The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries

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Reform achievements and challenges in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine - UNICEF Regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe/Commonwealth of Independent States (June 2010)

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The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries

  1. 1. OPY NCEC ADVA THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKRAINE
  2. 2. This report is based on an analysis of assessments commissioned by the UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine in 2008 and 2009. It was drafted by Mr. Daniel O’Donnell, independent consultant, in collaboration with and under the supervision of Séverine Jacomy-Vité, Child Protection Specialist and Jean-Claude Legrand, Child Protection Regional Advisor, UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS. Mr. O’Donnell, an American-Irish national, is a lawyer with 30 years experience in human rights. He studied law at the State University of New York at Buffalo and was admitted to the Bar of New York in 1980. Mr. O’Donnell began his career in 1978 as a prisoners’ rights specialist with a Federal Court in the United States. After this, he worked for several non-governmental organizations, including the International Commission of Jurists, the Inter-American Institute for Human Rights and Defence for Children International. Since 1992 he has worked as a consultant for NGOs and several United Nations organizations, on assignments covering investigation, research and writing, training and programme design and evaluation. Mr. O’Donnell has been collaborating with UNICEF in the drafting of numerous studies and evaluations in the field of juvenile justice over the last three years. © The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), June 2010 Front cover photos: UNICEF Armenia/2006/Onnik Krikorian UNICEF/Geo-2010/Amruvelashvili UNICEF Moldova/2010/Paul Hodorogea UNICEF Albania/2008/Robert Few
  3. 3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKRAINE UNICEF Regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe/Commonwealth of Independent States June 2010
  4. 4. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE CONTENTS FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Box: Key UNICEF strategies............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12 INTRODUCTION: WHY THESE ASSESSMENTS? ......................................................................................................................................................... 13 SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15 CONTEXT .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 PART I. FOUNDATIONAL ISSUES: POLICY, LAW REFORM, TRAINING, COORDINATION, DATA AND RESEARCH............................................................................................................................................. 20 1..Juvenile.justice.policy ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 2..Law.reform ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22 3..Intersectoral.coordination ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 4..Training.and.capacity-building ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 25 5..Data.management.and.research ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 27 PART II. DEMOCRACY AND RULE OF LAW .......................................................................................................................................................................... 31 1..The.impact.of.ombudspersons.and.other.accountability.mechanisms ........................................................................ 31 2..The.soft.but.essential.role.of.civil.society ........................................................................................................................................................... 32 3..The.gradual.specialization.of.judges.and.courts ......................................................................................................................................... 35 4..The.success.of.legal.aid ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 36 5..The.remaining.challenge.of.secondary.prevention.................................................................................................................................. 37 PART III. HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS .................................................................................................................... 39 1..Child.rights.legislation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 39 2..Grave.concerns.about.interrogation.and.detention ................................................................................................................................ 40 3..Good.and.bad.news.about.correctional.facilities ....................................................................................................................................... 47 PART IV. CORE JUVENILE JUSTICE APPROACHES: PARAMETERS OF JUVENILE JUSTICE, DIVERSION, SENTENCES AND RETURN TO THE COMMUNITY ............................................................................................................. 52 1..The.parameters.of.juvenile.justice ................................................................................................................................................................................. 52 2..Diversion ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53 3..Alternative.sentences ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 54 4..Duration.of.custodial.sentences ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 59 5..Conditional.early.release.(parole) ................................................................................................................................................................................... 61 PART V. THREE LEGACIES OF THE SOVIET ERA .......................................................................................................................................................... 63 1..Juvenile.police ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 63 2..‘Reception.and.distribution.centres’ ............................................................................................................................................................................ 65 3..‘Special.schools’ ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 66 CONCLUSIONS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 69 ANNEX 1. Schematic overview of the juvenile justice systems in the five countries .............................................. 72 ANNEX 2. Trends in different forms of detention ..................................................................................................................................................... 76 ANNEX 3. UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS publications on juvenile justice .......................................................... 77 ANNEX 4. CD Rom containing the individual country assessments 3
  5. 5. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Foreword Foreword.to.come 4
  6. 6. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE Executive Summary The.historic.social,.political.and.economic.transformations.that.coincided.in.Eastern.Europe.and.the. Soviet.Union.with.the.adoption.of.the.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.in.1989.led.to.reforms.of. legislation,.law.enforcement,.the.administration.of.justice.and.corrections.on.an.unprecedented.scale.. This.created.unique.opportunities.to.advance.the.human.rights.and.child.rights.agenda..During.the. 1990s,.juvenile.justice.was.not.a.priority.for.countries.in.the.region,.but.most.are.now.engaged.in.the. process.of.developing.juvenile.justice.systems.compatible.with.international.standards..Experiences. with. de-institutionalization. and. growing. expertise. in. child. rights. have. enabled. UNICEF. to. make. a. special.contribution.to.these.reforms,.with.the.support.of.European.and.other.international.actors.. The. present. overview. summarizes. the. results. of. assessments. carried. out. in. Armenia,. Azerbaijan,. Georgia,.Moldova.and.Ukraine.in.2008–2009.in.order.to.inform.future.strategies.and.decision-making. at.country.level,.and.share.experiences.with.European.and.international.agencies,.which.cooperate. in.supporting.the.development.of.juvenile.justice.. Foundational issues The.basic.parameters.of.juvenile.justice.in.these.countries.meet.the.relevant.international.standards:. children.under.age.14.may.not.be.prosecuted.and.children.under.age.18.may.only.be.prosecuted.as. juveniles,.not.as.adults..Children.aged.14–15.years.may.only.be.charged.for.more.serious.offences.. However,. children. aged. 11–14. years. who. lack. ‘criminal. responsibility’. but. are. alleged. to. have. been. involved.in.criminal.conduct.may.still.be.sent.to.closed.educational.institutions.. Only. Georgia. has. a. specific. strategy. for. the. development. of. juvenile. justice,. adopted. in. 2009.. In. Ukraine,. a. presidential. decree. calling. for. the. creation. of. a. juvenile. justice. system. was. issued. in. 2008,. but. the. action. plan. it. called. for. has. not. been. prepared.1. In. Armenia,. the. National. Plan. of. Action. for. the. Protection. of. the. Rights. of. the. Child. only. calls. for. the. creation. of. a. juvenile. justice. system,.and.the.National.Programme.for.the.Prevention.of.Crime.contains.few.provisions.concerning. children..In.Moldova,.‘streamlining.the.system.of.justice.for.minors’.is.an.element.of.the.Strategy.for. Strengthening.the.Judicial.System.approved.in.2007,.as.part.of.the.government’s.commitments.to.the. European. Union. 2. Azerbaijan. has. no. national. plan. or. strategy. so. far.. Broader. strategies. containing. some.elements.of.juvenile.justice.have.had.a.positive.though.limited.impact,.but.in.some.cases.they. have.slowed.or.interfered.with.the.development.of.juvenile.justice. 3. None.of.the.five.countries.covered.by.this.report.have.a.framework.law.on.juvenile.justice:.the.legal. framework. for. juvenile. justice. must. still. be. construed. from. provisions. of. the. Criminal. Code,. the. Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.and.legislation.on.prisons,.probation,.administration.offences.and.child. protection..Most.of.this.legislation.has.been.extensively.rewritten.during.the.last.two.decades,.and. is.now.more.compatible.with.human.rights.and.child.rights..Experts.in.juvenile.justice.usually.have. a.minor.role.in.the.drafting.of.such.laws,.and.invariably.some.provisions.applicable.to.both.children. and.adults.do.not.adequately.protect.the.rights.of.children.. 1 . Presidential.Decree.No..411/2008.of.5.May.2008.on.Measures.to.Ensure.Protection.of.Rights.and.Legal.Interests.of.Children.. Paragraph.8(2).mandated.the.Ministry.of.Justice.to.“during.the.first.half.of.2008.develop.a.draft.of.the.National.Programme. of.Juvenile.Justice.Development.” 2 . Judiciary.System.Strengthening.Strategy,.adopted.by.the.Parliament.of.Moldova.in.Decision.No..174-XVI.of.19.July.2007. 3 . In.Georgia,.for.example,.a.Criminal.Justice.Reform.Strategy.prepared.with.the.support.of.the.European.Union.and.adopted. in.2005.contained.only.one.brief.mention.of.juveniles,.indicating.that.juvenile.prisoners.shall.enjoy.the.rights.recognized. by.international.human.rights.law..The.action.plan.adopted.the.following.year.included.one.objective.that.was.opposed.by. UNICEF.and.the.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child..The.failure.to.take.the.special.needs.of.children.into.account.in.the. Criminal.Justice.Reform.Strategy.was.not.only.a.lost.opportunity,.but.led.to.a.situation.where.advocacy.for.the.rights.of. juveniles.required.introducing.modifications.into.the.larger.reform.process. 5
  7. 7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES The. effective. functioning. of. a. juvenile. justice. system. requires. coordination. of. the. activities. of. many. agencies. and. institutions,. including. the. police,. prosecutors,. the. courts,. probation. services,. the. correctional. system,. and. others.. Cooperation. between. some. of. them. may. be. spontaneous,. but. good.cooperation.across.the.entire.system.cannot.be.ensured.without.a.coordination.mechanism..All. five.countries.have.established.bodies.of.this.kind,.but.the.effectiveness.of.most.of.them.has.been. limited.. Effectiveness. would. require. an. increased. sense. of. ownership. amongst. the. participating. national. agencies. and. institutions,. and. enhanced. political. commitment. to. juvenile. justice. and. the. role.of.the.body.in.question. In. all. of. these. countries,. a. considerable. amount. of. training. was. provided. to. justice. professionals. potentially.dealing.with.children,.initially.mostly.through.ad hoc.in-service.training..Progress.is.now. being.made.in.the.incorporation.of.training.in.child.rights.and.juvenile.justice.into.the.curricula.of.the. institutions.that.train.all.judges,.prosecutors,.police.and.correctional.officers..This.process.is.more. advanced.in.some.countries.than.others..The.impact.of.training.is.rarely.evaluated.objectively.. To. be. effective,. policies,. legislation. and. plans. regarding. juvenile. offending. and. juvenile. justice. must. be.based.on.relevant.and.accurate.information..A.decade.ago,.data.collection.and.analysis.were.very. poor.. Some. progress. has. been. achieved,. but. much. more. is. needed.. In. Armenia,. various. agencies. compile. relevant. data,. but. none. of. these. data. are. published. on. a. regular. basis.. In. Georgia,. only. the. Supreme. Court. regularly. publishes. data,. which. are. limited. to. convicted. offenders,. and. data. released. by.the.relevant.ministries.on.an.ad hoc.basis.are.very.contradictory..In.Moldova,.two.ministries.and.the. courts.publish.statistics,.but.plans.to.establish.a.centralized.database.failed.due.to.reluctance.to.share. data..In.Ukraine,.the.State.Statistics.Committee.publishes.every.three.years.a.report.on.juvenile.justice. containing.data.provided.by.the.courts,.the.prosecutor.and.relevant.ministries.4..The.best.set.of.regularly. released.data.is.that.contained.in.Crimes and Offence in Azerbaijan, published.by.the.State.Statistical. Committee.since.2004..Still,.in.all.of.these.countries,.there.are.important.gaps.in.the.data.available..The. development. of. additional. indicators,. tools. and. integrated. systems. for. data. collection. and. analysis. is. urgently.needed.to.inform.decisions.and.measure.the.impact.of.new.policies,.laws.and.programmes.. In. Armenia,. Azerbaijan. and. Ukraine,. field. studies. based. in. part. on. the. views. and. experiences. of. children. in. contact. with. the. juvenile. justice. system. have. been. carried. out. in. recent. years.. The. information.they.contain,.about.positive.and.negative.experiences,.is.essential.for.the.development. of. juvenile. justice. systems.. These. studies. clearly. represent. a. ‘best. practice’. that. needs. to. be. consolidated.and.further.developed.and.expanded.. Democracy and rule of law Many. safeguards. have. been. introduced. to. protect. the. rights. of. juvenile. suspects. in. police. custody. and.accused.juveniles.in.pretrial.detention..They.have.helped.reduce.abuse,.but.have.not.eradicated. it.. Progress. has. been. greater. in. detention. and. correctional. facilities.. Abuse. by. the. police. has. been. more. difficult. to. deter.. One. reason. is. that,. in. three. of. the. five. countries,. police. may. hold. suspects. without. a. court. order. for. more. than. 24. hours.. Good. practices. include. legislation. (in. Armenia,. Georgia,. Moldova). requiring. the. presence. of. a. defence. attorney. during. interrogation,. as. well. as. the. inadmissibility. of. confession. as. proof. during. trial.. However,. implementation. of. new. legislation. remains.a.challenge.and.such.safeguards,.even.if.put.into.practice,.do.not.suffice.to.eliminate.abuse. if.there.is.tolerance.and.impunity. Human.rights.ombudspersons.exist.in.all.five.countries..In.Azerbaijan,.Georgia,.Moldova.and.Ukraine. they.reportedly.visit.correctional.and.detention.facilities.regularly,.and.their.activities.have.helped.reduce. violence.against.juvenile.suspects,.detainees.and.prisoners..In.Armenia,.two.independent.community- based. bodies,. having. a. statutory. mandate. to. monitor. the. treatment. of. persons. deprived. of. liberty,. 4 . A.semi-annual.report.on.the.economy.also.includes.a.section.on.crime. 6
  8. 8. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE have.been.particularly.effective.in.documenting.abuse.of.prisoners,.including.juveniles.5..However,.the. effectiveness.of.such.bodies.depends.on.the.strong.follow-up.action.by.prosecutors.and.the.heads.of. the.law.enforcement.bodies.on.cases.referred.to.them.and,.ultimately,.on.a.strong.political.commitment. at.the.highest.level.to.ensure.accountability..This.appears.to.be.still.lacking.in.most.countries. Civil. society. organizations. play. an. important. role. in. juvenile. justice. in. all. five. countries,. especially. in. documenting. the. need. for. change,. delivering. training. and. providing. services. to. juveniles. in. correctional.facilities. 6..Best.practices.include:.studies.on.juvenile.justice.and.development.of.police. curriculum.by.the.NGO.Alliance.for.Children’s.Rights.in.Azerbaijan;.policy.development.support.by. the.Institute.for.Penal.Reform.in.Moldova;.research.by.the.Centre.of.Social.Expertise.and.development. of. mediation. by. the. NGO. Centre. for. Common. Ground. in. Ukraine;. activities. carried. out. in. juvenile. correctional. facilities. by. the. NGOs. Empathy. in. Georgia. and. Trtu. in. Armenia;. the. transformation. by. the.Fund.for.Armenian.Relief.of.the.short-term,.multipurpose.residential.facility.for.children.formerly. operated. by. the. police,. and. the. Community. Justice. Centres. set. up. by. Project. Harmony. Armenia. to. provide. assistance. to. offenders. and. children. at. risk.. In. Armenia,. Azerbaijan,. Georgia. and. Ukraine,. NGOs.organize.or.participate.in.activities.within.juvenile.correctional.facilities,.which.also.give.them. an.opportunity.to.informally.monitor.conditions.and.treatment.. None.of.the.five.countries.have.specialized.juvenile.courts,.but.most.have.either.judges.designated. specifically.to.handle.cases.involving.accused.juveniles.(Moldova,.Ukraine).or.require.judges.hearing. such. cases. to. have. special. training. (Georgia).. In. Armenia,. one. judge. from. each. court. was. trained,. although. there. is. no. requirement. that. each. court. has. a. specially. trained. or. designed. judge. for. juveniles..Some.judges.also.have.participated.in.training.activities.in.juvenile.justice.in.Azerbaijan,.but. there.are.no.judges.especially.designated.to.handle.juvenile.cases..This.is.a.step.in.the.right.direction,. although.in.each.of.the.five.countries.the.juvenile.caseload.is.large.enough.to.warrant.the.creation.of. at.least.one.specialized.court.where.the.incidence.of.serious.and.repeat.offending.is.highest. None.of.these.countries.had.legal.aid.programmes.for.juvenile.offenders.until.recently..In.the.past,.the. right.to.legal.assistance.of.defendants.unable.to.pay.for.the.services.of.defence.counsel.was.met.by. assigned.attorneys,.usually.poorly.remunerated,.who.provided.poor.quality.representation..This.has. begun.to.change..Publicly.funded.legal.aid.programmes.have.been.established.in.Armenia,.Georgia. and. Moldova.. Each. provides. free. legal. services. to. juvenile. suspects. and. accused. juveniles. and,. in. Moldova,.the.service.has.recently.hired.lawyers.specialized.in.juvenile.justice..In.Azerbaijan,.a.small. Children’s.Rights.Legal.Clinic.and,.in.Ukraine,.two.large.legal.aid.programmes.have.been.established. on.a.pilot.basis..The.creation.of.such.programmes.has.led.to.a.marked.improvement.in.the.quality.of. services.provided.to.juveniles,.and.needs.to.be.consolidated..The.fact.that.the.governments.of.three. countries.have.decided.to.fund.such.programmes.on.the.national.level.is.an.essential.step.forward. What. was. and. still. is. largely. missing. are. community-based,. non-residential. programmes. for. children. and. adolescents. at. higher. risk. of. offending,. which. would. offer. individual. assessments. and. comprehensive. multidisciplinary. activities,. including. psychosocial. support,. remedial. education,. life. skills. training,. and. individual. and. family. counselling.. A. few. pilot. services. of. this. kind. have. been. established,.but.to.date.most.of.them.operate.as.diversion.or.alternative.sentences.for.adolescents.who. have.already.begun.to.get.involved.in.minor.offending..The.Community.Justice.Centres.in.Armenia.are. a.positive.exception.as.they.have.the.purposes.and.functions.of.both.prevention.and.diversion.. 5 . The.functions.and.powers.of.the.Group.of.Public.Observers.Conducting.Public.Monitoring.of.Penitentiary.Institutions.and. Bodies.of.the.Ministry.of.Justice.of.the.Republic.of.Armenia.and.the.Group.of.Public.Observers.at.the.Detention.Facilities.of. the.Police.System.are.recognized.by.law..Their.mandate.includes.physical.abuse.of.individuals.and.conditions.of.detention.. Both.prepare.annual.reports,.‘current’.reports.and,.when.an.urgent.case.arises,.‘ad hoc ’.reports. 6 . NGOs.generally.do.not.play.a.similar.role.in.pretrial.detention.facilities.in.these.countries,.which.is.unfortunate,.in. particular.when.detention.is.for.an.extended.period. 7
  9. 9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Human rights and fundamental freedoms The.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.forms.part.of.the.national.legal.order.in.all.five.countries,. and.Armenia,.Azerbaijan.and.Moldova.have.adopted.laws.on.the.rights.of.children..These.laws.contain. provisions.concerning.juvenile.justice,.thus.helping.to.make.public.opinion,.and.children.themselves,. aware.of.the.essential.rights.and.principles.that.must.be.respected.with.regard.to.children.at.risk.and. juvenile.offenders. Some. important. measures. have. been. taken. in. order. to. prevent. and. deter. torture. and. ill-treatment.. It.appears.that.juveniles.are.no.longer.subject.to.physical.abuse.in.the.prison.and.pretrial.detention. centres. operated. by. the. ministry. of. justice.. However,. information. from. various. sources. indicates. that.physical.abuse.and.even.torture.are.still.inflicted.on.suspects,.including.juveniles,.by.the.police. before.the.suspects.are.placed.in.investigative.custody.facilities. In. general,. physical. conditions. of. detention. or. imprisonment,. even. when. somewhat. substandard,. are.not.so.bad.as.to.be.considered.cruel,.inhuman.or.degrading.treatment..However,.the.legislation. and.regulations.of.all.five.countries.allow.solitary.confinement.to.be.used.as.a.disciplinary.measure. for.juveniles,.which.the.United.Nations.Rules.for.the.Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty. classifies.as.cruel,.inhuman.and.degrading.7 Important. challenges. also. persist. regarding. detention. before. and. during. legal. proceedings.. Despite. the. measures. taken. in. some. countries,. such. as. barring. the. detention. of. juveniles. accused. of. minor. offences.or.limiting.the.validity.of.detention.orders.to.a.few.months,.the.number.of.accused.juveniles.in. detention.remains.relatively.high,.and.prolonged.detention.remains.a.problem..In.Georgia,.for.example,. one. third. of. all. juveniles. prosecuted. are. detained. before. trial. and,. in. Moldova,. at. the. time. of. the. UNICEF.assessment.mission.the.number.of.detained.juveniles.was.twice.the.number.of.those.serving. sentences,.although.the.use.of.detention.on.remand.has.decreased..The.six-month.limit.between.the. filing.of.charges.and.the.final.decision,.recommended.by.the.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.is. not.rigorously.applied.in.any.of.these.countries..Efforts.have.been.made.to.improve.access.to.education. during. detention. but,. in. most. of. these. countries,. if. not. all,. conditions. in. juvenile. detention. facilities. are.harsher.than.in.juvenile.correctional.facilities..Prolonged.confinement.in.cells.and.lack.of.physical. exercise. are. common. problems.. For. instance,. in. the. main. detention. centre. in. Chisinau. juveniles. are. detained.in.conditions.that.are.unsanitary.and.inhuman,.and.injuries.resulting.from.fights.are.a.regular. occurrence..The.lack.of.full.separation.from.adults.is.another.concern..In.Azerbaijan.and.Ukraine,.for. example,.adult.detainees.are.sometimes.placed.in.the.juvenile.section.to.help.maintain.discipline.. At. the. same. time,. some. of. the. main. achievements. of. the. last. decade. are. significant. decreases. in. the.percentage.of.convicted.juveniles.receiving.custodial.sentences.and.in.the.number.of.juveniles. serving. sentences. in. correctional. facilities.. The. number. of. juvenile. prisoners. has. fallen. by. 50. per. cent.to.80.per.cent.in.all.five.countries.except.Georgia,.where.a.‘zero.tolerance’.policy.towards.crime. announced.in.2005.led.to.an.increase.. Policies,. programmes. and. material. conditions. in. juvenile. correctional. facilities. have. improved.. Prisoners.have.better.access.to.education,.cultural.activities.and.religious.services..Staff.has.received. training. in. child. rights,. and. psychologists. and. social. workers. are. being. added. to. staff.. Corporal. punishment. as. a. disciplinary. measure. is. no. longer. legal.. Acceptance. of. the. presence. of. NGOs. has. increased.transparency.and.enriched.the.range.and.quality.of.activities.available.. Still,. insofar. as. correctional. facilities. are. concerned,. one. of. the. main. challenges. is. the. absence. of. coherent,. clearly. defined. policies. and. programmes. for. the. rehabilitation. of. juvenile. offenders. and. 7 . United.Nations.Rules.for.the.Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty.(Havana.Rules),.Rule.67..(Rule.95.3. of.the.European.Rules.for.juvenile.offenders.subject.to.sanctions.or.measures.also.bans.the.use.of.solitary.confinement.. of.juvenile.prisoners.) 8
  10. 10. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE the.prevention.of.re-offending..The.considerable.international.assistance.that.has.been.provided.has. focused.on.improving.infrastructure.and.ensuring.humane.treatment,.but.not.on.how.such.facilities. should.approach.their.essential.function..Psychological.evaluations.are.rudimentary.or.non-existent,. individual.plans.are.not.prepared.and,.except.for.the.length.of.their.sentence,.thieves,.sex.offenders. and. murderers. receive. the. same. treatment.. Furthermore,. with. the. exception. of. one. programme. in. Ukraine,.post-release.support.is.non-existent.. The.number.of.girls.in.detention.and.correctional.facilities.is.small.and,.as.a.result,.they.are.kept.in. facilities.for.adult.women..Although.they.may.be.housed.separately.from.adults,.there.is.inevitably. contact. in. common. areas.. This. is. not. necessarily. a. violation. of. international. norms,. if. contact. is. managed.so.as.to.be.in.the.best.interests.of.the.girls.concerned.–.but.it.may.also.lead.to.abuse.and. should. be. carefully. monitored.. In. addition,. girls. who. are. detained. or. serving. custodial. sentences. often. have. less. access. to. programmes. than. boys,. especially. educational. programmes.. Cost. and. administrative. considerations,. no. matter. how. legitimate,. do. not. excuse. such. discrimination,. and. ways.must.be.found.to.ensure.equal.access.to.all.programmes.. Core juvenile justice approaches In.all.of.the.countries.covered.by.this.report,.prosecutors.have.discretion.not.to.prosecute.juveniles. in. specific. circumstances,. even. when. there. is. sufficient. evidence. to. prosecute.. Traditionally,. the. diversionary. measures. most. often. used. were. warning. or. supervision. by. parents. or. the. juvenile. police.. Most. countries. still. do. not. have. community-based,. non-residential. programmes. to. assist. juveniles.diverted.from.the.juvenile.justice.system..Efforts.to.develop.such.programmes.have.begun. in.Armenia,.Azerbaijan.and.Moldova.. Conditional. sentences. and. sentences. of. ‘supervision’. have. long. been. used,. and. used. extensively.. Until.recently,.however,.little.assistance.was.provided..In.Georgia.and.Moldova,.probation.services. have. been. established. in. order. to. provide. more. support. to. convicted. prisoners. given. non- custodial.sentences,.including.juveniles;.in.Ukraine,.a.special.unit.of.the.State.Department.of.Penal. Implementation.has.similar.functions..These.are.promising.developments,.but.one.big.challenge.is. to.reduce.caseloads.to.the.point.where.staff.has.sufficient.time.to.provide.real.assistance.to.children.. In.all.five.countries,.restitution.and.reparation.of.the.victim.are.recognized.as.a.ground.for.absolving. an. accused. of. responsibility. for. an. offence,. or. as. an. alternative. sentence.. With. the. exception. of. Moldova,. such. dispositions. are. only. available. when. the. offence. is. not. a. serious. one. and/or. the. offender. has. no. prior. record.. In. most. countries,. services. to. facilitate. victim-offender. mediation. do. not.exist.or.are.not.yet.recognized,.and.such.dispositions.are.rare.. Similarly,. in. all. five. countries. courts. have. discretion. to. impose. ‘educational’. measures. on. juvenile. offenders,. rather. than. sentences.. Such. measures. may. be. non-custodial,. or. may. involve. placement. in.a.closed.educational.facility.that.is.not.part.of.the.correctional.system,.or.in.closed.rehabilitation. facilities. for. persons. with. substance. abuse. or. psychosocial. disabilities.. The. main. challenge. is. that,. in. some. countries,. the. programmes. and. facilities. envisaged. by. the. legislation. –. other. than. closed. schools.and.supervision.–.simply.do.not.exist.. It. is. not. easy. to. evaluate. the. compatibility. of. law. and. practice. regarding. custodial. sentences. with. international. standards. because. such. standards. are. vague.. The. law. concerning. the. sentencing. of. juveniles. is. complex. in. these. countries.. The. main. emphasis. is. on. the. age. of. the. offender. and. the. nature. of. the. offence,. but. the. law. also. provides. that. the. prior. record. of. the. offender,. the. circumstances. of. the. offence. and. the. apparent. need. for. rehabilitation. must. be. taken. into. account.. The. maximum. sentence. that. can. be. imposed. on. a. juvenile. offender. convicted. of. serious. crimes. is. . 9
  11. 11. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES 10. years. in. Armenia,. Azerbaijan. and. Ukraine,. 12. years. and. 6. months. in. Moldova. and. 15. years. in. Georgia..Where.data.are.available,.they.indicate.that.few.offenders.receive.the.maximum.sentence.. The. fact. that. the. population. of. juvenile. correctional. facilities. is. declining. reinforces. the. impression. that. law. and. practice. in. these. five. countries. are. within. the. parameters. of. what. is. considered. acceptable. by. European. countries.. Whether. further. progress. is. needed. would. require. clarification. of. how. the. `shortest. appropriate. period. of. time’. principle 8. should. be. interpreted. and. applied. as. well.as.a.more.detailed.analysis.of.the.sentences.imposed.and.served.and.the.factors.that.influence. sentencing.in.practice.. Three legacies of the Soviet era Finally,. the. compatibility. of. three. institutions. characteristic. of. the. Soviet. era. –. juvenile. police,. ‘reception. and. distribution. centres’. and. ’special. schools’. –. with. juvenile. justice. principles. is. considered..All.three.have.survived.in.the.countries.covered.by.this.report,.but.their.usefulness.and. compatibility.with.the.rights.of.children.are.controversial.. In. the. five. countries,. the. role. of. juvenile. police. is. limited. to. prevention,. and. does. not. include. the. investigation.of.offences.committed.by.juveniles..Consequently,.the.existence.of.specialized.police. departments. has. no. direct. impact. on. the. treatment. of. juvenile. suspects.. Juvenile. police. can. make. a. useful. contribution. to. prevention. but. should. not. be. expected. to. assume. primary. responsibility. for. it,. and. the. resources. allocated. to. them. should. not. come. at. the. expense. of. other. community-. and.school-based.programmes..Furthermore,.the.attention.given.to.new.child-friendly.practices.and. the. treatment. of. child. victims. (e.g.,. ‘green. rooms’). should. not. distract. attention. from. the. need. to. eradicate.abuses.committed.by.unspecialized.officers.against.juvenile.suspects.and.street.children. ‘Reception. and. distribution. centres’. are. multipurpose. residential. facilities. operated. by. the. juvenile. police..They.provide.secure.(i.e.,.generally.closed).shelter.for.limited.periods.of.time.for.a.wide.range. of.children.–.illegal.migrants,.repatriated.children,.children.who.have.escaped.from.residential.schools,. street. children,. children. who. have. committed. an. offence. but. are. too. young. to. be. prosecuted,. and. children.removed.from.their.homes.for.protection.before.a.decision.is.taken.by.guardianship.bodies. or.courts.on.longer.term.measures..Conditions.in.some.such.facilities.are.very.good.–.the.‘Children’s. Support.Centre’.operated.by.the.Fund.for.Armenian.Relief.pursuant.to.an.agreement.with.the.police.is. a.good.example.in.this.respect..However,.these.facilities.are.governed.mainly.by.regulations.that.give. the.police.very.broad.discretion.as.to.the.reasons.for.and.duration.of.placement..There.is,.no.doubt,.a. need.for.child-friendly.emergency.shelters.in.the.kind.of.situations.mentioned.above,.but.it.is.important. that.they.be.governed.by.clear.legal.standards.and.procedures,.and.that.the.services.provided.remain. temporary.by.nature,.while.more.sustainable.solutions.are.being.sought.for.such.children. ‘Special.schools’.are.residential.schools.for.children.involved.in.offending.or.‘anti-social’.behaviour,. operated. by. the. ministry. of. education,. not. the. prison. department.. The. assessment. covered. them. for. three. reasons:. they. are. part. of. state. efforts. to. assist. children. at. risk;. some. of. the. students. are. children.who.became.involved.in.offending.(especially.theft).while.too.young.to.be.prosecuted,.and. placement.in.them.is.a.recognized.(though.seldom.used).alternative.sentence.for.juvenile.offenders.. Traditionally,. special. schools. violated. the. rights. of. children. because. of. the. criteria. and. procedures. that. governed. placement,. because. separation. of. children. from. their. families. generally. became. permanent,.because.children.were.not.treated.as.individuals.and,.sometimes,.because.of.substandard. material.conditions.and.repressive.policies.. 8 . Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Article.37(b).. 10
  12. 12. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE In.some.of.the.five.countries,.changes.in.the.legislation,.greater.awareness.of.child.rights.and.other. factors. have. greatly. reduced. the. population. of. such. schools.. Impressive. reforms. have. taken. place. in. a. few. of. them:. the. Samtredia. special. school. in. Georgia. and. School. No.. 1. in. Armenia. are. two. good. examples.. Yet,. alternative. community-based. programmes. should. be. developed. as. a. priority. even. though. the. need. for. residential. services. may. not. be. completely. eliminated.. The. environment. of.some.children.is.such.that.separation.from.parents.may.be.necessary.in.order.to.provide.the.help. required.. Placement. in. a. facility. that. embraces. the. goal. of. returning. the. child. to. his/her. family. as. soon.as.possible.and.works.towards.that.aim.with.the.family.and.the.child.using.the.most.effective. methods.known.can.be.an.effective.option..It.is.essential,.however,.to.ensure.that.the.aims,.criteria. and.procedures.for.placement.are.compatible.with.children's.rights.. Conclusions Significant. progress. has. been. made,. but. it. has. been. more. rapid. in. some. areas. than. others.. One. of. the.most.remarkable.advances.has.been.the.improvement.of.conditions.in.correctional.facilities.for. convicted.juveniles.and.the.reduction.in.the.number.of.juvenile.prisoners. In.other.areas,.despite.noteworthy.progress,.gaps.and.difficulties.remain..Legal.aid.programmes.are. one.example..Probation.services.and.diversion.programmes.are.another..Training.in.child.rights.and. juvenile.justice.is.being.mainstreamed,.but.its.impact.is.seldom.evaluated.and.specific.requirements. as. to. knowledge. or. skills. are. rare.. Important. progress. has. been. made. in. law. reform,. but. further. reforms.are.necessary.to.prohibit.solitary.confinement,.restrict.the.duration.of.police.custody.to.24. hours.or.less.and.limit.pretrial.detention.to.six.months.. Greater.efforts.are.urgently.needed.in.some.areas,.such.as.the.development.of.secondary.prevention;. reduced.use.of.pretrial.detention.and.better.respect.for.the.rights.of.juveniles.detained.on.remand,. including. separation. from. adults;. the. development. of. effective. community-based. programmes. to. assist. offenders. diverted. from. prosecution. or. given. alternative. sentences;. the. development. of. evidence-based. programmes. for. the. prevention. of. re-offending. in. correctional. settings;. and. the. development.of.effective.post-release.programmes.. Another.key.challenge.concerns.the.establishment.of.adequate.systems.for.the.collection.and.analysis. of. data. on. offending. and. on. the. functioning. and. impact. of. juvenile. justice. institutions. in. order. to. ensure.‘evidence-based’.programmes.and.policies..Other.challenges.include.how.to.best.ensure.the. right.of.accused.juveniles.to.‘child-friendly’.proceedings.and.clarify.the.role.and.functions.of.juvenile. police.units,.special.schools.and.multipurpose.short-term.shelters.for.children. Ensuring. accountability. for. abuse. is. an. urgent. problem.. Monitoring. by. ombudspersons,. legislation. requiring.the.presence.of.lawyers.during.interrogation,.mandatory.medical.examinations.of.detainees. and. training. in. the. rights. of. children. have. all. helped,. but. have. not. been. sufficient. to. overcome. impunity..In.the.final.analysis,.the.solution.lies.in.creating.political.will.at.the.highest.level.to.respect. the.rights.of.all.children.. Lessons.that.can.be.drawn.from.the.experiences.documented.in.this.report.include.the.importance. of.intersectoral.coordination.bodies,.the.value.of.comprehensive.juvenile.justice.strategies.and.the. significant.contribution.civil.society.can.make.to.the.development.of.all.aspects.of.juvenile.justice.. There.are,.fortunately,.good.practices.that.should.be.consolidated.and,.where.necessary,.extended.–. as.well.as.promising.practices.that,.after.further.monitoring.and.evaluation.of.their.impact,.may.well. prove.worthy.of.consolidation.and.expansion. 11
  13. 13. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Box: Key UNICEF strategies Armenia • Mainstreaming juvenile justice concerns:. Advocacy. by. UNICEF. helped. ensure. inclusion. of. objectives.concerning.juvenile.justice.in.the.National.Planof.Action.for.the.Protection.of.the.Rights. of.the.Child.covering.the.years.2004–2015. • Keeping juvenile justice on UNICEF’s agenda:. Support. to. the. development. of. juvenile. justice,. consisting.largely.of.training,.was.mainstreamed.into.UNICEF’s.Child.Protection.Programme. Azerbaijan • Kick-starting the reform:. Despite. limited. funds. and. the. absence. of. a. pre-defined. strategy. for. juvenile.justice.reform,.UNICEF.made.a.key.contribution.to.the.process.of.creating.a.juvenile.justice. system.through.a.situation.analysis.(2006),.advocacy,.training.and.some.well-chosen.pilot.projects. • Closely cooperating with national NGOs:.Reliance.mainly.on.the.NGO.Alliance.for.Children’s.Rights. was. a. good. strategic. decision,. which. has. helped. ensure. that. UNICEF’s. aims. and. strategies. are. appropriate,.while.also.building.capacity.and.encouraging.government-civil.society.cooperation. Georgia • Building upon a solid base-line: A. situation. analysis. financed. by. UNICEF. led. to. a. three-year. €. 750,000. project. funded. by. the. Dutch. Government. focusing. on. policy. development,. law. reform,. training. and. pilot. projects. on. diversion. and. alternative. sentencing,. followed. by. a. two-year. . €. 1.27. million. programme. funded. by. the. European. Commission. focusing. on. the. development. of. correctional.and.probation.services.for.juvenile.offenders.. • Intersectoral mobilization and dialogue:.The.negative.consequences.of.a.governmental.policy.of. ‘zero.tolerance’.towards.crime.adopted.as.the.projects.began.have.been.overcome.through.close. cooperation.with.the.reconstituted.Criminal.Justice.Reform.Inter-Agency.Coordination.Council.. Moldova • Self-correction and extended partnerships:.The.unrealistic.goals.of.a.first.UNICEF.juvenile.justice. project. were. timely. modified. when. new. legislation. came. into. force. and. national. NGOs. played. a. large.role.in.implementing.this.project,.which.strengthened.the.capacity.and.role.of.civil.society.in. the.field.of.juvenile.justice.. • Consulting, consulting, consulting:. A. situation. analysis. prepared. as. part. of. the. first. project. served. to. define. the. aims. of. a. second. project. (2008–2011).. An. intersectoral. Consultative. Council. on. Juvenile. Justice. has. been. established,. and. a. Presidential. decree. calls. for. the. preparation. of. a. National. Programme. of. Juvenile. Justice. Development.. Research. on. the. experiences. of. juvenile. offenders.has.been.conducted.and.will.help.guide.implementation.of.this.project.. Ukraine • Building upon the recommendations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child:. The. situation. analysis. prepared. by. UNICEF. and. related. advocacy. designed. to. reinforce. the. comments. of. the. Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.put.the.issue.of.juvenile.justice.on.the.national.agenda.. • Persevering:.In.a.difficult.political.environment,.UNICEF’s.persistence.and.flexibility.has.maintained. momentum.even.though.delete.several.important.goals.have.not.been.achieved.. • Cooperation with other human rights agencies:.UNICEF.cooperated.effectively.with.the.Office.of. the.United.Nations.High.Commissioner.for.Human.Rights. 12
  14. 14. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE Introduction: Why these Assessments? When. the. Convention. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. was. adopted,. two. decades. ago,. few. if. any. countries.had.juvenile.justice.systems.that.were.fully.compatible.with.the.relevant.provisions.of.the. Convention.. When. States. parties. to. the. Convention. began. to. present. their. implementation. reports. to. the. Committee. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child,. the. Committee. invariably. made. recommendations. concerning. the. need. to. transform. laws,. policies. and. practices. regarding. the. treatment. of. juvenile. offenders,.regardless.of.whether.the.country.was.rich.or.poor,.democratic.or.totalitarian,.from.Africa,. Asia,.Europe.or.the.Americas.. UNICEF. first. began. supporting. juvenile. justice. reform. in. Latin. America. during. the. 1990s.. In. the. CEE/CIS. region,. it. started. supporting. the. development. of. juvenile. justice. systems. at. the. beginning. of. the. new. millennium.. Involvement. in. juvenile. justice. in. this. region. grew. out. of. work. on. de- institutionalization. initiated. during. the. 1990s.. It. also. reflected. support. to. the. participation. of. civil. society.in.the.process.of.monitoring.the.implementation.of.the.Convention..During.a.period.of.severe. economic. crisis. and. social. insecurity,. child. rights. organizations. were. concerned. by. the. repressive. and.often.inhuman.treatment.of.street.children.and.adolescents.involved.in.petty.crime.. The.historic.social,.political.and.economic.transformations.that.coincided.in.Eastern.Europe.and.the. Soviet.Union.with.the.adoption.of.the.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.in.1989.led.to.reforms.of. legislation,.law.enforcement,.and.the.administration.of.justice.and.corrections.on.an.unprecedented. scale.. This. created. unique. opportunities. to. advance. the. human. rights. and. child. rights. agenda.. During. the. 1990s,. juvenile. justice. was. not. a. priority. for. most. countries. in. the. region,. but. most. are. now. engaged. in. the. process. of. developing. juvenile. justice. systems. compatible. with. international. standards..The.recommendations.of.the.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.have.been.instrumental. in.putting.juvenile.justice.on.the.agenda.. UNICEF.began.supporting.activities.related.to.juvenile.justice.in.1998.in.Armenia,.in.2001.in.Georgia. and. Moldova,. in. 2003. in. Ukraine. and. in. 2005. in. Azerbaijan.. Experience. with. de-institutionalization. during. the. 1990s. and. growing. expertise. in. child. rights. have. enabled. UNICEF. to. make. a. special. contribution.to.these.reforms,.with.the.support.of.European.and.other.international.actors.. Among.the.twenty-two.countries.under.the.mandate.of.the.UNICEF.CEE/CIS.Regional.Office,.fifteen. are.members.of.the.Council.of.Europe, 9.two.are.members.of.the.European.Union,10.three.are.European. Union.candidate.countries,11.four.are.European.Union.acceding.countries12.and.six.participate.in.the. European. Neighbourhood. Policy. (ENP).13. Throughout. most. of. the. region,. European. standards. are. as.relevant.as.United.Nations.standards,.and.United.Nations.and.European.actors.are.working.side. by.side.to.support.the.development.of.legal.and.social.institutions.and.policies.that.respect.human. rights.. One.of.UNICEF’s.strengths.is.its.commitment.to.evaluating.the.impact.of.its.interventions..In.2007,.the. UNICEF.CEE/CIS.Regional.Office.decided.to.review.the.experience.of.four.country.activities.in.order. to. identify. lessons. that. could. be. learned. from. their. efforts. to. support. the. development. of. fair. and. 9 . Albania,.Armenia,.Azerbaijan,.Bosnia.and.Herzegovina,.Bulgaria,.Croatia,.Georgia,.Moldova,.Montenegro,.Romania,.the. Russian.Federation,.Serbia,.The.former.Yugoslav.Republic.of.Macedonia,.Turkey.and.Ukraine.. 10 . Bulgaria.and.Romania. 11 . Croatia,.The.former.Yugoslav.Republic.of.Macedonia.and.Turkey. 12 . Albania,.Bosnia.and.Herzegovina,.Montenegro.and.Serbia. 13 . Armenia,.Azerbaijan,.Belarus,.Georgia,.Moldova.and.Ukraine. 13
  15. 15. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES humane.juvenile.justice.systems.14.In.2008,.the.attempt.to.document.the.changes.operated.in.juvenile. justice,. identify. good. practices. and. draw. lessons. continued. with. assessments. of. juvenile. justice. reforms.in.Albania,.Azerbaijan,.Kazakhstan,.Turkey.and.Ukraine..In.2009,.assessments.were.carried. out.in.four.additional.countries.–.Armenia,.Georgia,.Kosovo.and.Moldova..Further.assessments.are. planned.for.2010.15 The. present. overview. summarizes. the. results. of. the. assessments. carried. out. in. five. of. the. six. European.Neighbourhood.Policy.countries:.Azerbaijan.and.Ukraine.(2008).and.Armenia,.Georgia.and. Moldova.(2009)..It.has.two.main.purposes.. The. first. is. to. facilitate. the. sharing. of. information. and. experiences. between. the. UNICEF. country. offices.involved.in.this.area.and.their.partners.in.government.and.civil.society;.to.provide.information. likely. to. help. them. adopt. more. effective. strategies. and. make. more. informed. decisions. about. difficult.policy.questions.arising.in.the.process.of.creating.new.juvenile.justice.systems;.to.identify. successful.experiences.that.can.serve.as.models;.and.to.locate.resources.–.legislation,.programmes,. individual. experts,. training. materials. and. curricula,. and. so. on. –. to. be. used. regionally. as. well. as. locally.. Two. regional. meetings. have. taken. place. and. are. contributing. to. the. creation. of. a. ‘critical. mass’.of.countries.committed.to.the.development.of.juvenile.justice.systems.that.are.both.efficient. and.respectful.of.the.rights.of.children.16. The. second. is. to. share. our. experiences. with. European. and. other. international. agencies,. which. cooperate. in. supporting. the. development. of. juvenile. justice,. or. support. activities. closely. related. to. juvenile. justice,. in. areas. such. as. the. administration. of. justice,. law. enforcement. and. corrections.. While.inter-agency.cooperation.and.coordination.have.not.been.a.focus.of.these.assessments,.they. clearly.demonstrate.the.value.of.good.cooperation.and.coordination.as.well.as.the.risks.of.inadequate. coordination..In.addition,.the.five.countries.covered.by.this.report.have.strong.commonalities.both. in. terms. of. justice. systems. and. policy. priorities.. It. is. important. to. give. juvenile. justice. adequate. attention. and. visibility. in. these. contexts. when. important. budget. support. from. European. partners. aims.at.strengthening.the.rule.of.law.and.democracy..We.need.to.ensure.that.juvenile.offenders.and. children.at.risk.also.benefit.from.broader.reform.agendas.. 14 . See.Thematic Evaluation of UNICEF’s Contribution to Juvenile Justice System Reform in four countries: Montenegro, Romania, Serbia and Tajikistan,.Development.Researchers’.Network.and.UNICEF.CEE/CIS.Regional.Office,.Geneva,.2007. 15 . They.will.include.Bosnia.and.Herzegovina,.The.former.Yugoslav.Republic.of.Macedonia.and.two.Central.Asian.countries.. 16 . The.first.meeting.took.place.in.Geneva.in.July.2008,.and.the.second.in.Istanbul.in.June.2009.. 14
  16. 16. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE Scope and Methodology The.scope.and.methodology.used.for.these.assessments.were.prepared.in.2008.by.an.international. consultant. working. in. close. collaboration. with. concerned. field. UNICEF. child. protection. officers.. In. each.country,.the.international.consultant.and.a.local.consultant.formed.the.assessment.team..The. local.consultant.in.principle.participated.fully.in.all.aspects.of.the.mission,.advised.the.international. consultant.on.national.law.and.other.relevant.matters,.and.participated.in.the.revision.and.finalization. of.the.country.report.17. The. exercise. covered. three. main. areas:. the. process. of. juvenile. justice. reform,. the. juvenile. justice. system,.and.UNICEF’s.support.to.juvenile.justice.reform..A.fourth.area.–.data collection and analysis –. was.added.at.a.later.stage.to.assess.whether.the.national.authorities.have.the.data.needed.to.develop. policies.and.monitor.the.functioning.of.the.various.components.of.juvenile.justice.systems.and,.if.so,. to. what. extent. the. data. are. used. appropriately.. This. allowed. checking. the. relevance. and. utility. of. existing.regional.and.international.indicators.18 Recognizing. the. importance. of. the. experience. and. opinions. of. children. whose. lives. have. been. marked,. for. better. or. worse,. by. contacts. with. juvenile. justice. authorities,. UNICEF. also. decided. to. support.surveys.of.the.experience.of.such.children.in.the.countries.covered.by.the.assessments.. During. each. of. the. two-week. country. missions,. the. assessment. team. interviewed. representatives. of. all. ministries,. agencies. and. institutions. concerned. with. juvenile. justice. –. typically. the. ministries. of.justice.and.internal.affairs,.the.national.police,.the.prison.department,.the.probation.department. or.equivalent,.the.judiciary,.the.office.of.the.prosecutor,.in.some.cases.the.child.welfare.department. or. a. representative. of. the. ministry. of. education,. and. a. representative. of. the. national. juvenile. justice. coordination. council. or. committee,. where. one. exists.. Parliamentarians,. ombudspersons,. representatives.of.institutions.responsible.for.the.training.of.police,.judges.and.prosecutors.as.well. as.national.statistical.agencies.were.interviewed,.whenever.possible.. Representatives.of.national.and.international.non-governmental.organizations.interested.in.juvenile. justice.were.interviewed,.as.were.UNICEF.staff.and.representatives.of.other.United.Nations,.European. or.bilateral.agencies.and.organizations.active.in.areas.such.as.child.rights.and.support.to.law.reform,. administration. of. justice,. prison. reform. and. similar. areas.. Visits. were. made. to. courts,. pretrial. detention.facilities,.juvenile.correctional.facilities,.women’s.prisons.(where.convicted.adolescent.girls. serve. their. sentences),. reform. schools. for. offenders. too. young. to. be. prosecuted. as. juveniles,. and. projects.offering.prevention.services,.diversion,.mediation.or.placement.for.alternative.sentences..A. list.of.persons.interviewed.and.documents.consulted.is.appended.to.each.assessment.. 17 . The.local.consultants.were.Lilit.Petrosyan,.Armenia;.Dr..Nabil.Seyidov,.Azerbaijan;.Teona.Kuchara,.Georgia;.and.Prof.. Vasile.Rotary,.Moldova..(In.Ukraine.the.local.consultant.did.not.participate.fully.in.the.mission.or.drafting.of.the.report.due. to.other.commitments;.in.Georgia.the.local.consultant.was.unable.to.participate.in.part.of.the.mission.for.health.reasons. and.in.Moldova.Prof..Rotaru.was.replaced.by.Prof..V..Zaharia.for.part.of.the.assessment.mission.) 18 . Regional and International Indicators on Juvenile Justice: Their applicability and relevance in selected countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia,.UNICEF.Regional.Office.for.CEE/CIS,.Geneva,.2009. 15
  17. 17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Context Armenia,.Azerbaijan,.Georgia,.Moldova.and.Ukraine.became.independent.of.the.former.Union.of.Soviet. Socialist.Republics.in.1991..They.are.all.Member.States.of.the.United.Nations,.the.Council.of.Europe,. and.the.Organization.for.Security.and.Co-operation.in.Europe.(OSCE),.and.they.are.all.included.in.the. European. Union’s. European. Neighbourhood. Policy. (ENP).. They. are. all. parties. to. both. the. European. Convention. for. the. Protection. of. Human. Rights. and. Fundamental. Freedoms. and. the. European. Convention.for.the.Prevention.of.Torture.and.Inhuman.or.Degrading.Treatment.or.Punishment.19 They.vary.greatly.in.size.and.economic.and.demographic.indicators.. GNI per capita Population Total Countries (purchasing aged 0–18 Territory 23 population 21 power parity)20 years 22 Armenia US$.6,310 3.08.million 26.per.cent 29,800.km2 Azerbaijan US$.7,770 8.68.million 31.per.cent 86,600.km2 Georgia US$.4,850 4.36.million 22.per.cent 69,700.km2 Moldova US$.3,210 .6.36.million 13.per.cent 33,800.km2 Ukraine US$.7,210 46.26.million 18.per.cent 603,600.km2 The.years.following.independence.were.marked.by.a.sharp.decline.in.social.and.economic.indicators. in. all. of. these. countries.. Even. if. their. economies. have. grown. stronger. during. the. last. decade,. a. significant. part. of. their. populations. remain. in. poverty.. The. population. of. Georgia,. Moldova. and. Ukraine.is.decreasing, 24.and.in.all.five.countries.emigration.is.relatively.high. 25 19 . Armenia.and.Azerbaijan.ratified.both.treaties.in.2002;.Georgia.ratified.the.former.in.1999.and.the.latter.in.2000;.Moldova. ratified.the.former.in.1997.and.the.latter.in.1998;.and.Ukraine.ratified.both.in.1997..See.http://www.conventions.coe.int/ Treaty/Commun/ChercheSig.asp?NT=126&CM = 8&DF=18/03/2010&CL= ENG.accessed.31.May.2010. 20 . World.Bank.Data.Profile,.2008. 21 . Ibid. 22 . United.Nations.Children’s.Fund,.The State of the World’s Children 2009,.UNICEF,.New.York,.2009,.Table.6.(calculation.based. on.total.population.as.per.World.Bank.Data.Profile,.supra). 23 . World.Bank.Data.Profile,.2008. 24 . From.2000.to.2006,.according.to.World.Bank.estimates,.the.population.of.Georgia.has.fallen.by.370,000;.the.population.of. Moldova.has.fallen.by.360,000;.and.that.of.Ukraine.has.fallen.by.3.9.million.. 25 . The.average.emigration.rate.for.the.CEE/CIS.region.is.9.5.per.cent.(United.Nations.Development.Programme,.Human Development Report 2009,.Country.fact.sheets,.UNDP,.2009.).See.http://www.hdr.undp.org/en/countries /alphabetical/,. accessed.31.May.2010. 16
  18. 18. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE Population below national Countries GDP 2000 26 GDP 2008 27 Emigration 29 poverty line 2000–2006 28 Armenia US$.1.91.billion US$.11.96.billion 50.9.per.cent 20.3.per.cent Azerbaijan US$.5.27.billion US$.46.26.billion 49.6.per.cent 14.3.per.cent Georgia US$.3.06.billion US$.12.79.billion 54.5.per.cent 18.3.per.cent Moldova US$.1.29.billion US$.6.05.billion n/a 14.3.per.cent Ukraine US$.31.26.billion US$.180.35.billion 19.5.per.cent 10.9.per.cent Most. of. the. five. countries. were. also. marked. by. political. turmoil. and. armed. conflict.. Conflict. over. Nagorno. Karabakh. broke. out. in. 1991. and. ended. in. 1994. with. the. signing. of. a. peace. agreement. by. Armenia. and. Azerbaijan.. When. Georgia. became. independent,. separatist. conflicts. broke. out. in. Abkhazia.(North-West.Georgia).and.in.South.Ossetia..Ceasefire.agreements.came.into.effect.in.1994. and.1992,.respectively,.but.in.August.2008.Russian.forces.entered.Abkhazia.and.South.Ossetia,.and. the.Russian.Federation.recognized.them.as.independent.States..In.Moldova,.separatist.movements. broke.in.the.Transnistria.region.(Eastern.Moldova).and.in.Gagauzia.(Southern.Moldova)..A.ceasefire. was.negotiated.in.Transnistria.in.1992,.and.the.region.remains.under.the.control.of.an.unrecognized. government..In.1994,.Gagauzia.was.recognized.as.a.semi-autonomous.region.. In. Georgia,. protests. following. national. elections. in. 2003. led. to. the. resignation. of. the. President,. marking. a. transformation. of. national. politics. known. as. the. ‘Rose. Revolution’.. In. Ukraine,. protests. known.as.the.‘Orange.Revolution’.resulted.in.new.presidential.elections.in.2004.and.opened.a.period. of. broad. political,. social,. economic. and. legal. reforms.. In. 2007,. however,. differences. between. the. President.and.the.Prime.Minister.led.to.a.prolonged.political.crisis.in.which.the.adoption.of.legislative. and.other.reforms.was.very.difficult.. In. Armenia,. the. resignation. of. the. President. in. 1998. and. assassination. of. the. Prime. Minister. the. following. year. led. to. several. years. of. political. instability.. Demonstrations. culminating. in. several. deaths. marked. the. most. recent. national. elections,. in. 2008. 30. In. Moldova,. discontent. with. the. 2009.electoral.results.led.to.protests.that.ended.in.the.partial.destruction.of.the.Parliament.and.office. of.the.President.. Offending.increased.significantly.in.three.of.the.five.countries.during.the.decade.after.independence,. according.to.available.data,.but.fell.drastically.during.the.following.decade,.or.the.second.half.of.the. new.decade. 31 26 . The.World.Bank,.World.Development.Indicators.database,.Country.Profiles..See.web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/ DATASTATISTICS/0,,contentMDK:20535285~menuPK:1192694~pagePK:64133150~piPK:64133175~theSitePK:239419,00. html,.accessed.31.May.2010. 27 . Ibid. 28 . UNDP.Country.fact.sheets,.supra. 29 . Ibid. 30 . Commission.of.the.European.Communities,.Implementation.of.the.European.Neighbourhood.Policy.in.2008,.Progress. Report.Armenia,.SEC(2009).511/2,.2009,.p..3. 31 . Data.on.offending.by.juveniles.in.these.countries.are.incomplete,.and.the.data.available.must.be.treated.with.caution.. 17
  19. 19. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES In. Armenia,. for. example,. data. on. offending. for. the. first. two. years. after. independence. are. not. available,. but. for. the. rest. of. the. decade. they. show. that. the. number. of. juvenile. offenders. and. the. number. of. offences. committed. by. juveniles. decreased. from. 1993. to. 1995,. peaked. in. 1997,. then. fell. sharply. in. 1998. and. remained. low. for. the. rest. of. the. decade. 32. The. number. of. offences. registered. by. the. General. Investigative. Department. of. the. Police. of. the. Republic. of. Armenia. in. recent. years. . (2004–2008).suggests.that.the.decline.in.offending.has.continued. 33 Moldova. registered. a. 60. per. cent. increase. in. offending. by. juveniles. during. the. decade. following. independence. 34. The. number. of. juveniles. convicted. of. an. offence. appears. to. have. been. relatively. stable.during.the.1990s,.however,.raising.questions.as.to.the.reliability.or.significance.of.the.increase. in. offending. 35. Offending. by. juveniles. peaked. in. 2004,. and. has. subsequently. fallen. to. below. the. number. reported. in. 1992. –. a. decrease. of. 45. per. cent. over. five. years. 36. The. number. of. homicides,. however,. did. not. diminish. and. the. number. of. rapes. rose. dramatically. 37. In. Ukraine,. the. number. of. offences. committed. by. juveniles. increased. considerably. from. 1992. to. 2003,. and. has. fallen. sharply. since.then. 38.In.Azerbaijan,.data.on.offending.by.juveniles.during.the.years.following.independence. are.not.available,.but.the.number.of.offences.committed.by.juveniles.over.the.last.decade.has.been. relatively. low. and. generally. in. decline. 39. Georgia. is. an. exception:. data. show. a. large. increase. in. convictions.between.2005.and.2006,.when.a.‘zero.tolerance’.policy.towards.crime.was.announced..In. 2005,.475.juveniles.were.convicted.and.104.given.custodial.sentences;.in.2006,.1,002.were.convicted. and.340.given.custodial.sentences.–.i.e.,.123.per.cent.increase.in.convictions.and.325.per.cent.increase. in.custodial.sentences.40.Since.then,.the.number.of.convictions.has.grown.slightly. 41.Many.observers. agree.that.the.upsurge.in.convictions.of.juveniles.in.2006.reflects.a.real.crime.wave.and.cannot.be. attributed. entirely. to. stricter. law. enforcement.. The. fourfold. increase. in. convictions. of. juveniles. for. homicides. and. the. 30. per. cent. increase. in. convictions. for. all. crimes. of. violence. between. 2005. and. 2006.confirm.a.real.escalation.in.serious.offending.by.juveniles.at.that.time.42 32 . 436.offences.committed.by.552.juvenile.offenders.in.1993,.and.420.offences.committed.by.444.juveniles.in.1995;.741. offences.committed.by.975.juveniles.in.1997;.589.offences.committed.by.479.juveniles.in.1998..See.Giles,.G.,.Report on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency in Armenia,.UNICEF.Yerevan,.2001.(hereinafter.‘situation.analysis’),.citing.unpublished. Ministry.of.Justice.data. 33 . 175.offences.committed.by.211.offenders.in.2004;.150.offences.committed.by.185.juveniles.in.2005;.161.offences. committed.by.199.juveniles.in.2006;.189.offences.committed.by.261.juveniles.in.2007.and.174.offences.committed.by.223. juveniles.in.2008.(unpublished.data.provided.to.the.UNICEF.assessment.team.by.the.General.Investigative.Department). 34 . From.1,652.cases.in.1992.to.2,684.in.2001,.according.to.data.cited.in.Juvenile Justice in the Republic of Moldova – Evaluation Report 2002–2003,.UNICEF,.2003,.p..10. 35 . Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Consideration.of.reports.submitted.by.States.parties.under.Article.44.of.the. Convention,.Initial.report.of.the.Republic.of.Moldova,.CRC/C/28/Add.19,.2002,.para..391..There.was.a.sharp.increase.in. convictions.in.2000.and.2001.(1,934.and.1,894,.respectively). 36 . 2,753.in.2004.and.1,502.in.2008,.according.to.the.publication.of.the.National.Bureau.of.Statistics,.The situation of children in the Republic of Moldova in 2008,.No..08-06/126,.2009,.Table.7.. 37 . E.g.,.12.homicides.in.2004.and.the.same.number.in.2008;.25.rapes.in.2004.and.115.in.2008..(For.the.most.recent.data,.see. Bulletin of the Supreme Court of Justice, No. 3,.March.2009.) 38 . Number.of.offences.committed.by.juveniles:.11,620.in.1992;.21,800.in.2003,.11,170.in.2007,.in.Amdzhadin,.L.,.and. Honcharuk,.O.,.Social Practices and Legislation in the Area of Juvenile Delinquency,.National.Academy.of.Sciences,. Institute.of.Sociology,.Centre.of.Social.Expertise,.UNICEF,.Kyiv,.2008..There.has.been.some.controversy.as.to.the. implications.of.these.data.during.recent.years.because.the.threshold.for.theft.depends.on.the.value.of.the.item.stolen,. which.is.affected.by.changes.in.economic.indicators.. 39 . From.601.in.1998.to.485.in.2007..The.lowest.number.during.this.decade.was.412,.in.2003..See.State.Statistical.Committee,. Crimes and Offences in Azerbaijan,.Baku,.2008,.Table.4.2.. 40 . Unpublished.Supreme.Court.data.provided.to.UNICEF.Georgia..Fragmentary.data.from.the.1990s.indicate.that.the.annual. number.of.convictions.was.closer.to.300..See.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Consideration.of.reports.submitted.by. States.parties.under.Article.44.of.the.Convention,.Initial.report.of.Georgia,.CRC/C/41/Add.4/Rev.1,.1998,.para..294. 41 . 1,060.convictions.in.2007.and.1,166.in.2008.–.increase.of.1.per.cent.or.less.. 42 . Ibid..(From.5.to.21.and.from.24.to.82,.respectively.) 18
  20. 20. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE European. Neighbourhood. Policy. Action. Plans. were. adopted. for. Moldova. in. 2005. and. for. Armenia,. Azerbaijan. and. Georgia. in. 2006.. With. one. exception,. they. do. not. contain. aims. specifically. related. to. juvenile. justice.. The. European. Union-Armenia. Action. Plan. contains. a. number. of. objectives,. which.in.principle.should.benefit.juvenile.suspects,.offenders.and.prisoners.as.well.as.adults.(e.g.,. strengthening. the. human. rights. ombudsperson. and. legal. aid. programmes). and. some. objectives. specifically.concerning.children,.but.none.specifically.related.to.juvenile.justice..The.European.Union- Moldova.Action.Plan.contains.several.objectives.regarding.social.programmes.for.children,.but.none. related. to. juvenile. justice,. and. only. a. few. (e.g.,. human. rights. training,. development. of. mediation). that.might.be.expected.to.have.significant.indirect.benefits.for.juvenile.suspects.and.offenders..The. European.Union-Azerbaijan.Action.Plan.does.not.contain.any.objectives.specifically.related.to.juvenile. justice.. The. European. Union-Georgia. Action. Plan,. adopted. in. 2006,. called. for. the. development. and. implementation. of. a. strategy. aiming. to. reform. the. criminal. justice. system. but,. as. indicated. below,. this.strategy.had.negative.as.well.as.positive.consequences.for.juvenile.justice..The.European.Union- Ukraine. Action. Plan. on. Justice,. Freedom. and. Security,. adopted. in. 2007,. is. the. only. plan. in. force. in. any. of. these.countries. to.contain.a. specific. commitment.to.“Ensure. full.implementation.of.juvenile. justice.standards.in.line.with.relevant.international.standards.”43. 43 . European.Union-Ukraine.Action.Plan,.section.2.1(10). 19
  21. 21. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES PART I. Foundational Issues: Policy, Law Reform, Training, Coordination, Data and Research Before. presenting. the. findings. of. the. assessments. undertaken. in. the. five. countries. covered. by. the. present.report,.this.chapter.considers.issues.that.influence.the.development.of.juvenile.justice,.such. as. national. policies,. law. reform,. training,. coordination. mechanisms,. the. collection. and. use. of. data. and.research.. 1. Juvenile justice policy The.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.has.stressed.that.the.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child. “requires.States.parties.to.develop.and.implement.a.comprehensive.juvenile.justice.policy.”44. None.of.the.five.countries.covered.by.the.present.report.have.such.a.policy,.at.present,.and.Georgia. is.the.only.one.to.have.a.juvenile.justice.strategy.document.. In.Georgia,.a.Criminal.Justice.Reform.Strategy.prepared.with.the.support.of.the.European.Union.was. adopted.in.2005,.and.an.action.plan.for.implementing.the.Strategy.was.adopted.in.2006..The.Strategy. contained. components. on. the. police. and. crime. prevention,. prosecution,. legal. aid,. the. courts. and. judiciary,.the.Criminal.Code.and.the.Code.of.Criminal.Procedure,.the.prison.system,.probation,.legal. education.and.the.Public.Defender.(autonomous.human.rights.monitor)..Unfortunately,.it.contained. only.one.brief.mention.of.juveniles,.indicating.that.juvenile.prisoners.shall.enjoy.the.rights.recognized. by.international.human.rights.law. 45. While. many. elements. of. the. Strategy. are. beneficial. for. both. juveniles. and. adults,. some. elements. that.may.be.appropriate.for.adults.(e.g.,.allowing.the.police.to.detain.suspects.for.48.hours.without. a.court.order).are.not.compatible.with.the.rights.of.juveniles. 46.The.proposed.introduction.of.trial.by. jury.for.persons.accused.of.serious.offences.is.another.example.of.a.reform.that.is.inappropriate.for. the. trial. of. juveniles. 47. The. section. of. the. Strategy. on. crime. prevention. makes. no. special. reference. to.juveniles..The.action.plan.even.called.for.the.establishment.of.a.correctional.facility.for.offenders. aged. 12−14. years,. although. both. UNICEF. and. the. Committee. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. opposed. bringing.children.under.age.14.into.juvenile.justice.precisely.because.no.such.facility.existed. 48. Failure. to. take. into. account. the. special. needs. of. children. in. the. preparation. of. the. Criminal. Justice. Reform.Strategy.was.a.lost.opportunity..Moreover,.it.led.to.a.situation.where.advocacy.for.the.reforms. 44 . Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Children’s.rights.in.juvenile.justice,.General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.2007,. paras..4−5. 45 . Strategy.for.the.Reform.of.the.Criminal.Legislation.of.Georgia,.Tbilisi,.2005,.p..17. 46 . The.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.has.indicated.that.children.taken.into.custody.must.be.presented.within.24. hours.to.a.court.or.other.authority.having.competence.to.determine.the.legality.of.the.deprivation.of.liberty..See.General. Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.para..83. 47 . The.participation.of.a.jury.–.lay.persons.whose.role.is.to.represent.the.community.−.does.not.seem.in.harmony.with.the. principle.that.proceedings.concerning.accused.juveniles.should.be.confidential.(Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,. Article.40(2)(b)(vii);.United.Nations.Standard.Minimum.Rules.for.the.Administration.of.Juvenile.Justice.(the.Beijing.Rules),. Rule.8;.and.General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.paras..64−66),.nor.with.the.principle.that.courts.that.try.juvenile. offenders.should.be.specialized.(General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.paras..40.and.93)..Trial.by.jury.is.rare.in. juvenile.courts,.in.jurisdictions.where.jury.trials.are.recognized.as.a.right.of.the.defendant.in.ordinary.criminal.cases..One. article.about.juvenile.justice.in.the.United.States.indicated.that.only.16.states.(out.of.50).allow.jury.trials.for.juveniles,.and. the.actual.use.of.juries.is.not.common.(see.Ainsworth,.Janet.E.,.‘Re-imagining.Childhood.and.Reconstructing.the.Legal. Order:.The.Case.for.Abolishing.the.Juvenile.Court’,.in.S..Randall.Humm,.et.al.,.eds.,.Child, Parent, and State,.University.of. Pennsylvania.Press,.1994).. 48 . In.2010,.the.legislation.was.amended.to.return.the.minimum.age.for.prosecution.to.14.years. 20
  22. 22. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE needed. to. make. the. justice. system. compatible. with. the. rights. of. juveniles. required. introducing. modifications.into.the.larger.reform.process.. A. Juvenile. Justice. Working. Group. was. established. to. prepare. a. national. strategy. and. action. plan.. The. Strategy. was. adopted. in. May. 2009.. It. is. comprehensive,. addresses. the. need. for. prevention,. diversion,. reduction. of. pretrial. detention,. more. ‘child-friendly’. hearings,. greater. use. of. alternative. sentences. (including. community. service. and. restorative. justice),. improved. conditions. in. detention. and. correctional. facilities,. reform. of. the. early. release. system,. programmes. to. assist. offenders. continue.their.education.or.find.employment.and.the.further.training.of.juvenile.justice.professionals.. The.Strategy.responds.positively.to.many.of.the.recommendations.of.the.Committee.on.the.Rights.of. the.Child.as.well.as.to.recommendations.made.by.the.situation.analysis.and.this.report..In.particular,. it. calls. for. the. minimum. age. for. prosecution. as. a. juvenile. to. be. raised. to. 14. years.. It. is. based. on. a. frank. assessment. of. recent. data. on. offending. and. sentencing,. while. also. recognizing. the. need. to. collect.data.on.additional.indicators.and.to.improve.the.reliability.of.data.. In. Moldova,. no. national. policy. on. juvenile. justice. has. been. adopted.. A. national. Strategy. for. Strengthening.the.Judicial.System.was.approved.by.the.Parliament.in.2007,.as.part.of.the.government’s. commitments.to.the.European.Union. 49.“Streamlining.the.system.of.justice.for.minors”.is.one.of.the. nine. components. of. the. Strategy. 50. Four. specific. objectives/activities. are. identified:. evaluate. the. needs.in.terms.of.staff.and.infrastructure;.reform.the.law.to.increase.due.process.and.simplify.legal. proceedings;.improve.the.specialization.of.judges.and.train.staff;.and.establish.the.infrastructure.for.a. well.functioning.juvenile.justice.system. 51.This.section.calls.for.improvement.in.cases.in.which.children. are.victims.or.in.which.they.are.accused..Some.aims.mentioned.in.other.sections.of.the.Strategy,.in. particular.reducing.the.delay.in.trials,.would.also.be.very.beneficial.for.juvenile.defendants.. These.aims.are.good,.although.their.real.value.depends.on.the.kind.of.measures.adopted.to.achieve. them,. which. are. not. identified.. The. explicit. call. for. the. creation. of. specialized. economic. courts. throughout.the.country.in.another.section,.for.example,.contrasts.with.the.vagueness.of.references. to.specialization.and.to.the.establishment.of.a.juvenile.justice.system.. The. National. Development. Strategy. for. the. years. 2008–2011. calls. for. the. strengthening. of. juvenile. justice,.in.particular.by.“Improving.the.legislative.framework.in.the.area.of.minors’.rights.protection. by.developing.proposals.for.uniform.regulation.aimed.at.streamlining.proceedings.and.increasing.the. procedural.guaranties.granted.to.minors.[and].Creating.the.infrastructure.for.the.proper.functioning. of.juvenile.justice.by.a.specialization.of.judges.and.other.categories.of.staff.within.the.judicial.system. and. by. creating. a. documentation. and. information. centre. accessible. to. professionals. in. the. area. of. juvenile.justice.”52.These.goals.are.vague,.but.very.relevant.. The. Strategy. also. recommends. that. the. police. prevent. offending. through. “special. measures. and. programmes. for. minors. and. their. families. living. in. an. environment. with. an. increased. risk. of. delinquency...”53. Recognition. that. more. needs. to. be. done. to. prevent. offending. is. positive,. but. the. failure.to.recognize.that.a.much.more.comprehensive,.evidence-based.approach.is.necessary.confirms. the.importance.of.improved.advocacy.on.prevention.. 49 . Judiciary.System.Strengthening.Strategy,.adopted.by.the.Parliament.of.Moldova.in.Decision.No..174-XVI.of.19.July.2007. 50 . Ibid.,.Annex,.section.7. 51 . Ibid.,.section.7(d). 52 . National.Development.Strategy.for.the.years.2008–2011,.adopted.by.Law.No..295-XVI.of.21.December.2007,.section. 1.2.3(iv). 53 . Ibid.,.section.1.1.3(vi). 21
  23. 23. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES In.Armenia,.there.is.no.national.strategy.on.juvenile.justice.per se..The.National.Plan.for.the.Protection. of.the.Rights.of.the.Child.2004–2015.does.call.for.the.“establish[ment].of.a.juvenile.justice.system.”54. Part.VII,.on.‘Violation.of.law.and.justice’.calls,.inter alia,.for.greater.use.of.alternative.sentences,.the. reduction. in. the. number. of. juveniles. in. the. correctional. system. and. better. cooperation. among. the. responsible. ministries. and. between. the. statistical. and. correctional. services. 55. Some. of. these. aims. have.been.achieved.. The.National.Programme.for.the.Prevention.of.Crime.2008–2012.also.includes.activities.specifically. designed. to. prevent. offending. by. juveniles.. There. are. still,. however,. a. number. of. policy. questions. that.need.to.be.resolved.–.ideally.in.the.context.of.a.coherent.and.comprehensive.strategy.on.juvenile. offending.and.juvenile.justice.. In. Ukraine,. a. presidential. decree. calling. for. the. creation. of. a. juvenile. justice. system. was. issued. in. 2008. 56.Thus.far,.however,.the.plan.called.for.by.the.decree.has.not.yet.been.finalized.and.adopted.. In.Azerbaijan,.there.is.no.document.containing.a.national.policy.on.juvenile.justice.. 2. Law reform The. need. for. legislation. and. other. legal. standards. specifically. concerning. juvenile. offenders. is. recognized.by.the.Beijing.Rules,.“Efforts.shall.be.made.to.establish,.in.each.national.jurisdiction,.a. set.of.laws,.rules.and.provisions.specifically.applicable.to.juvenile.offenders…”57.This.provision.was. incorporated.into.Article.40(3).of.the.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.which.provides,.“States. Parties. shall. seek. to. promote. the. establishment. of. laws,. procedures,. authorities. and. institutions. specifically.applicable.to.children.alleged.as,.accused.of,.or.recognized.as.having.infringed.the.penal. law…”. The. Committee. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. has. recognized. the. importance. of. law. reform. in. establishing.juvenile.justice.systems,.and.has.recommended.that.international.standards.on.juvenile. justice,.in.particular.the.United.Nations.Rules.for.the.Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty,. be.“incorporate[d].….into….national.law.and.regulations.”58 None. of. the. five. countries. have. a. framework. law. on. juvenile. justice.. The. legal. framework. for. juvenile. justice. must. be. constructed. from. the. relevant. provisions. of. the. criminal. code,. the. code. of. criminal. procedure,. legislation. on. prisons. and. other. sentences,. such. as. probation,. legislation. on. administration.offences.and.legislation.on.child.protection.. In. all. of. these. countries,. new. criminal. codes. and. codes. of. criminal. procedure. have. been. adopted. during.the.last.two.decades..In.Armenia.and.Georgia,.new.codes.on.the.execution.of.sentences.also. have. been. adopted.. Other. new. legislation. that. affects. juvenile. justice. adopted. during. this. period. includes.the.Law.on.Probation.and.the.Law.on.Mediation.approved.in.Moldova.. Some. of. this. legislation. led. to. significant. improvements. in. juvenile. justice.. The. Criminal. Code. adopted.by.Moldova.in.2002,.for.example,.provides.that.prison.sentences.are.no.longer.mandatory. for. convicted. juveniles. who. are. not. first. offenders,. and. the. new. Code. of. Criminal. Procedure. limits. 54 . National.Plan.for.the.Protection.of.the.Rights.of.the.Child.2004–2015,.UNICEF,.Yerevan,.2005,.p..5. 55 . Ibid.,.pp..16.and.17. 56 . Presidential.Decree.No..411/2008.of.5.May.2008.on.Measures.to.Ensure.Protection.of.Rights.and.Legal.Interests.of.Children.. Para..8(2).mandated.the.Ministry.of.Justice.to.“during.the.first.half.of.2008.develop.a.draft.of.the.National.Programme.of. Juvenile.Justice.Development.” 57 . United.Nations.Standard.Minimum.Rules.for.the.Administration.of.Juvenile.Justice.(the.Beijing.Rules),.Rule.2.3. 58 . General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.paras..88,.90.and.91. 22
  24. 24. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE pretrial.detention.to.juveniles.accused.of.a.serious.offence.and.reduces.from.six.to.four.months.the. length. of. time. a. juvenile. may. be. detained. before. trial.. However,. other. provisions. of. the. new. codes. made. the. juvenile. justice. system. harsher.. The. new. Moldovan. Criminal. Code,. for. example,. greatly. expanded.the.number.of.offences.for.which.juveniles.aged.14.or.15.years.could.be.prosecuted,.from. 39.exceptionally.serious.crimes.to.over.100.serious.crimes..It.also.increased.from.10.to.15.years.the. maximum.sentence.for.many.offences.and.restricted.to.certain.offences.the.discretion.of.the.court.to. suspend.sentences. 59 It. is. not. easy. to. develop. a. juvenile. justice. system. fully. compatible. with. international. standards. through. legislation. drafted. primarily. with. adult. offenders. in. mind.. In. particular,. it. is. difficult. to. identify. all. the. provisions. that. should. be. adapted. or. qualified,. in. order. to. ensure. their. compliance. with.the.rights.of.children.. The. experience. of. these. countries. provides. examples.. Criminal. codes,. for. example,. often. contain. provisions.to.the.effect.that.the.commission.of.an.offence.jointly.with.other.persons,.or.victimizing. a.child,.are.aggravating.factors.that.must.be.taken.into.account.in.sentencing..Committing.offences. under.the.influence.of.peers.or.adults.should.be.a.mitigating.factor.for.adolescents.as.they.lack.adults’. capacity.to.resist.such.pressures..Similarly,.when.adolescents.commit.offences.in.which.the.victims. are.also.adolescents,.the.legal.consequences.should.not.be.the.same.as.when.adults.victimize.a.child.. Insofar. as. criminal. procedures. are. concerned,. the. limits. to. the. duration. of. various. stages. of. legal. proceedings.are.the.same.for.adults.and.juveniles,.regardless.of.whether.the.suspect/accused.is.at. liberty.or.in.detention..Even.if.the.law.recognizes.the.general.principle.that.the.detention.of.juveniles. shall. be. exceptional. and. for. the. shortest. appropriate. period. of. time,. practitioners. (especially. judges. and. prosecutors). generally. pay. more. attention. to. concrete. rules. than. general. principles.. Since. deprivation. of. liberty. has. a. greater. impact. on. juveniles. than. adults,. most. juveniles. are. not. autonomous. members. of. society. but. reside. with. their. families,. and. most. offences. committed. by. juveniles.are.not.difficult.to.investigate,.there.should.be.separate.rules.on.the.duration.of.proceedings. concerning.juveniles,.especially.when.they.are.deprived.of.liberty.. A.final.example,.concerning.juveniles.serving.sentences:.most.legislation.allows.solitary.confinement. as.a.disciplinary.measure,.albeit.for.a.shorter.period.than.for.adults..The.United.Nations.Rules.for.the. Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty.classifies.solitary.confinement.of.juveniles.as.cruel,. inhuman.or.degrading.treatment,.and.the.European.Rules.for.juvenile.offenders.subject.to.sanctions. or.measures.also.bans.solitary.confinement.of.juvenile.prisoners.60 All. of. these. issues. could,. of. course,. be. resolved. by. amending. the. criminal. code,. code. of. criminal. procedure. or. legislation.on. prisons..The.point.is. that. they.illustrate.how. difficult.it.is. to. bring. such. codes.completely.into.compliance.with.the.rights.of.children..Experts.in.juvenile.justice.and.juvenile. corrections.generally.have.a.minor.role.in.the.drafting.of.such.laws..And.once.a.new.criminal.code. or.code.of.criminal.procedure.has.been.drafted,.or.adopted,.so.much.is.at.stake.that.resistance.may. be.considerable.to.making.the.amendments.needed.to.ensure.conformity.with.the.rights.of.children.. Furthermore,.when.the.only.legal.standards.concerning.juvenile.justice.are.contained.in.codes.having. broader.aims.and.application,.it.is.more.difficult.to.develop.a.coherent.legal.framework.covering.all. aspects.of.juvenile.justice,.from.prevention.to.rehabilitation.. 59 . Juvenile Justice in the Republic of Moldova – Evaluation Report 2002–2003,.supra,.p..18,.comparing.Article.43.of.the.old. Code.with.Article.90.of.the.new.Code.enacted.in.2003,.which.restricted.this.option.to.intentional.offences.punishable.by. sentences.of.five.years.and.non-intentional.offences.by.sentences.of.up.to.seven.years.. 60 . United.Nations.Rules.for.the.Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty.(Havana.Rules),.Rule.67;.European.Rules.for. juvenile.offenders.subject.to.sanctions.or.measures,.Rule.95.3. 23

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