OPY
            NCEC
        ADVA
THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE
       SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN
   NEIGHBOURHOOD ...
This report is based on an analysis of assessments commissioned
by the UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS in Armenia, Azer...
THE DEVELOPMENT
  OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS
      IN EASTERN EUROPEAN
NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES


      REFORM ACHI...
REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES
                                                                                       ...
THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS
    IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES




    Foreword
    Fo...
REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES
                                                        IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA...
THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS
    IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES




    The. effective....
REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES
                                                          IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORG...
THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS
    IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES




    Human rights an...
REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES
                                              IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA ...
THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS
     IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES




     10. years. in...
REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES
                                               IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA...
THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS
     IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES




     Box: Key UNIC...
REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES
                                                          IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORG...
THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS
     IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES




     humane.juveni...
REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES
                                                          IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORG...
THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS
     IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES




     Context
     ...
REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES
                                                         IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGI...
THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS
     IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES




     In. Armenia,....
REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES
                                                       IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA,...
THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS
     IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES




     PART I. Found...
REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES
                                                       IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA,...
THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS
     IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES




     In.Armenia,.t...
REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES
                                                         IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGI...
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries
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Reform achievements and challenges in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine - UNICEF Regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe/Commonwealth of Independent States (June 2010)

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The development of juvenile justice systems in Eastern European neighbourhood policy countries

  1. 1. OPY NCEC ADVA THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKRAINE
  2. 2. This report is based on an analysis of assessments commissioned by the UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine in 2008 and 2009. It was drafted by Mr. Daniel O’Donnell, independent consultant, in collaboration with and under the supervision of Séverine Jacomy-Vité, Child Protection Specialist and Jean-Claude Legrand, Child Protection Regional Advisor, UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS. Mr. O’Donnell, an American-Irish national, is a lawyer with 30 years experience in human rights. He studied law at the State University of New York at Buffalo and was admitted to the Bar of New York in 1980. Mr. O’Donnell began his career in 1978 as a prisoners’ rights specialist with a Federal Court in the United States. After this, he worked for several non-governmental organizations, including the International Commission of Jurists, the Inter-American Institute for Human Rights and Defence for Children International. Since 1992 he has worked as a consultant for NGOs and several United Nations organizations, on assignments covering investigation, research and writing, training and programme design and evaluation. Mr. O’Donnell has been collaborating with UNICEF in the drafting of numerous studies and evaluations in the field of juvenile justice over the last three years. © The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), June 2010 Front cover photos: UNICEF Armenia/2006/Onnik Krikorian UNICEF/Geo-2010/Amruvelashvili UNICEF Moldova/2010/Paul Hodorogea UNICEF Albania/2008/Robert Few
  3. 3. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKRAINE UNICEF Regional Office for Central and Eastern Europe/Commonwealth of Independent States June 2010
  4. 4. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE CONTENTS FOREWORD ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................4 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................5 Box: Key UNICEF strategies............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 12 INTRODUCTION: WHY THESE ASSESSMENTS? ......................................................................................................................................................... 13 SCOPE AND METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 15 CONTEXT .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 16 PART I. FOUNDATIONAL ISSUES: POLICY, LAW REFORM, TRAINING, COORDINATION, DATA AND RESEARCH............................................................................................................................................. 20 1..Juvenile.justice.policy ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 20 2..Law.reform ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 22 3..Intersectoral.coordination ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 24 4..Training.and.capacity-building ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 25 5..Data.management.and.research ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 27 PART II. DEMOCRACY AND RULE OF LAW .......................................................................................................................................................................... 31 1..The.impact.of.ombudspersons.and.other.accountability.mechanisms ........................................................................ 31 2..The.soft.but.essential.role.of.civil.society ........................................................................................................................................................... 32 3..The.gradual.specialization.of.judges.and.courts ......................................................................................................................................... 35 4..The.success.of.legal.aid ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 36 5..The.remaining.challenge.of.secondary.prevention.................................................................................................................................. 37 PART III. HUMAN RIGHTS AND FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS .................................................................................................................... 39 1..Child.rights.legislation .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 39 2..Grave.concerns.about.interrogation.and.detention ................................................................................................................................ 40 3..Good.and.bad.news.about.correctional.facilities ....................................................................................................................................... 47 PART IV. CORE JUVENILE JUSTICE APPROACHES: PARAMETERS OF JUVENILE JUSTICE, DIVERSION, SENTENCES AND RETURN TO THE COMMUNITY ............................................................................................................. 52 1..The.parameters.of.juvenile.justice ................................................................................................................................................................................. 52 2..Diversion ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 53 3..Alternative.sentences ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 54 4..Duration.of.custodial.sentences ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 59 5..Conditional.early.release.(parole) ................................................................................................................................................................................... 61 PART V. THREE LEGACIES OF THE SOVIET ERA .......................................................................................................................................................... 63 1..Juvenile.police ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 63 2..‘Reception.and.distribution.centres’ ............................................................................................................................................................................ 65 3..‘Special.schools’ ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 66 CONCLUSIONS .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 69 ANNEX 1. Schematic overview of the juvenile justice systems in the five countries .............................................. 72 ANNEX 2. Trends in different forms of detention ..................................................................................................................................................... 76 ANNEX 3. UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS publications on juvenile justice .......................................................... 77 ANNEX 4. CD Rom containing the individual country assessments 3
  5. 5. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Foreword Foreword.to.come 4
  6. 6. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE Executive Summary The.historic.social,.political.and.economic.transformations.that.coincided.in.Eastern.Europe.and.the. Soviet.Union.with.the.adoption.of.the.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.in.1989.led.to.reforms.of. legislation,.law.enforcement,.the.administration.of.justice.and.corrections.on.an.unprecedented.scale.. This.created.unique.opportunities.to.advance.the.human.rights.and.child.rights.agenda..During.the. 1990s,.juvenile.justice.was.not.a.priority.for.countries.in.the.region,.but.most.are.now.engaged.in.the. process.of.developing.juvenile.justice.systems.compatible.with.international.standards..Experiences. with. de-institutionalization. and. growing. expertise. in. child. rights. have. enabled. UNICEF. to. make. a. special.contribution.to.these.reforms,.with.the.support.of.European.and.other.international.actors.. The. present. overview. summarizes. the. results. of. assessments. carried. out. in. Armenia,. Azerbaijan,. Georgia,.Moldova.and.Ukraine.in.2008–2009.in.order.to.inform.future.strategies.and.decision-making. at.country.level,.and.share.experiences.with.European.and.international.agencies,.which.cooperate. in.supporting.the.development.of.juvenile.justice.. Foundational issues The.basic.parameters.of.juvenile.justice.in.these.countries.meet.the.relevant.international.standards:. children.under.age.14.may.not.be.prosecuted.and.children.under.age.18.may.only.be.prosecuted.as. juveniles,.not.as.adults..Children.aged.14–15.years.may.only.be.charged.for.more.serious.offences.. However,. children. aged. 11–14. years. who. lack. ‘criminal. responsibility’. but. are. alleged. to. have. been. involved.in.criminal.conduct.may.still.be.sent.to.closed.educational.institutions.. Only. Georgia. has. a. specific. strategy. for. the. development. of. juvenile. justice,. adopted. in. 2009.. In. Ukraine,. a. presidential. decree. calling. for. the. creation. of. a. juvenile. justice. system. was. issued. in. 2008,. but. the. action. plan. it. called. for. has. not. been. prepared.1. In. Armenia,. the. National. Plan. of. Action. for. the. Protection. of. the. Rights. of. the. Child. only. calls. for. the. creation. of. a. juvenile. justice. system,.and.the.National.Programme.for.the.Prevention.of.Crime.contains.few.provisions.concerning. children..In.Moldova,.‘streamlining.the.system.of.justice.for.minors’.is.an.element.of.the.Strategy.for. Strengthening.the.Judicial.System.approved.in.2007,.as.part.of.the.government’s.commitments.to.the. European. Union. 2. Azerbaijan. has. no. national. plan. or. strategy. so. far.. Broader. strategies. containing. some.elements.of.juvenile.justice.have.had.a.positive.though.limited.impact,.but.in.some.cases.they. have.slowed.or.interfered.with.the.development.of.juvenile.justice. 3. None.of.the.five.countries.covered.by.this.report.have.a.framework.law.on.juvenile.justice:.the.legal. framework. for. juvenile. justice. must. still. be. construed. from. provisions. of. the. Criminal. Code,. the. Code.of.Criminal.Procedure.and.legislation.on.prisons,.probation,.administration.offences.and.child. protection..Most.of.this.legislation.has.been.extensively.rewritten.during.the.last.two.decades,.and. is.now.more.compatible.with.human.rights.and.child.rights..Experts.in.juvenile.justice.usually.have. a.minor.role.in.the.drafting.of.such.laws,.and.invariably.some.provisions.applicable.to.both.children. and.adults.do.not.adequately.protect.the.rights.of.children.. 1 . Presidential.Decree.No..411/2008.of.5.May.2008.on.Measures.to.Ensure.Protection.of.Rights.and.Legal.Interests.of.Children.. Paragraph.8(2).mandated.the.Ministry.of.Justice.to.“during.the.first.half.of.2008.develop.a.draft.of.the.National.Programme. of.Juvenile.Justice.Development.” 2 . Judiciary.System.Strengthening.Strategy,.adopted.by.the.Parliament.of.Moldova.in.Decision.No..174-XVI.of.19.July.2007. 3 . In.Georgia,.for.example,.a.Criminal.Justice.Reform.Strategy.prepared.with.the.support.of.the.European.Union.and.adopted. in.2005.contained.only.one.brief.mention.of.juveniles,.indicating.that.juvenile.prisoners.shall.enjoy.the.rights.recognized. by.international.human.rights.law..The.action.plan.adopted.the.following.year.included.one.objective.that.was.opposed.by. UNICEF.and.the.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child..The.failure.to.take.the.special.needs.of.children.into.account.in.the. Criminal.Justice.Reform.Strategy.was.not.only.a.lost.opportunity,.but.led.to.a.situation.where.advocacy.for.the.rights.of. juveniles.required.introducing.modifications.into.the.larger.reform.process. 5
  7. 7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES The. effective. functioning. of. a. juvenile. justice. system. requires. coordination. of. the. activities. of. many. agencies. and. institutions,. including. the. police,. prosecutors,. the. courts,. probation. services,. the. correctional. system,. and. others.. Cooperation. between. some. of. them. may. be. spontaneous,. but. good.cooperation.across.the.entire.system.cannot.be.ensured.without.a.coordination.mechanism..All. five.countries.have.established.bodies.of.this.kind,.but.the.effectiveness.of.most.of.them.has.been. limited.. Effectiveness. would. require. an. increased. sense. of. ownership. amongst. the. participating. national. agencies. and. institutions,. and. enhanced. political. commitment. to. juvenile. justice. and. the. role.of.the.body.in.question. In. all. of. these. countries,. a. considerable. amount. of. training. was. provided. to. justice. professionals. potentially.dealing.with.children,.initially.mostly.through.ad hoc.in-service.training..Progress.is.now. being.made.in.the.incorporation.of.training.in.child.rights.and.juvenile.justice.into.the.curricula.of.the. institutions.that.train.all.judges,.prosecutors,.police.and.correctional.officers..This.process.is.more. advanced.in.some.countries.than.others..The.impact.of.training.is.rarely.evaluated.objectively.. To. be. effective,. policies,. legislation. and. plans. regarding. juvenile. offending. and. juvenile. justice. must. be.based.on.relevant.and.accurate.information..A.decade.ago,.data.collection.and.analysis.were.very. poor.. Some. progress. has. been. achieved,. but. much. more. is. needed.. In. Armenia,. various. agencies. compile. relevant. data,. but. none. of. these. data. are. published. on. a. regular. basis.. In. Georgia,. only. the. Supreme. Court. regularly. publishes. data,. which. are. limited. to. convicted. offenders,. and. data. released. by.the.relevant.ministries.on.an.ad hoc.basis.are.very.contradictory..In.Moldova,.two.ministries.and.the. courts.publish.statistics,.but.plans.to.establish.a.centralized.database.failed.due.to.reluctance.to.share. data..In.Ukraine,.the.State.Statistics.Committee.publishes.every.three.years.a.report.on.juvenile.justice. containing.data.provided.by.the.courts,.the.prosecutor.and.relevant.ministries.4..The.best.set.of.regularly. released.data.is.that.contained.in.Crimes and Offence in Azerbaijan, published.by.the.State.Statistical. Committee.since.2004..Still,.in.all.of.these.countries,.there.are.important.gaps.in.the.data.available..The. development. of. additional. indicators,. tools. and. integrated. systems. for. data. collection. and. analysis. is. urgently.needed.to.inform.decisions.and.measure.the.impact.of.new.policies,.laws.and.programmes.. In. Armenia,. Azerbaijan. and. Ukraine,. field. studies. based. in. part. on. the. views. and. experiences. of. children. in. contact. with. the. juvenile. justice. system. have. been. carried. out. in. recent. years.. The. information.they.contain,.about.positive.and.negative.experiences,.is.essential.for.the.development. of. juvenile. justice. systems.. These. studies. clearly. represent. a. ‘best. practice’. that. needs. to. be. consolidated.and.further.developed.and.expanded.. Democracy and rule of law Many. safeguards. have. been. introduced. to. protect. the. rights. of. juvenile. suspects. in. police. custody. and.accused.juveniles.in.pretrial.detention..They.have.helped.reduce.abuse,.but.have.not.eradicated. it.. Progress. has. been. greater. in. detention. and. correctional. facilities.. Abuse. by. the. police. has. been. more. difficult. to. deter.. One. reason. is. that,. in. three. of. the. five. countries,. police. may. hold. suspects. without. a. court. order. for. more. than. 24. hours.. Good. practices. include. legislation. (in. Armenia,. Georgia,. Moldova). requiring. the. presence. of. a. defence. attorney. during. interrogation,. as. well. as. the. inadmissibility. of. confession. as. proof. during. trial.. However,. implementation. of. new. legislation. remains.a.challenge.and.such.safeguards,.even.if.put.into.practice,.do.not.suffice.to.eliminate.abuse. if.there.is.tolerance.and.impunity. Human.rights.ombudspersons.exist.in.all.five.countries..In.Azerbaijan,.Georgia,.Moldova.and.Ukraine. they.reportedly.visit.correctional.and.detention.facilities.regularly,.and.their.activities.have.helped.reduce. violence.against.juvenile.suspects,.detainees.and.prisoners..In.Armenia,.two.independent.community- based. bodies,. having. a. statutory. mandate. to. monitor. the. treatment. of. persons. deprived. of. liberty,. 4 . A.semi-annual.report.on.the.economy.also.includes.a.section.on.crime. 6
  8. 8. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE have.been.particularly.effective.in.documenting.abuse.of.prisoners,.including.juveniles.5..However,.the. effectiveness.of.such.bodies.depends.on.the.strong.follow-up.action.by.prosecutors.and.the.heads.of. the.law.enforcement.bodies.on.cases.referred.to.them.and,.ultimately,.on.a.strong.political.commitment. at.the.highest.level.to.ensure.accountability..This.appears.to.be.still.lacking.in.most.countries. Civil. society. organizations. play. an. important. role. in. juvenile. justice. in. all. five. countries,. especially. in. documenting. the. need. for. change,. delivering. training. and. providing. services. to. juveniles. in. correctional.facilities. 6..Best.practices.include:.studies.on.juvenile.justice.and.development.of.police. curriculum.by.the.NGO.Alliance.for.Children’s.Rights.in.Azerbaijan;.policy.development.support.by. the.Institute.for.Penal.Reform.in.Moldova;.research.by.the.Centre.of.Social.Expertise.and.development. of. mediation. by. the. NGO. Centre. for. Common. Ground. in. Ukraine;. activities. carried. out. in. juvenile. correctional. facilities. by. the. NGOs. Empathy. in. Georgia. and. Trtu. in. Armenia;. the. transformation. by. the.Fund.for.Armenian.Relief.of.the.short-term,.multipurpose.residential.facility.for.children.formerly. operated. by. the. police,. and. the. Community. Justice. Centres. set. up. by. Project. Harmony. Armenia. to. provide. assistance. to. offenders. and. children. at. risk.. In. Armenia,. Azerbaijan,. Georgia. and. Ukraine,. NGOs.organize.or.participate.in.activities.within.juvenile.correctional.facilities,.which.also.give.them. an.opportunity.to.informally.monitor.conditions.and.treatment.. None.of.the.five.countries.have.specialized.juvenile.courts,.but.most.have.either.judges.designated. specifically.to.handle.cases.involving.accused.juveniles.(Moldova,.Ukraine).or.require.judges.hearing. such. cases. to. have. special. training. (Georgia).. In. Armenia,. one. judge. from. each. court. was. trained,. although. there. is. no. requirement. that. each. court. has. a. specially. trained. or. designed. judge. for. juveniles..Some.judges.also.have.participated.in.training.activities.in.juvenile.justice.in.Azerbaijan,.but. there.are.no.judges.especially.designated.to.handle.juvenile.cases..This.is.a.step.in.the.right.direction,. although.in.each.of.the.five.countries.the.juvenile.caseload.is.large.enough.to.warrant.the.creation.of. at.least.one.specialized.court.where.the.incidence.of.serious.and.repeat.offending.is.highest. None.of.these.countries.had.legal.aid.programmes.for.juvenile.offenders.until.recently..In.the.past,.the. right.to.legal.assistance.of.defendants.unable.to.pay.for.the.services.of.defence.counsel.was.met.by. assigned.attorneys,.usually.poorly.remunerated,.who.provided.poor.quality.representation..This.has. begun.to.change..Publicly.funded.legal.aid.programmes.have.been.established.in.Armenia,.Georgia. and. Moldova.. Each. provides. free. legal. services. to. juvenile. suspects. and. accused. juveniles. and,. in. Moldova,.the.service.has.recently.hired.lawyers.specialized.in.juvenile.justice..In.Azerbaijan,.a.small. Children’s.Rights.Legal.Clinic.and,.in.Ukraine,.two.large.legal.aid.programmes.have.been.established. on.a.pilot.basis..The.creation.of.such.programmes.has.led.to.a.marked.improvement.in.the.quality.of. services.provided.to.juveniles,.and.needs.to.be.consolidated..The.fact.that.the.governments.of.three. countries.have.decided.to.fund.such.programmes.on.the.national.level.is.an.essential.step.forward. What. was. and. still. is. largely. missing. are. community-based,. non-residential. programmes. for. children. and. adolescents. at. higher. risk. of. offending,. which. would. offer. individual. assessments. and. comprehensive. multidisciplinary. activities,. including. psychosocial. support,. remedial. education,. life. skills. training,. and. individual. and. family. counselling.. A. few. pilot. services. of. this. kind. have. been. established,.but.to.date.most.of.them.operate.as.diversion.or.alternative.sentences.for.adolescents.who. have.already.begun.to.get.involved.in.minor.offending..The.Community.Justice.Centres.in.Armenia.are. a.positive.exception.as.they.have.the.purposes.and.functions.of.both.prevention.and.diversion.. 5 . The.functions.and.powers.of.the.Group.of.Public.Observers.Conducting.Public.Monitoring.of.Penitentiary.Institutions.and. Bodies.of.the.Ministry.of.Justice.of.the.Republic.of.Armenia.and.the.Group.of.Public.Observers.at.the.Detention.Facilities.of. the.Police.System.are.recognized.by.law..Their.mandate.includes.physical.abuse.of.individuals.and.conditions.of.detention.. Both.prepare.annual.reports,.‘current’.reports.and,.when.an.urgent.case.arises,.‘ad hoc ’.reports. 6 . NGOs.generally.do.not.play.a.similar.role.in.pretrial.detention.facilities.in.these.countries,.which.is.unfortunate,.in. particular.when.detention.is.for.an.extended.period. 7
  9. 9. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Human rights and fundamental freedoms The.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.forms.part.of.the.national.legal.order.in.all.five.countries,. and.Armenia,.Azerbaijan.and.Moldova.have.adopted.laws.on.the.rights.of.children..These.laws.contain. provisions.concerning.juvenile.justice,.thus.helping.to.make.public.opinion,.and.children.themselves,. aware.of.the.essential.rights.and.principles.that.must.be.respected.with.regard.to.children.at.risk.and. juvenile.offenders. Some. important. measures. have. been. taken. in. order. to. prevent. and. deter. torture. and. ill-treatment.. It.appears.that.juveniles.are.no.longer.subject.to.physical.abuse.in.the.prison.and.pretrial.detention. centres. operated. by. the. ministry. of. justice.. However,. information. from. various. sources. indicates. that.physical.abuse.and.even.torture.are.still.inflicted.on.suspects,.including.juveniles,.by.the.police. before.the.suspects.are.placed.in.investigative.custody.facilities. In. general,. physical. conditions. of. detention. or. imprisonment,. even. when. somewhat. substandard,. are.not.so.bad.as.to.be.considered.cruel,.inhuman.or.degrading.treatment..However,.the.legislation. and.regulations.of.all.five.countries.allow.solitary.confinement.to.be.used.as.a.disciplinary.measure. for.juveniles,.which.the.United.Nations.Rules.for.the.Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty. classifies.as.cruel,.inhuman.and.degrading.7 Important. challenges. also. persist. regarding. detention. before. and. during. legal. proceedings.. Despite. the. measures. taken. in. some. countries,. such. as. barring. the. detention. of. juveniles. accused. of. minor. offences.or.limiting.the.validity.of.detention.orders.to.a.few.months,.the.number.of.accused.juveniles.in. detention.remains.relatively.high,.and.prolonged.detention.remains.a.problem..In.Georgia,.for.example,. one. third. of. all. juveniles. prosecuted. are. detained. before. trial. and,. in. Moldova,. at. the. time. of. the. UNICEF.assessment.mission.the.number.of.detained.juveniles.was.twice.the.number.of.those.serving. sentences,.although.the.use.of.detention.on.remand.has.decreased..The.six-month.limit.between.the. filing.of.charges.and.the.final.decision,.recommended.by.the.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.is. not.rigorously.applied.in.any.of.these.countries..Efforts.have.been.made.to.improve.access.to.education. during. detention. but,. in. most. of. these. countries,. if. not. all,. conditions. in. juvenile. detention. facilities. are.harsher.than.in.juvenile.correctional.facilities..Prolonged.confinement.in.cells.and.lack.of.physical. exercise. are. common. problems.. For. instance,. in. the. main. detention. centre. in. Chisinau. juveniles. are. detained.in.conditions.that.are.unsanitary.and.inhuman,.and.injuries.resulting.from.fights.are.a.regular. occurrence..The.lack.of.full.separation.from.adults.is.another.concern..In.Azerbaijan.and.Ukraine,.for. example,.adult.detainees.are.sometimes.placed.in.the.juvenile.section.to.help.maintain.discipline.. At. the. same. time,. some. of. the. main. achievements. of. the. last. decade. are. significant. decreases. in. the.percentage.of.convicted.juveniles.receiving.custodial.sentences.and.in.the.number.of.juveniles. serving. sentences. in. correctional. facilities.. The. number. of. juvenile. prisoners. has. fallen. by. 50. per. cent.to.80.per.cent.in.all.five.countries.except.Georgia,.where.a.‘zero.tolerance’.policy.towards.crime. announced.in.2005.led.to.an.increase.. Policies,. programmes. and. material. conditions. in. juvenile. correctional. facilities. have. improved.. Prisoners.have.better.access.to.education,.cultural.activities.and.religious.services..Staff.has.received. training. in. child. rights,. and. psychologists. and. social. workers. are. being. added. to. staff.. Corporal. punishment. as. a. disciplinary. measure. is. no. longer. legal.. Acceptance. of. the. presence. of. NGOs. has. increased.transparency.and.enriched.the.range.and.quality.of.activities.available.. Still,. insofar. as. correctional. facilities. are. concerned,. one. of. the. main. challenges. is. the. absence. of. coherent,. clearly. defined. policies. and. programmes. for. the. rehabilitation. of. juvenile. offenders. and. 7 . United.Nations.Rules.for.the.Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty.(Havana.Rules),.Rule.67..(Rule.95.3. of.the.European.Rules.for.juvenile.offenders.subject.to.sanctions.or.measures.also.bans.the.use.of.solitary.confinement.. of.juvenile.prisoners.) 8
  10. 10. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE the.prevention.of.re-offending..The.considerable.international.assistance.that.has.been.provided.has. focused.on.improving.infrastructure.and.ensuring.humane.treatment,.but.not.on.how.such.facilities. should.approach.their.essential.function..Psychological.evaluations.are.rudimentary.or.non-existent,. individual.plans.are.not.prepared.and,.except.for.the.length.of.their.sentence,.thieves,.sex.offenders. and. murderers. receive. the. same. treatment.. Furthermore,. with. the. exception. of. one. programme. in. Ukraine,.post-release.support.is.non-existent.. The.number.of.girls.in.detention.and.correctional.facilities.is.small.and,.as.a.result,.they.are.kept.in. facilities.for.adult.women..Although.they.may.be.housed.separately.from.adults,.there.is.inevitably. contact. in. common. areas.. This. is. not. necessarily. a. violation. of. international. norms,. if. contact. is. managed.so.as.to.be.in.the.best.interests.of.the.girls.concerned.–.but.it.may.also.lead.to.abuse.and. should. be. carefully. monitored.. In. addition,. girls. who. are. detained. or. serving. custodial. sentences. often. have. less. access. to. programmes. than. boys,. especially. educational. programmes.. Cost. and. administrative. considerations,. no. matter. how. legitimate,. do. not. excuse. such. discrimination,. and. ways.must.be.found.to.ensure.equal.access.to.all.programmes.. Core juvenile justice approaches In.all.of.the.countries.covered.by.this.report,.prosecutors.have.discretion.not.to.prosecute.juveniles. in. specific. circumstances,. even. when. there. is. sufficient. evidence. to. prosecute.. Traditionally,. the. diversionary. measures. most. often. used. were. warning. or. supervision. by. parents. or. the. juvenile. police.. Most. countries. still. do. not. have. community-based,. non-residential. programmes. to. assist. juveniles.diverted.from.the.juvenile.justice.system..Efforts.to.develop.such.programmes.have.begun. in.Armenia,.Azerbaijan.and.Moldova.. Conditional. sentences. and. sentences. of. ‘supervision’. have. long. been. used,. and. used. extensively.. Until.recently,.however,.little.assistance.was.provided..In.Georgia.and.Moldova,.probation.services. have. been. established. in. order. to. provide. more. support. to. convicted. prisoners. given. non- custodial.sentences,.including.juveniles;.in.Ukraine,.a.special.unit.of.the.State.Department.of.Penal. Implementation.has.similar.functions..These.are.promising.developments,.but.one.big.challenge.is. to.reduce.caseloads.to.the.point.where.staff.has.sufficient.time.to.provide.real.assistance.to.children.. In.all.five.countries,.restitution.and.reparation.of.the.victim.are.recognized.as.a.ground.for.absolving. an. accused. of. responsibility. for. an. offence,. or. as. an. alternative. sentence.. With. the. exception. of. Moldova,. such. dispositions. are. only. available. when. the. offence. is. not. a. serious. one. and/or. the. offender. has. no. prior. record.. In. most. countries,. services. to. facilitate. victim-offender. mediation. do. not.exist.or.are.not.yet.recognized,.and.such.dispositions.are.rare.. Similarly,. in. all. five. countries. courts. have. discretion. to. impose. ‘educational’. measures. on. juvenile. offenders,. rather. than. sentences.. Such. measures. may. be. non-custodial,. or. may. involve. placement. in.a.closed.educational.facility.that.is.not.part.of.the.correctional.system,.or.in.closed.rehabilitation. facilities. for. persons. with. substance. abuse. or. psychosocial. disabilities.. The. main. challenge. is. that,. in. some. countries,. the. programmes. and. facilities. envisaged. by. the. legislation. –. other. than. closed. schools.and.supervision.–.simply.do.not.exist.. It. is. not. easy. to. evaluate. the. compatibility. of. law. and. practice. regarding. custodial. sentences. with. international. standards. because. such. standards. are. vague.. The. law. concerning. the. sentencing. of. juveniles. is. complex. in. these. countries.. The. main. emphasis. is. on. the. age. of. the. offender. and. the. nature. of. the. offence,. but. the. law. also. provides. that. the. prior. record. of. the. offender,. the. circumstances. of. the. offence. and. the. apparent. need. for. rehabilitation. must. be. taken. into. account.. The. maximum. sentence. that. can. be. imposed. on. a. juvenile. offender. convicted. of. serious. crimes. is. . 9
  11. 11. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES 10. years. in. Armenia,. Azerbaijan. and. Ukraine,. 12. years. and. 6. months. in. Moldova. and. 15. years. in. Georgia..Where.data.are.available,.they.indicate.that.few.offenders.receive.the.maximum.sentence.. The. fact. that. the. population. of. juvenile. correctional. facilities. is. declining. reinforces. the. impression. that. law. and. practice. in. these. five. countries. are. within. the. parameters. of. what. is. considered. acceptable. by. European. countries.. Whether. further. progress. is. needed. would. require. clarification. of. how. the. `shortest. appropriate. period. of. time’. principle 8. should. be. interpreted. and. applied. as. well.as.a.more.detailed.analysis.of.the.sentences.imposed.and.served.and.the.factors.that.influence. sentencing.in.practice.. Three legacies of the Soviet era Finally,. the. compatibility. of. three. institutions. characteristic. of. the. Soviet. era. –. juvenile. police,. ‘reception. and. distribution. centres’. and. ’special. schools’. –. with. juvenile. justice. principles. is. considered..All.three.have.survived.in.the.countries.covered.by.this.report,.but.their.usefulness.and. compatibility.with.the.rights.of.children.are.controversial.. In. the. five. countries,. the. role. of. juvenile. police. is. limited. to. prevention,. and. does. not. include. the. investigation.of.offences.committed.by.juveniles..Consequently,.the.existence.of.specialized.police. departments. has. no. direct. impact. on. the. treatment. of. juvenile. suspects.. Juvenile. police. can. make. a. useful. contribution. to. prevention. but. should. not. be. expected. to. assume. primary. responsibility. for. it,. and. the. resources. allocated. to. them. should. not. come. at. the. expense. of. other. community-. and.school-based.programmes..Furthermore,.the.attention.given.to.new.child-friendly.practices.and. the. treatment. of. child. victims. (e.g.,. ‘green. rooms’). should. not. distract. attention. from. the. need. to. eradicate.abuses.committed.by.unspecialized.officers.against.juvenile.suspects.and.street.children. ‘Reception. and. distribution. centres’. are. multipurpose. residential. facilities. operated. by. the. juvenile. police..They.provide.secure.(i.e.,.generally.closed).shelter.for.limited.periods.of.time.for.a.wide.range. of.children.–.illegal.migrants,.repatriated.children,.children.who.have.escaped.from.residential.schools,. street. children,. children. who. have. committed. an. offence. but. are. too. young. to. be. prosecuted,. and. children.removed.from.their.homes.for.protection.before.a.decision.is.taken.by.guardianship.bodies. or.courts.on.longer.term.measures..Conditions.in.some.such.facilities.are.very.good.–.the.‘Children’s. Support.Centre’.operated.by.the.Fund.for.Armenian.Relief.pursuant.to.an.agreement.with.the.police.is. a.good.example.in.this.respect..However,.these.facilities.are.governed.mainly.by.regulations.that.give. the.police.very.broad.discretion.as.to.the.reasons.for.and.duration.of.placement..There.is,.no.doubt,.a. need.for.child-friendly.emergency.shelters.in.the.kind.of.situations.mentioned.above,.but.it.is.important. that.they.be.governed.by.clear.legal.standards.and.procedures,.and.that.the.services.provided.remain. temporary.by.nature,.while.more.sustainable.solutions.are.being.sought.for.such.children. ‘Special.schools’.are.residential.schools.for.children.involved.in.offending.or.‘anti-social’.behaviour,. operated. by. the. ministry. of. education,. not. the. prison. department.. The. assessment. covered. them. for. three. reasons:. they. are. part. of. state. efforts. to. assist. children. at. risk;. some. of. the. students. are. children.who.became.involved.in.offending.(especially.theft).while.too.young.to.be.prosecuted,.and. placement.in.them.is.a.recognized.(though.seldom.used).alternative.sentence.for.juvenile.offenders.. Traditionally,. special. schools. violated. the. rights. of. children. because. of. the. criteria. and. procedures. that. governed. placement,. because. separation. of. children. from. their. families. generally. became. permanent,.because.children.were.not.treated.as.individuals.and,.sometimes,.because.of.substandard. material.conditions.and.repressive.policies.. 8 . Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Article.37(b).. 10
  12. 12. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE In.some.of.the.five.countries,.changes.in.the.legislation,.greater.awareness.of.child.rights.and.other. factors. have. greatly. reduced. the. population. of. such. schools.. Impressive. reforms. have. taken. place. in. a. few. of. them:. the. Samtredia. special. school. in. Georgia. and. School. No.. 1. in. Armenia. are. two. good. examples.. Yet,. alternative. community-based. programmes. should. be. developed. as. a. priority. even. though. the. need. for. residential. services. may. not. be. completely. eliminated.. The. environment. of.some.children.is.such.that.separation.from.parents.may.be.necessary.in.order.to.provide.the.help. required.. Placement. in. a. facility. that. embraces. the. goal. of. returning. the. child. to. his/her. family. as. soon.as.possible.and.works.towards.that.aim.with.the.family.and.the.child.using.the.most.effective. methods.known.can.be.an.effective.option..It.is.essential,.however,.to.ensure.that.the.aims,.criteria. and.procedures.for.placement.are.compatible.with.children's.rights.. Conclusions Significant. progress. has. been. made,. but. it. has. been. more. rapid. in. some. areas. than. others.. One. of. the.most.remarkable.advances.has.been.the.improvement.of.conditions.in.correctional.facilities.for. convicted.juveniles.and.the.reduction.in.the.number.of.juvenile.prisoners. In.other.areas,.despite.noteworthy.progress,.gaps.and.difficulties.remain..Legal.aid.programmes.are. one.example..Probation.services.and.diversion.programmes.are.another..Training.in.child.rights.and. juvenile.justice.is.being.mainstreamed,.but.its.impact.is.seldom.evaluated.and.specific.requirements. as. to. knowledge. or. skills. are. rare.. Important. progress. has. been. made. in. law. reform,. but. further. reforms.are.necessary.to.prohibit.solitary.confinement,.restrict.the.duration.of.police.custody.to.24. hours.or.less.and.limit.pretrial.detention.to.six.months.. Greater.efforts.are.urgently.needed.in.some.areas,.such.as.the.development.of.secondary.prevention;. reduced.use.of.pretrial.detention.and.better.respect.for.the.rights.of.juveniles.detained.on.remand,. including. separation. from. adults;. the. development. of. effective. community-based. programmes. to. assist. offenders. diverted. from. prosecution. or. given. alternative. sentences;. the. development. of. evidence-based. programmes. for. the. prevention. of. re-offending. in. correctional. settings;. and. the. development.of.effective.post-release.programmes.. Another.key.challenge.concerns.the.establishment.of.adequate.systems.for.the.collection.and.analysis. of. data. on. offending. and. on. the. functioning. and. impact. of. juvenile. justice. institutions. in. order. to. ensure.‘evidence-based’.programmes.and.policies..Other.challenges.include.how.to.best.ensure.the. right.of.accused.juveniles.to.‘child-friendly’.proceedings.and.clarify.the.role.and.functions.of.juvenile. police.units,.special.schools.and.multipurpose.short-term.shelters.for.children. Ensuring. accountability. for. abuse. is. an. urgent. problem.. Monitoring. by. ombudspersons,. legislation. requiring.the.presence.of.lawyers.during.interrogation,.mandatory.medical.examinations.of.detainees. and. training. in. the. rights. of. children. have. all. helped,. but. have. not. been. sufficient. to. overcome. impunity..In.the.final.analysis,.the.solution.lies.in.creating.political.will.at.the.highest.level.to.respect. the.rights.of.all.children.. Lessons.that.can.be.drawn.from.the.experiences.documented.in.this.report.include.the.importance. of.intersectoral.coordination.bodies,.the.value.of.comprehensive.juvenile.justice.strategies.and.the. significant.contribution.civil.society.can.make.to.the.development.of.all.aspects.of.juvenile.justice.. There.are,.fortunately,.good.practices.that.should.be.consolidated.and,.where.necessary,.extended.–. as.well.as.promising.practices.that,.after.further.monitoring.and.evaluation.of.their.impact,.may.well. prove.worthy.of.consolidation.and.expansion. 11
  13. 13. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Box: Key UNICEF strategies Armenia • Mainstreaming juvenile justice concerns:. Advocacy. by. UNICEF. helped. ensure. inclusion. of. objectives.concerning.juvenile.justice.in.the.National.Planof.Action.for.the.Protection.of.the.Rights. of.the.Child.covering.the.years.2004–2015. • Keeping juvenile justice on UNICEF’s agenda:. Support. to. the. development. of. juvenile. justice,. consisting.largely.of.training,.was.mainstreamed.into.UNICEF’s.Child.Protection.Programme. Azerbaijan • Kick-starting the reform:. Despite. limited. funds. and. the. absence. of. a. pre-defined. strategy. for. juvenile.justice.reform,.UNICEF.made.a.key.contribution.to.the.process.of.creating.a.juvenile.justice. system.through.a.situation.analysis.(2006),.advocacy,.training.and.some.well-chosen.pilot.projects. • Closely cooperating with national NGOs:.Reliance.mainly.on.the.NGO.Alliance.for.Children’s.Rights. was. a. good. strategic. decision,. which. has. helped. ensure. that. UNICEF’s. aims. and. strategies. are. appropriate,.while.also.building.capacity.and.encouraging.government-civil.society.cooperation. Georgia • Building upon a solid base-line: A. situation. analysis. financed. by. UNICEF. led. to. a. three-year. €. 750,000. project. funded. by. the. Dutch. Government. focusing. on. policy. development,. law. reform,. training. and. pilot. projects. on. diversion. and. alternative. sentencing,. followed. by. a. two-year. . €. 1.27. million. programme. funded. by. the. European. Commission. focusing. on. the. development. of. correctional.and.probation.services.for.juvenile.offenders.. • Intersectoral mobilization and dialogue:.The.negative.consequences.of.a.governmental.policy.of. ‘zero.tolerance’.towards.crime.adopted.as.the.projects.began.have.been.overcome.through.close. cooperation.with.the.reconstituted.Criminal.Justice.Reform.Inter-Agency.Coordination.Council.. Moldova • Self-correction and extended partnerships:.The.unrealistic.goals.of.a.first.UNICEF.juvenile.justice. project. were. timely. modified. when. new. legislation. came. into. force. and. national. NGOs. played. a. large.role.in.implementing.this.project,.which.strengthened.the.capacity.and.role.of.civil.society.in. the.field.of.juvenile.justice.. • Consulting, consulting, consulting:. A. situation. analysis. prepared. as. part. of. the. first. project. served. to. define. the. aims. of. a. second. project. (2008–2011).. An. intersectoral. Consultative. Council. on. Juvenile. Justice. has. been. established,. and. a. Presidential. decree. calls. for. the. preparation. of. a. National. Programme. of. Juvenile. Justice. Development.. Research. on. the. experiences. of. juvenile. offenders.has.been.conducted.and.will.help.guide.implementation.of.this.project.. Ukraine • Building upon the recommendations of the Committee on the Rights of the Child:. The. situation. analysis. prepared. by. UNICEF. and. related. advocacy. designed. to. reinforce. the. comments. of. the. Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.put.the.issue.of.juvenile.justice.on.the.national.agenda.. • Persevering:.In.a.difficult.political.environment,.UNICEF’s.persistence.and.flexibility.has.maintained. momentum.even.though.delete.several.important.goals.have.not.been.achieved.. • Cooperation with other human rights agencies:.UNICEF.cooperated.effectively.with.the.Office.of. the.United.Nations.High.Commissioner.for.Human.Rights. 12
  14. 14. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE Introduction: Why these Assessments? When. the. Convention. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. was. adopted,. two. decades. ago,. few. if. any. countries.had.juvenile.justice.systems.that.were.fully.compatible.with.the.relevant.provisions.of.the. Convention.. When. States. parties. to. the. Convention. began. to. present. their. implementation. reports. to. the. Committee. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child,. the. Committee. invariably. made. recommendations. concerning. the. need. to. transform. laws,. policies. and. practices. regarding. the. treatment. of. juvenile. offenders,.regardless.of.whether.the.country.was.rich.or.poor,.democratic.or.totalitarian,.from.Africa,. Asia,.Europe.or.the.Americas.. UNICEF. first. began. supporting. juvenile. justice. reform. in. Latin. America. during. the. 1990s.. In. the. CEE/CIS. region,. it. started. supporting. the. development. of. juvenile. justice. systems. at. the. beginning. of. the. new. millennium.. Involvement. in. juvenile. justice. in. this. region. grew. out. of. work. on. de- institutionalization. initiated. during. the. 1990s.. It. also. reflected. support. to. the. participation. of. civil. society.in.the.process.of.monitoring.the.implementation.of.the.Convention..During.a.period.of.severe. economic. crisis. and. social. insecurity,. child. rights. organizations. were. concerned. by. the. repressive. and.often.inhuman.treatment.of.street.children.and.adolescents.involved.in.petty.crime.. The.historic.social,.political.and.economic.transformations.that.coincided.in.Eastern.Europe.and.the. Soviet.Union.with.the.adoption.of.the.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.in.1989.led.to.reforms.of. legislation,.law.enforcement,.and.the.administration.of.justice.and.corrections.on.an.unprecedented. scale.. This. created. unique. opportunities. to. advance. the. human. rights. and. child. rights. agenda.. During. the. 1990s,. juvenile. justice. was. not. a. priority. for. most. countries. in. the. region,. but. most. are. now. engaged. in. the. process. of. developing. juvenile. justice. systems. compatible. with. international. standards..The.recommendations.of.the.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.have.been.instrumental. in.putting.juvenile.justice.on.the.agenda.. UNICEF.began.supporting.activities.related.to.juvenile.justice.in.1998.in.Armenia,.in.2001.in.Georgia. and. Moldova,. in. 2003. in. Ukraine. and. in. 2005. in. Azerbaijan.. Experience. with. de-institutionalization. during. the. 1990s. and. growing. expertise. in. child. rights. have. enabled. UNICEF. to. make. a. special. contribution.to.these.reforms,.with.the.support.of.European.and.other.international.actors.. Among.the.twenty-two.countries.under.the.mandate.of.the.UNICEF.CEE/CIS.Regional.Office,.fifteen. are.members.of.the.Council.of.Europe, 9.two.are.members.of.the.European.Union,10.three.are.European. Union.candidate.countries,11.four.are.European.Union.acceding.countries12.and.six.participate.in.the. European. Neighbourhood. Policy. (ENP).13. Throughout. most. of. the. region,. European. standards. are. as.relevant.as.United.Nations.standards,.and.United.Nations.and.European.actors.are.working.side. by.side.to.support.the.development.of.legal.and.social.institutions.and.policies.that.respect.human. rights.. One.of.UNICEF’s.strengths.is.its.commitment.to.evaluating.the.impact.of.its.interventions..In.2007,.the. UNICEF.CEE/CIS.Regional.Office.decided.to.review.the.experience.of.four.country.activities.in.order. to. identify. lessons. that. could. be. learned. from. their. efforts. to. support. the. development. of. fair. and. 9 . Albania,.Armenia,.Azerbaijan,.Bosnia.and.Herzegovina,.Bulgaria,.Croatia,.Georgia,.Moldova,.Montenegro,.Romania,.the. Russian.Federation,.Serbia,.The.former.Yugoslav.Republic.of.Macedonia,.Turkey.and.Ukraine.. 10 . Bulgaria.and.Romania. 11 . Croatia,.The.former.Yugoslav.Republic.of.Macedonia.and.Turkey. 12 . Albania,.Bosnia.and.Herzegovina,.Montenegro.and.Serbia. 13 . Armenia,.Azerbaijan,.Belarus,.Georgia,.Moldova.and.Ukraine. 13
  15. 15. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES humane.juvenile.justice.systems.14.In.2008,.the.attempt.to.document.the.changes.operated.in.juvenile. justice,. identify. good. practices. and. draw. lessons. continued. with. assessments. of. juvenile. justice. reforms.in.Albania,.Azerbaijan,.Kazakhstan,.Turkey.and.Ukraine..In.2009,.assessments.were.carried. out.in.four.additional.countries.–.Armenia,.Georgia,.Kosovo.and.Moldova..Further.assessments.are. planned.for.2010.15 The. present. overview. summarizes. the. results. of. the. assessments. carried. out. in. five. of. the. six. European.Neighbourhood.Policy.countries:.Azerbaijan.and.Ukraine.(2008).and.Armenia,.Georgia.and. Moldova.(2009)..It.has.two.main.purposes.. The. first. is. to. facilitate. the. sharing. of. information. and. experiences. between. the. UNICEF. country. offices.involved.in.this.area.and.their.partners.in.government.and.civil.society;.to.provide.information. likely. to. help. them. adopt. more. effective. strategies. and. make. more. informed. decisions. about. difficult.policy.questions.arising.in.the.process.of.creating.new.juvenile.justice.systems;.to.identify. successful.experiences.that.can.serve.as.models;.and.to.locate.resources.–.legislation,.programmes,. individual. experts,. training. materials. and. curricula,. and. so. on. –. to. be. used. regionally. as. well. as. locally.. Two. regional. meetings. have. taken. place. and. are. contributing. to. the. creation. of. a. ‘critical. mass’.of.countries.committed.to.the.development.of.juvenile.justice.systems.that.are.both.efficient. and.respectful.of.the.rights.of.children.16. The. second. is. to. share. our. experiences. with. European. and. other. international. agencies,. which. cooperate. in. supporting. the. development. of. juvenile. justice,. or. support. activities. closely. related. to. juvenile. justice,. in. areas. such. as. the. administration. of. justice,. law. enforcement. and. corrections.. While.inter-agency.cooperation.and.coordination.have.not.been.a.focus.of.these.assessments,.they. clearly.demonstrate.the.value.of.good.cooperation.and.coordination.as.well.as.the.risks.of.inadequate. coordination..In.addition,.the.five.countries.covered.by.this.report.have.strong.commonalities.both. in. terms. of. justice. systems. and. policy. priorities.. It. is. important. to. give. juvenile. justice. adequate. attention. and. visibility. in. these. contexts. when. important. budget. support. from. European. partners. aims.at.strengthening.the.rule.of.law.and.democracy..We.need.to.ensure.that.juvenile.offenders.and. children.at.risk.also.benefit.from.broader.reform.agendas.. 14 . See.Thematic Evaluation of UNICEF’s Contribution to Juvenile Justice System Reform in four countries: Montenegro, Romania, Serbia and Tajikistan,.Development.Researchers’.Network.and.UNICEF.CEE/CIS.Regional.Office,.Geneva,.2007. 15 . They.will.include.Bosnia.and.Herzegovina,.The.former.Yugoslav.Republic.of.Macedonia.and.two.Central.Asian.countries.. 16 . The.first.meeting.took.place.in.Geneva.in.July.2008,.and.the.second.in.Istanbul.in.June.2009.. 14
  16. 16. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE Scope and Methodology The.scope.and.methodology.used.for.these.assessments.were.prepared.in.2008.by.an.international. consultant. working. in. close. collaboration. with. concerned. field. UNICEF. child. protection. officers.. In. each.country,.the.international.consultant.and.a.local.consultant.formed.the.assessment.team..The. local.consultant.in.principle.participated.fully.in.all.aspects.of.the.mission,.advised.the.international. consultant.on.national.law.and.other.relevant.matters,.and.participated.in.the.revision.and.finalization. of.the.country.report.17. The. exercise. covered. three. main. areas:. the. process. of. juvenile. justice. reform,. the. juvenile. justice. system,.and.UNICEF’s.support.to.juvenile.justice.reform..A.fourth.area.–.data collection and analysis –. was.added.at.a.later.stage.to.assess.whether.the.national.authorities.have.the.data.needed.to.develop. policies.and.monitor.the.functioning.of.the.various.components.of.juvenile.justice.systems.and,.if.so,. to. what. extent. the. data. are. used. appropriately.. This. allowed. checking. the. relevance. and. utility. of. existing.regional.and.international.indicators.18 Recognizing. the. importance. of. the. experience. and. opinions. of. children. whose. lives. have. been. marked,. for. better. or. worse,. by. contacts. with. juvenile. justice. authorities,. UNICEF. also. decided. to. support.surveys.of.the.experience.of.such.children.in.the.countries.covered.by.the.assessments.. During. each. of. the. two-week. country. missions,. the. assessment. team. interviewed. representatives. of. all. ministries,. agencies. and. institutions. concerned. with. juvenile. justice. –. typically. the. ministries. of.justice.and.internal.affairs,.the.national.police,.the.prison.department,.the.probation.department. or.equivalent,.the.judiciary,.the.office.of.the.prosecutor,.in.some.cases.the.child.welfare.department. or. a. representative. of. the. ministry. of. education,. and. a. representative. of. the. national. juvenile. justice. coordination. council. or. committee,. where. one. exists.. Parliamentarians,. ombudspersons,. representatives.of.institutions.responsible.for.the.training.of.police,.judges.and.prosecutors.as.well. as.national.statistical.agencies.were.interviewed,.whenever.possible.. Representatives.of.national.and.international.non-governmental.organizations.interested.in.juvenile. justice.were.interviewed,.as.were.UNICEF.staff.and.representatives.of.other.United.Nations,.European. or.bilateral.agencies.and.organizations.active.in.areas.such.as.child.rights.and.support.to.law.reform,. administration. of. justice,. prison. reform. and. similar. areas.. Visits. were. made. to. courts,. pretrial. detention.facilities,.juvenile.correctional.facilities,.women’s.prisons.(where.convicted.adolescent.girls. serve. their. sentences),. reform. schools. for. offenders. too. young. to. be. prosecuted. as. juveniles,. and. projects.offering.prevention.services,.diversion,.mediation.or.placement.for.alternative.sentences..A. list.of.persons.interviewed.and.documents.consulted.is.appended.to.each.assessment.. 17 . The.local.consultants.were.Lilit.Petrosyan,.Armenia;.Dr..Nabil.Seyidov,.Azerbaijan;.Teona.Kuchara,.Georgia;.and.Prof.. Vasile.Rotary,.Moldova..(In.Ukraine.the.local.consultant.did.not.participate.fully.in.the.mission.or.drafting.of.the.report.due. to.other.commitments;.in.Georgia.the.local.consultant.was.unable.to.participate.in.part.of.the.mission.for.health.reasons. and.in.Moldova.Prof..Rotaru.was.replaced.by.Prof..V..Zaharia.for.part.of.the.assessment.mission.) 18 . Regional and International Indicators on Juvenile Justice: Their applicability and relevance in selected countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia,.UNICEF.Regional.Office.for.CEE/CIS,.Geneva,.2009. 15
  17. 17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES Context Armenia,.Azerbaijan,.Georgia,.Moldova.and.Ukraine.became.independent.of.the.former.Union.of.Soviet. Socialist.Republics.in.1991..They.are.all.Member.States.of.the.United.Nations,.the.Council.of.Europe,. and.the.Organization.for.Security.and.Co-operation.in.Europe.(OSCE),.and.they.are.all.included.in.the. European. Union’s. European. Neighbourhood. Policy. (ENP).. They. are. all. parties. to. both. the. European. Convention. for. the. Protection. of. Human. Rights. and. Fundamental. Freedoms. and. the. European. Convention.for.the.Prevention.of.Torture.and.Inhuman.or.Degrading.Treatment.or.Punishment.19 They.vary.greatly.in.size.and.economic.and.demographic.indicators.. GNI per capita Population Total Countries (purchasing aged 0–18 Territory 23 population 21 power parity)20 years 22 Armenia US$.6,310 3.08.million 26.per.cent 29,800.km2 Azerbaijan US$.7,770 8.68.million 31.per.cent 86,600.km2 Georgia US$.4,850 4.36.million 22.per.cent 69,700.km2 Moldova US$.3,210 .6.36.million 13.per.cent 33,800.km2 Ukraine US$.7,210 46.26.million 18.per.cent 603,600.km2 The.years.following.independence.were.marked.by.a.sharp.decline.in.social.and.economic.indicators. in. all. of. these. countries.. Even. if. their. economies. have. grown. stronger. during. the. last. decade,. a. significant. part. of. their. populations. remain. in. poverty.. The. population. of. Georgia,. Moldova. and. Ukraine.is.decreasing, 24.and.in.all.five.countries.emigration.is.relatively.high. 25 19 . Armenia.and.Azerbaijan.ratified.both.treaties.in.2002;.Georgia.ratified.the.former.in.1999.and.the.latter.in.2000;.Moldova. ratified.the.former.in.1997.and.the.latter.in.1998;.and.Ukraine.ratified.both.in.1997..See.http://www.conventions.coe.int/ Treaty/Commun/ChercheSig.asp?NT=126&CM = 8&DF=18/03/2010&CL= ENG.accessed.31.May.2010. 20 . World.Bank.Data.Profile,.2008. 21 . Ibid. 22 . United.Nations.Children’s.Fund,.The State of the World’s Children 2009,.UNICEF,.New.York,.2009,.Table.6.(calculation.based. on.total.population.as.per.World.Bank.Data.Profile,.supra). 23 . World.Bank.Data.Profile,.2008. 24 . From.2000.to.2006,.according.to.World.Bank.estimates,.the.population.of.Georgia.has.fallen.by.370,000;.the.population.of. Moldova.has.fallen.by.360,000;.and.that.of.Ukraine.has.fallen.by.3.9.million.. 25 . The.average.emigration.rate.for.the.CEE/CIS.region.is.9.5.per.cent.(United.Nations.Development.Programme,.Human Development Report 2009,.Country.fact.sheets,.UNDP,.2009.).See.http://www.hdr.undp.org/en/countries /alphabetical/,. accessed.31.May.2010. 16
  18. 18. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE Population below national Countries GDP 2000 26 GDP 2008 27 Emigration 29 poverty line 2000–2006 28 Armenia US$.1.91.billion US$.11.96.billion 50.9.per.cent 20.3.per.cent Azerbaijan US$.5.27.billion US$.46.26.billion 49.6.per.cent 14.3.per.cent Georgia US$.3.06.billion US$.12.79.billion 54.5.per.cent 18.3.per.cent Moldova US$.1.29.billion US$.6.05.billion n/a 14.3.per.cent Ukraine US$.31.26.billion US$.180.35.billion 19.5.per.cent 10.9.per.cent Most. of. the. five. countries. were. also. marked. by. political. turmoil. and. armed. conflict.. Conflict. over. Nagorno. Karabakh. broke. out. in. 1991. and. ended. in. 1994. with. the. signing. of. a. peace. agreement. by. Armenia. and. Azerbaijan.. When. Georgia. became. independent,. separatist. conflicts. broke. out. in. Abkhazia.(North-West.Georgia).and.in.South.Ossetia..Ceasefire.agreements.came.into.effect.in.1994. and.1992,.respectively,.but.in.August.2008.Russian.forces.entered.Abkhazia.and.South.Ossetia,.and. the.Russian.Federation.recognized.them.as.independent.States..In.Moldova,.separatist.movements. broke.in.the.Transnistria.region.(Eastern.Moldova).and.in.Gagauzia.(Southern.Moldova)..A.ceasefire. was.negotiated.in.Transnistria.in.1992,.and.the.region.remains.under.the.control.of.an.unrecognized. government..In.1994,.Gagauzia.was.recognized.as.a.semi-autonomous.region.. In. Georgia,. protests. following. national. elections. in. 2003. led. to. the. resignation. of. the. President,. marking. a. transformation. of. national. politics. known. as. the. ‘Rose. Revolution’.. In. Ukraine,. protests. known.as.the.‘Orange.Revolution’.resulted.in.new.presidential.elections.in.2004.and.opened.a.period. of. broad. political,. social,. economic. and. legal. reforms.. In. 2007,. however,. differences. between. the. President.and.the.Prime.Minister.led.to.a.prolonged.political.crisis.in.which.the.adoption.of.legislative. and.other.reforms.was.very.difficult.. In. Armenia,. the. resignation. of. the. President. in. 1998. and. assassination. of. the. Prime. Minister. the. following. year. led. to. several. years. of. political. instability.. Demonstrations. culminating. in. several. deaths. marked. the. most. recent. national. elections,. in. 2008. 30. In. Moldova,. discontent. with. the. 2009.electoral.results.led.to.protests.that.ended.in.the.partial.destruction.of.the.Parliament.and.office. of.the.President.. Offending.increased.significantly.in.three.of.the.five.countries.during.the.decade.after.independence,. according.to.available.data,.but.fell.drastically.during.the.following.decade,.or.the.second.half.of.the. new.decade. 31 26 . The.World.Bank,.World.Development.Indicators.database,.Country.Profiles..See.web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/ DATASTATISTICS/0,,contentMDK:20535285~menuPK:1192694~pagePK:64133150~piPK:64133175~theSitePK:239419,00. html,.accessed.31.May.2010. 27 . Ibid. 28 . UNDP.Country.fact.sheets,.supra. 29 . Ibid. 30 . Commission.of.the.European.Communities,.Implementation.of.the.European.Neighbourhood.Policy.in.2008,.Progress. Report.Armenia,.SEC(2009).511/2,.2009,.p..3. 31 . Data.on.offending.by.juveniles.in.these.countries.are.incomplete,.and.the.data.available.must.be.treated.with.caution.. 17
  19. 19. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES In. Armenia,. for. example,. data. on. offending. for. the. first. two. years. after. independence. are. not. available,. but. for. the. rest. of. the. decade. they. show. that. the. number. of. juvenile. offenders. and. the. number. of. offences. committed. by. juveniles. decreased. from. 1993. to. 1995,. peaked. in. 1997,. then. fell. sharply. in. 1998. and. remained. low. for. the. rest. of. the. decade. 32. The. number. of. offences. registered. by. the. General. Investigative. Department. of. the. Police. of. the. Republic. of. Armenia. in. recent. years. . (2004–2008).suggests.that.the.decline.in.offending.has.continued. 33 Moldova. registered. a. 60. per. cent. increase. in. offending. by. juveniles. during. the. decade. following. independence. 34. The. number. of. juveniles. convicted. of. an. offence. appears. to. have. been. relatively. stable.during.the.1990s,.however,.raising.questions.as.to.the.reliability.or.significance.of.the.increase. in. offending. 35. Offending. by. juveniles. peaked. in. 2004,. and. has. subsequently. fallen. to. below. the. number. reported. in. 1992. –. a. decrease. of. 45. per. cent. over. five. years. 36. The. number. of. homicides,. however,. did. not. diminish. and. the. number. of. rapes. rose. dramatically. 37. In. Ukraine,. the. number. of. offences. committed. by. juveniles. increased. considerably. from. 1992. to. 2003,. and. has. fallen. sharply. since.then. 38.In.Azerbaijan,.data.on.offending.by.juveniles.during.the.years.following.independence. are.not.available,.but.the.number.of.offences.committed.by.juveniles.over.the.last.decade.has.been. relatively. low. and. generally. in. decline. 39. Georgia. is. an. exception:. data. show. a. large. increase. in. convictions.between.2005.and.2006,.when.a.‘zero.tolerance’.policy.towards.crime.was.announced..In. 2005,.475.juveniles.were.convicted.and.104.given.custodial.sentences;.in.2006,.1,002.were.convicted. and.340.given.custodial.sentences.–.i.e.,.123.per.cent.increase.in.convictions.and.325.per.cent.increase. in.custodial.sentences.40.Since.then,.the.number.of.convictions.has.grown.slightly. 41.Many.observers. agree.that.the.upsurge.in.convictions.of.juveniles.in.2006.reflects.a.real.crime.wave.and.cannot.be. attributed. entirely. to. stricter. law. enforcement.. The. fourfold. increase. in. convictions. of. juveniles. for. homicides. and. the. 30. per. cent. increase. in. convictions. for. all. crimes. of. violence. between. 2005. and. 2006.confirm.a.real.escalation.in.serious.offending.by.juveniles.at.that.time.42 32 . 436.offences.committed.by.552.juvenile.offenders.in.1993,.and.420.offences.committed.by.444.juveniles.in.1995;.741. offences.committed.by.975.juveniles.in.1997;.589.offences.committed.by.479.juveniles.in.1998..See.Giles,.G.,.Report on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency in Armenia,.UNICEF.Yerevan,.2001.(hereinafter.‘situation.analysis’),.citing.unpublished. Ministry.of.Justice.data. 33 . 175.offences.committed.by.211.offenders.in.2004;.150.offences.committed.by.185.juveniles.in.2005;.161.offences. committed.by.199.juveniles.in.2006;.189.offences.committed.by.261.juveniles.in.2007.and.174.offences.committed.by.223. juveniles.in.2008.(unpublished.data.provided.to.the.UNICEF.assessment.team.by.the.General.Investigative.Department). 34 . From.1,652.cases.in.1992.to.2,684.in.2001,.according.to.data.cited.in.Juvenile Justice in the Republic of Moldova – Evaluation Report 2002–2003,.UNICEF,.2003,.p..10. 35 . Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Consideration.of.reports.submitted.by.States.parties.under.Article.44.of.the. Convention,.Initial.report.of.the.Republic.of.Moldova,.CRC/C/28/Add.19,.2002,.para..391..There.was.a.sharp.increase.in. convictions.in.2000.and.2001.(1,934.and.1,894,.respectively). 36 . 2,753.in.2004.and.1,502.in.2008,.according.to.the.publication.of.the.National.Bureau.of.Statistics,.The situation of children in the Republic of Moldova in 2008,.No..08-06/126,.2009,.Table.7.. 37 . E.g.,.12.homicides.in.2004.and.the.same.number.in.2008;.25.rapes.in.2004.and.115.in.2008..(For.the.most.recent.data,.see. Bulletin of the Supreme Court of Justice, No. 3,.March.2009.) 38 . Number.of.offences.committed.by.juveniles:.11,620.in.1992;.21,800.in.2003,.11,170.in.2007,.in.Amdzhadin,.L.,.and. Honcharuk,.O.,.Social Practices and Legislation in the Area of Juvenile Delinquency,.National.Academy.of.Sciences,. Institute.of.Sociology,.Centre.of.Social.Expertise,.UNICEF,.Kyiv,.2008..There.has.been.some.controversy.as.to.the. implications.of.these.data.during.recent.years.because.the.threshold.for.theft.depends.on.the.value.of.the.item.stolen,. which.is.affected.by.changes.in.economic.indicators.. 39 . From.601.in.1998.to.485.in.2007..The.lowest.number.during.this.decade.was.412,.in.2003..See.State.Statistical.Committee,. Crimes and Offences in Azerbaijan,.Baku,.2008,.Table.4.2.. 40 . Unpublished.Supreme.Court.data.provided.to.UNICEF.Georgia..Fragmentary.data.from.the.1990s.indicate.that.the.annual. number.of.convictions.was.closer.to.300..See.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Consideration.of.reports.submitted.by. States.parties.under.Article.44.of.the.Convention,.Initial.report.of.Georgia,.CRC/C/41/Add.4/Rev.1,.1998,.para..294. 41 . 1,060.convictions.in.2007.and.1,166.in.2008.–.increase.of.1.per.cent.or.less.. 42 . Ibid..(From.5.to.21.and.from.24.to.82,.respectively.) 18
  20. 20. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE European. Neighbourhood. Policy. Action. Plans. were. adopted. for. Moldova. in. 2005. and. for. Armenia,. Azerbaijan. and. Georgia. in. 2006.. With. one. exception,. they. do. not. contain. aims. specifically. related. to. juvenile. justice.. The. European. Union-Armenia. Action. Plan. contains. a. number. of. objectives,. which.in.principle.should.benefit.juvenile.suspects,.offenders.and.prisoners.as.well.as.adults.(e.g.,. strengthening. the. human. rights. ombudsperson. and. legal. aid. programmes). and. some. objectives. specifically.concerning.children,.but.none.specifically.related.to.juvenile.justice..The.European.Union- Moldova.Action.Plan.contains.several.objectives.regarding.social.programmes.for.children,.but.none. related. to. juvenile. justice,. and. only. a. few. (e.g.,. human. rights. training,. development. of. mediation). that.might.be.expected.to.have.significant.indirect.benefits.for.juvenile.suspects.and.offenders..The. European.Union-Azerbaijan.Action.Plan.does.not.contain.any.objectives.specifically.related.to.juvenile. justice.. The. European. Union-Georgia. Action. Plan,. adopted. in. 2006,. called. for. the. development. and. implementation. of. a. strategy. aiming. to. reform. the. criminal. justice. system. but,. as. indicated. below,. this.strategy.had.negative.as.well.as.positive.consequences.for.juvenile.justice..The.European.Union- Ukraine. Action. Plan. on. Justice,. Freedom. and. Security,. adopted. in. 2007,. is. the. only. plan. in. force. in. any. of. these.countries. to.contain.a. specific. commitment.to.“Ensure. full.implementation.of.juvenile. justice.standards.in.line.with.relevant.international.standards.”43. 43 . European.Union-Ukraine.Action.Plan,.section.2.1(10). 19
  21. 21. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES PART I. Foundational Issues: Policy, Law Reform, Training, Coordination, Data and Research Before. presenting. the. findings. of. the. assessments. undertaken. in. the. five. countries. covered. by. the. present.report,.this.chapter.considers.issues.that.influence.the.development.of.juvenile.justice,.such. as. national. policies,. law. reform,. training,. coordination. mechanisms,. the. collection. and. use. of. data. and.research.. 1. Juvenile justice policy The.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.has.stressed.that.the.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child. “requires.States.parties.to.develop.and.implement.a.comprehensive.juvenile.justice.policy.”44. None.of.the.five.countries.covered.by.the.present.report.have.such.a.policy,.at.present,.and.Georgia. is.the.only.one.to.have.a.juvenile.justice.strategy.document.. In.Georgia,.a.Criminal.Justice.Reform.Strategy.prepared.with.the.support.of.the.European.Union.was. adopted.in.2005,.and.an.action.plan.for.implementing.the.Strategy.was.adopted.in.2006..The.Strategy. contained. components. on. the. police. and. crime. prevention,. prosecution,. legal. aid,. the. courts. and. judiciary,.the.Criminal.Code.and.the.Code.of.Criminal.Procedure,.the.prison.system,.probation,.legal. education.and.the.Public.Defender.(autonomous.human.rights.monitor)..Unfortunately,.it.contained. only.one.brief.mention.of.juveniles,.indicating.that.juvenile.prisoners.shall.enjoy.the.rights.recognized. by.international.human.rights.law. 45. While. many. elements. of. the. Strategy. are. beneficial. for. both. juveniles. and. adults,. some. elements. that.may.be.appropriate.for.adults.(e.g.,.allowing.the.police.to.detain.suspects.for.48.hours.without. a.court.order).are.not.compatible.with.the.rights.of.juveniles. 46.The.proposed.introduction.of.trial.by. jury.for.persons.accused.of.serious.offences.is.another.example.of.a.reform.that.is.inappropriate.for. the. trial. of. juveniles. 47. The. section. of. the. Strategy. on. crime. prevention. makes. no. special. reference. to.juveniles..The.action.plan.even.called.for.the.establishment.of.a.correctional.facility.for.offenders. aged. 12−14. years,. although. both. UNICEF. and. the. Committee. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. opposed. bringing.children.under.age.14.into.juvenile.justice.precisely.because.no.such.facility.existed. 48. Failure. to. take. into. account. the. special. needs. of. children. in. the. preparation. of. the. Criminal. Justice. Reform.Strategy.was.a.lost.opportunity..Moreover,.it.led.to.a.situation.where.advocacy.for.the.reforms. 44 . Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.Children’s.rights.in.juvenile.justice,.General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.2007,. paras..4−5. 45 . Strategy.for.the.Reform.of.the.Criminal.Legislation.of.Georgia,.Tbilisi,.2005,.p..17. 46 . The.Committee.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child.has.indicated.that.children.taken.into.custody.must.be.presented.within.24. hours.to.a.court.or.other.authority.having.competence.to.determine.the.legality.of.the.deprivation.of.liberty..See.General. Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.para..83. 47 . The.participation.of.a.jury.–.lay.persons.whose.role.is.to.represent.the.community.−.does.not.seem.in.harmony.with.the. principle.that.proceedings.concerning.accused.juveniles.should.be.confidential.(Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,. Article.40(2)(b)(vii);.United.Nations.Standard.Minimum.Rules.for.the.Administration.of.Juvenile.Justice.(the.Beijing.Rules),. Rule.8;.and.General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.paras..64−66),.nor.with.the.principle.that.courts.that.try.juvenile. offenders.should.be.specialized.(General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.paras..40.and.93)..Trial.by.jury.is.rare.in. juvenile.courts,.in.jurisdictions.where.jury.trials.are.recognized.as.a.right.of.the.defendant.in.ordinary.criminal.cases..One. article.about.juvenile.justice.in.the.United.States.indicated.that.only.16.states.(out.of.50).allow.jury.trials.for.juveniles,.and. the.actual.use.of.juries.is.not.common.(see.Ainsworth,.Janet.E.,.‘Re-imagining.Childhood.and.Reconstructing.the.Legal. Order:.The.Case.for.Abolishing.the.Juvenile.Court’,.in.S..Randall.Humm,.et.al.,.eds.,.Child, Parent, and State,.University.of. Pennsylvania.Press,.1994).. 48 . In.2010,.the.legislation.was.amended.to.return.the.minimum.age.for.prosecution.to.14.years. 20
  22. 22. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE needed. to. make. the. justice. system. compatible. with. the. rights. of. juveniles. required. introducing. modifications.into.the.larger.reform.process.. A. Juvenile. Justice. Working. Group. was. established. to. prepare. a. national. strategy. and. action. plan.. The. Strategy. was. adopted. in. May. 2009.. It. is. comprehensive,. addresses. the. need. for. prevention,. diversion,. reduction. of. pretrial. detention,. more. ‘child-friendly’. hearings,. greater. use. of. alternative. sentences. (including. community. service. and. restorative. justice),. improved. conditions. in. detention. and. correctional. facilities,. reform. of. the. early. release. system,. programmes. to. assist. offenders. continue.their.education.or.find.employment.and.the.further.training.of.juvenile.justice.professionals.. The.Strategy.responds.positively.to.many.of.the.recommendations.of.the.Committee.on.the.Rights.of. the.Child.as.well.as.to.recommendations.made.by.the.situation.analysis.and.this.report..In.particular,. it. calls. for. the. minimum. age. for. prosecution. as. a. juvenile. to. be. raised. to. 14. years.. It. is. based. on. a. frank. assessment. of. recent. data. on. offending. and. sentencing,. while. also. recognizing. the. need. to. collect.data.on.additional.indicators.and.to.improve.the.reliability.of.data.. In. Moldova,. no. national. policy. on. juvenile. justice. has. been. adopted.. A. national. Strategy. for. Strengthening.the.Judicial.System.was.approved.by.the.Parliament.in.2007,.as.part.of.the.government’s. commitments.to.the.European.Union. 49.“Streamlining.the.system.of.justice.for.minors”.is.one.of.the. nine. components. of. the. Strategy. 50. Four. specific. objectives/activities. are. identified:. evaluate. the. needs.in.terms.of.staff.and.infrastructure;.reform.the.law.to.increase.due.process.and.simplify.legal. proceedings;.improve.the.specialization.of.judges.and.train.staff;.and.establish.the.infrastructure.for.a. well.functioning.juvenile.justice.system. 51.This.section.calls.for.improvement.in.cases.in.which.children. are.victims.or.in.which.they.are.accused..Some.aims.mentioned.in.other.sections.of.the.Strategy,.in. particular.reducing.the.delay.in.trials,.would.also.be.very.beneficial.for.juvenile.defendants.. These.aims.are.good,.although.their.real.value.depends.on.the.kind.of.measures.adopted.to.achieve. them,. which. are. not. identified.. The. explicit. call. for. the. creation. of. specialized. economic. courts. throughout.the.country.in.another.section,.for.example,.contrasts.with.the.vagueness.of.references. to.specialization.and.to.the.establishment.of.a.juvenile.justice.system.. The. National. Development. Strategy. for. the. years. 2008–2011. calls. for. the. strengthening. of. juvenile. justice,.in.particular.by.“Improving.the.legislative.framework.in.the.area.of.minors’.rights.protection. by.developing.proposals.for.uniform.regulation.aimed.at.streamlining.proceedings.and.increasing.the. procedural.guaranties.granted.to.minors.[and].Creating.the.infrastructure.for.the.proper.functioning. of.juvenile.justice.by.a.specialization.of.judges.and.other.categories.of.staff.within.the.judicial.system. and. by. creating. a. documentation. and. information. centre. accessible. to. professionals. in. the. area. of. juvenile.justice.”52.These.goals.are.vague,.but.very.relevant.. The. Strategy. also. recommends. that. the. police. prevent. offending. through. “special. measures. and. programmes. for. minors. and. their. families. living. in. an. environment. with. an. increased. risk. of. delinquency...”53. Recognition. that. more. needs. to. be. done. to. prevent. offending. is. positive,. but. the. failure.to.recognize.that.a.much.more.comprehensive,.evidence-based.approach.is.necessary.confirms. the.importance.of.improved.advocacy.on.prevention.. 49 . Judiciary.System.Strengthening.Strategy,.adopted.by.the.Parliament.of.Moldova.in.Decision.No..174-XVI.of.19.July.2007. 50 . Ibid.,.Annex,.section.7. 51 . Ibid.,.section.7(d). 52 . National.Development.Strategy.for.the.years.2008–2011,.adopted.by.Law.No..295-XVI.of.21.December.2007,.section. 1.2.3(iv). 53 . Ibid.,.section.1.1.3(vi). 21
  23. 23. THE DEVELOPMENT OF JUVENILE JUSTICE SYSTEMS IN EASTERN EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY COUNTRIES In.Armenia,.there.is.no.national.strategy.on.juvenile.justice.per se..The.National.Plan.for.the.Protection. of.the.Rights.of.the.Child.2004–2015.does.call.for.the.“establish[ment].of.a.juvenile.justice.system.”54. Part.VII,.on.‘Violation.of.law.and.justice’.calls,.inter alia,.for.greater.use.of.alternative.sentences,.the. reduction. in. the. number. of. juveniles. in. the. correctional. system. and. better. cooperation. among. the. responsible. ministries. and. between. the. statistical. and. correctional. services. 55. Some. of. these. aims. have.been.achieved.. The.National.Programme.for.the.Prevention.of.Crime.2008–2012.also.includes.activities.specifically. designed. to. prevent. offending. by. juveniles.. There. are. still,. however,. a. number. of. policy. questions. that.need.to.be.resolved.–.ideally.in.the.context.of.a.coherent.and.comprehensive.strategy.on.juvenile. offending.and.juvenile.justice.. In. Ukraine,. a. presidential. decree. calling. for. the. creation. of. a. juvenile. justice. system. was. issued. in. 2008. 56.Thus.far,.however,.the.plan.called.for.by.the.decree.has.not.yet.been.finalized.and.adopted.. In.Azerbaijan,.there.is.no.document.containing.a.national.policy.on.juvenile.justice.. 2. Law reform The. need. for. legislation. and. other. legal. standards. specifically. concerning. juvenile. offenders. is. recognized.by.the.Beijing.Rules,.“Efforts.shall.be.made.to.establish,.in.each.national.jurisdiction,.a. set.of.laws,.rules.and.provisions.specifically.applicable.to.juvenile.offenders…”57.This.provision.was. incorporated.into.Article.40(3).of.the.Convention.on.the.Rights.of.the.Child,.which.provides,.“States. Parties. shall. seek. to. promote. the. establishment. of. laws,. procedures,. authorities. and. institutions. specifically.applicable.to.children.alleged.as,.accused.of,.or.recognized.as.having.infringed.the.penal. law…”. The. Committee. on. the. Rights. of. the. Child. has. recognized. the. importance. of. law. reform. in. establishing.juvenile.justice.systems,.and.has.recommended.that.international.standards.on.juvenile. justice,.in.particular.the.United.Nations.Rules.for.the.Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty,. be.“incorporate[d].….into….national.law.and.regulations.”58 None. of. the. five. countries. have. a. framework. law. on. juvenile. justice.. The. legal. framework. for. juvenile. justice. must. be. constructed. from. the. relevant. provisions. of. the. criminal. code,. the. code. of. criminal. procedure,. legislation. on. prisons. and. other. sentences,. such. as. probation,. legislation. on. administration.offences.and.legislation.on.child.protection.. In. all. of. these. countries,. new. criminal. codes. and. codes. of. criminal. procedure. have. been. adopted. during.the.last.two.decades..In.Armenia.and.Georgia,.new.codes.on.the.execution.of.sentences.also. have. been. adopted.. Other. new. legislation. that. affects. juvenile. justice. adopted. during. this. period. includes.the.Law.on.Probation.and.the.Law.on.Mediation.approved.in.Moldova.. Some. of. this. legislation. led. to. significant. improvements. in. juvenile. justice.. The. Criminal. Code. adopted.by.Moldova.in.2002,.for.example,.provides.that.prison.sentences.are.no.longer.mandatory. for. convicted. juveniles. who. are. not. first. offenders,. and. the. new. Code. of. Criminal. Procedure. limits. 54 . National.Plan.for.the.Protection.of.the.Rights.of.the.Child.2004–2015,.UNICEF,.Yerevan,.2005,.p..5. 55 . Ibid.,.pp..16.and.17. 56 . Presidential.Decree.No..411/2008.of.5.May.2008.on.Measures.to.Ensure.Protection.of.Rights.and.Legal.Interests.of.Children.. Para..8(2).mandated.the.Ministry.of.Justice.to.“during.the.first.half.of.2008.develop.a.draft.of.the.National.Programme.of. Juvenile.Justice.Development.” 57 . United.Nations.Standard.Minimum.Rules.for.the.Administration.of.Juvenile.Justice.(the.Beijing.Rules),.Rule.2.3. 58 . General.Comment.No..10,.CRC/C/GC/10,.supra,.paras..88,.90.and.91. 22
  24. 24. REFORM ACHIEVEMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN ARMENIA, AZERBAIJAN, GEORGIA, MOLDOVA AND UKDRAINE pretrial.detention.to.juveniles.accused.of.a.serious.offence.and.reduces.from.six.to.four.months.the. length. of. time. a. juvenile. may. be. detained. before. trial.. However,. other. provisions. of. the. new. codes. made. the. juvenile. justice. system. harsher.. The. new. Moldovan. Criminal. Code,. for. example,. greatly. expanded.the.number.of.offences.for.which.juveniles.aged.14.or.15.years.could.be.prosecuted,.from. 39.exceptionally.serious.crimes.to.over.100.serious.crimes..It.also.increased.from.10.to.15.years.the. maximum.sentence.for.many.offences.and.restricted.to.certain.offences.the.discretion.of.the.court.to. suspend.sentences. 59 It. is. not. easy. to. develop. a. juvenile. justice. system. fully. compatible. with. international. standards. through. legislation. drafted. primarily. with. adult. offenders. in. mind.. In. particular,. it. is. difficult. to. identify. all. the. provisions. that. should. be. adapted. or. qualified,. in. order. to. ensure. their. compliance. with.the.rights.of.children.. The. experience. of. these. countries. provides. examples.. Criminal. codes,. for. example,. often. contain. provisions.to.the.effect.that.the.commission.of.an.offence.jointly.with.other.persons,.or.victimizing. a.child,.are.aggravating.factors.that.must.be.taken.into.account.in.sentencing..Committing.offences. under.the.influence.of.peers.or.adults.should.be.a.mitigating.factor.for.adolescents.as.they.lack.adults’. capacity.to.resist.such.pressures..Similarly,.when.adolescents.commit.offences.in.which.the.victims. are.also.adolescents,.the.legal.consequences.should.not.be.the.same.as.when.adults.victimize.a.child.. Insofar. as. criminal. procedures. are. concerned,. the. limits. to. the. duration. of. various. stages. of. legal. proceedings.are.the.same.for.adults.and.juveniles,.regardless.of.whether.the.suspect/accused.is.at. liberty.or.in.detention..Even.if.the.law.recognizes.the.general.principle.that.the.detention.of.juveniles. shall. be. exceptional. and. for. the. shortest. appropriate. period. of. time,. practitioners. (especially. judges. and. prosecutors). generally. pay. more. attention. to. concrete. rules. than. general. principles.. Since. deprivation. of. liberty. has. a. greater. impact. on. juveniles. than. adults,. most. juveniles. are. not. autonomous. members. of. society. but. reside. with. their. families,. and. most. offences. committed. by. juveniles.are.not.difficult.to.investigate,.there.should.be.separate.rules.on.the.duration.of.proceedings. concerning.juveniles,.especially.when.they.are.deprived.of.liberty.. A.final.example,.concerning.juveniles.serving.sentences:.most.legislation.allows.solitary.confinement. as.a.disciplinary.measure,.albeit.for.a.shorter.period.than.for.adults..The.United.Nations.Rules.for.the. Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty.classifies.solitary.confinement.of.juveniles.as.cruel,. inhuman.or.degrading.treatment,.and.the.European.Rules.for.juvenile.offenders.subject.to.sanctions. or.measures.also.bans.solitary.confinement.of.juvenile.prisoners.60 All. of. these. issues. could,. of. course,. be. resolved. by. amending. the. criminal. code,. code. of. criminal. procedure. or. legislation.on. prisons..The.point.is. that. they.illustrate.how. difficult.it.is. to. bring. such. codes.completely.into.compliance.with.the.rights.of.children..Experts.in.juvenile.justice.and.juvenile. corrections.generally.have.a.minor.role.in.the.drafting.of.such.laws..And.once.a.new.criminal.code. or.code.of.criminal.procedure.has.been.drafted,.or.adopted,.so.much.is.at.stake.that.resistance.may. be.considerable.to.making.the.amendments.needed.to.ensure.conformity.with.the.rights.of.children.. Furthermore,.when.the.only.legal.standards.concerning.juvenile.justice.are.contained.in.codes.having. broader.aims.and.application,.it.is.more.difficult.to.develop.a.coherent.legal.framework.covering.all. aspects.of.juvenile.justice,.from.prevention.to.rehabilitation.. 59 . Juvenile Justice in the Republic of Moldova – Evaluation Report 2002–2003,.supra,.p..18,.comparing.Article.43.of.the.old. Code.with.Article.90.of.the.new.Code.enacted.in.2003,.which.restricted.this.option.to.intentional.offences.punishable.by. sentences.of.five.years.and.non-intentional.offences.by.sentences.of.up.to.seven.years.. 60 . United.Nations.Rules.for.the.Protection.of.Juveniles.Deprived.of.their.Liberty.(Havana.Rules),.Rule.67;.European.Rules.for. juvenile.offenders.subject.to.sanctions.or.measures,.Rule.95.3. 23

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