56
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE 3.3. Restitution and reparation Most. of. the. countries. also. recognize. restitution. and. reparation. as. an. alternative. to. a. custodial. sentence,.in.certain.circumstances.. In. Armenia,. a. juvenile. first. offender. who. has. committed. a. crime. of. low. or. medium. gravity. may. be. “exempted.from.criminal.liability”.if.the.court.determines.that.‘correction’.may.be.achieved.through. alternative. measures. 200. One. such. measure. is. reparation. of. the. injury. 201. The. offender’s. income. or. property.and.capacity.to.work.are.to.be.taken.into.account.in.fixing.the.obligation.to.compensate.the. victim. 202 Similarly,. in. Azerbaijan,. ‘educational. measures’. may. be. imposed. instead. of. ‘punishment’. provided. the.convicted.juvenile.is.a.first.offender,.the.crime.does.not.pose.a.great.danger.to.the.public,.and.the. court. concludes. that.educational.measures.will.suffice.to.rehabilitate.the.offender. 203.Reparation.of. the.damage.caused.is.one.such.measure. 204. In. Georgia,. Article. 89. of. the. Criminal. Code. allows. a. juvenile. who. has. committed. a. minor. offence. –. those.bearing.a.sentence.of.five.years.or.less.–.to.be.“released.from.criminal.liability.if.he/she.has. reconciled.with.the.victim.”205.No.programme.for.facilitating.reconciliation.exists,.however,.and.this. alternative.appears.to.be.rarely.used. In. Moldova,. too,. reconciliation. with. the. victim. of. an. offence. “removes. criminal. liability.”. In. 2006,. the.Criminal.Code.was.amended.to.extend.this.provision.to.include.serious.offences.committed.by. juveniles. 206 In.Ukraine,.‘punishment’.of.a.juvenile.who.has.committed.an.offence.of.low.or.medium.gravity.may.be. replaced.with.a.‘correctional.measure’.if.the.offender.shows.“genuine.repentance.and.irreproachable. conduct.”207.Compensation.of.the.victim.is.one.of.several.measures.that.may.be.imposed.in.lieu.of. ‘punishment’,.provided.the.offender.is.at.least.15.years.of.age.and.has.income.or.property. Data.on.alternative.measures.generally.are.not.sufficiently.detailed.to.identify.the.number.of.cases.in. which.they.are.imposed..With.the.possible.exception.of.Georgia,.the.emphasis.is.on.compensation,. not.reconciliation.between.the.victim.and.offender.of.the.kind.considered.‘restorative.justice’..Most. efforts.in.the.region.to.develop.restorative.justice.are.oriented.primarily.towards.diversion..This.does. deserve.priority,.but.there.is.no.reason.why.such.efforts.could.not.also.include.the.development.of. capacity.to.offer.victim-offender.mediation.as.part.of.non-custodial.sentences.or.measures. 3.4. Fines and community service In. each. of. the. five. countries,. juvenile. offenders. may. be. fined. or. sentenced. to. perform. ‘work. in. the. public. interest’. or. ‘socially. useful. labour’,. in. certain. circumstances.. In. Armenia,. Azerbaijan. and. 200 . Ibid.,.Article.91.1. 201 . Ibid.,.Art.91.2(3) 202 . Ibid.,.Article.92.3. 203 . Criminal.Code.of.Azerbaijan,.Article.88.1. 204 . Ibid.,.Articles.88.2.3.and.87.3. 205 . Article.69.of.the.Criminal.Code.of.Georgia,.applicable.to.adults,.is.similar,.but.applies.only.to.crimes.punishable.by. sentences.of.three.years.or.less.. 206 . Criminal.Code.of.Moldova,.Article.109.. 207 . Criminal.Code.of.Ukraine,.Article.105.1..See.also.Article.97.1. 57
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Ukraine,. fines. may. be. imposed. on. convicted. juveniles. who. have. their. own. income. or. property. 208. In.Georgia.and.Moldova,.the.legal.provisions.on.fines.are.the.same.for.juvenile.and.adult.offenders,. although.in.Georgia.the.law.also.provides.that.the.amount.of.the.fine.shall.depend.on.the.offender’s. property,.income.and.other.circumstances. 209. In.some.of.these.countries,.the.legislation.specifies.that.sentences.of.community.service.may.only. be.imposed.on.convicted.juveniles.over.a.certain.age..This.requirement.coincides.with.the.minimum. age.for.employment..In.Armenia,.Moldova.and.Ukraine,.it.is.age.16. 210.In.Azerbaijan,.juveniles.under. age.15.may.be.sentenced.to.community.service,.but.the.amount.of.time.they.may.work.is.limited.to. two.hours.per.day. 211.In.Georgia,.there.does.not.appear.to.be.a.minimum.age.for.this.kind.of.sentence,. but.the.law.specifies.that.the.work.(up.to.160.hours).is.to.be.performed.outside.school.hours.. Juveniles.who.are.employed.also.may.be.sentenced.to.‘corrective.labour’.in.some.countries,.which. means.that.a.percentage.of.their.earnings.is.deduced.by.the.State.over.a.certain.period.of.time. 212. In. most. of. these. countries,. fines. and. sentences. to. community. service. are. imposed. in. a. small. percentage.of.juvenile.cases..In.Ukraine,.for.example,.there.were.5,000.juveniles.under.supervision. at. the. time. of. the. UNICEF. assessment. mission,. and. 13. serving. community. service. sentences.. Moldova.is.an.exception:.in.2008,.fines.were.imposed.on.some.10.per.cent.of.convicted.juveniles,.and. sentences.to.community.service.on.nearly.25.per.cent.of.convicted.juveniles.. Little. is. known. about.the. effectiveness.of. fines. and.sentences.of. community.service. as.a.deterrent. for. repeat. offending,. especially. in. Eastern. Europe.. The. use. of. fines. in. cases. involving. juveniles. is. sometimes.considered.inappropriate,.since.many.juvenile.offenders.are.not.employed.and.come.from. poor. families.. Not. all. juvenile. offenders. meet. this. stereotype,. however,. and. fines. may. effectively. deter.some.juvenile.offenders.from.committing.certain.types.of.crime..Of.course,.fines.should.not.be. imposed.in.a.way.that.discriminates.against.poor.offenders.. Community. service. is. used. sparing. in. some. countries. for. a. variety. of. reasons:. the. organization. and. supervision. of. community. service. are. time-consuming;. it. may. be. difficult. to. find. agencies. or. employers. willing. to. offer. placement. due. to. negative. attitudes. towards. offenders;. and. some. offenders. view. community. service. as. humiliating.. This. sentence. also. has. advantages:. the. poverty. of. the. offender. is. not. an. obstacle,. as. carefully. planned. and. selected. placements. can. provide. an. opportunity.to.learn.useful.vocational.or.life.skills.. 3.5. Other ‘educational’ measures In. all. the. countries. covered. by. this. report,. as. indicated. above,. a. category. of. dispositions. called. ‘educational.measures’.or.‘disciplinary.measures’.may.be.imposed.instead.of.dispositions.considered. punitive.. Reparation. of. the. injury. caused. or. compensation. of. damages. is. one. such. measure.. Other. non-custodial. educational. measures. include. warnings,. release. under. parental. supervision,. and. 208 . Criminal.Code.of.Azerbaijan,.Article.87.1..See.also.Article.85.2. 209 . Criminal.Code.of.Georgia,.Articles.42.3.and.83;.Criminal.Code.of.Armenia,.Articles.62(1)(a).and.64;.Criminal.Code.of. Ukraine,.Article.99.1.. 210 . Criminal.Code.of.Armenia,.Articles.49(1).and.54(4),.cited.in.Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Armenia,.supra,.p..23;.Criminal.Code.of.Moldova,.Articles.62(1)(a).and.d(d),.and.67(4),.cited.in.Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Moldova,.supra,.p..28;.Criminal.Code.of.Ukraine,.Article.101.1,.cited.in.Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Ukraine,.supra,.footnote.60,.p..16. 211 . Criminal.Code.of.Azerbaijan,.Article.85.2.. 212 . See,.e.g.,.Criminal.Code.of.Ukraine,.Article.100.2–100.3. 58
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE restrictions. or. obligations. concerning. movement. or. activities. (e.g.,. curfews,. school. attendance). 213. More. than. one. measure. may. be. imposed. 214. If. the. juvenile. does. not. comply,. the. order. may. be. cancelled.and.a.sentence.may.be.imposed. 215 There.are.some.differences.regarding.the.circumstances.in.which.such.dispositions.may.be.imposed,. as. well. as. the. characteristics. of. the. measures. themselves.. In. Azerbaijan,. release. under. parental. supervision. may. be. imposed. instead. of. a. criminal. sentence. even. if. the. convicted. juvenile. is. not. a. first. offender,. provided. the. above-mentioned. conditions. are. met. 216. In. Armenia,. the. duration. of. such.measures.may.not.exceed.six.months. 217. In.Moldova,.psychological.treatment.is.identified.as.a. distinct.alternative.measure. 218 In.addition,.in.Georgia,.a.court.may.decide.to.place.a.juvenile.offender.in.a.special.educational.or.a. medical-educative.facility. 219.In.some.countries,.however,.educational-medical.facilities.do.not.exist. although.the.law.refers.to.them.. In.general,.a.wide.range.of.non-custodial.sentences.or.measures.are.available..The.main.problem.is. that.the.programmes.or.services.needed.to.implement.most.such.sentences.often.are.weak.or.lack. the.resources.required.to.handle.their.caseload.effectively..A.second.problem.is.the.absence.of.any. information.about.the.relative.effectiveness.of.such.measures.in.successfully.rehabilitating.juveniles. and.about.the.type.of.programmes.most.appropriate.for.different.kinds.of.offenders.. 4. Duration of custodial sentences One. of. the. international. norms. most. relevant. to. custodial. sentences. has. been. mentioned. above:. the. ‘last. resort’. principle. contained. in. Article. 37(b). of. the. Convention. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child.. The. other,. the. ‘shortest. appropriate. period. of. time’. principle,. is. part. of. the. same. provision,. which. provides,. “The. …. detention. or. imprisonment. of. a. child. …. shall. be. used. only. as. a. measure. of. last. resort.and.for.the.shortest.appropriate.period.of.time.” International. bodies. have. not. published. guidance. on. how. these. principles. should. be. interpreted. and. applied. to. the. sentencing. of. convicted. juveniles.. In. the. absence. of. authoritative. guidance. or. jurisprudence,.it.is.at.least.possible.to.identify.a.number.of.relevant.issues..They.include.whether.the. law.is.flexible.enough.to.allow.non-custodial.sentences.to.be.imposed.in.special.circumstances.(e.g.,. no.risk.of.recidivism);.the.maximum.sentences.that.may.be.imposed.on.juveniles;.and.the.availability. of.early.release,.if.possible.. The.maximum.sentence.that.can.be.imposed.on.a.juvenile.offender.–.for.older.offenders.convicted. of.serious.crimes.–.ranges.from.10.years.in.Armenia,.Azerbaijan.and.Ukraine.to.15.years.in.Georgia.. 213 . Criminal.Code.of.Azerbaijan,.Articles.87–88;.Criminal.Code.of.Armenia,.Articles.91–92;.Criminal.Code.of.Georgia,.Article. 90;.Criminal.Code.of.Moldova,.Article.104;.Criminal.Code.of.Ukraine,.Article.105.1. 214 . See,.e.g.,.Criminal.Code.of.Moldova,.Article.104(3). 215 . Ibid.,.Article.104(4). 216 . Criminal.Code.of.Azerbaijan,.Article.89.1–89.2. 217 . Criminal.Code.of.Armenia,.Article.93. 218 . Criminal.Code.of.Moldova,.Article.104(1)(e). 219 . See.Criminal.Code.of.Georgia,.Articles.91(e).and.96.and.Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.of.Georgia,.Article.443..(Article.91. indicates.that.the.imposition.of.such.measures.involves.a.decision.to.exempt.from.criminal.liability,.while.Article.443. indicates.that.it.involves.a.decision.not.to.punish.) 59
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES In. Azerbaijan,. Article. 435. of. the. 2000. Code. of. Criminal. Procedure. concerning. the. sentencing. of. convicted. juveniles. reflects. Beijing. Rule. 17:. Sentences. should. correspond. not. only. to. the. circumstances.and.seriousness.of.the.offence.committed,.but.also.to.the.situation.and.requirements. of. the. juvenile. and. the. community;. custodial. sentences. should. be. imposed. only. after. meticulous. examination.of.the.matter.and.should.be.reduced.to.the.minimum;.and.sentences.are.‘not.advisable’. unless. a. juvenile. is. convicted. of. a. violent. offence. deliberately. causing. serious. damage. or. other. serious.offence. In. Armenia,. the. legislation. contains. detailed. provisions. about. the. duration. of. custodial. sentences,. which.take.into.account.the.age.of.the.offender.and.the.nature.of.the.offence.as.well.as.other.factors.. The. maximum. sentence. for. ‘not. grave’. offences. is. one. year;. the. maximum. sentence. for. the. most. serious.category.of.crimes.committed.by.persons.under.age.16.is.seven.years.for.a.single.offence,. and.the.maximum.sentence.for.serious.or.very.serious.offences.is.ten.years,.for.a.single.offence. 220. The. total. sentence. for. juveniles. convicted. of. multiple. offences. may. not. exceed. seven. years. for. juveniles.aged.14–15.years,.and.ten.years.for.those.aged.16–17.years. 221. In. Moldova,. the. Criminal. Code,. as. amended. in. 2006,. reduced. the. maximum. sentence. that. may. be. imposed.on.a.juvenile.offender.to.12.years.and.6.months.. In.Ukraine,.the.maximum.sentence.that.may.be.imposed.on.a.juvenile.was.reduced.from.15.to.10.years. in. 2008.. The. offender’s. age,. motives,. home. life. and. upbringing,. level. of. development,. personality,. the.influence.of.adults.and.voluntary.reparation.of.the.injury.caused.are.factors.that.must.be.taken. into.account.in.sentencing. 222.The.most.common.sentence,.according.to.data.for.the.years.2005–2007,. was. from. two. to. five. years. 223. In. 2007,. two. thirds. of. all. custodial. sentences. were. within. this. range,. and.a.further.12.5.per.cent.were.from.one.to.two.years. 224. The. Criminal. Code. of. Georgia. provides. that. the. sentences. imposed. on. juvenile. offenders. should,. in.general,.be.two.thirds.of.the.sentence.imposed.on.an.adult.convicted.of.the.same.offence. 225.The. maximum. sentence. that. may. be. imposed. is. ten. years. for. offenders. aged. 14–16. years,. and. fifteen. years. for. those. aged. 16−17. years. 226. However,. data. on. sentencing. indicate. that. only. 20. per. cent. of. juveniles. convicted. of. homicide. received. the. maximum. sentence;. another. 20. per. cent. received. sentences.of.three.to.five.years;.more.than.half.(16.persons).received.sentences.of.five.to.ten.years,. and. one. received. a. sentence. of. one. to. two. years. 227. These. data. suggest. a. degree. of. flexibility. that. appears.to.indicate.sensitivity.to.the.‘last.resort’.and.‘shortest.appropriate.period.of.time’.principles. There.are,.as.indicated.above,.no.internationally.agreed.guidelines.on.how.to.determine.the.length. of.custodial.sentences,.that.is,.on.how.to.determine.whether.a.custodial.sentence.complies.with.the. ‘shortest.appropriate.period.of.time’.principle..What.can.be.said,.with.respect.to.these.five.countries,. is.that.the.maximum.length.of.sentences.has.been.lowered.in.several.of.them..This.tends.to.suggest. that. progress. has. been. made. in. bringing. the. law. and. practice. into. greater. compliance. with. this. 220 . Criminal.Code.of.Armenia,.Article.89.2(3). 221 . Ibid.,.Article.90.2.and.90.3 222 . Criminal.Code.of.Ukraine,.Articles.65.1(3),.66.1(3),.103.1. 223 . Social Practices and Legislation in the Area of Juvenile Delinquency,.supra,.p..19,.Table.2.3. 224 . Ibid. 225 . Criminal.Code.of.Georgia,.Article.88.. 226 . Ibid.,.Article.88,.paras..3.and.4.. 227 . Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Georgia,.supra,.p..23,.citing.unpublished.data.provided.to.UNICEF. by.the.Supreme.Court. 60
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE principle.. Whether. further. progress. is. needed. would. require. clarification. about. the. interpretation. and.application.of.the.principle,.and.a.more.detailed.analysis.of.the.sentences.imposed.and.served. as.well.as.the.factors.that.influence.sentencing.in.practice..This.should.be.part.of.the.juvenile.justice. research.agenda. 5. Conditional early release (parole) The.Beijing.Rules.indicates,.“Conditional.release.from.an.institution.shall.be.used.by.the.appropriate. authority.to.the.greatest.possible.extent,.and.shall.be.granted.at.the.earliest.possible.time.”228. The. Committee. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. views. early. release. as. one. way. of. ensuring. compliance. with.the.‘shortest.appropriate.period.of.time’.principle. 229. In.all.the.countries.covered.by.this.report,.juveniles.serving.sentences.may.be.released.after.serving. a.portion.of.their.sentence.provided.certain.conditions.are.met.. In. Armenia,. the. portion. of. the. sentence. that. must. be. served. before. a. convicted. juvenile. is. eligible. for.early.release.is.one.quarter.for.minor.and.medium.crimes;.one.third.for.serious.crimes.and.one. half.for.exceptionally.serious.crimes. 230.Prisoners.may.be.released.before.serving.their.full.sentence,. if. a. court. determines. that. serving. the. remainder. of. the. sentence. is. not. ‘necessary’. to. achieve. ‘correction’. 231 In. Azerbaijan,. juveniles. serving. custodial. sentences. may. be. released. after. serving. as. little. as. one. third.of.the.sentence,.depending.on.the.gravity.of.the.crime. 232.In.Georgia,.the.part.of.the.sentence. that. must. be. served. varies. from. one. third. to. one. half,. depending. on. the. gravity. of. the. crime. 233. In. Moldova,. juvenile. offenders. become. eligible. for. possible. release. after. serving. one. third. of. the. sentence.for.an.offence.that.is.not.serious,.half.of.the.sentence.for.a.serious.crime,.and.two.thirds.of. the.sentence.for.an.extremely.serious.crime. 234. The. procedures. used. to. grant. or. deny. early. release. vary. somewhat.. In. Moldova,. a. commission. composed. of. representatives. of. the. prison,. the. local. prosecutor. and. the. local. government. decide. whether.to.recommend.prisoners.for.early.release..The.decision.is.taken.by.a.court..In.practice,.not. all.eligible.prisoners.are.recommended,.but.all.recommendations.are.accepted.. In.Armenia,.early.release.must.be.approved.by.three.different.bodies..First,.the.prison.administration. must.recommend.that.an.eligible.prisoner.be.considered.for.early.release..This.recommendation.is. based. primarily. on. the. prisoner's. conduct.. A. very. high. percentage. of. juvenile. prisoners. reportedly. are.recommended..The.Committee.on.Early.Conditional.Release.must.then.decide.whether.to.forward. the. recommendation. to. the. competent. court.. The. Committee. is. chaired. by. a. representative. of. the. Police.of.RA,.and.includes.representatives.of.other.government.bodies.(including.the.Human.Rights. Defender).and.civil.society..The.final.decision.is.made.by.the.competent.court.. 228 . United.Nations.Standard.Minimum.Rules.for.the.Administration.of.Juvenile.Justice.(the.Beijing.Rules),.Rule.28.1. 229 . General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.para..28. 230 . Criminal.Code.of.Armenia,.Article.94. 231 . Ibid.,.Article.76. 232 . Criminal.Code.of.Azerbaijan,.Article.90,.cited.in.Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Azerbaijan,. supra,.p..24.. 233 . Criminal.Code.of.Georgia,.Article.98. 234 . Criminal.Code.of.Moldova,.Article.93(5)..Extremely.serious.crimes.include.murder,.aggravated.assault,.and.rape.in.certain. circumstances. 61
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES The. role. played. by. this. Committee. is. controversial:. the. administration. of. the. juvenile. prison. is. concerned.that.a.high.percentage.of.cases.recommended.by.them.for.early.release.are.rejected.by.the. Committee.. Some. prosecutors. have. criticized. the. Committee. as. arbitrary. and. unnecessary.. Others. defend. the. Committee. as. a. safeguard. against. corruption.. This. controversy. highlights. the. need. for. the.procedures.not.only.to.be.fair,.but.to.be.seen.as.fair..Allowing.the.juvenile.to.be.heard.in.person,. providing.him/her.with.assistance.in.making.his/her.case,.requiring.reasons.to.be.given.for.negative. decisions.and.making.the.decision.subject.to.appeal,.should.be.required.in.this.regard.. Little. data. are. available. on. the. number. of. juveniles. benefiting. from. early. conditional. release.. In. Georgia,.statistics.of.the.Penitentiary.Department.indicate.that.only.four.juveniles.benefited.in.2008,. and.only.two.in.2007.. Prudent. but. generous. use. of. early. release. is. important.. One. prison. director. interviewed. by. the. assessment.team,.in.Ukraine,.underlined.its.utility.in.allowing.minor.offenders.to.be.released.before. suffering. the. negative. consequences. that. often. result. from. incarceration.. Another,. in. Armenia,. underlined. its. usefulness. as. an. incentive. for. good. behaviour. in. prison.. It. is. also. important. as. an. incentive.for.beneficiaries.to.make.a.determined.effort.to.reintegrate.successfully.into.their.families. and. community.. Above. all,. it. is. a. valuable. tool. for. ensuring. respect. for. the. ‘shortest. appropriate. period.of.time’.principle.. 62
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE PART V. Three Legacies of the Soviet Era The. fact. that. in. the. Soviet. era. some. policies. and. practices. violated. the. rights. of. children. does. not. mean. that. all. features. of. the. system. were. repressive. and. that. new. systems. should. be. built. on. Western.models..Institutions.and.policies.that.have.survived.these.two.decades.of.transition.deserve. to. be. evaluated. objectively. in. the. light. of. international. and. European. standards. –. standards. that,. for.the.most.part,.have.been.adopted.during.this.period.of.transition.and,.insofar.as.United.Nations. standards 235. are. concerned,. are. the. fruit. of. dialogue,. negotiation. and. exchange. of. experiences. between.different.societies,.different.legal.cultures.and.different.professional.disciplines. Three.institutions.developed.during.the.Soviet.era.that.have.survived.in.most.countries.of.the.region. are.the.juvenile.police,.the.special.schools.and.the.reception.and.distribution.centres. 236.All.of.them. are.the.subject.of.controversy,.in.degrees.that.vary.from.one.country.to.another..Two.of.them.–.the. juvenile. police. and. the. special. schools. –. can. also. be. found. in. other. parts. of. the. world,. although. the. roles. and. scope. that. they. have. had. in. the. CEE/CIS. region. differ. somewhat. from. the. way. they. developed. elsewhere.. This. section. of. the. report. describes. briefly. how. they. function. today. in. the. five. countries. covered. by. this. report. and. analyses. their. actual. and. potential. compatibility. with. the. Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.and.other.relevant.standards.. 1. Juvenile police Juvenile. police. departments. or. units. exist. in. Armenia,. Azerbaijan,. Moldova. and. Ukraine;. they. no. longer.exist.in.Georgia,.where.a.‘community.policing’.model.has.been.adopted.. As. explained. in. the. section. on. secondary. prevention,. in. Soviet. times,. services. benefiting. children. considered. to. be. at. a. greater. risk. of. offending. were. missing.. Instead,. the. main. task. of. the. juvenile. police.was.the.‘registration’.and.‘supervision’.of.juvenile.offenders.and.children.considered.at.risk.. Lists. were. maintained. of. children. involved. in. ‘anti-social. behaviour’,. those. given. non-custodial. sentences. or. measures,. and. offenders. released. after. serving. a. sentence.. Supervision. consisted. largely.in.periodic.(e.g.,.monthly.or.semi-monthly).meetings.with.‘registered’.children.and,.in.some. cases,.visits.to.their.homes. 237. During.the.last.decade,.juvenile.police.departments.have.received.training.in.the.rights.of.children,. and. their. role. has. evolved.. In. some. countries,. their. mandate. has. expanded. into. the. protection. of. children.from.crimes.such.as.trafficking.and.child.abuse.and.the.reunification.of.children.with.their. parents. when. families. have. become. separated. across. international. borders. etc.. In. most. countries,. they.also.operate.the.multipurpose.‘reception.and.distribution.centres’.covered.in.the.next.section.. Perhaps.the.most.relevant.development,.insofar.as.juvenile.justice.is.concerned,.is.the.involvement. of.juvenile.police.in.other.kinds.of.preventive.programmes..In.Armenia,.they.participate.in.two.kinds. of. prevention. projects:. one. school-based. project. and. one. community-based. project.. Both. were. conceived.and.initiated.by.an.international.NGO,.Project.Harmony..The.school-based.project.involves. ‘legal.socialization’.by.teams.composed.of.teachers.and.juvenile.police.officers,.in.grades.six.to.nine.. ‘Legal.socialization’,.which.aims.to.make.children.more.aware.of.the.law,.is.based.on.the.premise.that,. to.some.extent,.offending.by.juveniles.is.due.to.ignorance.of.the.law..Initially.there.was.resistance. 235 . Notably,.the.United.Nations.Standard.Minimum.Rules.for.the.Administration.of.Juvenile.Justice.(the.Beijing.Rules),.the. United.Nations.Guidelines.for.the.Prevention.of.Juvenile.Delinquency.(Riyadh.Guidelines).and.the.United.Nations.Rules.for. the.Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty.(Havana.Rules). 236 . These.are.generic.terms.–.the.actual.names.vary.from.one.country.to.another.. 237 . In.Azerbaijan,.the.role.of.the.juvenile.police.still.consists.mainly.of.the.traditional.registration-supervision.function.. 63
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES to. the. projects. because. of. negative. attitudes. towards. the. police,. but. in. time. parents. and. teachers. reportedly. formed. a. positive. impression. of. the. project,. which. has. not. been. formally. evaluated.. A. similar.project.was.carried.out.in.Georgia,.by.the.police.and.the.same.NGO..The.‘Community.Justice. Centres’,. a. community-based. project. in. which. the. juvenile. police. also. participate,. are. described. above.in.Part.II,.section.5.on.secondary.prevention.. In.Ukraine,.the.juvenile.police.have.received.training.in.mediation.and.community.policing,.and.work. closely. with. schools,. social. services,. NGOs. and. local. authorities. to. seek. consensual. solutions. to. conflicts.and.situations.that.could.lead.to.offending.. In.none.of.these.countries.do.juvenile.police.have.responsibility.for.investigating.crimes.purportedly. committed. by. juveniles.. Their. role. is. essentially. limited. to. prevention,. including. the. supervision. of. children. at. risk. and. juvenile. offenders. given. non-custodial. measures. or. released. after. serving. a. sentence..The.existence.of.juvenile.police.departments.consequently.has.no.direct.effect.on.one.of. the.most.urgent.problems.concerning.juvenile.justice:.mistreatment.of.juvenile.suspects.during.the. investigation.of.crimes. 238. Insofar. as. the. role. of. juvenile. police. in. protection. is. concerned,. it. is. clear. that. they. can. make. a. positive.contribution..Parents.and.sometimes.older.siblings.can.contribute.to.the.risk.of. offending,. and.the.intervention.of.the.police.may.help.solve.or.mitigate.problems.in.the.home.that.increase.the. risk.of.offending..The.participation.of.the.police.in.well.designed.community-based.prevention.and. rehabilitation.projects.may.be.valuable.too. 239. At. the. same. time,. it. is. clear. that. secondary. and. tertiary. prevention. programmes. entail. skills. and. expertise. distinct. from. those. usually. required. of. police. officers.. Some. children. at. risk. of. offending. have.attitudes.and.perhaps.experiences.that.make.them.resistant.to.the.help.offered.by.the.police,. and. police. involvement. in. prevention. activities. targeting. certain. individuals. carries. a. risk. of. stigmatization..Indeed,.in.Georgia,.the.practice.of.‘registering’.children.at.risk.has.been.abandoned,. as.it.is.considered.stigmatizing.. In.conclusion,.while.juvenile.police.can.make.a.useful.contribution.to.prevention,.they.should.not.be. expected.to.assume.primary.responsibility.for.prevention..The.risk.of.stigmatization.must.be.taken. into.account.in.defining.their.role,.and.the.resources.allocated.to.the.juvenile.police.for.prevention. activities. should. not. come. at. the. expense. of. other. community-. and. school-based. prevention. programmes..Where.juvenile.police.do.not.have.responsibility.for.investigating.crimes.committed.by. juveniles,.it.is.essential.to.ensure.that.the.police.units.and.the.officers.responsible.for.investigating. crimes.–.and.especially.interrogating.juvenile.suspects.–.are.fully.trained.in.the.rights.of.the.child.and. relevant.psychosocial.issues.. 238 . In.some.countries,.the.juvenile.police.are.responsible.for.investigating.offences.committed.by.juveniles..See,.e.g.,. Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Turkey,.UNICEF.Regional.Office.for.CEE/CIS,.Geneva,.2009,.p..15. and.Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Albania,.UNICEF.Regional.Office.for.CEE/CIS,.Geneva,.2009,. pp..14–15. 239 . Similar.projects.have.been.documented.in.earlier.UNICEF.assessments.of.juvenile.justice.in.Romania.and.Tajikistan,. and.a.pilot.project.based.on.the.same.model.is.being.implemented.in.Azerbaijan..See.Thematic Evaluation of UNICEF’s Contribution to Juvenile Justice System Reform in four countries: Montenegro, Romania, Serbia and Tajikistan,.supra;. Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Armenia,.supra,.pp..17–18. 64
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE 2. ‘Reception and distribution centres’ ‘Reception.and.distribution.centres’.were.a.feature.of.policing.in.the.Soviet.era,.and.continue.to.exist. in. Armenia,. Moldova,. and. Ukraine.. They. are. multipurpose. residential. facilities. designed. to. provide. secure.shelter.for.limited.periods.of.time.to.a.wide.range.of.children.as.young.as.three.years.of.age,. including.illegal.migrants,.repatriated.children,.children.who.have.escaped.from.residential.schools,. runaways,.street.children,.children.who.committed.an.offence.but.are.too.young.to.be.prosecuted,. children.removed.from.their.homes.for.protection,.and.others.. Typically,. the. functions. of. these. facilities. were. either. not. defined. and. regulated. by. legislation. or. defined. in. very. general. terms. by. law. and. governed. mainly. by. regulations.. They. housed. children. of. both. sexes. and. all. age. groups,. and. regulations. gave. the. police. very. broad. discretion. as. to. the. reasons.for.and.duration.of.placement.. In. Ukraine,. the. juvenile. police. operate. 20. such. centres. 240. A. recently. renovated. centre. visited. by. the. UNICEF. assessment. team. in. 2008. was. considered. a. model. in. some. respects:. it. was. spacious,. clean. and. attractive;. the. population. and. staff/resident. ratio. were. very. low;. there. were. no. bars. on. the. windows;. and. the. grounds. contained. a. chapel. and. garden.. A. ‘temporary. placement. centre’. in. Moldova.was.similar.in.many.respects..The.centre.has.the.capacity.to.host.25.children..At.the.time.of. the.UNICEF.assessment.mission,.there.were.nine.children.in.residence,.with.a.staff.of.39,.including. three. psychologists.. The. building. was. spacious,. attractively. decorated. and. clean.. Children. attend. school.outside.the.centre.during.their.stay.. In.Armenia,.responsibility.for.operating.a.centre.of.this.kind.–.renamed.‘Children’s.Support.Centre’.–. has.been.transferred.by.the.police.to.an.NGO..The.facilities.are.clean,.in.good.repair.and.pleasantly. decorated. with. artwork. produced. by. the. children.. There. are. separate. buildings. for. young. children. and.for.older.children.and.adolescents,.a.garden,.classrooms.and.dispensary..The.staff.of.16.includes. four.educators,.four.caregivers,.two.social.workers,.a.psychologist.and.a.half-time.physician..In.2008,. 220.children.were.admitted..There.is.no.specific.duration.for.placement:.it.is.often.a.matter.of.days,. but. some. children. have. stayed. for. months,. especially. those. whose. family. is. difficult. to. locate. 241. The. staff. makes. an. assessment. on. admission,. and. forwards. recommendations. to. the. child. welfare. authorities.who.decide.on.the.action.to.be.taken. 242.When.the.child.is.put.under.parental.supervision,. it.is.often.with.a.requirement.that.parents.and.child.maintain.contact.with.the.Centre..In.some.cases. where. offending. has. occurred,. victim-offender. mediation. is. provided.. The. assessment. team. was. impressed.with.the.child-friendly.approach.and.the.quality.of.the.services.provided.by.the.Centre. A. priori,. the. existence. of. centres. of. this. kind. does. not. appear. to. violate. the. rights. of. children.. The. fact.that.some.children.have.been.involved.in.illegal.activity.while.others.are.admitted.for.protection,. family. reunification. or. similar. reasons. does. not. necessarily. mean. that. there. is. an. unacceptable. risk. to. their. rights,. especially. given. the. small. size. of. these. facilities,. the. good. staff/child. ratio,. and. the. capacity. to. separate. children. according. to. age,. sex. and. the. psychosocial. evaluation. made. on. admission.. Some. of. these. centres. are. semi-open,. and. in. many. cases. it. would. be. difficult. to. view. admission.as.involuntary.separation.of.a.child.from.his/her.family. 243. 240 . Social Practices and Legislation in the Area of Juvenile Delinquency,.supra. 241 . The.example.was.given.of.a.child.whose.sole.surviving.parent.was.a.migrant.worker.in.Russia,.who.remained.in.the.Centre. for.seven.or.eight.months.before.family.reunification.. 242 . Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Armenia,.supra,.p..18. 243 . When.children.are.separated.from.parents.against.their.will,.the.requirements.set.forth.in.Article.9.of.the.Convention.on.the. Rights.of.the.Child.must.be.satisfied,.whether.or.not.such.separation.entails.a.deprivation.of.liberty.. 65
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES There. is. no. doubt. a. need. for. child-friendly. residential. facilities. for. the. short-term. accommodation. of. children. in. the. kind. of. circumstances. mentioned. above.. While. it. may. seem. surprising. to. some. observers.that.such.centres.are.operated.by.the.police.instead.of.child.welfare.authorities,.there.may. be.historical.reasons.for.this,.and.the.staff.invariably.is.comprised.largely.of.civilian.professionals..In. the.final.analysis,.it.is.the.way.these.Centres.are.operated.and.especially.the.way.children.are.treated. that.determine.whether.such.facilities.respect.or.violate.the.rights.of.children.. There.is,.however,.one.large.condition.that.must.be.respected:.the.operation.of.such.facilities.must. not. be. illegal. or. arbitrary.. To. ensure. that. they. do. not. operate. arbitrarily. or. outside. the. law,. the. mandate.and.procedures.of.such.facilities.should.be.transparent.and.defined.by.law,.not.by.internal. police.regulations..The.law.should.be.based.on.the.rights.and.principles.contained.in.the.Convention. on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.in.particular.the.‘best.interests’.principle,.the.norms.contained.in.Articles. 7,.8.and.9.regarding.children.and.their.families,.Article.25.on.periodic.review.of.placement,.Article.37. on.deprivation.of.liberty.and.Article.39.on.rehabilitation.. 3. ‘Special schools’ The.term.‘special.school’.is.used.here.as.a.generic.term.for.residential.schools.for.children.involved. in.offending.or.‘anti-social.behaviour’. 244.Traditionally,.most.children.were.placed.in.special.schools. by.decision.of.an.administrative.authority,.known.as.the.Commission.on.Minors..Such.bodies.were. not.independent,.and.procedures.for.placement.provided.scant.protection.to.the.basic.principles.of. due.process.and.fairness. 245.Courts.also.had.discretion.to.place.juvenile.offenders.in.special.schools,. instead.of.sentencing.them.to.juvenile.correctional.facilities..In.some.countries,.there.were.different. classes. of. special. schools. for. different. age. groups.. These. schools. are. not. part. of. the. correctional. system,. and. are. usually. operated. by. the. Ministry. of. Education.. Most. admit. only. boys.. Armenia,. where.there.are.two.schools.that.admit.both.girls.and.boys,.is.an.exception..Ukraine.is.the.only.one. of.the.five.counties.that.has.a.special.school.for.girls.. All. five. countries. still. have. such. schools,. and. in. most. of. them. their. continued. existence. is. controversial.. In. some,. policies. of. de-institutionalization,. changes. in. the. legislation,. greater. awareness. of. child. rights. and. other. factors. have. greatly. reduced. the. population. of. the. schools.. In. Ukraine,.for.example,.at.the.time.of.the.UNICEF.assessment.mission.in.2008,.the.14.special.schools. had. a. combined. capacity. of. 2,520,. and. a. population. of. 504. students.. This. was. due. in. part. to. the. adoption. of. legislation. requiring. a. judicial. decision. to. place. children,. and. proof. of. participation. in. criminal.–.not.merely.anti-social.–.conduct.. During. the. last. decade,. a. few. schools. have. made. impressive. efforts. to. implement. policies. more. respectful. of. the. rights. of. children.. The. Samtredia. special. school. in. Georgia. is. one. of. them.. Bars. were.removed.from.the.windows.and.barbed.wire.from.the.perimeter.wall,.and.corporal.punishment. was. prohibited.. The. interior. was. renovated. to. create. spaces. conducive. to. a. ‘family. atmosphere’.. At. the. time. of. the. UNICEF. assessment. visit,. in. 2009,. the. school. had. a. capacity. of. 100,. a. staff. of. 43,. and. 21. students.. Most. were. placed. in. the. school. because. of. criminal. activity. committed. while. under.age.14..Activities.include.regular.and.remedial.education,.vocational.training,.sports,.life.skills. and.cultural.activities..Individual.plans.are.prepared,.and.the.staff.strives.to.establish.relations.with. each.student’s.parents.in.order.to.change.attitudes.and.behaviour.that.may.have.contributed.to.the. child’s.involvement.in.criminal.activity..There.is.a.strong.emphasis.on.establishing.positive.personal. relations.between.the.staff.and.the.students..Students.visit.their.families.on.special.occasions,.and. travel.to.their.homes.unaccompanied.by.staff.of.the.school.. 244 . Actual.names.include:.schools.for.social.rehabilitation.(Ukraine).and.schools.for.children.with.deviant.behaviour. (Azerbaijan) 245 . See.Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Azerbaijan,.supra,.pp..28–29. 66
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE School.No..1.in.Armenia.is.another.example.of.a.reformed.‘special.school’..In.1996,.it.was.converted. from. a. closed.to. a.semi-open. school.. Most.students.are.street. children,. some.are.victims. of.abuse. or.neglect,.and.a.handful.are.admitted.because.they.have.been.involved.in.criminal.activity.–.usually. theft. –. while. under. age. 14,. the. minimum. age. for. the. prosecution. of. juvenile. offenders.. The. courts. have. discretion. to. send. offenders. over. age. 14. to. the. school. instead. of. a. correctional. facility,. but. rarely.do.so..The.capacity.is.approximately.100.students;.at.the.time.of.the.visit.there.were.31.girls. and.50.boys..The.school.has.70.permanent.staff.. The. school. offers. academic. classes. as. prescribed. by. the. national. curriculum,. vocational. training,. sports. and. cultural. activities.. The. largest. class. has. 14. students.. A. multidisciplinary. team. develops. individual. plans. for. each. student.. The. aim. is. to. establish. a. relationship. of. trust. with. the. students,. and. return. them. to. their. families. as. soon. as. the. student. and. his/her. family. are. ready.. Parents. are. expected. to. participate. in. the. development. of. the. student’s. individual. plan,. and. an. effort. is. made. to.improve.parenting.skills.through.parents’.groups.led.by.a.staff.psychologist..If.the.parents.have. serious.psychological.problems,.the.school.prepares.the.student.for.independent.life.. If.students.are.interested.in.a.vocational.or.cultural.programme.not.offered.by.the.school,.the.school. tries. to. find. an. appropriate. programme. in. the. community.. The. views. of. the. children. are. taken. into. account.in.deciding.where.they.should.go.after.release. 246.The.staff.conducts.behaviour.follow-up.for. a.period.of.six.months.with.the.students.who.return.home.. Unfortunately,.no.study.has.been.made.of.lives.of.students.from.these.schools.after.their.return.to. the. community.. In. both. cases,. however,. there. is. anecdotal. evidence. of. positive. outcomes.. In. 2009,. of.the.five.students.who.graduated.from.School.No..1.in.Armenia,.four.entered.the.university..Some. graduates.of.the.Samtredia.special.school.in.Georgia.also.have.entered.university,.and.others.have. joined.religious.orders.. Do.special.schools.violate.the.rights.of.children?.Conditions.and.policies.in.many.of.them.still.clearly. do..Placement.in.some.special.schools.is.presumed.to.be.for.the.remaining.duration.of.childhood,.and. little.or.no.effort.is.made.to.preserve.the.family.identity..In.some,.conditions.are.highly.regimented,. and.there.is.neither.recognition.of.the.child.as.an.individual.nor.of.his/her.right.to.be.heard.and.to. make. decisions.. There. is. a. disturbing. tendency. in. some. countries,. including. Armenia. and. Ukraine,. to.allow.parents.to.abandon.children.by.placing.them.in.such.schools.without.compliance.with.any. procedure.. While. the. few. positive. examples. cited. above. demonstrate. that. special. schools. do. not. necessarily. violate. the. rights. of. children,. the. ‘last. resort’. principle. implies. that. no. child. should. be. deprived. of. liberty.if.the.purposes.of.institutionalization.could.be.met.through.a.community-based.programme.. In. most. countries,. greater. efforts. are. required. to. develop. this. kind. of. programmes.. In. time,. their. development.may.be.expected.to.reduce.recourse.to.residential.options.. It.is.not.certain,.however,.that.the.need.for.special.schools.will.be.completely.eliminated..The.family. environment. of. some. children. is. such. that. separation. from. parents. may. be. necessary. in. order. to. provide.assistance..Placement.in.a.residential.facility.that.recognizes.the.goal.of.returning.the.child. to.his/her.family.as.soon.as.possible.and.works.towards.that.goal.with.the.family.and.the.child,.using. the. most. effective. methods. known,. is. not. in. itself. incompatible. with. the. ‘last. resort’. principle,. the. family.unity.principle.or.any.other.principle.recognized.by.the.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.. This.is.particularly.true.when.the.deprivation.of.liberty.is.relative,.as.it.is.in.the.best.special.schools.. 246 . The.Director.mentioned,.for.example,.that.the.Ministry.of.Education.wanted.to.return.two.students.to.an.orphanage,.but. they.didn’t.want.to.go.there.and.were.still.in.the.school.. 67
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES The.placement.of.children.in.need.of.protection.with.children.who.have.been.involved.in.anti-social. or.criminal.behaviour.does.not.necessarily.infringe.their.rights..The.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the. Child.has.implied.that.children.and.young.adolescents.involved.in.conduct.that.is.criminal.in.nature. can. be. entrusted. to. the. child. welfare. system. 247. Presumably,. entrusting. them. to. a. specialized. part. of.the.educational.system.is.no.less.appropriate..It.is,.of.course,.essential.to.ensure.that.children.in. any.kind.of.residential.facility.–.whether.an.orphanage,.a.shelter.for.neglected.or.abused.children,.a. residential.school.or.a.correctional.facility.–.are.protected.from.abuse.by.their.peers..There.are.many. ways.to.address.this.challenge..Establishing.separate.facilities.for.children.in.need.of.protection.and. those. involved. in. criminal. activity. at. an. early. age. is. not. necessarily. the. only. or. the. best. way. of. achieving.this.goal.. Finally,. experience. shows. that. the. closure. of. residential. schools. for. children. involved. in. crime. can. contribute. to. an. atmosphere. of. impunity. or. license. with. very. negative. consequences. for. the. children.concerned.and.society.as.a.whole. 248.If.such.schools.are.retained,.criteria.and.procedures.for. admission.and.for.return.of.children.to.their.families.and.communities.must.be.reviewed.to.ensure. their.compatibility.with.international.standards.. 247 . “For.these.children.special.protective.measures.can.be.taken.if.necessary.in.their.best.interests.”.General.Comment.No..10,. CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.para..31. 248 . See Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Albania,.supra,.pp..4,.20.and.34.. 68
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE Conclusions Significant. progress. has. been. made,. during. the. last. decade,. towards. the. construction. of. juvenile. justice. systems. respectful. of. the. rights. of. children. in. Armenia,. Azerbaijan,. Georgia,. Moldova. and. Ukraine.. Progress. has. been. more. rapid. in. some. areas. than. others.. There. is. more. than. one. reason. for.the.uneven.rate.of.progress..One,.no.doubt,.is.that.resistance.to.change.is.greater.in.some.areas. than. others.. Another. is. that. reform. efforts. have. focused. on. some. areas. more. than. others.. The. approach.has.not.been.as.comprehensive.as.it.might.have.been,.and.some.sectors.have.been.largely. overlooked.. Areas. where. progress. has. been. greatest. include. the. improvement. of. conditions. in. correctional. facilities.for.convicted.juveniles.and.the.reduction.in.the.number.of.juvenile.prisoners..Many.factors. have. contributed. to. the. decrease. in. the. number. of. juvenile. prisoners,. and. more. research. would. be. needed. to. even. begin. to. understand. their. relative. importance. and. their. interaction.. Changes. in. the. law. and. training. of. judges. and. prosecutors. have. no. doubt. contributed,. but. the. decline. of. the. adolescent. population,. the. decrease. in. offending,. and. changes. in. law. enforcement. policies. and. socio-economic.conditions.may.also.have.played.a.role.. In. other. areas,. significant. progress. has. been. made,. but. gaps. and. difficulties. remain.. Legal. aid. programmes. are. one. example.. Probation. services. and. diversion. programmes. are. another.. Training. in. child. rights. and. juvenile. justice. also. is. an. example.. While. many. knowledgeable. and. committed. professionals.can.be.found.in.each.of.the.five.countries.in.all.sectors.and.training.in.child.rights.and. juvenile.justice.is.now.being.mainstreamed,.the.impact.of.training.is.seldom.evaluated.and.specific. requirements.as.to.knowledge.or.skills.are.rare..Law.reform.is.yet.another.example..Further.reforms. called. for. in. most. countries. include:. prohibiting. solitary. confinement,. restricting. the. duration. of. police.custody.without.a.court.order.to.24.hours.or.less.and.limiting.pretrial.detention.to.six.months.. The. list. of. areas. where. little. progress. has. been. made,. or. greater. efforts. are. urgently. required,. is. long.. These. areas. comprise. the. development. of. secondary. prevention. programmes. for. children. at. risk,. including. child. offenders. under. the. minimum. age. for. prosecution;. reduced. use. of. pretrial. detention. and. more. respect. for. the. rights. of. juveniles. deprived. of. liberty. before. and. during. trial;. the. development. of. effective. community-based. programmes. to. assist. offenders. diverted. from. prosecution.or.given.alternative.sentences;.the.development.of.evidence-based.programmes.for.the. prevention. of. re-offending. in. both. correctional. and. community. settings;. and. the. development. of. effective.post-release.programmes.to.help.offenders.reintegrate.into.their.families.and.communities.. In.a.few.areas.knotty.problems.remain.to.be.solved..One.is.how.to.best.ensure.the.right.of.accused. juveniles. to. be. heard. in. a. ‘child-friendly’. court. by. judges. and. prosecutors. who. have. an. adequate. understanding. of. relevant. rights. and. principles.. While. the. designation. of. specific. judges. to. handle. cases.involving.juveniles.has.had.poor.results.in.some.courts,.in.others.the.outcome.was.excellent.. This.measure.is.a.step.in.the.right.direction.and.its.effectiveness.could.be.enhanced..Yet.in.each.of. these.five.countries,.in.one.or.more.urban.areas,.the.incidence.of.serious.offending.is.great.enough. to.warrant.the.creation.of.at.least.one.specialized.juvenile.court..On.the.other.hand,.in.each.country. there.are.large.parts.of.the.national.territory.where.the.incidence.of.serious.offending.is.low..Giving. a. centralized. juvenile. court. competence. over. large. territories. would. create. practical. problems. that. might.well.have.negative.consequences.for.the.children.concerned..The.ideal.solution.must.take.into. account. the. circumstances. of. each. country.. The. need. for. and. the. proper. role. of. new. child-friendly. juvenile. police. units,. special. schools. as. well. as. multipurpose. short-term. shelters. for. children. are. other.issues.of.this.kind.. 69
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Ensuring. accountability. for. abuse,. especially. the. ill-treatment. of. juvenile. suspects. by. the. police,. is. another. urgent. problem. that. has. no. simple. solution.. Monitoring. by. ombudspersons,. legislation. requiring.the.presence.of.lawyers.during.interrogation,.mandatory.medical.examinations.of.detainees. and.training.in.child.rights.have.all.helped,.but.have.not.been.sufficient.to.overcome.impunity..In.the. final. analysis,. the. solution. lies. in. creating. political. will. at. the. highest. level. to. respect. the. rights. of. all.children,.including.offenders..Pressure.by.bodies.such.as.the.United.Nations.Committee.against. Torture. and. the. European. Committee. for. the. Prevention. of. Torture,. or. holding. the. State. legally. accountable.by.litigation.before.the.European.Court.of.Human.Rights,.may.help.to.tip.the.balance.in. favour.of.the.rights.of.juvenile.suspects.. Many. lessons. could. be. drawn. from. the. experiences. documented. in. this. report.. The. value. of. intersectoral.coordination.bodies.is.one..Not.only.do.they.help.ensure.continuity.in.the.provision.of. services,.they.can.also.contribute.to.developing.more.comprehensive.and.balanced.plans.and.policies. and.to.maintaining.the.momentum.in.the.complex.and.long-term.task.of.constructing.a.good.juvenile. justice.system..The.value.of.juvenile.justice.strategies.is.another.lesson.to.be.drawn..When.juvenile. justice.is.only.one.small.part.of.broader.plans.and.strategies.–.whether.they.concern.criminal.justice. or.child.rights.–.its.aims.and.activities.are.fragmentary,.at.best..Indeed,.broader.plans,.which.affect. juvenile.justice.without.paying.sufficient.attention.to.it,.may.inadvertently.create.obstacles.that.slow. juvenile.justice.reform..Another.important.lesson.is.to.recognize.and.embrace.civil.society’s.valuable. contributions.to.the.development.of.all.aspects.of.juvenile.justice.. One. key. challenge. that. governments. and. the. international. community. must. address. concerns. the. establishment. of. adequate. systems. for. the. collection. and. analysis. of. data. on. offending. and. on. the. functioning. and. the. impact. of. juvenile. justice. institutions. in. order. to. ensure. ‘evidence-based’. programmes. and. policies.. Yet. in. the. countries. covered. by. this. report,. the. data. required. to. make. crucial. decisions. in. the. development. of. a. juvenile. justice. system. and. to. monitor. the. impact. of. new. programmes,. policies. and. laws. are. simply. lacking.. Much. of. the. information. that. does. exist. is. unreliable. or. based. on. simplistic,. antiquated. ideas. about. crime. and. society.. Some. of. the. efforts. of. international.agencies.to.help.develop.data.collection.mechanisms.have.been.oriented.more.to.the. interests.of.the.international.community.than.the.needs.of.the.national.authorities.responsible.for.the. planning.and.development.of.effective,.humane.juvenile.justice.systems..Some.European.countries. and.institutions.have.great.expertise.and.valuable.experience.in.this.area..Their.technical.assistance. and.support.is.greatly.wanted. Another. area. in. which. technical. expertise. and. experience. are. essential. concerns. the. relationship. between. adolescent. development. and. offending.. A. considerable. amount. of. research. has. been. conducted.in.some.European.countries.during.the.last.decade,.including.applied.research.on.‘what. works’. in. community-. and. institution-based. programmes. for. the. rehabilitation. of. offenders. as. well. as. research. on. the. correlation. between. psychological. and. behavioural. problems. in. childhood. and. offending,. which. is. essential. for. the. development. of. evidence-based. prevention. programmes.. Yet. knowledge.of.this.research.and.the.tools.used.have.scarcely.penetrated.the.CEE/CIS.region,.where. social.and.psychological.research.has.been.neglected.for.the.last.two.decades..One.cannot.assume,. of. course,. that. the. results. of. research. in. wealthy. Western. societies. would. be. valid. for. countries. in. transition.in.Eastern.Europe..What.is.needed.is.capacity-building.–.the.sharing.not.only.of.knowledge. but.also.of.tools.and.skills,.perhaps.through.long-term.partnerships.between.researchers.or.academic. institutions.. The. experience. of. the. five. countries. covered. by. this. report. offers. some. modest. examples. of. good. inter-agency. cooperation.. It. also. offers. examples. of. the. adverse. effect. of. poor. coordination. on. the. development.of.juvenile.justice.systems..UNICEF.has.taken.note.of.this.lesson,.and.is.willing.to.work. 70
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE more. closely. with. European. partners. to. help. CEE/CIS. governments. pursue. their. efforts. towards. the. creation. of. humane. and. effective. juvenile. justice. systems. capable. of. protecting. the. rights. of. all. children. and. society,. by. preventing. offending. and. helping. offenders. to. become. constructive. members.of.society.. In.conclusion,.the.reforms.that.are.most.urgent.include: •. reduced.use.and.duration.of.detention.before.and.during.trial.and.improvement.of.conditions.in. pretrial.detention.facilities; •. development.of.more.effective.programmes.for.the.prevention.of.offending.and.re-offending,. in.particular.programmes.of.secondary.prevention.for.children.at.risk.of.all.ages.and.both. community-.and.institution-based.programmes.for.the.prevention.of.re-offending; •. greater.accountability,.in.particular.for.mistreatment.of.juvenile.suspects; •. programmes.to.assist.offenders.reintegrate.into.the.community. Other.priorities.include: •. further.specialization.of.juvenile.judges.and.prosecutors,.including.the.creation.of.specialized. courts.where.the.caseload.warrants; •. further.development.and.consolidation.of.legal.assistance.programmes,.including.specialized. services.for.juveniles. In. order. to. ensure. that. the. programmes. and. policies. developed. are. evidence-based,. it. will. be. necessary.to.invest.in.data.collection.systems.and.in.research.. Finally,. there. are,. fortunately,. good. practices,. which. should. be. consolidated. and. where. required. extended,. as. well. as. promising. practices,. which. after. further. monitoring. and. evaluation. of. their. impact,.may.well.prove.worthy.of.consolidation.and.expansion.. Appropriate prevention and probation policies need to be developed alongside structural investment in education and rehabilitation activities in pre-detention and correctional facilities in order to prevent recidivism and encourage the social reintegration of young offenders post-release. A restorative juvenile justice system that respects international standards can best be served by defining judicial guidelines to offset the tendency to resort to incarceration and custodial sentences for juvenile offenders. SEC(2010) 513 - COMMISSION STAFF WORKING DOCUMENT Accompanying the COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION TO THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND THE COUNCIL – Taking stock of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) - Implementation of the European Neighbourhood Policy in 2009 Sectoral Progress Report, Brussels, 12 May 2010, p. 9. 71
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Annex 1. Schematic overview of the juvenile justice systems in the five countries The. following. tables. are. intended. to. provide. a. rough. overview. of. the. progress. achieved. thus. far. in. developing. juvenile. justice. systems. in. the. five. countries. covered. by. the. assessment.. Generally. speaking,. the. first. stage. indicates. that. much. remains. to. be. done;. the. second,. that. important. steps. have. been. taken;. and. the. third,. that. substantial. progress. has. been. made.. The. criteria. used. to. determine. which. state. of. development. best. describes. the. present. situation. in. different. sectors. are. the.following: 1 2 3 Secondary prevention No.prevention.programmes. Open.residential.or. Open.residential.or. for.children.at.high.risk. community-based.pilot. community-based. of.offending.exist,.other. programmes.designed. programmes.designed. than.police.supervision. specifically.for.children.at. specifically.for.children.at. of.placement.in.closed. high.risk.of.offending.exist high.risk.of.offending.exist. institutions. throughout.the.country Juvenile police No.specialized.juvenile. Juvenile.police.units.exist. A.specialized.juvenile.police. police.unit.or.department. in.some.areas.or.operate. force.operates.throughout. exists throughout.the.country.but. the.country.and.its.functions. have.limited.functions include.the.investigation.of. crimes.by.juveniles Specialized judges or Cases.of.accused.juveniles. Specialized.judges.or. Specialized.judges.or. courts are.tried.in.criminal.courts. courts.exist.in.some.areas. juvenile.courts.exist. by.judges.who.are.not. or.designated.judges.have. throughout.the.country specialized been.assigned.in.all.courts Specialized prosecutors Most.accused.juveniles.are. Specialized.prosecutors. Specialized.prosecutors.try. prosecuted.by.prosecutors. have.jurisdiction.over.cases. all.or.most.cases.of.accused. with.little.or.no.special. of.accused.juveniles.in.some. juveniles.throughout.the. training courts country Separate pretrial Many.or.most.juveniles. Most.juveniles.detained. All.or.nearly.all.male. detention detained.before.trial.are. before.trial.are.held.in. juveniles.detained.before. held.in.facilities.for.adults buildings.used.exclusively. trial.are.held.in.centres. for.juveniles. specifically.for.juveniles.or. separate.buildings Separate correctional Many.juvenile.offenders. All.male.juvenile.offenders. All.male.juvenile.offenders. facilities serve.custodial.sentences.in. serving.sentences.are.held. serving.custodial.sentences. adult.facilities in.juvenile.facilities.or. are.held.in.correctional. separate.buildings. facilities.designed. specifically.for.juveniles Diversion Diversion.is.not.recognized. Diversion.is.recognized. Restorative.justice.and/ or.the.only.forms.recognized. by.law.but.rarely.used,.or. or.programmes.designed. are.warnings.and.police. pilot.restorative.justice.or. to.prevent.re-offending. supervision other.community-based. have.been.institutionalized. programmes.exist. nationally Alternative sentences The.only.alternative. Pilot.programmes.involving. Programmes.involving. sentences.recognized.are. restorative.justice.and/or. restorative.justice,. warnings,.fines.and.others. assistance.and.supervision. probation.or.other.forms. that.do.not.provide.any. exist. assistance.and.supervision. assistance.to.the.offender. are.available.nationally Legal assistance The.only.form.of.legal. Pilot.projects.providing. Specialized.legal.assistance. assistance.available.is.paid. legal.assistance.to.accused. is.available.to.accused. or.assigned.counsel juveniles.exist.in.some.areas juveniles.throughout.the. country ARMENIA 1 2 3 Secondary prevention Community.Justice.Centres. provide.prevention.(in. addition.to.diversion).in.six. cities 72
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE ARMENIA 1 2 3 Juvenile police Juvenile.police.units.are. active.throughout.the. country Specialized judges or Specialized.judges.exist.in. courts some.courts.but.there.is.no. rule.requiring.one.in.each. court Specialized prosecutors Some.prosecutors.have. In.some.courts,.specialized. received.training.but.there. prosecutors.have. is.no.requirement.on. jurisdiction.over.cases.of. specialization. accused.juveniles. Separate pretrial Boys.are.detained.in.a. detention separate,.renovated.facility,. but.isolation.is.excessive. and.activities.very.limited;. girls.are.detained.with. women Separate correctional All.male.juvenile.offenders. facilities serving.sentences.are. confined.in.a.separate. facility;.girls.are.confined.in. the.women’s.prison Diversion Community.Justice.Centres. offer.diversion.programmes. in.six.cities Alternative sentences Law.provides.for. alternative.sentences.but. corresponding.programmes. and.facilities.are.largely. non-existent. Legal assistance Public.Defender.provides. services.nationally,.but. has.no.specialized.staff.for. juveniles AZERBAIJAN 1 2 3 Secondary prevention One.community-based.pilot. programme.for.children.at. high.risk.of.offending.exists Juvenile police Juvenile.police.units.operate. throughout.the.country. but.are.not.responsible. for.interrogating.accused. juveniles Specialized judges Cases.of.accused.juveniles. or courts are.tried.in.criminal.courts. by.judges.who.are.not. specialized Specialized prosecutors Accused.juveniles.are. prosecuted.by.prosecutors. with.little.or.no.special. training Separate pretrial Most.juveniles.detained. detention before.trial.are.held.in. buildings.used.exclusively. for.juveniles Separate correctional All.male.juvenile.offenders. facilities serving.custodial.sentences. are.held.in.a.correctional. facility.designed.specifically. for.juveniles Diversion One.pilot.community-based. programme.exists 73
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES AZERBAIJAN 1 2 3 Alternative sentences The.only.alternative. A.small.number.of.convicted. sentences.recognized.are. juveniles.have.been.referred. warnings,.fines.and.others. to.a.pilot.‘diversion’.project that.do.not.provide.any. assistance.to.the.offender Legal assistance A.pilot.project.provides. legal.assistance.to.accused. juveniles.and.juvenile. prisoners.in.some.areas GEORGIA 1 2 3 Secondary prevention No.secondary.prevention. programme.exists Juvenile police Juvenile.police.do.not.exist Specialized judges There.are.no.juvenile.courts.. or courts In.principle.each.court.has.a. designated.juvenile.judge Specialized prosecutors Specialized.prosecutors. have.jurisdiction.over.cases. of.accused.juveniles.in.some. courts Separate pretrial All.boys.are.detained. detention separately.from.adult. detainees,.but.conditions. are.substandard.in.some. respects;.girls.are.detained. with.women Separate correctional Boys.serve.sentences.in. facilities separate.facility,.which. is.overcrowded.and. substandard.in.other. respects;.girls.serve. sentences.with.women Diversion No.diversion.programme. exists Alternative sentences Probation.service.exists. and.specialized.services.are. being.piloted Legal assistance Legal.Aid.Service.had. national.coverage.and.all. staff.attorneys.are.being. trained.in.juvenile.justice MOLDOVA 1 2 3 Secondary prevention No.secondary.prevention. programmes.exist Juvenile police A.specialized.juvenile.police. force.operates.throughout. the.country.but.its.functions. exclude.the.investigation.of. crimes.by.juveniles Specialized judges There.are.no.juvenile.courts. or courts Specialized.judges.have. been.appointed.in.each.trial. court Specialized prosecutors Specialized.prosecutors.are. Specialized.prosecutors. responsible.for.cases.tried. have.been.appointed.for. in.juvenile.courts each.court 74
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE MOLDOVA 1 2 3 Separate pretrial Juveniles.are.detained.in. detention separate.units.of.facilities. for.adults.and.conditions.in. the.main.one.are.inhuman Separate correctional Male.juvenile.offenders. facilities serve.their.sentences. in.a.separate.unit.of.an. adult.facility;.girls.serve. sentences.in.the.women’s. facility Diversion Diversion.is.recognized. by.law.and.17.Community. Justice.Centres.have.been. established Alternative sentences Alternative.sentences.are. Probation.is.available. used.but.programmes.for. nationally assisting.offenders.given. such.sentences.are.weak Legal assistance A.publicly.funded.Legal. Aid.Service.is.operational. nationally,.although.services. for.juveniles.are.not. specialized UKRAINE 1 2 3 Secondary prevention Community-based.pilot. programmes.designed. for.children.at.high.risk.of. offending.exist Juvenile police A.specialized.juvenile.police. force.operates.throughout. the.country.but.its.functions. exclude.the.investigation.of. crimes.by.juveniles Specialized judges Designated.judges.have. or courts been.assigned.in.all.courts Specialized prosecutors Most.accused.juveniles.are. prosecuted.by.prosecutors. with.little.or.no.specialized. training Separate pretrial Most.juveniles.detained. detention before.trial.are.held.in. buildings.used.exclusively. for.juveniles Separate correctional All.male.juvenile.offenders. facilities serving.custodial.sentences. are.held.in.correctional. facilities.designed. specifically.for.juveniles Diversion Diversion.is.not.recognized. or.the.only.forms.of. diversion.recognized. are.warnings.and.police. supervision Alternative sentences Probation.is.available. nationally Legal assistance Pilot.projects.providing. legal.assistance.to.accused. juveniles.exist.in.some.areas 75
  • THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Annex 2. Trends in different forms of detention Police custody The. following. table. shows. the. maximum. number. of. hours. a. person. under. age. 18. may. be. held. by. the. police. without. a. court. order.. The. Committee. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. considers. that. “every. child.arrested.and.deprived.of.his/her.liberty.should.be.brought.before.a.competent.authority.[i.e.,. judge.or.prosecutor].to.examine.the.legality.of.(the.continuation.of).this.deprivation.of.liberty.within. 24.hours.”249 Time limit to establish Normal time limit for Time limit for juvenile identity, contact parents juvenile suspects suspects in exceptional and similar circumstances Armenia 72.hours Azerbaijan 3.hours 24.hours 48.hours 250 Georgia 48-72.hours 251 Moldova 24.hours Ukraine 3.hours 8.hours 252 -------- ‘Pretrial’ detention The. following. table. shows. the. maximum. period. an. accused. juvenile. may. be. detained. prior. to. and. during. trial,. when. the. law. establishes. such. a. limit.. The. Committee. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. recommends.that.national.law.should.“ensure.that.the.court/juvenile.judge.or.other.competent.body. makes.a.final.decision.on.the.charges.not.later.than.six.months.after.they.have.been.presented.”253 Normal time limit Time limit in exceptional circumstances Armenia 1.year Azerbaijan 254 3.months 255 18.months 256 Georgia 9.months 257 Moldova 4.months 258 Ukraine No.limit --------- Maximum custodial sentence Younger juvenile All/older offenders Exceptions offenders Armenia 10.years Azerbaijan --------- 10.years -------- Georgia 10.years 15.years Moldova 12.5.years Ukraine --------- 10.years --------- 249 . General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.para..84. 250 . When.the.juvenile’s.place.of.residence.is.unknown.or.is.outside.the.district.where.he/she.was.taken.into.custody. 251 . The.statutory.time.limit.is.48.hours,.but.after.this.time.limit.the.prosecutor.has.24.hours.to.obtain.a.court.order. 252 . Juveniles.captured.in.the.act.of.committing.an.offence. 253 . General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.para..84. 254 . Pretrial.detention.is.allowed.only.for.serious.offences. 255 . For.a.serious.offence..Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.of.Azerbaijan,.Article.218.2.3. 256 . For.an.exceptionally.complex.case.involving.a.very.serious.offence..Ibid.,.Article.218.2.4,.218.6,4,.218.7.4.and.218.8.4 257 . Four.months.before.trial.and.five.months.during.trial. 258 . Before.trial;.there.is.no.specific.limit.to.detention.during.trial. 76
  • REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE Annex 3. UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS publications on juvenile justice Thematic Evaluation of UNICEF’s Contribution to Juvenile Justice System Reform in four countries: Montenegro, Romania, Serbia and Tajikistan,. Development. Researchers’. Network. and. UNICEF. CEE/ CIS.Regional.Office,.Geneva,.2007 Moestue,.H.,.Lost in the Justice System: Children in conflict with the law in Eastern Europe and Central Asia, UNICEF.Regional.Office.for.CEE/CIS,.Geneva,.May.2008 The Development of Juvenile Justice Systems in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Lessons from Albania, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkey and Ukraine,. UNICEF. Regional. Office. for. CEE/CIS,. Geneva,. 2009 Regional and International Indicators on Juvenile Justice: Their applicability and relevance in selected countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia,.UNICEF.Regional.Office.for.CEE/CIS,.Geneva,.2009 Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Albania,. UNICEF. Regional. Office. for. CEE/ CIS,.Geneva,.2009 Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Azerbaijan,.UNICEF.Regional.Office.for.CEE/ CIS,.Geneva,.2009 Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Kazakhstan,. UNICEF. Regional. Office. for. CEE/CIS,.Geneva,.2009 Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Turkey,.UNICEF.Regional.Office.for.CEE/CIS,. Geneva,.2009 Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Ukraine,. UNICEF. Regional. Office. for. CEE/ CIS,.Geneva,.2009 Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Armenia,.UNICEF.Regional.Office.for.CEE/ CIS,.Geneva,.2010 Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Georgia,. UNICEF. Regional. Office. for. CEE/ CIS,.Geneva,.2010 Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Kosovo,. UNICEF. Regional. Office. for. CEE/ CIS,.Geneva,.2010 Assessment of Juvenile Justice Reform Achievements in Moldova,.UNICEF.Regional.Office.for.CEE/ CIS,.Geneva,.2010 77
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  • UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS Child Protection Unit Palais des Nations 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland www.unicef.org/ceecis © The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), 2010