Students' manual - UNICEF Georgia

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The syllabus called ‘Children’s Rights and Journalism Practice’ was developed by UNICEF Regional Office in Geneva with the support of the Dublin Institute of Technology. …

The syllabus called ‘Children’s Rights and Journalism Practice’ was developed by UNICEF Regional Office in Geneva with the support of the Dublin Institute of Technology.

The syllabus consists of students’ manual and teachers’ guide. With UNICEF support the manual was translated into Georgian.

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  • 1. bavSvis uflebebi da Jurnalisturi praqtika - uflebebze dafuZnebuli midgoma bavSvis uflebebi uflebebis dacva da Jurnalisturi praqtika - bavSvTa parlamentebi uflebebze dafuZnebuli ras unda moicavdes kodeqsi?presis Tavisufleba midgoma
  • 2. bavSvis uflebebi da Jurnalisturi praqtika -uflebebze dafuZnebuli midgoma 2011 weli
  • 3. saswavlo kursi momzadda centraluri da aRmosavleT evropisa da damoukide-bel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobrobis gaeros bavSvTa fondis (iunisefi) regionu-li ofisis dakveTiT dublinis teqnologiuri institutis media skolis mier.© `iunisefi~ - dublinis teqnologiis instituti, 2007 w.© qarTuli Targmani da gamocema, gaeros bavSvTa fondis saqarTvelos warmomadgenloba, 2011 w.saxelmZRvanelos qarTuli variantis SemuSavebasa da adaptaciaSi monawileobd-nen: daviT paiWaZe, ilias saxelobis universiteti; marine vaSaymaZe, Tbilisissaxelmwifo universiteti; maia miqaSaviZe, Jurnalistikisa da media menejmen-tis kavkasiuri skola; naTia kalaZe, saqarTvelos universiteti; maia qurcikiZe,gaeros bavSvTa fondi.masalebis mowodebisaTvis madlobas vuxdiT eqspertebs: Tamar korZaias, marinekvaWaZes, Teona kuWavasa da nato zazaSvils.
  • 4. sarCevibavSvis uflebebi da Jurnalisturi praqtika –uflebebze dafuZnebuli midgoma ............................................................................6 winasityvaoba...........................................................................................................6nawili pirveli: `gaicaniT bavSvis uflebebi~ ......................................................8 1. adamianis uflebaTa cnebis warmodgena ..........................................................8 adamianis uflebebi da bunebiTi uflebebi ........................................................8 adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia..................................................10 uflebebis dacva................................................................................................... 11 2. bavSvis uflebebi ................................................................................................14 bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia ...............................................................................15 bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti ................................................................................17 saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba da bavSvTa uflebebi .......................................18 gamoxatvis Tavisufleba da bavSvis uflebebis dacva qarTul kanonmdeblobaSi ........................................................................28 3. bavSvis uflebebi da media ...............................................................................30 `oslos gamowveva~ ................................................................................................30 mediis gavlena axalgazrdebze ...........................................................................31 bavSvebis asaxva mediaSi .......................................................................................32 mediis mier bavSvebis eqspluatacia ..................................................................33 bavSvebis monawileoba mediaSi............................................................................34 mediis mxridan bavSvze zemoqmedebis fsiqologiuri aspeqtebi ...................35 4. winaaRmdegobebi bavSvTa uflebebis ganxorcielebis gzaze ...................39 adamianis uflebaTa dacva ..................................................................................39 bavSvis uflebaTa dacva ......................................................................................40 problemebi bavSvTa uflebebis realizebaSi ...................................................42 bavSvTa uflebebTan dakavSirebul problemebze reagireba .........................43 5. mediis mier bavSvebis asaxva, bavSvis uflebebi da profesiuli pasuxismgebloba ..................................................................................................46 bavSvebis warmodgena masobrivi informaciis saSualebebSi ..........................46 stereotipebi mediaSi ..........................................................................................48 bavSvTa uflebebis darRveva ..............................................................................49 bavSvTa dacva ........................................................................................................49 media axali TaobisTvis .......................................................................................51 profesiuli pasuxismgebloba.............................................................................51 Sida regulireba...................................................................................................52 bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebisas mediis eTikisa da JurnalistTa profesiuli standartebis dacvis Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi .............................55
  • 5. 6. informaciis gavrcelebis saukeTeso praqtika bavSvebis Sexedulebebis gaTvaliswinebiT.....................................................................57 `msoflio bavSvebisaTvis~ ...................................................................................57 bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli erovnuli samoqmedo gegmebi ...............................58 bavSvebis monawileoba..........................................................................................59 monawileobiT miRebuli sargebloba ................................................................60 perspeqtivebi bavSvebisTvis: magaliTebi ..........................................................61 bavSvTa parlamentebi...........................................................................................62 monawileobisTvis arsebuli barierebi .............................................................64Tavi 2: bavSvis uflebebi da profesiuli Jurnalisturi praqtika ............... 66 1. qcevis kodeqsebi da saredaqcio saxelmZRvanelo principebi.................66 Jurnalistikis kodeqsebis ganviTareba ............................................................66 presis Tavisufleba .............................................................................................68 ras unda moicavdes kodeqsi? .............................................................................70 mediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi ............................................................71 saerTaSoriso kodeqsebi .....................................................................................72 bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli qcevis kodeqsi........................................................73 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis saxelmZRvanelo principebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqebisTvis ......................................74 bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qseli: eTikuri saxelmZRvanelo principebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqebisaTvis ................76 mediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi saqarTveloSi ...................................77 danarTebi .................................................................................................................81 `bi-bi-si~-s saredaqcio principebi bavSvebis gaSuqebasTan dakavSirebiT..................................................................................81 Jurnalistebis statusi da Jurnalisturi eTika: JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis principebi ..............................................................84 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis deklaracia Jurnalisturi qcevis principebis Sesaxeb .......................................................88 saqarTvelos Jurnalisturi eTikis qartia ................................................... 89 2. bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi ............................................................................91 bavSvTa dacva ........................................................................................................91 bavSvTa dacva organizaciebSi ............................................................................94 mediis bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi ...................................................................95 3. kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebi ...........................................................97 konkretuli magaliTis ganxilva: TviTneburi dakavebis sakiTxebze momuSave jgufi.....................................................................................................99 sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis asaki ...................................................103 media da kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebi: vinaobis dacva ..................105 konkretuli magaliTi (1): didi britaneTi: meri beli ................................105
  • 6. konkretuli magaliTi (2): didi britaneTi: jeims balgeris mkvlelebi ....106 ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso dokumentebi arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sferoSi.......................................................................... 107 arasruwlovanTa marTlsamjulebis ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso principebi ............................................................................... 108 arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sistema saqarTveloSi ..................... 1124. siuJetebisa da wyaroebis moZieba ................................................................121 Jurnalistis roli.............................................................................................121 bavSvis uflebaTa dacvis Sesaxeb masalebis momzadebisaTvis saWiro unar-Cvevebi .............................................................123 `iunisefis~ saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqebisaTvis .................................................................................124 gaeros konvenciasTan dakavSirebiT kiTxvebis dasma ...................................125 statiebisa da siuJetebis wyaroebi .................................................................126 ZiriTadi terminebi wyaroebTan urTierTobisas ..........................................1305. bavSvebisagan intervius aReba.......................................................................131 fotoebSi bavSvebis gamoyeneba .........................................................................134 `iunisefis~ saxelmZRvanelo principebi bavSvebisagan intervius aRebasTan dakavSirebiT ..................................................................135 intervius Semdeg... ...........................................................................................136 “gadavarCinoT bavSvebi”-s saxelmZRvanelo principebi bavSvebisgan intervius aRebasTan dakavSirebiT ..................................................................1366. bavSvebi SeiaraRebuli konfliqtebis dros ..............................................138 media da bavSvebi SeiaraRebuli konfliqtis dros ......................................1427. sityvis Tavisufleba bavSvebs da bavSvebze orientirebuli media .....146 bavSvebis monawileoba mediaSi..........................................................................148 bavSvebTan erTad da bavSvebisTvis momzadebuli mediaprogramebis dadebiTi mxareebi ..............................................................................................149 globaluri konteqsti.......................................................................................151 mediaSi bavSvebis mizanmimarTuli monawileobis winaSe arsebuli sirTuleebi da winaaRmdegobebi ......................................................................1528. saukeTeso Jurnalisturi praqtika bavSvebTan dakavSirebiT ...............155 saukeTeso praqtikis magaliTebi .....................................................................156
  • 7. 6bavSvis uflebebi da Jurnalisturi praqtika –uflebebze dafuZnebuli midgomawinasityvaobamivesalmebiT JursnalistebisTvis bavSvis uflebebis Sesaxeb saxelmZRvanelosmkiTxvels.saxelmZRvanelos mizania mogawodoT is ZiriTadi ideebi da informacia,romlebic dagexmarebaT axali ambebis pasuxismgeblobiT, bavSvTa uflebebisdacviTa da maT mimarT pativiscemiT gaSuqebaSi.saxelmZRvaneloSi gamoyenebuli midgomaorganizacia `adamianis uflebaTa ganaTlebis asociacia~ (HREA) gvTavazobssaswavlo piramidas, romelic Sedgeba adamianis uflebaTa sferoSi ganaTlebis samiZiriTadi modelisagan. qveda aris `faseulobebisa da informirebulobis modeli~,Sua - „angariSvaldebulebis modeli~, xolo zeda - `transformaciuli modeli~.modeli 1 - faseulobebi da informirebulobafaseulobebisa da informirebulobis modelSi adamianis uflebaTa sferoSiganaTlebis ZiriTadi amocanaa adamianis uflebebTan dakavSirebulisabaziso codnis gadacema. am modelis mizania, `xeli Seewyos iseTimsoflios mSeneblobas, sadac pativiscemiT ekidebian adamianis uflebebs.es miiRweva im miznebis gaTviTcnobierebiTa da erTgulebiT, romlebicCamoyalibebulia `adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciasa~ da sxvaZiriTad dokumentebSi~ (`adamianis uflebaTa sferoSi ganaTlebis axalimodelebi~, felisa tibitsi, `ganaTlebis saerTaSoriso mimoxilva~ - adamianisuflebaTa sferoSi ganaTlebisadmi miZRvnili specialuri gamocema, 2002).faseulobebisa da informirebulobis modelis magaliTebia sazogadoebaSicodnis gavrcelebis kampaniebi, axalgazrduli programebi da saskolo dasauniversiteto saganmanaTleblo programebi.modeli 2 – angariSvaldebulebamosalodnelia, rom am modelis dawyebisas monawileebs ukve hqondeT warmodgenaadamianis uflebebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze. isic mosalodnelia, rom isiniuSualod Tu arapirdapiri gziT monawileobdnen adamianis uflebebis dacvaSi.es modeli yuradRebas amaxvilebs adamianis uflebebis dacvisa da lobirebisunarebis ganviTarebasa da adamianis uflebaTa samarTlis ufro Rrmad gagebisxelSewyobaze. angariSvaldebulebis modelis magaliTebia treningebi adamianisuflebebis sferoSi moRvawe aqtivistebis an im adamianebisaTvis, visac evalebaadamianis uflebaTa Selaxvis SemTxvevebis dokumenturi saxiT dafiqsireba.modeli 3 – transformaciulies modeli miznad isaxavs, daexmaros adamianis uflebaTa darRvevis faqtebis
  • 8. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 7mowmeebs da msxverplebs. adamianis uflebaTa sferoSi ganaTlebis es formaSeiZleba gamodges, rogorc calkeuli adamianebis, ise mTlianad TemebisTvis.transformaciuli modelis mizania, misces monawileebs SesaZlebloba, daicvansakuTari Tavi da sakuTari Temebi adamianis uflebaTa darRvevisagan. am modelismagaliTebia ltolvilTa banakSi ganxorcielebuli programebi da jgufuridaxmarebis programebi ojaxSi Zaladobis msxverplTaTvis.vinaidan modulis amocanaa treningSi monawile JurnalistebisaTvis iseTiinformaciis miwodeba, romelic maT sWirdebaT bavSvTa uflebebTan dakavSirebuliaxali ambebis pasuxismgeblobiT gaSuqebis unaris ganviTarebisTvis, gamoviyenebTfaseulobebisa da informirebulobis models – konkretuli aqcentiTbavSvis uflebebze. modulis mizania ara adamianis uflebebis sferoSi moRvaweaqtivistebis Camoyalibeba, aramed bavSvebTan da maT uflebebTan dakavSirebuliTemebis pasuxismgeblobiT gaSuqebis unaris ganviTareba.am modulis gavlis Semdeg Tqven SeZlebT gaigoT, ras warmoadgens bavSvTauflebebi, gansakuTrebiT gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis konteqstSi.Tqven aseve SeZlebT kritikulad SeafasoT bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli axaliambebis gaSuqeba adamianis uflebebis, anu `uflebebze damyarebuli~,perspeqtividan, gaecnobiT saxelmZRvanelo principebsa da kodeqsebsbavSvebTan dakavSirebuli axali ambebis gaSuqebis Sesaxeb da SeZlebTgamoTqvaT profesiuli mosazreba sakuTari praqtikis Sesaxeb uflebebzedamyarebuli perspeqtividan. rac yvelaze mTavaria, SeZlebT gamoiyenoTis, rac iswavleT, Tqvens samomavlo karieraSi rogorc Jurnalistebma dareportiorebma da samarTlianad, zustad da bavSvebis uflebaTa principebisgaTvaliswinebiT moamzadoT siuJetebi, statiebi da reportaJebi.modulis struqturamodulSi Sedis ori ZiriTadi nawili:nawili pirveli, `gaicaniT bavSvis uflebebi~, iZleva zogad informaciasimasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ratomaa esoden mniSvnelovani uflebebis gageba dagaTviTcnobiereba. garda amisa, am nawilSi ganxilulia saTanado praqtikismagaliTebi da, agreTve, is problemebi da gamowvevebi, romlebic wamoiWrebabavSvebTan dakavSirebuli axali ambebis gaSuqebisas.nawili meore, `bavSvis uflebebi da profesiuli Jurnalisturi praqtika~,profesiul Jurnalistur praqtikas ganixilavs bavSvis uflebebisperspeqtividan da gvacnobs im strategiebsa da konteqstebs, romlebSic undadavfiqrdeT imaze, Tu rogor gavaumjobesoT Cveni Jurnalisturi saqmianoba.am naSromSi warmodgenil masalasTan erTad unda gaecnoT mravalferovandamxmare literaturas da rekomendaciebs samomavlo sakiTxavebTandakavSirebiT. imedi gvaqvs, rom modulSi naswavli dagexmarebaT axaliambebis yvelanairi formiT gaSuqebaSi, gansakuTrebiT ki im SemTxvevebSi,roca siuJetis centraluri figura bavSvia.
  • 9. 8nawili pirveli: `gaicaniT bavSvis uflebebi~1. adamianis uflebaTa cnebis warmodgena ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi  ras warmoadgens adamianis uflebebi?  ra gansxvavebaa bunebriv uflebebsa da adamianis uflebebs Soris?  adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia  adamianis uflebebis dacvaadamianis uflebebi da bunebiTi uflebebiadamianis uflebebi gulisxmobs adamianis ganuyofel, sayovelTao uflebebs,miuxedavad adgilmdebareobis Tu sxva iseTi faqtorebisa, rogorebicaa eTnikuriwarmomavloba, religia, erovneba Tu sqesi.adamianis uflebebi is ZiriTadi standartebia, romelTa gareSe adamianebi vericxovreben Rirseulad.adamianis uflebebi yvela adamians Tanasworad, sayovelTaod da samudamod ekuTvnis.adamianis uflebebi xelSeuxebelia: adamians ver CamoerTmeva es uflebebi iseve,rogorc is, rom igi yovelTvis adamianad darCeba.adamianis uflebebi ganuyofelia: adamians ver CamoerTmeva ufleba imis gamo,rom is `naklebad mniSvnelovania~ an `ar aris arsebiTi~.adamianis uflebebi urTierTdamokidebulia: adamianis yvela uflebaurTierTSemavsebeli sistemis nawilia. magaliTad, Tqvens SesaZleblobasTan,monawileoba miiRoT Tqveni xelisuflebis muSaobaSi, uSualo kavSirSiaTqveni ufleba, gamoxatoT sakuTari Tavi, miiRoT ganaTleba da upirvelesiaucileblobis sagnebic ki.adamianis uflebebis idea aRmocenda bunebiTi uflebebis filosofiurikoncefciidan; zogi ar aRiarebs gansxvavebebs uflebaTa am or kategoriasSoris da orives erT ramed aRiqvams, xolo sxvebi am or termins sxvadasxvamniSvnelobas aniWeben da is Tvisebebi, rac tradiciulad bunebiT uflebebsukavSirdeba, ar asocirdeba adamianis uflebebTan.
  • 10. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 9 ras warmoadgens bunebiTi uflebebi? bunebiTi uflebebi sayovelTao uflebebia, romlebic yvela adamians ekuTvnis da ar aris damokidebuli adamianis qcevasa Tu Sexedulebebze. adamiani sazo- gadoebis wevri xdeba garkveuli ZiriTadi uflebebiT da arc erT mTavrobas ar SeuZlia CamoarTvas mas es uflebebi. bunebiTi uflebebis yvelaze adreuli asaxva moipoveba indur vedebSi, agamebsa da upaniSadebSi – teqstebSi, romlebic sami aTas welze meti xnis win daiwera. mas Semdeg bunebiTi uflebebi mniSvnelovani cnebaa im wignebSi, romlebic safuZv- lad udevs msoflios ZiriTad religiebs. bibliac, Torac da yuranic qadageben yvela adamianis Tanasworobis, Rirsebisa da pasuxismgeblobis mniSvnelobas. bunebiTi uflebebis erT-erTi Teoria Camoyalibda ganmanaTleblobis peri- odis bunebiTi kanonidan mefeTa wminda uflebebis sawinaaRmdegod da iZleo- da liberalizmis moralur dasabuTebas. individualizmis ideis gaZlierebasTan erTad, gansakuTrebiT me-17 sauku- neSi, bunebriTi kanonebidan gamomdinare doqtrinebi Seicvala da xazgasmiT aRiniSna is faqti, rom individebs, vinaidan isini adamianebi arian, aqvT ufle- bebi, romlebic ar unda daarRvios romelime sxva adamianma an sazogadoebam. am doqtrinis, albaT, saukeTeso formulireba jon lokis (1632-1704) naS- romebSia mocemuli. misi azriT, adamiani Tavisi bunebiT aris racionaluri da kargi da rom mas politikur sazogadoebaSi Semoaqvs igive uflebebi, romle- bic cnobili iyo sazogadoebisTvis ufro adreul safexurebze. am uflebaTa- gan gansakuTrebiT aRsaniSnavia aRmsareblobis Tavisufleba, sakuTari qveynis mTavrobaSi xmis ufleba da qonebis ufleba. bunebiTi uflebis Sinaarsi SeiZleba daupirispirdes iuridiul uflebas: bu- nebiTia ufleba, rodesac is arsebobs maSinac ki, roca ar aris miRebuli mTavrobis an mTlianad sazogadoebis mier, xolo iuridiuli ufleba war- moadgens iseT uflebas, romelic dadgenilia mTavrobis an sazogadoebis mier maTi wevrebis sasargeblod. damatebiTi literatura: Peter Jones: Rights, Oxford: Palgrave Macmillan, 1994. Jeremy Waldron, ed: Theories of Rights, (Oxford Readings in Philosophy), Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1984.adamianis uflebebis arseboba, moqmedeba da Sinaarsi dResac debatebis saganiafilosofiasa da politikur mecnierebaSi. samarTlebrivi TvalsazrisiTadamianis uflebebi saerTaSoriso samarTalsa da SeTanxmebebSi, aseve bevriqveynis Sidasaxelmwifoebriv kanonmdeblobaSia gansazRvruli. magrambevrisaTvis uflebebis doqtrina scdeba kanons da warmoadgens fundamenturmoralur baziss Tanamedrove socialuri wesrigis regulirebisaTvis. aseTiadamianebisaTvis es demokratiuli idealebia.
  • 11. 10Cven yvelas gvWirdeba uflebebi da gvaqvs kidec isini. es uflebebi uzrunvelyofsCvens arsebobas da ganviTarebas da xels uwyobs Cvens dacvas fizikuri Tufsiqologiuri Seuracxyofisa da Zaladobisagan. uflebebi gulisxmobs imasac,rom gvqondes SesaZlebloba, monawileoba miviRoT im sakiTxebSi, romlebicCven gvexeba. uflebebi uzrunvelyofs, rom yvela adamians Tanasworad dasamarTlianad moeqcnen. adamianis uflebebis damkvidrebis xelSewyoba dapropagandireba niSnavs imis moTxovnas, rom yvela pativiscemiT moeqces dadaicvas yvela adamianis Rirseba. magram uflebebs Tan pasuxismgeblobacaxlavs: yovelma Cvenganma pativi unda sces sxva adamianebis uflebebs da martosxvebisgan ar unda moiTxovos Tavisi uflebebis pativiscema.adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia1945 wels msofliom Zlivs daaRwia Tavi meore msoflio oms, romelic pirvels30 wliTac ki ar gvaSorebda. am omis dros umciresobaTa jgufebisa da samxedrotyveebis mimarT Cadenilma sazarelma sisastikeebma ubiZga msoflios qveynebisliderebs, CamoeyalibebinaT gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia mSvidobis,keTildReobisa da adamianis uflebebis dasacavad.1948 wlis 10 dekembers gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis generalurmaasambleam miiRo da gamoaqveyna adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia.deklaraciaSi aRiarebuli iqna `Tandayolili Rirseba~ da `Tanaswori daganuyofeli uflebebi~ adamianTa ojaxis yvela wevrisaTvis. masSi naTqvamia, rom`adamianis uflebaTa ugulebelyofam da abuCad agdebam gamoiwvia barbarosuliaqtebi ... da rom iseTi msoflios Seqmna, romelSic adamianebs eqnebaT sityvisada rwmenis Tavisufleba da romelSic isini icxovreben SiSisa da gaWirvebisgareSe, gamocxadebulia adamianebis maRal miswrafebad~.deklaracia Sedgeba 30 muxlisagan, romlebSic gamoxatulia gaeros Sexedulebayvela adamianisTvis garantirebul uflebebze. adamianis uflebaTa komisiis(romelmac moamzada deklaraciis teqsti) wevrma, elinor ruzveltma, ganacxada:`es ar aris xelSekruleba ... [momavalSi] igi SeiZleba gaxdes saerTaSoriso„didi qartia“ (Magna Carta…) 1995 wlis 5 oqtombers warmoTqmul sityvaSi papmaioane pavle II-m adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracias uwoda `adamianissindisis erT-erTi yvelaze maRali gamoxatuleba TanamedroveobaSi.~Tumca gaeroSi amerikis SeerTebuli Statebis elCma, jin kirkpatrikma,deklaracias `santa-klausisaTvis miwerili werili~ uwoda. misi TqmiT,`arc buneba, arc gamocdileba da arc albaToba ar acocxlebs `uflebebis~am CamonaTvals, im uflebebisa, romlebic ar cnobs SezRudvebs, garda maTiavtorebis gonebiT da madiT dawesebulisa~ (konferenciis dokumenti: `adamianisuflebaTa sicocxlisunariani politikis Camoyalibeba~, 1981).yvelaze mniSvnelovan muxlebs Sorisaa:  muxli 1: `yvela adamiani ibadeba Tavisufali da Tanaswori Tavisi RirsebiTa da uflebebiT.~
  • 12. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 11  muxli 3: sicocxlis, Tavisuflebisa da piradi xelSeuxeblobis ufleba.  muxli 5: wamebis an sastiki, araadamianuri Tu Rirsebis Semlaxveli mopyrobisa Tu dasjis akrZalva.  muxli 18: azris, sindisisa da religiis Tavisufleba.  muxli 19: azrisa da gamoxatvis Tavisufleba.  muxli 26: ganaTlebis ufleba.adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis miRebis Semdeg gaeros generalurmaasambleam yvela wevr qveyanas mouwoda, gamoeqveynebinaT deklaraciis teqsti da`ganepirobebinaT misi gavrceleba, wakiTxva da axsna skolebsa da sxva saswavlodawesebulebebSi, ganurCevlad qveynebisa Tu teritoriebis politikuristatusisa~.ginesis `rekordebis wignSi~ adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciaaRwerilia rogorc `dokumenti, romelic msoflioSi yvelaze met enazeiTargmna~. misi Targmani moipoveba 321 enasa da dialeqtze (2004 wlisaTvis).deklaraciis miRebas mohyva rigi mniSvnelovani SeTanxmebebisa, romlebic miznadisaxavda adamianis uflebebis damkvidrebas da dacvas. 1966 wels gaero-m miiRosamoqalaqo da politikur uflebaTa saerTaSoriso paqti da ekonomikur,socialur da kulturul uflebaTa saerTaSoriso paqti. am paqtebma maTixelmomweri yvela saxelmwifosTvis savaldebulod aqcia adamianis uflebaTasayovelTao deklaraciaSi Camoyalibebuli uflebebis dacva. adamianis uflebebisganviTarebaSi sxva mniSvnelovani nabijebi iyo Jenevis konvenciebi omis drosdasacavi wesebis Sesaxeb da konvencia rasobrivi diskriminaciis yvela formisaRmofxvris Sesaxeb.unda gvaxsovdes, rom adamianis uflebebi jer kidev viTardeba. magaliTad,am bolo wlebSi garemos damcvelebi mogviwodebdnen adamianis uflebebisgafarToebas da maT ricxvSi sufTa da usafrTxo wylis misawvdomobaze adamianissayovelTao uflebisa da garemosTan dakavSirebuli sxva uflebebis CarTvas.uflebebis dacvame-20 saukunis ganmavlobaSi mravalma jgufma da moZraobam moaxerxa mniSvnelo-vani socialuri cvlilebebis miRweva adamianis uflebebis gansamtkiceblad.dasavleT evropasa da CrdiloeT amerikaSi profkavSirebma SemoiRes kanonebi,romlebic mSromelebs aZlevs gaficvis, minimaluri samuSao pirobebis dadgenisda bavSvTa Sromis akrZalvis an regulirebis uflebebs. qalTa uflebebismoZraobam mraval qals moupova arCevnebSi monawileobis ufleba. erovnul-ganmaTavisuflebelma moZraobebma bevr qveyanaSi daamxo kolonialuri Zalebi.aqedan yvelaze gavlenian Zalas warmoadgenda mahaTma gandi, romelmac indoeTigaaTavisufla britaneTis batonobisagan. rasobrivi Cagvris qveS myof adamianTada religiur umciresobaTa moZraobebma warmatebas miaRwies msoflios mraval
  • 13. 12qveyanaSi. maT Soris iyo moZraoba samoqalaqo uflebebisTvis da, SedarebiTaxlaxan, e.w. `identurobisa da politikis~ moZraobebi, romlebic ibrZodnenqalTa da umciresobaTa uflebebisTvis aSS-Si.adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis mixedviT adamianis ZiriTadiuflebebi irRveva maSin, rodesac:  rasobrivi, sarwmunoebrivi Tu sxva jgufis wevrebs arTmeven uflebas, aRiarebuli iyos `individad~ (me-2 da me-6 muxlebi);  mamakacebs da qalebs ar epyrobian Tanasworad (me-2 muxli);  gansxvavebuli rasobrivi Tu religiuri jgufis wevrebs ar epyrobian Tanasworad (me-2 muxli);  safrTxe eqmneba adamianis sicocxlis, Tavisuflebisa da piradi xelSeuxeblobis uflebas (me-3 muxli);  adamiani gayidulia monad an imyofeba ymobaSi (me-4 muxli);  uflebebis darRvevis msxverplT uars eubnebian samarTlebrivi dacvis efeqtian saSualebaze (me-8 muxli);  adamianis mimarT sasjelis aRsruleba xdeba TviTneburad, saTanado da samarTliani sasamarTlo procesis Cautareblad (me-11 muxli);  saxelmwifos warmomadgenlebi TviTneburad erevian adamianis pirad da ojaxur cxovrebaSi (me-12 muxli);  moqalaqeebs ekrZalebaT sakuTari qveynis datoveba an Tavis qveyanaSi dabruneba (me-13 muxli);  adamians uars eubnebian sityvis an religiis Tavisuflebaze (me-18 da me-19 muxlebi);  adamians uars eubnebian profkavSirSi gaerTianebis uflebaze (23-e muxli);  adamians uars eubnebian ganaTlebis miRebis uflebaze (26-e muxli).adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaracia da mis mier aRwerili msofliosxedva daedo safuZvlad iseTi organizaciebis Camoyalibebas, rogorebicaa“amnesti interneiSenal~ da `hiuman raiTs uoC~, romlebic iRvwian adamianisuflebebis dacvisTvis da atareben farTo kampaniebs maTi darRvevis winaaRmdeg.isini amzadeben yovelwliur angariSebs TiToeul qveyanaSi adamianis `uflebebismxriv arsebuli mdgomareobis Sesaxeb.`amnesti interneiSenalis~ monacemebiT, Zalze cota qveyanaa iseTi, sadac ar xdebaadamianis uflebebis seriozuli darRveva. am organizaciis 2007 wlis `adamianisuflebebis Sesaxeb angariSis~ mixedviT, dokumenturad aris dadasturebuli, rom57 qveyanaSi arseboben politikuri, e.w. `sindisis patimrebi,~ da 102 qveyanaSiaRiniSna policiis, samxedro Tu usafrTxoebis samsaxurebis personalis mxridanwamebisa Tu sastikad mopyrobis SemTxvevebi.
  • 14. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 13zogs sjera, rom adamianis uflebebis darRveva ufro xSiria diqtatorulsaxelmwifoebSi, vidre demokratiulSi, vinaidan sityvisa da presis TavisuflebiswyalobiT SesaZlebelia saxelmwifos mier Cadenili darRvevebis gamoaSkaraveba.magram adamianis uflebebi demokratiul qveynebSic irRveva. magaliTad,makfersonis angariSSi aRniSnulia, rom britaneTis policia instituciuradrasistul damokidebulebas amJRavnebda Savkaniani axalgazrdis, stiven lorensissikvdilis SemTxvevaSi, xolo `amnesti interneiSenalma~ Tavis angariSebSi aSSs miermarTul guantanamos yuris banaks uwoda `skandaluri, adamianis uflebebis mxriv~.daaxloebiT 90 qveyanaSi daarsda adamianis uflebaTa erovnuli institutebi amqveynebSi adamianis uflebebis dacvis, xelSewyobisa Tu monitoringis mizniT.SefasebaimsjeleT adamianis uflebaTa cnebaze SerCeuli, Tanamedroveobis amsaxveliTemis konteqstSi.damatebiTi literaturaadamianis uflebaTa resurs-centri:http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/edumat/background.shtmadamianis uflebaTa erovnuli institutebis forumi: http://www.nhri.net/`amnesti interneiSenal~: http://www.amnesty.org/`amnesti interneiSenalis~ 2006 wlis qveynebis angariSi:http://web.amnesty.org/report2006/index-eng`hiuman raiTs uoC~: http://www.hrw.org/adamianis uflebaTa umaRlesi komisris ofisi: http://www.ohchr.org
  • 15. 142. bavSvis uflebebi ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi  ratom aris aucilebeli bavSvis uflebebis gamoyofa?  gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia  bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti  saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba da bavSvTa uflebebi`bavSvTa uflebebi~ aris adamianis uflebebi bavSvebisa da 18 wlamdeadamianebisaTvis. im faqtis aRiarebis safuZvelze, rom bavSvoba Cveni cxovrebisgansakuTrebuli periodia, bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis uflebebis calkewyeba Camoyalibda. bavSvoba aris is dro, rodesac Cven aqtiurad vizrdebiTda vswavlobT, rodesac gvWirdeba sxva adamianebi, romlebic mogvivlian dausafrTxoebas mogvcemen, rodesac Cven unda gvqondes SesaZlebloba, udardeladvicxovroT.1989 wels gaeroSi mividnen saerTo SeTanxmebamde, rom bavSvebs sWirdebaTsakuTari konvencia. bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis CamoyalibebuluflebaTa am calke wyebas gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis bavSvisuflebaTa konvencia hqvia. konvenciaSi naTqvamia, rom 18 wlamde adamianebs aqvTmasSi gaTvaliswinebuli yvela ufleba, miuxedavad maTi rasis, religiis TuSesaZleblobebisa, ganurCevlad imisa, Tu ras fiqroben an amboben isini da ratipis ojaxidan arian.ra saWiroa bavSvTa uflebebis gamoyofa calke konvenciis saxiT?bavSvebi individebi arian: isini arc mSoblebis sakuTrebas warmoadgenen, arcsaxelmwifosi da arc raime Camouyalibebeli arsebebi arian; maT adamianTaojaxis Tanasworuflebiani wevrebis statusi aqvT.bavSvebi iwyeben cxovrebas, rogorc absoluturad damokidebeli arsebebi: isinimTlianad mSoblebis imedze arian kvebisa Tu aRzrdis TvalsazrisiT: es maTsWirdebaT imisaTvis, rom gaizardon da damoukidebelni gaxdnen. saukeTesoSemTxvevaSi aseT zrunvas bavSvi unda iRebdes misi ojaxis ufrosi wevrebisagan,magram, roca uSualo mzrunvelebs ar SeuZliaT bavSvis saWirobebisdakmayofileba, ukve sazogadoebam unda izrunos amis gamosworebaze.bavSvebi gansakuTrebiT daucvelni arian Seuracxyofisa da eqspluataciisgan:bavSvebi fizikurad ufro daucvelebi arian, vidre zrdasruli adamianebi.garda amisa, isini emociuradac gacilebiT mgrZnobiareni arian uaryofiTiSTabeWdilebebis mimarT. fizikurma da fsiqikurma zewolam SeiZleba samudamodaRi daasvas bavSvs. msoflios mraval kuTxeSi bavSvebi ganicdian mZimeeqspluatacias, rogorc muSebi an rogorc jariskacebi.
  • 16. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 15mTavrobis moqmedeba an umoqmedoba ufro Zlier zemoqmedebas axdens bavSvebze,vidre sazogadoebis romelime sxva jgufze: samTavrobo politikis TiTqmisyvela sfero (magaliTad, ganaTleba Tu janmrTelobis dacva) garkveulzemoqmedebas axdens bavSvebze. windauxedavi politikuri gadawyvetilebebi,romlebic ar iTvaliswinebs bavSvebis problemebs, Zalze avnebs mTelisazogadoebis momavals.bavSvebis azrs iSviaTad aqceven yuradRebas da iSviaTad iTvaliswinebenpolitikur procesebSi: bavSvebi, Cveulebriv, ar iReben monawileobas arCevnebsaTu politikur procesebSi. Tu ar movismenT maT azrebs – rogorc isini maTsaxlSi, skolaSi an TavianT megobrebTan gamoxataven – verasodes gavigebTim mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs, romlebic moqmedebs bavSvebis cxovrebaze axla animoqmedebs momavalSi.mraval cvlilebas sazogadoebaSi bavSvebisTvis araproporciuli da xSiraduaryofiTi Sedegebi moaqvs: ojaxis Semadgenlobis Secvla, globalizacia,samuSao pirobebis cvlileba da socialuri SeRavaTebis Semcireba bevr qveyanaSiseriozul zegavlenas axdens bavSvebis cxovrebaze. amgvari cvlilebebisSedegebi SeiZleba gansakuTrebiT damangreveli aRmoCndes SeiaraRebulikonfliqtebis da sxva sagangebo situaciebis SemTxvevebSi.bavSvis jansaR ganviTarebas gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs sazogadoebismomavlisTvis: vinaidan maTi zrdis procesi jer ar dasrulebula, bavSvebigansakuTrebiT daucvelni arian (gacilebiT metad, vidre ufrosebi)cxovrebis iseTi cudi pirobebis mimarT, rogoricaa siRaribe, janmrTelobisaraadekvaturi dacva, cudi kveba, sufTa wylis xelmiuwvdomeloba, cudisacxovrebeli pirobebi da garemos dabinZureba. sxvadasxva avadmyofobis,cudi kvebisa da siRaribis Sedegebi safrTxes uqmnis bavSvebis da, aqedangamomdinare, im sazogadoebis momavals, romelSic isini cxovroben.saxelmwifoebs Zalian Zvirad ujdebaT uyuradReboba bavSvebis mimarT:socialuri kvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom bavSvobaSi miRebuli gamocdilebamoqmedebs adamianis Semdgom ganviTarebaze, bavSvebis ganviTarebis msvlelobaki gansazRvravs im wvlils, romelsac isini Seitanen qveynis momaval cxovrebaSi.bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia1989 wlis 20 noembers gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciam daamtkica bavSvisuflebaTa konvencia. dRes is saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebaa, romelsac qveynebi xelsaweren da rodesac mis ratificirebas moaxdenen, maT iuridiulad moeTxovebaTkonvenciis Sesruleba. es pirveli savalebulod Sesasrulebeli saerTaSorisoinstrumentia, romelSic Sedis adamianis uflebebis mTeli speqtri. misiratificireba msoflios yvela qveyanam moaxdina, garda somalis da amerikisSeerTebuli Statebisa. somalim ratificireba imitom ver moaxerxa, rom mas arhyavs aRiarebuli mTavroba, xolo aSS-m konvenciis xelmoweriT gvaCvena Tavisiganzraxva, moexdina misi ratificreba, magram jer es ar gaukeTebia.
  • 17. 16konvenciis safuZvelze bavSvebs aqvT ufleba, dakmayofildes maTi ZiriTadisaWiroebebi: arseboba, dacva, janmrTelobis dacva, sakvebisa da wylismisawvdomoba. maT aseve aqvT ufleba, hqondeT sakuTari potencialis sruladganviTarebis SesaZlebloba: es aris ganaTleba, TamaSi, sporti, sakuTariSexedulebebis gamoxatvis Tavisufleba da monawileoba im gadawyvetilebebismiRebaSi, romlebic maT exeba.konvenciaSi sagangebodaa naTqvami, rom yvela bavSvs erTi da igiveuflebebi aqvs da rom yvela ufleba urTierTdakavSirebuli da TanasworimniSvnelobisaa. konvencia exeba aseve bavSvebis pasuxismgeblobas _ pativiscen sxva adamianebis, gansakuTrebiT maTi mSoblebis, uflebebs.gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciaSi 54 muxlia, romelTagan TiToeulSigansazRvrulia gansxvavebuli ufleba. es uflebebi iyofa oTx jgufad: arseboba,dacva, ganviTareba da monawileoba.arsebobasTan dakavSirebuli uflebebi aRiarebs bavSvis sicocxlis uflebas dauflebas, dakmayofilebul iqnes arsebobisTvis aucilebeli saWiroebebi. esaris kveba, sacxovrebeli, cxovrebis adekvaturi done da janmrTelobis dacvismisawvdomoba.ganviTarebasTan dakavSirebuli uflebebi gansazRvravs imas, rac bavSvs sWirdebamisi potencialis srulad ganviTarebisTvis. es aris ganaTleba, dasveneba daTavisufali dro, kulturuli saqmianoba, informaciis misawvdomoba da azris,sindisisa da religiuri rwmenis Tavisufleba.dacvasTan dakavSirebuli uflebebi moiTxovs, rom bavSvebi dacul iqnenyovelgvari formis Seuracxyofis, ugulebelyofisa da eqspluataciisagan. esuflebebi exeba iseT sakiTxebs, rogorebicaa ltolvili bavSvebis sagangebodacva, dacvis saSualebebi momuSave bavSvebisaTvis da im bavSvebis dacva dareabilitacia, romlebmac ganicades raime formis Zaladoba an eqspluatacia.monawileobasTan dakavSirebuli uflebebi aRiarebs, rom yvela bavSvs undamieces SesaZlebloba, aqtiuri roli Seasrulos Tavis Temsa da sazogadoebaSi.es uflebebi moicavs Sexedulebis gamoxatvis Tavisuflebas da uflebas,saTanado yuradReba daeTmos bavSvis Sexedulebebs im sakiTxebSi, romlebicmis cxovrebaze axdens zemoqmedebas. bavSvis unarebis ganviTarebasTan erTadunda gaizardos bavSvisTvis SesaZlebloba, monawileoba miiRos sazogadoebiscxovrebaSi, raTa moemzados pasuxismgeblobiT aRsavse zrdasrulicxovrebisaTvis.konvenciis 41 ZiriTadi muxlidan oTxs gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba eniWeba,vinaidan isini arsebiTia konvenciaSi gaTvaliswinebuli yvela uflebisxorcSesxmisaTvis. qvemoT CamoTvlilia es muxlebi, romlebic konvenciis`saerTo principebad~ aris cnobili:  me-2 muxli: uzrunvelyofil unda iqnes konvenciaSi gaTvaliswinebuli yvela ufleba TiToeuli bavSvisTvis, nebismieri saxis diskriminaciis gareSe.
  • 18. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 17  me-3 muxli: bavSvis mimarT nebismier qmedebaTa ganxorcielebisas upirvelesi yuradReba unda daeTmos bavSvis interesebis dacvis ukeT uzrunvelyofas.  me-6 muxli: yovel bavSvs aqvs sicocxlis, gadarCenisa da ganviTarebis ufleba.  me-12 muxli: bavSvis Sexedulebebs saTanado yuradReba unda daeTmos yvela im sakiTxSi, romlebic mis cxovrebaze axdens zemoqmedebas.am bolo wlebSi Seiqmna bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis ori fakultatiuri oqmi:  fakultatiuri oqmi bavSvebiT vaWrobis, bavSvTa prostituciisa da bavSvTa pornografiis Sesaxeb, romelic miRebul iqna 2000 wlis 25 maiss, da  fakultatiuri oqmi SeiaraRebul konfliqtebSi bavSvebis monawileobis Sesaxeb, romelic miRebuli iqna 2000 wlis 25 maiss.konvenciaSi gamoxatulia bavSvisa da bavSvobis cnebis axali xedva. bavSvebiarc TavianTi mSoblebis sakuTreba arian da arc qvelmoqmedebis ususuriobieqtebi. isini adamianebi arian, romlebsac sakuTari uflebebi aqvT.konvencia gvTavazobs xedvas bavSvisa, rogorc Zlieri, kompetenturi adamianis,ojaxisa da sazogadoebis wevrisa, romelsac aqvs misi asakisa da simwifisSesabamisi uflebebi da pasuxismgeblobebi. bavSvTa uflebebis am saxiTaRiarebiT konvencia mTlianad bavSvze axdens koncentrirebas.bavSvis uflebaTa komitetiim saxelmwifoTa mTavrobebma, romlebmac moaxdines konvenciis ratificireba,regularulad unda warudginon angariSi bavSvis uflebaTa komitets –eqspertebisgan Semdgar organos, romelic awarmoebs saxelmwifoTa mierkonvenciis Sesrulebis monitorings. am angariSebSi asaxulia qveyanaSi bavSvTauflebebis mxriv arsebuli mdgomareoba da miTiTebulia is zomebi, romlebsacsaxelmwifo axorcielebs am uflebebis xorcSesasxmelad. saxelmwifoTaangariSebis ganxilvisas bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti mouwodebs qveynebisxelisuflebaTa yvela dones, isargeblon konvenciiT, rogorc saxelmZRvaneloprincipiT politikis SemuSavebasa da mis aRsrulebaSi. vinaidan adamianisuflebebis dacva Tavisi xasiaTiT usasrulo procesia, yovelTvis arsebobsraRac iseTi, rasac gaumjobeseba sWirdeba.bavSvTa uflebebis damcveli organos Seqmna da kiTxva, Tu ras niSnavs realuradbavSvTa uflebebi da rogor SeiZleba maTi saukeTeso gziT xorcSesxma, dRemdediskusiebis sagania. bavSvTa uflebebis ganxorcielebis xelSewyoba nawilobrivemyareba imis aRiarebas, rom bavSvebis daucvelobisa da, Sesabamisad, maTisagangebo dacvis saWiroebis gaTviTcnobiereba ar uSlis xels imas, rom bavSvebiiCagrebodnen maT garSemo ufrosebis samyaroSi miRebuli gadawyvetilebebisSedegad. bavSvebis mZime mdgomareobis mimarT TanagrZnoba xSirad iwvevs imas, rom
  • 19. 18bavSvebs aRiqvamen koleqtiurad da epyrobian rogorc qvelmoqmedebis obieqtebsda ara rogorc individuumebs, romelTac sakuTari unarebi, SesaZleblobebi,saWiroebebi da uflebebi aqvT.amis Sedegad bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi xSirad arapolitikurad miiCnevada verc gvardeba. bavSvTa uflebebis ZiriTadi principi is aris, rom sazogadoebavaldebulia, daakmayofilos bavSvis ZiriTadi saWiroebebi da uzrunvelyosdaxmareba misi pirovnebis, niWisa da SesaZleblobebis ganviTarebisaTvis.bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis Seqmna asaxavs zogad wess, rom, rac ufromaRalia uflebebis gaTviTcnobierebis done, miT metia maTi garantirebisSesaZlebloba. bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis wyalobiT bavSvebis uflebebimkafiod, Tanmimdevrulad da yovlismomcveli saxiT aris Camoyalibebuli.bavSvTa uflebebis am saxiT gansazRvra maTi pativiscemisa da Sesrulebiswinapirobaa.Sefasebagaeros bavSvis uflebaTa komitetisaTvis Tqveni qveynis mier wardgenil erovnulangariSebze da komitetis mier am angariSebis ganxilvaze dayrdnobiT imsjeleTimaze, Tu ra meqanizmi arsebobs Tqvens qveyanaSi bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciisSesrulebis monitoringisaTvis da ra gavlenas axdens is.damatebiTi literatura da resursebi`iunisefi~: bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia:http://www.unicef.org/crc/index_index.htmlbavSvis uflebaTa komiteti:http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/index.htm`bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qseli~ (CRIN) - bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia:http://www.crin.com/resources/treaties/CRC.asp?catName=International+Treaties&flag=legal&ID=6`bavSvis uflebaTa aliansi~ _ bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia:http://www.childrensrights.ie/convention.phpsaqarTvelos kanonmdebloba da bavSvTa uflebebibavSvis uflebebi garantirebulia, rogorc saerTaSorisosamarTlebrivi aqtebiT(bavSvis uflebaTa deklaracia, bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia, gaerTianebulierebis organizaciis TavisuflebaaRkveTil arasrulwlovanebTan mopyrobiswesebi (`pekinis wesebi~), gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis arasrulwlovanTaSoris damnaSaveobis profilaqtikis saxelmZRvanelo principebi (er-riadiswesebi); haagis konvencia bavSvis saerTaSoriso gatacebis samoqalaqo aspeqtebisSesaxeb da sxva), aseve erovnuli kanonmdeblobiT. saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebi(konvenciebi, damatebiTi oqmebi, paqtebi da sxva saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebi),romlebic saqarTvelos mier iqna ratificirebuli, saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobisSemadgenel nawils warmoadgenen.
  • 20. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 19saqarTvelo bavSvis uflebaTa konvencias SeuerTda 1994 wels. konvenciismoTxovnaTa Tanaxmad saqarTvelo axorcielebs bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciiTgaTvaliswinebul debulebebs erovnul kanonmdeblobaSi. bavSvis uflebaTakonvencia warmoadgens saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebas da saqarTvelossakanonmdeblo sistemis Semadgenel nawilad iTvleba. konvencia gamoiyenebasaqarTveloSi, rogorc uSualod moqmedi kanoni da saqarTvelos normatiulaqts warmoadgens. ufro metic, saqarTvelos konstituciis Tanaxmad,saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebas an SeTanxmebas, Tu igi arewinaaRmdegeba saqarTvelos konstitucias da konstituciur SeTanxmebas,aqvs upiratesi iuridiuli Zala Sidasaxelmwifoebrivi normatiuli aqtebismimarT. es ki imas niSnavs, rom bavSvis uflebaTa konvencias upiratesi Zalaaqvs saqarTvelos sxva kanonebis mimarT da is SeiZleba gamoyenebul iqnesuSualod.bavSvs (arasrulwlovans) iseTive uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi aqvs,rogorc srulwlovan adamians, zogierTi gamonaklisis garda (magaliTad.saarCevno ufleba). adamianis uflebebi, maT Soris bavSvis uflebaTa dacva,garantirebulia saqarTvelos konstituciis II TaviT. yvela ufleba, romelTadacvac garantirebulia konstituciis meore TaviT, Seexeba bavSvis uflebaTadacvas. konstituciiT daculia bavSvis sicocxlis ufleba, piradi cxovrebisxelSeuxeblobis ufleba, sityvis Tavisufleba, Sekrebebis ufleba, sityvis,azris, sindisis, aRmsareblobisa da rwmenis Tavisufleba, ganviTarebis ufleba,samarTliani sasamarTlos ufleba udanaSaulobis prezumfcia, ukanonodakavebisagan, wamebisagan dacvis ufleba da sxva.saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT arasrulwlovania piri, romelsac ar miuRwevia18 wlis asakisaTvis. samoqalaqo kodeqsis Tanaxmad (1997) arasrulwlovani piriaris uflebaunariani da 7 wlis asakidan CaiTvleba SezRudul qmedunarianad.saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT srul qmedunarianad adamiani iTvleba 18 wlisasakidan, anu piri, romelic Tavisi nebiTa da moqmedebiT srulad axorcielebsTavis sakuTar uflebebsa da movaleobebs.uflebaunarianoba pirs eniWeba dabadebis momentidan gardacvalebis momentamde.gamonakliss warmoadgens memkvidreobis ufleba, romelic pirs warmoeSobaCasaxvis momentidan da am uflebis realizacia damokidebulia bavSvis dabadebaze.saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT srul qmedunarianad adamiani iTvleba 18 wlisasakidan. uflebaunarianoba - fizikuri piris unari, hqondes samoqalaqo uflebebi da movaleobebi, warmoiSoba dabadebis momentidan. qmedunarianoba - fizikuri piris unari, Tavisi nebiTa da moqmedebiT sruli moculobiT SeiZinos da ganaxorcielos samoqalaqo uflebebi da movaleobebi (qmedunarianoba), warmoiSoba srulwlovanebis miRwevisTanave.
  • 21. 207 wlidan bavSvi SezRudul qmedunarianad aris aRiarebuli, rac imas niSnavs,rom mas ar SeuZlia sruli moculobiT SeiZinos da ganaxorcielos samoqalaqouflebebi da movaleobebi. magaliTad, dados garigeba. 7 wlamde asakisbavSvi mcirewlovania da qmeduunaro. mis uflebebs axorcielebs meurve anmzrunveli. meurveoba - meurveoba wesdeba bavSvze, romelsac ar miuRwevia Svidi wlis asakisaTvis an pirze, romelic sasamarTlos mier aRiarebulia qmeduunarod suliT avadmyofobis an Wkuasustobis gamo. mzrunveloba - mzrunveloba wesdeba arasrulwlovanze Svidi wlis asakidan Tvramet wlamde. mzrunveloba wesdeba agreTve srulwlovan qmedunarian pirze misi TxovniT, Tu mas Tavisi janmrTelobis mdgomareobis gamo ar SeuZlia damoukideblad ganaxorcielos Tavisi uflebebi da Seasrulos Tavisi movaleobani. saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organos warmoadgens saqarTvelos Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvis saministro an/da mis sistemaSi Semavali uflebamosili dawesebuleba (organizacia), agreTve maTi teritoriuli organoebi.saqarTvelos samoqalaqo kodeqsi (1997) iTvaliswinebs or garemoebas, romlisdrosac, gansazRvruli pirobebis arsebobisas, piri CaiTvleba emansipirebuladda utoldeba srulwlovan, srul qmedunarian pirs: 1. 16 wlis asaks miRweulipiris qorwineba; 2. kanonieri warmomadgenlis mier 16 wlis asaks miRweulipirisaTvis sawarmos damoukideblad gaZRolis uflebis miniWeba. saqarTveloskanonmdeblobiT saqorwino asakad gansazRvrulia Tvrameti weli. saqarTveloskanonmdebloba qorwinebisas uSvebs gamonakliss. gamonaklis SemTxvevebSiTeqvsmeti wlis asakidan daqorwineba daiSveba mSoblebis an sxva kanonieriwarmomadgenlebis winaswari werilobiTi TanxmobiT. Tanxmobaze mSoblebisan sxva kanonieri warmomadgenlebis uaris SemTxvevaSi pativsadebi mizezebisarsebobisas dasaqorwinebel pirTa gancxadebis safuZvelze daqorwinebisnebarTva SeuZlia gasces sasamarTlom.samoqalaqo samarTlis kodeqsisa da `moqalaqeobis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonisTanaxmad bavSvi dabadebisTanave iZens gvars, saxels da moqalaqeobas.saqarTvelos kanoni `moqalaqeobis Sesaxeb~ (1993) gansazRvravs bavSvismoqalaqeobis sakiTxs. bavSvi, romlis orive mSobeli misi dabadebismomentisaTvis saqarTvelos moqalaqea, saqarTvelos moqalaqed iTvlebadabadebis adgilis miuxedavad. 14-dan 18 wlamde bavSvis moqalaqeobis SecvlaSeiZleba mxolod misi TanxmobiT.bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis me-9 muxlis Tanaxmad yvela bavSvi undaizrdebodes ojaxSi da ar daSordes Tavis mSoblebs maTi survilissawinaaRmdegod. es moTxovna Tavis asaxvas povebs saqarTvelos samoqalaqokodeqsSi, romlis Tanaxmad `bavSvs aqvs ufleba, cxovrobdes da izrdebodes
  • 22. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 21ojaxSi~. Svilebis aRzrdis yvela sakiTxs mSoblebi urTierTSeTanxmebiTwyveten. mSobelTa SeuTanxmeblobis SemTxvevaSi sadavo sakiTxs wyvetssasamarTlo mSoblebis da arasrulwlovnis monawileobiT.bavSvis uflebebi daculia mSoblebis ganqorwinebis SemTxvevaSic. Tuganqorwinebis gamo an sxva mizeziT bavSvis mSoblebi cal-calke cxovroben,maT SeTanxmebazea damokidebuli, Tu visTan icxovrebs arasrulwlovaniSvili. meuRleTa Soris davis SemTxvevaSi am sakiTxs wyvets sasamarTlobavSvis interesebis gaTvaliswinebiT. sasamarTloSi bavSvis uflebebs icavsmeurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organos mier daniSnuli bavSvis warmomadgeneli,romelic saqmis sasamarTloSi ganxilvis dros bavSvis interesebs warmoadgens.kanonmdeblobiT daculia bavSvis qonebrivi uflebebic. saWiroebisSemTxvevaSi, bavSvis qonebriv uflebebis dacvas axorcielebs qonebis meurve.im SemTxvevaSi, rodesac mSobels, romelic sistematurad aridebs Tavs mSoblismovaleobis Sesrulebas da arajerovnad iyenebs mSoblis uflebebs – bavSvsuxeSad eqceva, masze uaryofiT gavlenas axdens Tavisi amoraluri saqcieliT, anqronikuli alkoholiki an narkomania, sasamarTlos gadawyvetilebiT SeiZlebaCamoerTvas mSoblis yvela ufleba da movaleoba. es SeiZleba moxdes, rogorcmeurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organos iniciativiT, ise 14 wlis asaks miRweulibavSvis moTxovniT.arasrulwlovans aqvs dacvis ufleba mSobelTa (sxva kanonier warmomadgenelTa)mxridan uflebamosilebis borotad gamoyenebis winaaRmdeg. arasrulwlovnisuflebebisa da kanonieri interesebis darRvevisas, maT Soris, mSobelTa(erT-erTi mSoblis) mier bavSvis aRzrdasTan, ganaTlebasTan dakavSirebulimovaleobebis Seusruleblobis an arasaTanadod Sesrulebisas, an mSoblisuflebis borotad gamoyenebis SemTxvevaSi, arasrulwlovans ufleba aqvs,damoukideblad mimarTos meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organoebs, 14 wlisasakidan ki – sasamarTlos.samoqalaqo samarTlis saproceso kodeqsiT, samoqalaqo saqmeebze davebisganxilvisas daculia arasrulwlovanTa uflebebi. 7-dan 18 wlamdearasrulwlovanTa uflebebsa da kanoniT dacul interesebs sasamarTloSiicaven maTi mSoblebi, mSvileblebi an mzrunvelebi. amasTanave, sasamarTlovaldebulia, aseT saqmeebSi Caabas TviT arasrulwlovnebic. Tuarasrulwlovans kanoniT miniWebuli aqvs ufleba, TviTon, damoukidebladgankargos Tavisi qoneba, dados wvrilmani sayofacxovrebo garigebebi daa. S., mas ufleba aqvs sasamarTloSi piradad daicvas Tavisi uflebebi dakanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli interesebi, iyos mosarCele, mopasuxe an mesamepiri. sasamarTlos SeuZlia, arasrulwlovanis SuamdgomlobiT an TavisiiniciativiT, saqmeSi Caabas misi kanonieri warmomadgenelic.saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebul SemTxvevaSi arasrulwlovans14 wlis asakidan ufleba aqvs, mimarTos sasamarTlos Tavisi uflebebisa dakanonieri interesebis dasacavad. am SemTxvevaSi sasamarTlo niSnavs saproceso
  • 23. 22warmomadgenels da ganixilavs saqmes. arasrulwlovan mosarCeles uflebaaqvs, ar daeTanxmos Tavis saproceso warmomadgenels da TviTon daicvassakuTari Tavi. sasamarTlo valdebulia aseT saqmeebze Caabas meurveobisa damzrunvelobis organoebi. samoqalaqo davebis ganxilvisas, 14 wlis asakamdemowmis dakiTxvisas, xolo sasamarTlos SexedulebiT 14-dan 18 wlis asakamdemowmis dakiTxvis drosac, SeiZleba mowveul iqnes pedagogi, aucileblobisSemTxvevaSi SeiZleba moiwvion agreTve mSoblebi, mSvileblebi, meurveebi anmzrunvelebi. mosarCele - samoqalaqo procesSi fizikuri an iuridiuli piri, romelic mimarTavs sasamarTlos, arbitraJs an samediatoro sasamarTlos mopasuxis mier darRveuli Tu sadavod qceuli uflebis an kanonieri interesebis dasacavad. mopasuxe - samoqalaqo procesis an sameurneo davis erT-erTi mxare. mopasuxes pasuxs sTxovs sasamarTlo an arbitraJi mosarCelis im gancxadebis mixedviT, rom mopasuxem daarRvia an sadavo gaxada mosarCelis ufleba.bavSvis konvenciis me-20 muxlis Tanaxmad, im SemTxvevebSic ki, rodesacbavSvs ar hyavs mSoblebi, is saxelmwifos dacvis qveS imyofeba. amavedebulebas iziarebs saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba. kerZod, Tu napovniabavSvi, romlis vinaoba, mSoblebis vinaoba da maTi adgilsamyofeli ucnobia,saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT, meurveobisa da mzrunvelobis organovaldebulia ganaxorcielos yvela qmedeba bavSvisa da misi mSoblebisvinaobis dadgenisaTvis. Tu bavSvis da misi mSoblebis vinaoba saqarTveloskanonmdeblobis Sesabamisad ver dgindeba, meurveobisa da mzrunvelobisorgano valdebulia, miiRos zomebi bavSvis mosavlelad da mimarTossasamarTlos bavSvis mitovebulad aRiarebisaTvis.saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba icavs bavSvis interesebs gaSvilebisas. 10 welsmiRweuli bavSvis gaSvileba misi Tanxmobi gareSe ar daiSveba. kanoni mkacradicavs Svilad ayvanis konfidencialobis dacvis uflebas. sisxlis samarTliskodeqsis Tanaxmad, dasjadia Svilad ayvanis saidumloebis gamJRavneba; piradian ojaxuri saidumlos xelyofa.saqarTvelos kanoni `Svilad ayvanis da mindobis Sesaxeb~ (2010) erTmaneTisaganganasxvavebs mindobasa da gaSvilebas.mindobiT aRzrda (Svilobilad ayvana) – Svilobilad mindoba gulisxmobssaxelmwifosa da mimReb ojaxs Soris ormxrivi xelSekrulebis safuZvelzebavSvis aRsazrdelad ganTavsebas winaswar Seswavlil da SerCeul ojaxSi. amperiodis manZilze biologiur ojaxs aqvs SesaZlebloba, iqonios mudmivikontaqti bavSvTan, maTi ararsebobisas ki bavSvi 18 wlis asakidan Tavisufaliada ar aris damokidebuli mimReb ojaxze
  • 24. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 23Svilad ayvana – termini _ bavSvis Svilad ayvana niSnavs sasamarTlosgadawyvetilebiT bavSvis samudamod gadacemas ojaxisaTvis. Svilad ayvanasamudamod cvlis bavSvis statuss. igi xdeba mSvilebeli mSoblebis gvarismatarebeli da maTi qonebis memkvidre. aseT SemTxvevaSi, biologiur ojaxTanyvela saxis kavSiri wydeba. gasaSvilebeli bavSvi – 18 wlamde asakis piri,romelic am kanoniT dadgenili wesiT aRricxulia gasaSvilebel bavSvTa damSvilebelTa erTian reestrSi da akmayofilebs kanoniT dadgenil moTxovnebs(18 wlamde piri; romlis mSoblebi sasamarTlom aRiara ugzo-ukvloddakargulad an gardacvlilad; mitovebuli bavSvi; oboli bavSvi; mSoblebisTanxmobiT gaSvilebuli piri; bavSvi, romlis mSoblebsac CamoerTva mSoblisufleba) g) napovni bavSvi – 18 wlamde asakis piri, romlis aRmoCenis momentSida am momentidan 6 kviris vadaSi ver dadginda misi an/da mSoblis (mSoblebis)vinaoba, mis mitovebul bavSvad aRiarebamde; d) mitovebuli bavSvi – 18 wlamdeasakis piri, romlis aRmoCenis momentSi da am momentidan 6 kviris vadaSi verdadginda misi an/da mSoblis (mSoblebis) vinaoba da romelic saqarTveloskanonmdeblobiT dadgenili wesiT aRiarebul iqna mitovebulad. mindobiTaRsazrdelad gadacemuli bavSvi - mSoblebs CamoerTvaT an SeuCerdaT mSoblisuflebebi da movaleobebi da bavSvi unda ganTavsdes Tavisi ojaxis gareT. TumSoblis ufleba, gadawyvitos, visTan icxovros misma Svilma, SezRudulia dabavSvi unda ganTavsdes Tavisi ojaxis gareT; Tu bavSvis datoveba meurvesTanan mzrunvelTan misgan damoukidebeli mizezebiT bavSvisTvis sazianoa; TuSvilis CamorTmeva xdeba mSoblis uflebebisa da movaleobebis CamorTmevisan SezRudvis gareSe.amave kanoniT, bavSvi, Tu man miaRwia 10 wels an 10 welze meti asakisaa, areTanxmeba Svilad ayvanas (gaSvilebaze) an mindobiT aRzrdas, ar SeiZleba iqnesgaSvilebuli, aseve akrZalulia 10 wlis an 10 welze meti asakis bavSvis gaSvilebamisi Tanxmobis gareSe. dauSvebelia da-Zmis, debis an/da Zmebis daSoreba, garda imSemTxvevisa, rodesac es Seesabameba maT interesebs. mSvileblisa da gasaSvilebelibavSvis (Tu igi 10 wlisaa an 10 welze metisaa) moTxovniT sasamarTlo sxdomaSeiZleba iyos Ria, xolo informacia - sajaro. Tu naSvilebi 10 wlisaa an 10welze metisaa, Svilad ayvanis Sesaxeb sasamarTlo gadawyvetilebis gauqmebadasaSvebia mxolod naSvilebis TanxmobiT.gaSvilebisas an mindobisas SesaZleblobis farglebSi uzrunvelyofili undaiqnes bavSvis axlo eTnikur, religiur da kulturul garemoSi aRzrdisSesaZlebloba.bavSvis janmrTelobis dacvis ufleba da am sferoSi misi nebis pativiscema aisaxasaqarTvelos sxvadasxva sakanonmdeblo aqtebSi: saqarTvelos kanoni janmrTelobisdacvis Sesaxeb; pacientis uflebaTa Sesaxeb; organoTa gadanergvis Sesaxeb da sxva.arasrulwlovan pacientTa uflebebi yvelaze kargad vlindeba saqarTveloskanonSi `pacientTa uflebebis Sesaxeb~ (2000), romelic arasrulwlovanpacientebs iseTsave uflebebs aniWebs, rogorc srulwlovans, garda imspecifikuri SemTxvevebisa, rodesac Tavisi asakis gamo, pacienti mometebul
  • 25. 24yuradRebas saWiroebs. magaliTad, informirebuli Tanxmobis micema raimesamedicino manipulaciisas.kanonmdebeli did yuradRebas uTmobs arasrulwlovnis janmrTelobis Sesaxebinformaciis dacvas. mSoblebs an kanonier warmomadgenlebs arasrulwlovanisjanmrTelobis Sesaxeb informacia ar miewodeba, Tu informaciis miwodebiswinaaRmdegia TviT qmedunariani arasrulwlovani pacienti, aseve 14-dan 18wlamde asakis arasrulwlovani pacienti, romelic samedicino momsaxurebisgamwevis SexedulebiT sworad afasebs sakuTari janmrTelobis mdgomareobasda romelmac eqims mimarTa sqesobrivad gadamdebi daavadebis an narkomaniismkurnalobis, kontracefciis araqirurgiuli meTodebis Sesaxeb konsultaciismiRebis an orsulobis xelovnurad Sewyvetis mizniT. 14-dan 18 wlamdeasakis arasrulwlovan pacients, romelic samedicino momsaxurebis gamwevisSexedulebiT sworad afasebs sakuTari janmrTelobis mdgomareobas, uflebaaqvs ganacxados informirebuli Tanxmoba samedicino momsaxurebaze, Tu mansamedicino momsaxurebis gamwevs mimarTa sqesobrivad gadamdebi daavadebis annarkomaniis mkurnalobis, kontracefciis araqirurgiuli meTodebis Sesaxebkonsultaciis miRebis an orsulobis xelovnurad Sewyvetis mizniT.saqarTvelos kanoni `fsiqiatriuli daxmarebis Sesaxeb~ (2006) gansazRvravsiseT SemTxvevebs, rodesac arasrulwlovani uars ambobs mkurnalobaze.arasrulwlovans gaaCnia mkurnalobaze uaris Tqmis ufleba, Tu aqvs unari,miiRos gacnobierebuli gadawyvetileba.bavSvis uflebebis dacva garantirebulia saqarTvelos kanoniT `zogadiganaTlebis Sesaxeb~ (2005). kanonis Tanaxmad, moswavles aqvs ufleba: TanabarpirobebSi, diskriminaciis gareSe, dadgenili wesiT, saskolo dros an skolisteritoriaze isargeblos am TaviT daculi da skolis mier aRiarebuli yvelauflebiTa da TavisuflebiT, agreTve skolis yvela resursiT; saxelmwifo icavsmoswavlis da mSoblis saganmanaTleblo arCevanis Tavisuflebas. moswavledaculi unda iyos arasaTanado mopyrobis, uyuradRebobisa da Seuracxyofisagan;sakuTari uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis Sesaxeb codnis ufleba.moswavleebs aqvT ufleba, flobdnen informacias TavianTi uflebebisada Tavisuflebebis, agreTve maTi SezRudvis safuZvlebis Sesaxeb. skolavaldebulia, yovel axal moswavles gaacnos misi uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi;uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis SezRudvisas moswavles gonivrul vadaSiganumartos SezRudvis safuZveli, moswavles ki aqvs ufleba, piradad anarCeuli warmomadgenlis meSveobiT monawileoba miiRos skolis marTvaSi,miiRos skolaSi arsebuli nebismieri informacia, garda piradi saidumloebisSemcveli informaciisa; moiTxovos da miiRos skolis mier masTan dakavSirebulisakiTxis gadawyvetileba, moiTxovos misi azris mosmena da monawileoba miiRosganxilvaSi uSualod an warmomadgenlis meSveobiT.`bavSvTa da axalgazrduli kavSirebis saxelmwifoebrivi mxardaWeris Sesaxeb“(1999) saqarTvelos kanoniT daculia bavSvebis mier Seqmnil sxvadasxva saxis
  • 26. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 25organizaciebi _ bavSvTa kavSirebi. bavSvTa kavSiri aris saqarTvelos samoqalaqokodeqsiT gansazRvruli wesiT Seqmnili arasamewarmeo (arakomerciuli)iuridiuli piri, romlis sadamfuZneblo dokumentaciiT gansazRvrulisaqmianobis mizania bavSvTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvis, maTi niWisada unaris ganviTarebisa da sazogadoebaSi damkvidrebisaTvis xelis Sewyoba.bavSvTa kavSirSi gawevrianebisa da sadamfuZneblo dokumentaciiT gansazRvrulsaqmianobaSi monawileobis ufleba aqvs nebismier pirs 7 wlis asakidan, Tavisikanonieri warmomadgenlis TanxmobiT.saqarTvelos kanoniT `reklamis Sesaxeb~ (1998) daculia arasrulwlovnisuflebebi. kerZod, reklamis warmoebis, ganTavsebisa da gavrcelebisdros arasrulwlovanTa gulubryvilobisa da gamoucdelobis borotadgamoyenebisagan maTi dacvis mizniT akrZalulia: a) arasrulwlovanTaSTagoneba _ daarwmunon mSoblebi an sxva pirebi reklamirebuli saqonlisSeZenaSi; b) arasrulwlovanTa yuradRebis mipyroba imaze, rom reklamirebulisaqonlis floba upiratesobas aniWebs maT sxva arasrulwlovanTa mimarT,xolo misi uqonloba iwvevs sawinaaRmdego efeqts; g) reklamaSi iseTi teqstis,audio- da videoinformaciis moTavseba, romlebic aCvenebs arasrulwlovnebssaSiS adgilas da saSiS viTarebaSi; d) arasrulwlovanTaTvis saqonlisgamosayeneblad saWiro Cvevebis aucilebeli donis gauTvaliswinebloba.amasTan, Tu saqonlis gamoyenebis Sedegebi naCvenebi an aRwerilia,reklama unda iZleodes informacias imis Sesaxeb, risi miRwevac realuradSesaZlebelia im asakobrivi jgufis arasrulwlovanTaTvis, romlisTvisacgankuTvnilia es saqoneli; e) arasrulwlovanTaTvis saqonlis Rirebulebaze(fasze) ararealuri (damaxinjebuli) warmodgenis Seqmna, kerZod, sityvebis`mxolod~, `sul raRac~ da maT msgavsTa gamoyenebiT, agreTve pirdapiri aniribi miTiTebiT imaze, rom reklamirebuli saqoneli xelmisawvdomia yvelaojaxis biujetisaTvis.saqarTvelos kanoni `mavne zegavlenisagan arasrulwlovanTa dacvis Sesaxeb~(2001) gulisxmobs dacvas im mavne zegavlenisagan, romelic dakavSirebuliaalkoholuri sasmelebis da Tambaqos momxmareba-gasaRebasTan, azartulTamaSobebSi monawileobasTan, iseT filmebis CvenebasTan, nabeWdi produqciismoxmareba-gasaRebasTan, romelmac SeiZleba ziani miayenos arasrulwlovnisfsiqikur an/da fizikur janmrTelobas, mis moralur da socialur ganviTarebas.analogiur akrZalvas Seicavs saqarTvelos kanoni `mauwyeblobis Sesaxeb~(2004), romlis mixediTac ikrZaleba bavSvTa da mozardTa fizikur, gonebrivda zneobriv ganviTarebaze mavne zegavlenis momxdeni programebis im drosganTavseba, roca maT mier am programebis naxvis an mosmenis didi albaTobaarsebobs.arasrulwlovanTa SromiTi uflebebis dacvis garantiebi CamoyalibebuliasaqarTvelos Sromis kodeqsSi (2006). saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba zogadadiTvaliswinebs Sromis saerTaSoriso organizaciisa (ILO) da sxva saerTaSorisoorganizaciebis rezoluciebsa da standartebs.
  • 27. 26saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT samuSaoze miRebis minimaluri asakia16 weli. saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT ar aris akrZaluli 16 wlamdearasrulwlovanis dasaqmeba, magram kanonmdebeli miuTiTebs im pirobebze,romelic unda iqnes gaTvaliswinebuli arasrulwlovanis dasaqmebisas:kanonieri warmomadgenlis an mzrunvelobis/meurveobis organos Tanxmoba;rodesac … SromiTi urTierTobebi ar ewinaaRmdegeba arasrulwlovanisinteresebs; zians ar ayenebs mis zneobriv, fizikur da gonebriv ganviTarebas;ar uzRudavs mas savaldebulo dawyebiTi da sabazo ganaTlebis miRebisuflebas da SesaZleblobas. 14 wlamde asakis arasrulwlovanTan SesaZlebeliaSromiTi xelSekrulebis dadeba, magram mxolod sportul, xelovnebasTandakavSirebul da kulturis sferoSi saqmianobaze, aseve sareklamo samuSaosSesasruleblad.akrZalulia arasrulwlovanTan SromiTi xelSekrulebis dadeba saTamaSobiznesTan, Ramis gasarTob dawesebulebebTan, erotikuli da pornografiuliproduqciis, farmacevtuli da toqsikuri nivTierebebis damzadebasTan,gadazidvasTan da realizaciasTan dakavSirebuli samuSaoebis Sesasruleblad.arasrulwlovanis kanonier warmomadgenels an mzrunvelobis/meurveobisorganos ufleba aqvT moiTxovon arasrulwlovanTan SromiTi xelSekrulebismoSla, Tu muSaobis gagrZeleba zians miayenebs arasrulwlovnis sicocxles,janmrTelobas an sxva, mniSvnelovan interesebs.Sromis kodeqsiT akrZalulia arasrulwlovanTan SromiTi xelSekrulebisdadeba mZime, mavne da saSiSpirobebiani samuSaoebis Sesasruleblad. SromiTikodeqsi zRudavs arasrulwlovnis 22 saaTidan 6 saaTamde dasaqmebas.bavSvis uflebebis dacvis meqnizmebi Cadebulia saqarTvelos kanonSi `ojaxSiZaladobis aRkveTis, ojaxSi Zaladobis msxverlTa dacvisa da daxmarebisSesaxeb~ (2006). ojaxSi Zaladoba gulisxmobs ojaxis erTi wevris mier meoris konstituciuri uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis darRvevas fizikuri, fsiqologiuri, ekonomikuri, seqsualuri ZaladobiT an iZulebiT.kanonis Tanaxmad, bavSvis mimarT fizikuri Zaladobis kvalis arsebobisaskanoniT dadgenili wesiT unda moxdes bavSvis misi mSoblebisagan gancalkeveba.sasamarTlos saboloo gadawyvetilebis miRebamde droebiTi RonisZiebis saxiTdamcavi orderis safuZvelze xdeba bavSvis gancalkeveba moZalade mSoblisagan.sasamarTlo gansazRvravs moZalade mSoblis mier bavSvis monaxulebis vadebs. amdrosac kanoni mkacrad icavs bavSvis usafrTxoebas. mSobels bavSvis monaxulebisufleba SeiZleba mieces mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, roca mis mimarT daculi iqnebausafrTxoebis yvela zoma, romelic SeiZleba moicavdes bavSvis monaxulebisadgils, dros, periodulobas, xangrZlivobas da pirs, romelic pasuxismgebeliabavSvis usafrTxoebis moTxovnebis dacvaze. Tu bavSvis mimarT usafrTxoebiszomebi daculi ar aris, moZalade mSoblis mier bavSvis monaxulebis uflebaizRudeba.
  • 28. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 272010 wlis martidan funqcionirebs “bavSvTa dacvis mimarTvianobis procedurebi”,romelic sami saministros – Sromis, janmrTelobisa da socialuri dacvissaministro, Sinagan saqmeTa saministro da ganaTlebisa da mecnierebissaministro – koordinaciis meqanizms warmoadgens da miznad isaxavs bavSvismimarT Zaladobis faqtebis adreul etapze gamovlenasa da maTze reagirebas.ojaxSi Zaladobis faqtze operatiuli reagirebisaTvis uflebamosili organosmier msxverplis dacvisa da moZaladis garkveuli moqmedebebis SezRudvisuzrunvelsayofad, droebiTi RonisZiebis saxiT, SesaZlebelia, gamoicesSemakavebeli an damcavi orderi. damcavi orderi aris pirveli instanciis sasamarTlos (mosamarTlis) mier administraciuli samarTalwarmoebis wesiT gamocemuli aqti, romliTac ganisazRvreba ojaxSi Zaladobis SemTxvevaSi Zaladobis msxverplis dacvis droebiTi RonisZiebebi, garda im SemTxvevisa, rodesac arsebobs sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis aRZvris safuZveli da pirs aRkveTis RonisZiebis saxiT Sefardebuli aqvs patimroba. moZaladis mier damcavi orderiT gaTvaliswinebuli moTxovnebis Seusrulebloba iwvevs sisxlissamarTlebriv pasuxismgeblobas. Semakavebeli orderi aris policiis uflebamosili TanamSromlis mier gamocemuli aqti, romliTac ganisazRvreba ojaxSi Zaladobis SemTxvevaSi Zaladobis msxverplis dacvis droebiTi RonisZiebebi da romelic gamocemidan 24 saaTis ganmavlobaSi dasamtkiceblad waredgineba sasamarTlos.bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis 32-e muxli krZalavs bavSvis monuri Sromisgamoyenebas. analogiuri akrZalva mocemulia `transnacionaluri organizebulidanaSaulis winaaRmdeg~ gaeros konvenciisa da misi damatebiTi oqmi `adamianebis,gansakuTrebiT qalebisa da bavSvebis, trefikingis Tavidan acilebis, aRkveTisada dasjis Sesaxeb~, romlis monawilec 2006 wlidan saqarTveloc gaxda. trefikingi (adamianiT vaWroba) - adamianis yidva an gayidva, an mis mimarT sxva ukanono garigebis ganxorcieleba, agreTve muqariT, ZaladobiT an iZulebis sxva formiT, motacebiT, SantaJiT, TaRliTobiT, motyuebiT, umweo mdgomareobis an Zalauflebis borotad gamoyenebiT, sazRauris anda sargeblis micemis an miRebis gziT im piris Tanxmobis misaRwevad, romelsac sxva pirze zegavlenis moxdena SeuZlia, adamianis gadabireba, gadayvana, gadamalva, daqiraveba, transportireba, gadacema, Sefareba anda miReba eqspluataciis mizniT. arasrulwlovniT vaWroba (trefikingi) - arasrulwlovnis yidva an gayidva, an mis mimarT sxva ukanono garigebis ganxorcieleba, agreTve misi gadabireba, gadayvana, gadamalva, daqiraveba, transportireba, gadacema, Sefareba anda miReba eqspluataciis mizniT.trefikingis msxverpl bavSvTa uflebebis dacva xorcieldeba transnacionaluriorganizebuli danaSaulis winaaRmdeg gaeros konvenciis oqmiT adamianebis,
  • 29. 28gansakuTrebiT qalebisa da bavSvebis, trefikingis Tavidan acilebis, aRkveTisada dasjis, agreTve `adamianebiT vaWrobis (trefikingis) winaaRmdeg brZolisSesaxeb~ evropis sabWos konvenciiT gaTvaliswinebuli bavSvis uflebaTa dacvismeqanizmebiT da saerTaSoriso organizaciebis mier miRebuli saxelmZRvanelomiTiTebebiT. am dokumentebis safuZvelze. saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTliskodeqsSi gaTvaliswinebulia specialuri muxlebi – adamianiT vaWroba(trefikingi); arasrulwlovniT vaWroba (trefikingi); adamianis vaWrobis(trefikingis) msxverlis (dazaralebulis) momsaxurebiT sargebloba.saqarTveloSi moqmedebs specialuri kanoni `adamianiT vaWrobis (trefikingis)winaaRmdeg brZolis Sesaxeb” (2006), romliTac daculia bavSvis uflebebi.saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba yuradRebas uTmobs kanonTan konfliqtSi myofimozardisadmi efeqtur, samarTlian da humanur damokidebulebas da cdilobs,erovnul kanonmdeblobaSi daamkvidros saerTaSoriso standartebi am sferoSi.adaministraciul samarTaldarRvevaTa kodeqsiT administraciulipasuxismgebloba ekisrebaT administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis CadenismomentisaTvis Teqvsmeti wlis asaks miRweul pirebs. magaliTad, metropoliteniTsargeblobis wesebis darRveva; wvrilmani xulignoba an xulignoba, CadeniliToTxmetidan Teqvsmet wlamde mozardis mier, wvrilmani qurdoba da sxva.administraciuli patimroba ar SeiZleba SeefardoT Tvrameti wlis asaksmiuRwevel pirebs.saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi uxvad Seicavs arasrulwlovanTauflebebis dacviT normebs. arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis saqarTveloSiarsebuli sistemis Sesaxeb dawvrilebiT ixileT me-2 TavSi.gamoxatvis Tavisufleba da bavSvis uflebebis dacva qarTulkanonmdeblobaSisaqarTvelos konstituciis 24-e muxli aRiarebs informaciisa da ideebisdaubrkoleblad gavrcelebisa da miRebis uflebas, Tumca SezRudvis erT-erT kriteriumad adgens sxva pirTa uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebis dacvas.Sesabamisad, gamoxatvis Tavisufleba SeiZleba SeizRudos im SemTxvevaSi, Tu islaxavs bavSvis konstituciiT dacul sxva uflebebs da winaaRmdegobaSi modisbavSvis konstituciiT dacul interesebTan.imTaviTve unda aRiniSnos, rom saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba gansxvavebul wesebsudgens samauwyeblo (tele- da radiomauwyebloba) mediasa da presas. samauwyeblomedias gacilebiT meti regulacia da valdebulebebi aqvs, misi zemoqmedebisSesaZleblobebidan gamomdinare.1bavSvTa uflebebis dacvas mediaSi iTvaliswinebda kanoni `mavne zegavlenisaganarasrulwlovanTa dacvis Sesaxeb~. 2004 wlis 23 dekembris cvlilebebis Tanaxmad1 ra Tqma unda, regulaciebi marto gavlenis SesaZlebelobebidan ar aris ganpirobebuli. mnSvnelovania amowurvadi resursebiT sargblobac, Tumca gansaxilvel SemTxvevaSi mniSvnelovania swored es sakiTxi, ris gamoc moxda masze aqcentireba.
  • 30. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 29aRniSnuli funqcia srulad gadavida komunikaciebis erovnuli komisiisregulirebis sferoSi da mas daevala `mauwyebelTa qcevis kodeqsis miReba~,romliTac dadgindeboda bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebisaTvis savaldebulowesebi. swored is faqti, rom arasrulwlovanTa interesebis dacva mediaSigaTvaliswinebulia mxolod da mxolod `mauwyebelTa qcevis kodeqsSi~,ganapirobebs mis savaldebuloobas mauwyeblebis da ara presis mimarT.presis mimarT vrceldeba is zogadi kriteriumebi da moTxovnebi, rac dadgeniliakonstituciiTa da kanoniT `sityvisa da gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis Sesaxeb~.magaliTad, yalbi faqtebis, Seuracxmyofeli masalebis gavrcelebiT, sxvapirovnuli uflebebis darRvevis SemTxvevaSi dainteresebul pirs SesaZleblobaaqvs, dava awarmoos sasamarTloSi media saSualebis winaaRmdeg. aRniSnuli imasgulisxmobs, rom presas SeuZlia imoqmedos sakuTari eTikuri standartebisSesabamisad, winaswar kanoniT dadgenili wesebis gareSe, xolo dainteresebulpirs2 aqvs post-faqtum reagirebis ufleba.gansxvavebul mdgomareobaSia samauwyeblo media. Jurnalistebis mierarasrulwlovanTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebisaTvis savaldebulo wesebs adgenssaqarTvelos komunikaciebis erovnuli komisiis 2009 wlis 12 martis dadgenilebiTdamtkicebuli `mauwyebelTa qcevis kodeqsis~ me-11 Tavi. qcevis kodeqsi adgensim winaswar kriteriumebs, rac savaldebulod unda gaiTvaliswinos mauwyebelma.magaliTad, sabavSvo gadacemebis gaSveba gansazRvrul dros, savaraudoauditoriis winaswar gansazRvra.arasrulwlovnebze mavne zegavlenis Tavidan acilebis mizniT filmebzegamoiyeneba Sesabamisi specialuri SemzRudavi niSani. gansakuTrebuladSezRudulia uxamsi da Zaladobis amsaxveli masalebis gaSveba eTerSi im dros,rodesac, savaraudod, didia arasrulwlovanTa auditoria. aseve akrZaluliamaTTvis gankuTvnil gadacemebSi Seuracxmyofeli leqsikis gamoyeneba.arasrulwlovanTa interesebis dacvis TavlsazrisiT gansakuTrebulimniSvneloba akisria sazogadoebriv mauwyebels, romelic `mauwyeblobis Sesaxeb~kanonis3 Tanaxmad valdebulia, programebSi asaxos asakobrivi mravalferovnebada, aseve, bavSvTa da mozardTa interesebis Sesabamisi proporciiT ganaTavsossabavSvo programebi.sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis sameurveo sabWos mier datkicebul 2010 wlissamoqmedo gegmaSi gansakuTrebulad aris gamoyofili bavSvTa interesebisgaTvaliswineba. sazogadoebrivi mauwyeblis erT-erTi prioritetia `sabavSvoda axalgazrduli programebi yvela asakobrivi (skolamdeli, umcrosi saskolo,ufrosi saskolo, studentebi) jgufisaTvis~.42 am SemTxvevaSi igulisxmeba bavSvi da misi kanonieri warmomadgeneli.3 ix. saqarTvelos kanoni `mauwyeblobis Sesaxeb~ muxli 16.4 www.gpb.ge
  • 31. 303. bavSvis uflebebi da mediaZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi  mediis gavlena axalgazrdebze  bavSvebis asaxva mediaSi  mediis mier bavSvebis eqspluatacia  bavSvebis monawileoba mediaSi  mediis mxridan bavSvze zemoqmedebis fsiqologiuri aspeqtebi`oslos gamowveva~1999 wlis noemberSi mediaproeqtebSi Cabmuli axalgazrdebi, mediisprofesionalebi da bavSvis uflebaTa eqspertebi Seikribnen norvegiis dedaqalaqosloSi, raTa ganexilaT, Tu ra rolis Sesruleba SeuZlia medias bavSvisuflebebis ganviTarebaSi msoflio masStabiT. msjeloba moicavda xuT Temas:  bavSvis ufleba, xeli miuwvdebodes mediaze, maT Soris axal mediaze;  bavSvis ufleba, miiRos codna da Seiqmnas warmodgena mediasTan dakavSirebiT;  bavSvis ufleba, monawileoba miiRos mediaSi;  bavSvis ufleba, daculi iyos mediiT miyenebuli zianisgan da ekranze arsebuli Zaladobisgan;  mediis roli bavSvis uflebebis dacvasa da xelSewyobaSi.am ganxilvebis safuZvelze gaCnda `oslos gamowveva~, romelic aRiarebda, rom`bavSvebsa da medias Soris urTierToba aris kari bavSvebis da maTi uflebebisdid da mravalsaxovan samyaroSi – ganaTlebis, gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis,TamaSis, identobis, janmrTelobis, Rirsebis da sakuTari Tavis pativiscemis,dacvis samyaroSi – da rom media garkveul rols TamaSobs bavSvis uflebebisyvela aspeqtSi, bavSvis cxovrebis yovel elementSi~.`oslos gamowveva~ moqmedebisken mowodebaa. igi yvelas miswvda, vinc bavSvebisada mediis rTuli urTierTobis kvleviT, ganviTarebiT da monitoringiT arisdakavebuli da monawileobs amaSi: mTavrobebi, organizaciebi da kerZo pirebi,romlebic bavSvebis sakiTxebze muSaoben, mediis profesionalebi yvela donezeda yvela media saSualebaSi, kerZo seqtori, maT Soris mediis mflobelebi,bavSvebi da axalgazrdebi, mSoblebi, maswavleblebi da mkvlevrebi (`iunisefis~vebgverdi www.unicef.org/magic am mowodebaze gamoxmaurebaa – aq mocemuliamTeli msoflios bavSvebis mier bavSvebisTvis da bavSvebis monawileobiTSeqmnili mediaproeqtebi, sxva bmulebTan da informaciasTan erTad).gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis ramdenime ZiriTadi muxli exeba mediisa dabavSvebis sakiTxebs. bavSvis uflebaTa komitetma sami ZiriTadi sakiTxi gamoyogansaxilvelad:
  • 32. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 31  mediis saSualebebiT bavSvis warmoCenis gaumjobeseba;  bavSvebis waxaliseba, rom aqtiurad miiRon mediaSi monawileoba;  bavSvebis dacva mediis mavne zemoqmedebisgan.konvenciis me-17 muxli ganmartavs mediis mniSvnelovan rols informaciisgavrcelebaSi da ganusazRvravs monawile saxelmwifoebs konkretul amocanebs,rac farTo gagebiT xels uwyobs bavSvis keTildReobas. igulisxmeba, romsaxelmwifoebi `aRiareben masobrivi informaciis saSualebaTa mniSvnelovanrols~ da `uzrunvelyofen bavSvisaTvis sxvadasxva erovnuli da saerTaSorisowyaroebiT gavrcelebuli informaciisa da masalebis xelmisawvdomobas,gansakuTrebiT iseTi informaciis da masalebisa, romlebic mimarTulia bavSvissocialuri, sulieri da moraluri keTildReobisaken, agreTve jansaRi fizikurida fsiqikuri ganviTarebis xelSewyobisaken.~konvenciis me-12 muxli aRiarebs bavSvis uflebas, gamoxatos Tavisi Sexedulebebinebismier sakiTxze, romelic mas exeba. me-13 muxli amkvidrebs gamoxatvisTavisuflebas: `es ufleba moicavs Tavisuflebas, miuxedavad sazRvrebisa,moiZios, miiRos an gaavrcelos nebismieri saxis informacia an mosazrebebizepirad, werilobiT an beWdviTi formiT, xelovnebis saxiT an nebismieri sxvasaSualebiT sakuTari arCevanisamebr.~es muxlebi emsaxureba ara marto kargad informirebuli moqalaqis Camoyalibebas,aramed imasac, rom axalgazrdebis xma ufro xSirad ismodes masobriviinformaciis saSualebebiT. igi iZleva mkafio gzavnils, rom bavSvebi unda iyvnensaainformacio revoluciis rogorc monawileebi, ise beneficiarebi.ukanaskneli ori aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi, kerZod, masobrivi informaciis axalisaSualebebisa da internetis gavrcelebis Semdeg, bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebismediis sakiTxma globaluri mniSvneloba SeiZina. zogierTma dainteresebulmamxarem daiwyo bavSvis uflebebis realizeba mediis saSualebiT – magaliTad,imis uzrunvelyofiT, rom axalgazrduli auditoriisTvis xelmisawvdomi iyosmaRalxarisxovani Sinaarsis media, gaismodes axalgazrdebis xma da bavSvebisSesaxeb sakiTxebi eTikurad Suqdebodes.mediis gavlena axalgazrdebzemravali kvlevaa Catarebuli bavSvebze mediis _ maT Soris mediaSi Zaladobisasaxvis _ zemoqmedebis Sesaxeb. rogorc zogierTi eqsperti, magaliTad, miCiganisuniversitetis profesori l. rouel hiusmani (2000) amtkicebs, 50-wlianidakvirveba cxadyofs, rom `Zaladoba mediaSi zrdis bavSvebis agresiulobas daes wlebis Semdeg iCens Tavs, rodesac isini zrdasrul asaks aRweven.~ Tumcasxvebi, maT Soris jonaTan fridmani torontos universitetidan, amtkiceben,rom `samecniero monacemebi ar adasturebs, rom Zaladobis naxva ZaladobaswarmoSobs an mis mimarT ugrZnobs xdis adamians.~mediis gavrceleba da globalizacia Tanamedrove axalgazrduli kulturiserT-erTi ganmsazRvreli faqtoria. bevr qveyanaSi axalgazrdebs gacilebiT
  • 33. 32metad miuwvdebaT xeli multimediis saSualebebze, vidre adre – es aristradiciuli, satelituri da sakabelo televiziis arxebi; radiosadgurebi;gazeTebi da Jurnalebi; interneti, kompiuteri da videoTamaSebi. dRes ucxouriprogramebi da media bevrad ufro xelmisawvdomia. msoflios bevr qveyanaSinaklebia oficialuri cenzura da kontroli. informaciis, eleqtronulifostis da fotoebis gacvla msoflioSi dRes ufro swrafad da Tavisufladxdeba, vidre odesme. amitom ganxiluli unda iqnes, rogorc bavSvebis mediaSimonawileobis, ise mavne zegavlenisagan maTi dacvis sakiTxebi.bavSvebis asaxva mediaSimediis mier bavSvebis asaxva did gavlenas axdens bavSvebisa da bavSvobis mimarTdamokidebulebaze da mniSvnelovnad moqmedebs bavSvebis mimarT mozrdilTaqcevaze. mediis saSualebiT mowodebuli aRwera misabaZ magaliTad iqcevaaxalgazrdebisTvis da zemoqmedebas axdens maT poziciasa da molodinze. is,Tu rogor xdeba bavSvebis warmodgena mediis mier, an sulac maTi ignorireba,gavlenas axdens bavSvebTan dakavSirebiT miRebul gadawyvetilebebze dasazogadoebis danarCeni nawilis damokidebulebaze maT mimarT. media xSiradbavSvebs ise aRwers, rogorc pasiur, utyv `msxverplebs.~bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis SesaZleblobis micemiT, Tavad ilaparakonTavianT imedebze, SiSebsa Tu miRwevebze, aseve maT cxovrebaze ufrosebis qceviszemoqmedebaze, mediis profesionalebs SeuZliaT Seaxsenon sazogadoebas, rombavSvebi iseve imsaxureben pativiscemas, rogorc yvela adamiani.Jurnalistebis saerTaSoriso federaciis informaciiT, mediis mier bavSvebisasaxva amkvidrebs mTel rig miTebs:  ganviTarebadi qveynebis ojaxebi, Rataki bavSvebi, agreTve omisa da sxvadasxva ubedurebis msxverplebi kargaven individualobas da humanurobas. maT xSirad aCveneben rogorc umweo tanjulebs, romlebsac ar SeuZliaT moqmedeba, fiqri an laparaki;  bavSvebis problemebis gaSuqebisas arsebobs tendencia, rom fokusireba moxdes sensaciur ambebze, xolo mravalricxovani problemebi, romlebic bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciaSia gansazRvruli, uyuradRebod rCeba;  xSirad mediaSi erTjeradi reportaJebia bavSvebis Sesaxeb, rasac ar mohyveba analizi da Semdgomi moqmedeba;  konfidencialurobas bavSvebTan dakavSirebiT yovelTvis ar uweven angariSs;  axal ambebSi bavSvebs xSirad stereotipulad warmoaCenen, magaliTad: `afrikeli moSimSile bavSvebi~ da `upasuxismgeblo Tineijerebi.~dominirebs ambebi bavSvebis mimarT Zaladobaze, arasrulwlovanTadamnaSaveobaze, quCis bavSvebze, maSin, rodesac bavSvis uflebebTandakavSirebuli sxva problemebi, rogoricaa TamaSis, dasvenebisa da sportisufleba, ar aris miCneuli axali ambebisTvis saintereso siuJetad. amisSedegad iqmneba daubalansebeli STabeWdileba, rom bavSvebi an `msxverplebi~
  • 34. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 33arian, an saxifaTo `SfoTisTavebi.~1998 wels britanuli organizacia `Cildrenz eqspresi~ romelic saSualebasaZlevs bavSvebs da axalgazrdebs, monawileoba miiRon mediis saqmianobaSi, Tavadweron da redaqtireba gaukeTon reportaJebs, monitorings uwevda erovnuligazeTebis Sinaarss erTi kviris ganmavlobaSi. mkvlevrebma `Svidi momakvdinebelistereotipi~ aRmoaCines. sixSiris mixedviT esenia:  `msxverpli bavSvebi~: 31,5%  `sayvareli bavSvebi~ (gaumarTlebeli, mizanTan Seusabamo foto/ gamosaxuleba): 26,7%  `patara eSmakebi~ (bavSvebis `demonizeba~/anu maTTvis aTasnairi codvis miwera): 10,8%  `bavSvebi SesaniSnavebi arian~ (gansakuTrebuli bavSvebi): 9,7%  `bavSvebi, rogorc aqsesuarebi~ (anu mSoblebis sakuTreba): 8,4%  `dRevandeli bavSvebi~ (mozrdilebis nostalgia warsulis mimarT): 7,5%  `patara angelozebi~ (visac cudis gakeTeba ar SeuZlia): 5,4%stereotipebisken midrekilebas mowmobs kvleva, romelic organizacia `MORI~-m(bazrisa da sazogadoebrivi azris saerTaSoriso kvleva - Market and OpinionResearch International) Caatara 2004 wels britanuli JurnalisTvis `Young PeopleNow~ (`dRevandeli axalgazrdoba~). masSi naTqvamia: [axalgazrdebis] es jgufebixedaven presaSi damkvidrebul negatiur stereotips da grZnoben, rom esmoqmedebs maT yoveldRiur cxovrebaze, imaze, Tu rogor eqcevian maT ufrosebi,rodesac sajaro TavSeyris adgilebSi arian megobrebTan erTad. amasTan,isini Tvlian, rom Jurnalistebi naCqarevad ikaveben moraluri upiratesobispozicias, rodesac axalgazrdebis qcevas afaseben~. isini amas farisevlur pozadaRiqvamen, radgan Tvlian, rom Jurnalistebs axasiaTebT gazviadeba imisaTvis,rom ukeTesad gayidon gazeTebi da fuli iSovon: `nebismier rames miagneben damoipoveben, Tu dasaweri SemoakldebaT. sul ar adardebT, vinmes reputacias TuCrdili miadgeba.~ es `MORI~-s adrindel (2003) gamokvlevas exmaureba, romeliccxadyofs, rom 11-18 wlis 914 axalgazrdidan orma mesamedma (64%) ganacxada,rom ar endoba Jurnalistebs.ase rom, marTalia, media mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs bavSvTa uflebebis Sesaxebsazogadoebis informirebulobis amaRlebaSi, magram, amave dros, is SeiZlebasaeWvo partnioric aRmoCndes.mediis mier bavSvebis eqspluataciaerTi mxriv, sainformacio media aSuqebs Zaladobis msxverplebs an mogviTxrobsambebs moZaladeebis Sesaxeb reportaJebis, fotoebis, dokumenturi filmebisa dasxva saSualebebiT. meore mxriv, igi Tavad SeiZleba gaxdes eqspluatatori, rodesacaxal ambebSi an reklamaSi bavSvebis seqsualurad provokaciul saxeebs qmnis.mediis profesionalebi kargad arian momzadebulni saimisod, rom bavSvisuflebebi stabilurad SeinarCunon sainformacio formatSi, am uflebebis
  • 35. 34dasacavad seriozuli Zalisxmeva gamoiyenon da moiTxovon bavSvis uflebebisdacva imaTgan, vinc amas ar akeTebs. magram komerciulma mosazrebebma SeiZlebaaiZulos media, rom Tavidan airidos es pasuxismgebloba. interesTa uxerxuliwonasworoba prevalirebs iq, sadac eTikuri standartebi SeiZleba msxverpladSeewiros komerciul moTxovnebs.bavSvebis monawileoba mediaSiaxalgazrdebis mediaSi monawileobis magaliTebi adasturebs maT interessgare samyaros mimarT, gansakuTrebiT, Tu maT Sansi eZlevaT, rom TavianTiTavi gamoxaton im sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebic maT exeba. interesTajgufebis da mediis organizaciebis mzardi raodenoba uamrav SesaZleblobasqmnis axalgazrdebisaTvis, rom mediaSi miiRon monawileoba. mediaproeqtebis magaliTebi warmatebuli mediaproeqtebisa da programebis magaliTebi bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisTvis da maTi monawileobiT: `ANDI~ – bavSvis uflebaTa braziliuri axali ambebis saagento monitorings uwevs mediis mier bavSvebisa da axalgazrdobis gaSuqebas, treningebs utarebs da muSaobs JurnalistebTan, romlebic weren bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis sakiTxebze. `ANDI“-s ZalisxmeviT mniSvnelovnad gaizarda da gaumjobesda bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis sakiTxebis gaSuqeba braziliur mediaSi. es modeli axla laTinuri amerikis rva qveyanaSi inergeba. `TROC“ - albaneTis axalgazrda reportiorebi. aTeulobiT axalgazrda 13- dan 18 wlamde qveynis yvela kuTxidan gadis trenings am yovelkvireuli teleJurnalis saSualebiT. studentebi swavloben video axali ambebis warmoebis yvela aspeqts da pasuxismgebelni arian programebis dagegmvasa da gamoSvebaze ufrosebis mciredi daxmarebiT. es programa Zalze popularulia axalgazrda mayureblebs Soris albaneTsa da mezobel qveynebSi. isini afaseben `TROC“-s rogorc pirvel satelevizio Sous, romelic saTanadod aSuqebs socialur problemebs mTeli qveynis masStabiT. `mukTo xobor~ (Mukto Khobor) – (Tavisufali axali ambebi) – es aris yovelkvireuli axali ambebis 25-wuTiani gamoSveba da mimdinare ambebis programa bangladeSSi, romelsac 11-dan 17 wlamde bavSvebi da axalgazrdebi qmnian. is yuradRebas amaxvilebs bavSvebsa da maT uflebebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze. igi uzrunvelyofs forums axalgazrdebisTvis, rom maT SeZlon TavianTi Sexedulebebis gamoxatva, uviTarebs axalgazrda Jurnalistebs specialur unar-Cvevebs, STaagonebs axalgazrda mayureblebs, romlebic xedaven TavianTi Tanatolebis warmatebul muSaobas mediaSi da uCvenebs, rom axalgazrdebs SeuZliaT, mniSvnelovani wvlili Seitanon arsebul problemebTan brZolaSi.
  • 36. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 35 afrikis bavSvTa da mauwyeblobis fondi (`CBFA“). es fondi 1995 wels Seiqmna. misi mizani iyo, xeli Seewyo bavSvebisa da mauwyeblobis Sesaxeb afrikis wesdebis ganxorcielebisTvis, agreTve miepyro mauwyeblebisa da prodiuserebis yuradReba maRalxarisxovani sabavSvo televiziis Seqmnis aucileblobisken. `CBFA“-s miznobriv jgufSi Sedian 9-dan 16 wlamde axalgazrdebi, mediis profesionalebi da mauwyeblebi. fondi marTavs seminarebs, kinoCvenebebsa da Sexvedrebs, romelTa ganxilvis sagani afrikeli bavSvebis problemebi da uflebebia. egviptis video da Temis ocnebebis proeqti avrcelebs ganviTarebis da mosaxleobis saqmianobis centr `axali horizontebis~ programis codnasa da gamocdilebas da aZlierebs axalgazrda qalebisa da gogonebis xmas egviptur sazogadoebaSi. qalTa jgufebi sxvadasxva egvipturi Temidan euflebian video da saprodiusero unar-Cvevebs da swavloben problemur an delikatur sakiTxebze muSaobas. jgufis wevrebi cnobadi xdebian, rogorc spikerebi da liderebi da xels uwyoben stereotipebis damsxvrevas. am jgufebis mier Seqmnili videomasalebi xSirad aRZravs diskusiebs da xels uwyobs problemis mogvarebis adgilobrivi gzebis Ziebas TiToeul TemSi.mediaSi monawileoba SesaniSnav Sedegebs aZlevs axalgazrdebs, rac Sejamebulia`iuneskos~ sainformacio samsaxuris 2001 wlis yovelwliur gamocemaSi`mosazrebebi bavSvebisa da mediis Sesaxeb.~ es Sedegebia:  siamayis, siZlierisa da sakuTari Tavis pativiscemis grZnobis gaZliereba, rodesac axalgazrdebi grZnoben, rom maTi xma yuradRebis Rirsi gaxda, isini sazogadoebis nawils warmoadgenen, maT gauges sxvebs da sakuTar kulturas;  maTi yoveldRiuri ocnebebis da sakuTari adgilobrivi, socialuri da eTnikuri kulturisa da sinamdvilis asaxva mediaSi;  unar-Cvevebisa da cnobismoyvareobis gaZliereba da mediis sakiTxebSi kompetenturobis amaRleba (magaliTad, mediis kritikuli gaazreba);  audio-vizualuri mediis warmoebaSi monawileobis meSveobiT socialuri samarTlianobis gazrdili SegrZneba im axalgazrdebSi, romlebic kargad ar swavloben tradiciul, beWdviT masalebze dafuZnebul skolebSi;  meti interesi da monawileoba sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi, sakuTari pirobebiT, rac, Tavis mxriv, gadaizrdeba moqmedebaSi, romelic miznad daisaxavs mediasa da TemebSi axalgazrdebis problemebis ganxilvis gaumjobesebas.mediis mxridan bavSvze zemoqmedebis fsiqologiuri aspeqtebibavSvebi da mozardebi masmediis yuradRebis centrSi, rogorc wesi, raimenegatiuri, dramatuli movlenebisa da incidentebis Sedegad xvdebian: omi,
  • 37. 36SimSili, bunebrivi katastrofebi, mkvleloba da Zaladoba – ai is konteqsti,romlis mTavari gmirebi xSirad bavSvebi arian. Sesabamisad, iqmneba STabeWdilebabavSvebze, rogorc msxverplsa an moZaladeze. mozardebTan dakavSirebuliproblemuri situaciebis gaSuqeba gavlenas axdens, rogorc Tavad incidentSiCarTul mozardze, aseve masmediis mravalaTasian auditoriaze, gansakuTrebiTki bavSvebze.Jurnalistebs xSirad aqvT saqme ama Tu im xarisxis matravmirebel movlenasada dazaralebul, travmirebul adamianTan. masmedia, romlis movaleobaagaaSuqos es incidentebi, mniSvnelovan rols TamaSobs (zogjer negatiurs)Zaladobis, incidentebis, travmirebulobis xarisxis gansazRvraSi.informaciis Segrovebis dros, dazaralebulis interviurebis procesSiJurnalisti cdilobs aRweros rac SeiZleba `mZime~ da `saSineli~ istoria,moagrovos e.w. `sensaciuri masala~. es amZimebs matravmirebeli incidentisxarisxs, aiZulebs dazaralebuls, kidev erTxel ganicados is tkivili,damcireba, SiSi da Seuracxyofa, romelic mas Tavs gadaxda. Jurnalistiar aris fsiqoTerapevti da, bunebrivia, is ver gauadvilebs dazaralebulsmdgomareobas _ is Tavisda uneburad tovebs respondents pirispir sakuTargancdebTan.masmediis matravmirebeli zegavlenis kidev erTi aspeqtia is, Tu rogorinterpretacias aZlevs Jurnalisti matravmirebel (Zaladobis) incidents.aris SemTxvevebi, rodesac xdeba movlenis dramatizeba, kidev ufro damZimeba.Jurnalisti aseve cdilobs, moiZios mizezebi da ipovos damnaSaveebi, xdebawarsulze fiqsireba, iqmneba gamouvalobis STabeWdileba, ramac mkiTxvelauditoriaSi SeiZleba gamoiwvios ususurobis gancda, SiSisa da SfoTvismomateba, agresiuli impulsebis gaaqtiureba, rac sabolood sazogadoebaSiarasasurveli fsiqoemociuri fonis Seqmnas uwyobs xels.rac Seexeba masmediis gavlenas bavSvebisa da mozardebis fsiqikur janmrTe-lobaze, winamdebare saxelmZRvaneloSi weria: `bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacioqseli: eTikuri saxelmZRvanelo principebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxe-bis gaSuqebisaTvis:nu miayenebT raime zians bavSvs; moerideT iseT kiTxvebs an komentarebs,romlebic SeiZleba sadavo aRmoCndes kulturuli TvalsazrisiT da romlebicbavSvs Seuqmnis safrTxes, daucvels gaxdis Seuracxyofisgan an gaaRviZebs masSitkivilsa da wuxils, gamowveuls travmuli movlenebiT”zianSi, `tkivilsa da wuxilSi” igulisxmeba bavSvis fsiqoemociuri mdgomareobada qvemoT moyvanil magaliTebSi kargad Cans, ramdenad seriozuli SeiZlebagaxdes es `ziani~.SemTxveva 1arasrulwlovanma k.g.-m, quCaSi urTierTSelaparakebis dros, civi iaraRiTmsubuqi Wriloba miayena moqalaqe r.d.-s. incidentis Semdeg is mSobelTan
  • 38. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 37erTad gamocxadda policiaSi, sadac daakaves. amis Semdgom mozardi TveebisganmavlobaSi masmediis yuradRebis centrSi aRmoCnda, ZiriTadad SemTxvevisgaSuqebisas xdeboda faqtis dramatizeba, Sefaseba, ojaxisa da mozardisdadanaSauleba. nawili sazogadoebisa iziarebda aseT damokidebulebas, nawilicdilobda, mozardi `gmirad~ warmoeCina da mis dauyonebliv ganTavisuflebasiTxovda. yuradRebis centrSi yofna, sazogadoebrivi damokidebulebis aseTipolarizeba zemoqmedebs mozardis jer kidev Camouyalibebel fsiqikaze. orivepozicia momxdari faqtis Seusabamoa. moyvanil magaliTSi moxda mozardzeorazrovani `iarliyis~ – msxverplisa da moZaladis – mikvra. msgavsi viTarebazemoqmedebs mozardis fsiqoemociur mdgomareobaze, vinaidan orive poziciaaraadekvaturia, xels uSlis mozards, gaacnobieros sakuTari pasuxismgeblobada Camouyalibdes kongruentuli, Sesatyvisi damokidebuleba momxdariincidentis mimarT. amgvari aJiotaJi, zewola arTulebs mozardTa adaptaciisisedac rTul process arasrulwlovanTa aRmzrdelobiT dawesebulebaSi. aqmoyvanil SemTxvevaSi mozard k.-s aReniSneboda Zilis problemebi, Ramis koSmarebi,brazis Semotevebi, autoagresia _ suicidis ramdenime mcdeloba.SemTxveva 2arasrulwlovani gogona n.k. seqsualuri Zaladobis msxverpli gaxda. esSemTxveva gaSuqda erT-erTi gazeTis furclebze, sadac moZaladis saxeli dagvari anonimuri iyo, xolo gogonas Sesaxeb gazeTi srul informacias gvawvdida.Sedegad momxdaris Sesaxeb gaiges mezoblebma, skolam da gogona Temis mxridanzewolis msxverpli gaxda, masTan urTierToba Sewyvites megobrebma (ZiriTadadmSoblebis moTxovniT), mezoblebma. gogonam jer uari Tqva skolaSi siarulze,mere gareT gamosvla Sewyvita, Semdeg sakuTari oTaxidan ar gamodioda,Camouyalibda depresiuli simptomatika, Zlieri braleulobis gancda, dabaliTviTSefaseba, uimedoba, uperspeqtivoba da a.S. aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom esgogona erovnebiT rusi iyo da es faqtoric (Cvens sazogadoebaSi gavrcelebulistigma) mis winaaRmdeg gamoiyenes. gogonasTan fsiqologiuri muSaobis Semdegmisi mdgomareoba gaumjobesda, Tumca ojaxma mainc miiRo gadawyvetilebadaetovebinaT saqarTvelo da sacxovreblad sxva qveyanaSi gadasuliyvnen, rasacam incidentamde ar apirebdnen.orive SemTxveva naTlad gviCvenebs, rom amgvar situaciaSi irRveva ara martomozardis uflebebi, aramed ziandeba misi fsiqikuri janmrTelobac, rom mediisamgvarma muSaobam SeiZleba negatiuri gavlena moaxdinos bavSvisa Tu mozardiscxovrebaze. mediis mier bavSvebsa da mozardebTan dakavSirebuli movlenebisasaxva gansazRvravs sazogadoebis pozicias maT mimarT, damokidebulebasada qcevas, gavlenas axdens saxelmwifo instituciebis mxridan mozardebTandakavSirebiT miRebul gadawyvetilebebze.
  • 39. 38SefasebaSearCieT mediis informacia bavSvebis Sesaxeb da ganixileT bavSvis uflebaTakonteqstSi.damatebiTi literatura da resursebi`msoflios bavSvebi, axalgazrdebi da media: tendenciebisa da problemebis mimoxilva~, siuzengigli, `iunisefis~ masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis kompleqsis kvleviTi instituti, 2004wlis aprili: http://www.intermedia.org/bavSvebis, axalgazrdebisa da mediis Semswavleli centri:http://www.childrenyouthandmediacentre.co.uk/`bavSvTa uflebebi da media – wyaro JurnalistebisTvis~:http://www.unicef.org/southafrica/SAF publications soulbuddiez.pdf`iunisefi~ - vebgverdi Magic: http://www.unicef.org/magic/briefing/about.html`iunisefi~ - axalgazrdebis xma: http://www.unicef.org/voy. am gverdebze axalgazrdebi TavianTisityvebiT gamoxataven azrebs mediis Sesaxeb sakuTar qveynebSi.`iuneskos~ bavSvebis, axalgazrdebisa da mediis saerTaSoriso sainformacio samsaxuri:http://www.nordicom.gu.se/clearinghouse.php. informaciis kargi wyaroa msoflios bavSvebTan,axalgazrdebTan da mediasTan dakavSirebuli konkretuli proeqtebis da sakiTxebis Sesaxeb.sainformacio samsaxuri miznad isaxavs, aamaRlos bavSvebis, axalgazrdebisa da mediis Sesaxebinformirebulobisa da codnis done, safuZvels qmnis saTanado politikis formulirebisTvis,xels uwyobs konstruqciul sazogadoebriv debatebs, aZlierebs bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisgaTviTcnobierebas da kompetenturobas mediis sakiTxebSi.bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qseli: mediahttp://www.crin.com/themes/ViewTheme.asp?id=12mediaSi asaxuli Zaladobis gavlena axalgazrdobaze (Psychological Science, marti 2004)http://www.psychologicalscience.org/pdf/pspi/pspi43.pdf`saxelmwifo jandacvis midgoma mediis Zaladobrivi Sinaarsis zemoqmedebis Sesaxeb kvlevisSedegebis mimarT~: The Lancet, tomi 356, gamocema 9460 (2005 wlis Tebervali, gv. 702-710)l. rouel hiusmani (2000) `kolumbiis olqis kvleva~, miCiganis universiteti: http://www.rcgd.isr.umich.edu/aggr/Projects/CCLS/description.html
  • 40. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 394. winaaRmdegobebi bavSvTa uflebebis ganxorcielebis gzazeZiriTadi Sesaswavli Temebi  adamianis uflebaTa dacva  bavSvTa uflebebis mxardaWera  problemebi bavSvTa uflebebis realizebaSi  bavSvTa uflebebTan dakavSirebul problemebze reagirebaadamianis uflebaTa dacvaarsebobs adamianis uflebaTa ganxorcielebis meqanizmebi saerTaSoriso,regionul da saxelmwifo doneze. saxelmwifo doneze politikosebs dakanonmdeblebs SeswevT Zala, rom TavianTi konstituciebis meSveobiTuzrunvelyon bavSvTa uflebebis damkvidrebis xelSewyoba. zogadad,konstitucia karnaxobs im wesebs, romlebic `uwesebs movaleobebs, uflebebsda funqciebs sxvadasxva samTavrobo instituts~. adamianis uflebaTaganxorcielebis yvelaze efeqtiani xelSewyoba aRniSnul wesebs maSinSeuZlia, rodesac isini konkretuli terminebiT gansazRvravs am uflebebs darodesac mTavrobaSi xdeba uflebamosilebis ganawileba.bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis TiTqmis sayovelTao ratificireba asaxavs imvaldebulebas, rac globalurad arsebobs bavSvis uflebebis principebTandakavSirebiT. konvenciis ratificirebiT sxvadasxva qveynis mTavrobebi acxadebenTavianTi ganzraxvis Sesaxeb, rom es valdebuleba praqtikulad ganaxorcielon.wevri qveynebi valdebuli arian, Seasworon da Seqmnan kanonebi da politika,raTa srulfasovnad ganaxorcielon konvencia; maT unda gaiTvaliswinon, romyvela qmedeba unda ganxorcieldes bavSvis interesebidan gamomdinare.konvenciis me-4 muxli iTvaliswinebs, rom monawile saxelmwifoebi `Rebulobenyvela aucilebel sakanonmdeblo, administraciul da sxvagvar zomas winamde-bare konvenciiT aRiarebul uflebaTa gansaxorcieleblad~, xolo 42-e muxlisTanaxmad saxelmwifoebi `iReben valdebulebas, saTanado da qmediTi saSualebebisgamoyenebiT farTo informacia miawodon rogorc mozrdilebs, aseve bavSvebskonvenciis principebisa da debulebebis Taobaze~.qveynis konstitucia yovelTvis ar uzrunvelyofs absolutur dacvas bavSvisuflebaTa darRvevis winaaRmdeg. aseT SemTxvevaSi moqalaqeebs SeuZliaTkoleqtiurad mosTxovon mTavrobas, ganmartos Tavisi moqmedebebi da angariSiCaabaros amasTan dakavSirebiT. samoqalaqo sazogadoeba maSin warmoiqmneba,rodesac moqalaqeebi organizebulad sTxoven pasuxs xelisuflebas.organizebuli samoqalaqo sazogadoeba gulisxmobs arasamTavrobo
  • 41. 40organizaciebs, arakomerciul organizaciebs, saqvelmoqmedo da sazogadoebrivdawesebulebebs.qveynebis umravlesobaSi es organizaciebi wamyvan rols asruleben, rogorcbavSvTa damoukidebeli damcvelebi an bavSvTa specifikuri jgufebis damcvelebi.maTi roli aRiarebulia bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciaSi da bavSvis uflebaTakomitetis mier. konvenciis ratificirebis da propagandis Sedegi iyo is, romgaizarda bavSvis uflebaTa damcveli arasamTavrobo organizaciebis raodenobada gavlena; bevr evropul qveyanaSi Camoyalibda arasamTavrobo organizaciaTakoaliciebi, romlebic bavSvTa uflebebze muSaoben.gaerTianebuli erebis organizacia samoqalaqo sazogadoebas aRiqvams rogorcmSvidobisa da uflebaTa dacvis aucilebel elements mTel msoflioSi. gaerosyofilma generalurma mdivanma kofi ananma ganacxada:`erT dros gaero mxolod sxvadasxva qveynebis xelisuflebebTanTanamSromlobda. dRes Cven viciT, rom mSvidoba da keTildReoba ver miiRwevamTavrobebTan, saerTaSoriso organizaciebTan, bizneswreebsa da samoqalaqosazogadoebasTan partnioruli urTierTobis gareSe. dRevandel msoflioSiCven erTmaneTze varT damokidebuli~.bavSvis uflebaTa dacvis institutebis ganviTareba eqceva gaeros ufrofarTomasStabiani gegmis farglebSi, romelic saxelmwifo institutebis SeqmnasiTvaliswinebs zogadad adamianis uflebaTa xelSewyobisa da dacvisaTvis. zogqveyanaSi bavSvTa damoukidebeli dawesebulebebi funqcionireben, rogorcadamianis uflebaTa saxelmwifo institutebis nawili. sxvagan calke institutebiSeiqmna bavSvis uflebaTa xelSewyobisa da dacvisaTvis.qveynebSi, sadac zogadad adamianis uflebaTa dacvis kulturis ganviTarebiskenmiiswrafian, dasawyisisTvis gonivruli iqneboda bavSvis uflebebzeorientirebuli dawesebulebis Seqmna, imis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom bavSvebze damaT ganviTarebaze zrunva umniSvnelovanesia aRniSnuli kulturis Sesaqmnelad.bavSvTa sakiTxebze momuSave es damoukidebeli dawesebulebebi arasamTavrobodawesebulebebisagan imiT gamoirCevian, rom maTi uflebebi da movaleobebikanoniTaa gaTvaliswinebuli. arasamTavrobo organizaciebi gadamwyvet rolsasruleben adamianis uflebaTa xorcSesxmis xelSewyobis saqmeSi da Cveulebrivsakmaod damoukidebeli arian. magram cal-calke Tu erToblivad maT SeiZleba araRmoaCndeT sakmao Zala, rom realurad Secvalon xelisuflebis prioritetebi.bavSvis uflebaTa dacvarodesac qveyana axdens adamianis uflebaTa instrumentis ratificirebas,rogoricaa bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia, mas an pirdapir Seaqvs konvenciisdebulebebi Sidasaxelmwifoebriv kanonmdeblobaSi, an sxvagvarad kisrulobs
  • 42. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 41adamianis uflebaTa dacvis valdebulebis Sesrulebas. `xSirad is faqti, romarsebobs kanoni zogierTi uflebis dasacavad, sakmarisi ar aris, Tu es kanoniar iTvaliswinebs yvela iuridiul uflebamosilebas da instituts am uflebaTaefeqtiani ganxorcielebisTvis...~ (saxelmZRvanelo adamianis uflebaTacentridan).bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis dacvas monitorings uwevs gaeros bavSvisuflebaTa komiteti, romelic erovnul angariSebs iRebs sxvadasxva qveynebismTavrobebisgan da paralelur angariSebs – arasamTavrobo organizaciebisgan.aRniSnuli komiteti dabejiTebiT sTxovs mTavrobis yvela rgols, gamoiyenonkonvencia, rogorc saxelmZRvanelo kanonebis Seqmnisa da ganxorcielebis dros,raTa uzrunvelyon:  specialuri yovlismomcveli dRis wesrigis SemuSaveba bavSvebisaTvis;  mudmivmoqmedi organoebis an meqanizmebis Seqmna, raTa xeli Seewyos xelisuflebis yvela seqtoris aqtivobis koordinacias, monitoringsa da Sefasebas;  kanonmdeblobis sruli Sesabamisoba konvenciasTan;  bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaTvaliswineba politikis SemuSavebis procesebSi, mTavrobis doneze bavSvze zemoqmedebis Sefasebebis SemoRebis gziT;  biujetis adekvaturi analizis Catareba imis gansazRvrisaTvis, Tu saxelmwifo saxsrebis ra nawili ixarjeba bavSvebisaTvis da am resursebis efeqtiani gamoyeneba;  sakmarisi monacemebis Segroveba da gamoyeneba maT iurisdiqciaSi yvela bavSvis mdgomareobis gasaumjobeseblad;  konvenciis Sesaxeb informirebulobis donis amaRleba da informaciis gavrceleba saTanado treningebis Catarebis gziT maTTvis, vinc am saqmiTaa dakavebuli, qmnis saxelmwifo politikas bavSvebisTvis, muSaobs maTTan an maTTvis;  samoqalaqo sazogadoebis CarTuloba – Tavad bavSvebis CaTvliT – bavSvis uflebaTa ganxorcielebaSi da maT Sesaxeb informirebulobis amaRlebaSi;  damoukidebeli sajaro uwyebebis – ombudsmenebis, komisiebisa da sxva institutebis _ Seqmna, romlebic xels Seuwyoben bavSvTa uflebebis ganxorcielebas.aRsaniSnavia, rom globaluri masStabiT bavSvis uflebaTa mimarT pativiscemaadvili misaRwevi ar aris. marTalia, gaero, erovnuli konstituciebi dasamoqalaqo sazogadoeba garkveul rols TamaSoben bavSvis uflebaTa darRvevisTavidan acilebaSi, magram darRvevebi kvlav gvxvdeba.
  • 43. 42garda amisa, qveynis ekonomikuri keTildReoba ar warmoadgens imis garantias,rom bavSvis uflebebi kargad iqneba daculi. dasavleTis qveynebSi arsebulimravalferovani da ganviTarebuli momsaxureba yovelTvis ar warmoadgendaimis sawindars, rom yvela bavSvs bednieri bavSvoba hqonoda. bevri siRatakeSian metismetad xalxmraval da Seuferebel garemoSi cxovrobs. bevris uflebebslaxaven an ugulebelyofen da daxmarebis mowodeba metismetad nelia imisaTvis,rom reagireba moaxdinos maT gaWirvebaze. bevri bavSvis ganviTarebis potencialiSeferxebulia ganaTlebis miRebis mwiri SesaZleblobiT, TamaSisTvis gankuTvnilida gamajansaRebeli obieqtebis naklebobiT.problemebi bavSvTa uflebebis realizebaSiTiToeul sazogadoebaSi aris tradiciebi da jgufebi, romlebic winaaRmdegobasuweven bavSvis uflebaTa dacvas. zogjer sazogadoebaSi mimdinare farTocvlilebebi safrTxis winaSe ayenebs maT uflebebs. rogor xdeba, rom mTavrobaver amarTlebs bavSvebis imeds an ver asrulebs bavSvis uflebaTa konvencias?xSirad amis mizezi is aris, rom bavSvebs ar eniWebaT gansakuTrebuli prioriteti.politikuri liderebi, politikosebi da xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebiver axdenen imis demonstrirebas, rom esmiT bavSvTa mdgomareoba anrom maTi uflebebis ganxorcielebis valdebulebas kisruloben. magaliTad,bavSvebi xSirad ar arian gaTvaliswinebuli mTavrobis mier strategiisSemuSavebaSi.mniSvnelovan sferos warmoadgens bavSvebis pasuxismgeblobiT aRsavsemonawileobis xelSewyoba. sxvadasxva qveynis mTavrobebi unda iTvaliswinebdnenda seriozulad aRiqvamdnen bavSvebis Sexedulebebs politikis Sesaxeb. magramyovelTvis ar arsebobs oficialuri arxebi bavSvebTan sakonsultaciod.kanonmdebloba unda asaxavdes konvenciis moTxovnas imis Taobaze,rom bavSvebs ufleba aqvT, gamoTqvan TavianTi Sexedulebebi nebismier sakiTxze,romelic maT exeba da maT Sexedulebebs saTanado yuradReba unda daeTmos.xSirad saxelmwifo departamentebs Soris arasakmarisi koordinaciaa bavSvebTandakavSirebul strategiasTan mimarTebiT. bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli strategiaefeqtianad unda ganxorcieldes adgilobriv doneze da kanonmdeblobamTlianad unda gadaisinjos, raTa uzrunvelyofil iqnes misi ganuxreliSesabamisoba konvenciasTan da bavSvis uflebebis xelSewyoba.zogjer warumateblobis mizezi is aris, rom bavSvis uflebaTa dacviskenmimarTuli SezRuduli resursebi efeqtianad ar gamoiyeneba. aseTSemTxvevaSi didi yuradRebiT unda ganxorcieldes bavSvebis momsaxurebisbiujetebis marTva, rogorc adgilobriv, aseve erovnul doneebze. garda amisa,unda moxdes zemoqmedebis Sefaseba xelisuflebis doneze.SesaZloa, problemebi iyos bavSvis uflebaTa Sesaxeb informaciis gavrcelebaSi.TiToeul qveyanas unda hqondes bavSvis uflebaTa Sesaxeb informaciis,rogorc bavSvebSi, aseve ufrosebSi, gavrcelebis mravalmxrivi gegma.
  • 44. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 43kvleva unda Catardes imis Sesafaseblad, Tu rogor ician gaeros bavSvisuflebaTa konvencia imaT, vinc bavSvebTan da zogadad sazogadoebasTanmuSaobs.Tumca bavSvis uflebaTa dacva mxolod mTavrobas ki ar unda exebodes,aramed sazogadoebis yovel wevrsac. konvenciaSi formulirebuli normebi daprincipebi mxolod maSin SeiZleba iqces realobad, rodesac maT yvela pativsscems – ojaxebi, skolebi da sxva institutebi, romlebic bavSvis momsaxurebasuzrunvelyofen sazogadoebaSi da administrirebis yvela doneze.bavSvebi ganxiluli unda iqnen, rogorc adamianebi da ara, rogorc `momavaliadamianebi.~ isini Camoyalibebuli adamianebi arian, romlebsac TavianTiuflebebi aqvT. droTa ganmavlobaSi isini Seicvlebian da ganviTardebian,magram sazogadoebis mier bavSvobis Sefaseba Sesabamis uflebebs undaefuZnebodes da is ar unda ganixilebodes, rogorc zrdasrulobiskenmimarTuli nabiji. am princips mniSvneloba aqvs specialuri programebisa dasamsaxurebisTvis; is yuradRebas amaxvilebs bavSvebTan muSaobaze principiT:`dRes da aq~.Tumca bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli problemebis mimarT politikis reagireba xSiradar iTvaliswinebs imas, Tu ramdenad saswrafodaa mosagvarebeli problemebi daramdenad xanmokle da didi zemoqmedebis mqonea bavSvoba. bavSvobis xana araris gaCerebuli, sanam momdevno strategiis SemuSaveba xdeba. gaeros bavSvisuflebaTa konvenciis damtkicebidan ori aTeuli wlis ganmavlobaSi bavSvebis,sul mcire, ori Taoba gamovida bavSvobis xanidan.reagireba bavSvTa uflebebTan dakavSirebul problemebzegaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis ratificirebis Semdeg saxelmwifoebsmoeTxovebaT, uzrunvelyon TavianTi kanonmdeblobis, politikisa da praqtikiskonvenciis principebTan da normebTan SesabamisobaSi moyvana. sadac saWiroa,unda moxdes kanonis reformireba, magaliTad, bavSvebis Zaladobisgan dasacavadojaxSi da saswavlo dawesebulebebSi. bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti iZleva,agreTve, rekomendacias, rom mTavrobam Seqmnas damoukidebeli meqanizmebiimisaTvis, rom garantirebuli iyos konvenciis monitoringi da ganxilva bavSvisuflebaTa komisrebisa Tu ombudsmenebis saSualebiT.qveynebis mier konvenciis ganxorcielebis kvaldakval sul ufro izrdebadamoukidebeli samsaxurebis ricxvi. aRniSnuli samsaxurebi ZiriTadadmTavrobis an parlamentis mier iqmneba, magram maTi mTavari damaxasiaTebeliTvisebaa damoukidebloba da imis unari, rom Tavad izrunon bavSvTa dacvaze. aminstitutebis daarsebiT mTavrobebi keTil nebas gamoxataven bavSvebis mimarTda imis demonstrirebas axdenen, rom seriozulad ganixilaven konvenciiTnakisr valdebulebebs da surT, angariSvaldebuli iyvnen damoukidebelisamsaxurebis mimarT imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu rogor eqcevian bavSvebs.
  • 45. 44mTavrobebs moeTxovebaT, gaaanalizon bavSvebisTvis gamoyofili biujetebismoculoba, raTa uzrunvelyofili iyos axalgazrda moaqalaqeebSiganxorcielebuli investiciis proporciuloba maT raodenobasa dasaWiroebebTan. xSirad mTavrobebi aerTianeben socialur xarjebs, riTacniRbaven bavSvTa keTildReobisa da adamianis uflebaTa xelSewyobisaTvisasignebuli resursebis SedarebiT simwires.qveynebs moeTxovebaT konvenciis principebis da normebis gacnoba sazogadoebisyvela wevrisTvis, maT Soris bavSvebisTvis. mTavrobebi valdebulni arian,aamaRlon bavSvebis, rogorc uflebebis mqone adamianebis, socialurigaTviTcnobierebulobis done. maT unda uzrunvelyon, rom profesionalebi,romlebic bavSvebTan muSaoben, maT Soris jandacvis da sasjelaRsrulebisdawesebulebebSi, informirebulni iyvnen imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor gamoiyenonkonvencia yoveldRiur praqtikaSi.konvenciis ratificirebam da propagandirebam gamoiwvia bavSvis uflebebzemomuSave arasamTavrobo organizaciebis raodenobisa da gavlenis swrafi zrda;bevr evropul qveyanaSi Seiqmna arasamTavrobo organizaciebis koaliciebi,romlebic bavSvTa uflebebze muSaoben. aseTia, magaliTad, bavSvis uflebaTasainformaciao qseli (CRIN). es koaliciebi wamyvan rols asruleben,rogorc bavSvis uflebaTa damoukidebeli damcvelebi. adamianis uflebaTacentris gancxadebiT, `adamianis uflebaTa saerTaSoriso standartebisganxorcielebis damatebiTi xelSewyoba modis dainteresebuli sazogadoebisada arasamTavrobo organizaciebisgan, romlebic sagangebo rols asrulebenadamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao kulturis ganviTarebaSi~. da kidev:`arasamTavrobo organizaciebs Tavisi bunebiT axasiaTebs gamoxatvisTavisufleba, moqnili moqmedeba da moZraobis Tavisufleba, rac garkveulviTarebaSi maT saSualebas aZlevs, gadaWran amocanebi, romlebic mTavrobebsda samTavrobo organizaciebs ar SeuZliaT an ar surT rom gadaWran~.masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis profesionalebsac ekisrebaTpasuxismgebloba, rogorc samoqalaqo sazogadoebis nawils. JurnalistebsSeuZliaT gamoavlinon bavSvis uflebaTa darRvevis SemTxvevebi da aamaRlonaRniSnuli uflebebis Sesaxeb gaTviTcnobierebis done, amasTan, isinidid gavlenas axdenen imaze, Tu rogor aRiqvams sazogadoeba bavSvebs.Jurnalistebs gaazrebuli unda hqondeT, Tu ra Sedegi moaqvs maT muSaobas;mediis profesionalebi ayalibeben sazogadoebriv azrs da gavlenas axdenen misqcevaze.mediis es Zlieri pozicia imas niSnavs, rom mas sWirdeba Sida regulireba imisuzrunvelsayofad, rom sworad warmoadgendes bavSvis uflebebs da pativsscemdes maT.
  • 46. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 45SefasebadaasaxeleT, romeli jgufebi icaven bavSvebs Tqvens qveyanaSi. efuZnebian Tuara isini bavSvis uflebebs? gaTvaliswinebulia Tu ara maT muSaobaSi bavSvisxma?damatebiTi literatura da resursebi`ENOC~-is SemuSavebuli treningis saxelmZRvanelo. bavSvis uflebaTa ombudsmenebis evropuliqselis (ENOC) mier Sedgenili es saxelmZRvanelo gaTvaliswinebulia maTTvis, vinc apirebs,Seqmnas kanoniT gansazRvruli damoukidebeli samsaxurebi bavSvis uflebaTa dacvis mizniT –bavSvis uflebaTa ombudsmenebi da komisrebi:http://www.ombudsnet.org/docs/informationdtrainingpack.pdf`socialuri muSaoba da bavSvis uflebebi~: profesionaluri treningis saxelmZRvanelo gaeroskonvenciasTan dakavSirebiT, socialur muSakTa saerTaSoriso federacia, 2002.`bavSvebis mdgomareoba msoflioSi~, 2010, `iunisefi~: http://www.unicef.org/rightsite/sowc/`adamianis uflebaTa nacionaluri institutebi~, adamianis uflebaTa centri, profesiulitreningis seriebi #4, adamianis uflebaTa centri, Jeneva, 1995, paragrafi 15.http://www.unicef.org/magic/users/resources.htmlhttp://www.unicef.org/georgia/rights_8343.html
  • 47. 465. mediis mier bavSvebis asaxva, bavSvis uflebebi da profesiulipasuxismgeblobaZiriTadi Sesaswavli Temebi  bavSvebis asaxva mediaSi;  stereotipebis Seqmna mediis mier;  bavSvis uflebaTa darRveva;  bavSvTa dacva;  kvleva bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebisas mediis eTikisa da JurnalistTa profesiuli standartebis dacvis Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi.aRiarebulia, rom mediis profesionalebs mniSvnelovani rolis SesrulebaSeuZliaT bavSvis uflebaTa garSemo sazogadoebis mobilizebaSi. isini ZiriTadadreportaJebs akeTeben sxvebis araswor saqcielsa da Secdomebze, magram amavedros katalizatoris rols asruleben. maT, rogorc sazogadoebis interesebisada demokratiis sadarajoze mdgom adamianebs, mniSvnelovani roli ekisrebaTbavSvebis warmoCenis, maTi uflebebis da perspeqtivebis gaujobesebis kuTxiTac.bavSvebis warmodgena masobrivi informaciis saSualebebSimarTalia, masobrivi informaciis saSualebebs mZlavri pozicia aqvT, magramisini yovelTvis ar asruleben bavSvis uflebaTa mokavSiris rols. Cven ukveganvixileT, rom axalgazrdebs ar moswonT is, Tu rogor asaxaven maT mediaSi.Catarebuli kvlevebic aCvenebs, rom garkveuli msgavsebaa imaSi, Tu rogorasaxaven bavSvebs sxvadasxva mediaSi msoflio masStabiT.2003 wlis noemberSi `mediauaizma~ (MediaWise) britanuli plakatebis samikompania da bulvaruli gazeTi `sandi” (Sunday) Seiswavla. miRebuli SedegebimZime suraTs qmnis. 32 masalidan mxolod ori iyo pozitiuri. sam statiaSiicavdnen mSoblebis uflebaTa dominirebas bavSvis uflebebze.stereotipis Seqmnis tendencia gamovlenilia did britaneTSi Catarebulramdenime kvlevaSi. 2004 wels `MORI~-s mier JurnalisTvis `iang pipl nau~(Young People Now) Catarebulma kvlevam aCvena, rom axalgazrdebs sul ufrometad warmoaCenen rogorc `problemebs~. maT Sesaxeb didi britaneTissaerTo-erovnul da adgilobriv gazeTebSi 2004 wlis erTi kvirisganmavlobaSi gamoqveynebul statiebSi 71% negatiuri iyo, 14% pozitiurida mxolod 15% _ neitraluri. danaSaulis da Zaladobis Sesaxeb statiebis48%-Si axalgazrdebi warmodgenili iyvnen, rogorc kanondamrRvevebi. 70%biWebisa iyvnen borotmoqmedebi, xolo 32% _ msxverpli. gogonebSi 10% iyokanondamrRvevi, xolo 91% _ msxverpli. mediaSi gaSuqebis sawinaaRmdegodoficialuri statistika aCvenebs, rom biWebi ufro metad xdebian ZaladobrividanaSaulis msxverpli, vidre gogonebi.
  • 48. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 47sxva kvlevebma aCvena, rom bavSvebis stereotipuli warmodgena saerTaSorisofenomenia. `glokal iuTis~ (Glocal Youth) mier Catarebulma kvlevam, romelicmedias adanaSaulebs uyuradRebobaSi axalgazrdebis samoqalaqo saqmianobismimarT, msgavsi tendenciebi aRmoaCina evropis wamyvan mediaSi: `axalgazrdebsCveulebriv ganixilaven rogorc problemebis, samarTaldarRvevebis, saSiSigareubnebis, narkotikebisa da boboqari Sekrebebis simbolos, gansakuTrebiT,Tu saqme axalgazrda emigrantebs exeba. maTi aseTi imiji gvxvdeba gansakuTrebiTiseT (rogorc beWdviT, aseve audio-vizualur) dokumentur filmebsa TuJurnalebSi, sadac urbanuli kulturaa asaxuli~.2003 wels mediamonitoringis proeqtma Seiswavla bavSvebis asaxva da bavSvisuflebebi samxreT afrikis sainformacio mediaSi. proeqts ramdenime safexurihqonda, maT Soris erToblivi seminarebi bavSvebis monawileobiT, samTvianimonitoringis periodi da specializebuli treningi Jurnalistebisa da masobriviinformaciis saSualebaTa praqtikosebis monawileobiT. aRiniSna yvelasakiTxi, romlebic bavSvebs exeboda da dafiqsirda saTanado informacia Temis,wyaroebis, warmodgenis da sxva problemebis miTiTebiT, romlebic bavSvisuflebebs ganixilavda. bavSvebi monawileobdnen paralelur proeqtSi, sadacisini ori kviris manZilze axdendnen maT mierve SerCeuli sainformacio mediismonitorings.kvlevis Sedegad gakeTda Semdegi ZiriTadi daskvnebi: 1. bavSvebi sainformacio mediaSi naklebad arian warmodgenili. rogorc ufrosebis mier Catarebuli monitoringis Sedegad gairkva, bavSvebi sainformacio gamoSvebebis mxolod 6%-Si figurireben, xolo bavSvebis mier Catarebuli monitoringis Tanaxmad, maT mier ganxiluli siuJetebis mxolod 26%-Si Seexnen bavSvebis Temas. 2. bavSvebi ZiriTadad warmodgenili arian msxverplis saxiT. ufrosebis mier Catarebuli monitoringis Tanaxmad, siuJetebis 25%-Si bavSvebi msxverplis saxiT arian gamoyvanili. mTlianobaSi bavSvebi ufro xSirad uaryofiTad arian gamoyvanili da maTi rolebi SezRudulia. bavSvebis monitoringma daadastura es tendenciebi. rogorc isini aRniSnavdnen, mediam unda scados, ufro pozitiur rolebSi warmoadginos bavSvebi. 3. bavSvebi ZiriTadad negatiur siuJetebSi arian warmodgenili. rogorc ufrosebis, aseve bavSvebis mier Catarebuli monitoringis Sedegad gairkva, rom sainformacio siuJetebi, sadac bavSvebi figurireben, ZiriTadad negatiuri Sinaarsisa iyo. ufrosebis mier Catarebuli monitoringis mixedviT, yoveli meore statia, sadac bavSvi figurirebs, negatiuri Sinaarsisaa da exeba danaSauls, Zaladobas, uflebebis Selaxvas an sxvadasxva ubedurebas.4. biWebi da gogonebi Tanabrad arian warmodgenili, magram kvlav stereotipuli saxiT. am aSkara Tanasworobis miuxedavad, Semdgomma analizma aCvena genderuli stereotipebis damkvidreba bavSvebis warmodgenisas. gogonebi ufro xSirad iyvnen gamoyvanili bavSvebze Zaladobis istoriebSi, xolo biWebi –
  • 49. 48 sportTan dakavSirebul istoriebSi. es aZlierebs mediasaSualebebSi qalebis _ msxverplis, xolo mamakacebis – Zlierebis saxiT warmodgenas.1998 wels saqvelmoqmedo organizacia “gadavarCinoT bavSvebma“ Caatarakvleva bavSvebis damokidebulebis Sesaxeb imis mimarT, Tu rogor arian isiniwarmodgenili beWdviT da samauwyeblo mediaSi. aRmoCnda, rom bavSvebma zustadician, ra ar moswonT yvelaze metad mediaSi:  bavSvebis mier seriozulad gakeTebuli komentarebis gamoyeneba ufrosebis gasacineblad;  mimzidveli bavSvebis gamoyeneba yuradRebis misapyrobad;  mZime situaciaSi mcxovrebi bavSvebis fotoebis gamoyeneba da maTi mdgomareobis aRwera emociis aRZvris mizniT, miT umetes, rom amiT araferi keTdeba arc bavSvebis mier sakuTari Tavis pativiscemisTvis da arc auditoriis mxridan maTi pativiscemisTvis;  qedmaRluri laparaki bavSvebTan;  bavSvebis magivrad didebis laparaki, maSin, rodesac bavSvebma gacilebiT meti ician am sakiTxis Sesaxeb;  bavSvebis iZuleba, cirkis cxovelebiviT moiqcnen;  ufrosebi warmoaCenen bavSvebis ucodinrobas;  is, rom ufrosebi Tavisi sityvebiT alaparakeben bavSvebs an axdenen maTi naTqvamis interpretirebas;  bavSvebis warmodgena pasiurebad, rodesac isini ar arian pasiurebi;  yvela axalgazrdis moqceva erT problemur jgufSi _ saxelwodebiT `axalgazrdoba~.stereotipebi mediaSipirobiTad bavSvebs ganixilaven rogorc sazogadoebis qvejgufs, romelicdaculi unda iyos. bavSvebis mimarT arsebuli safrTxe Zlier emociurgamoxmaurebas povebs, rac SeiZleba mkiTxvelebisa da auditoriis dasapyrobadiqnes gamoyenebuli. bavSvebis Sesaxeb siuJetebi da maTi gamosaxuleba iseveSeiZleba iqnes Sefasebuli Tavisi marketinguli potencialiT, rogorcsocialuri mniSvnelobiT. amis Sedegad bavSvebi xSirad gamoyvanili arianmediaSi, rogorc msxverpli an rogorc ufrosebis sayvareli danamati.amgvari Sexeduleba bavSvebze, SesaZloa, asaxavdes bavSvobis sayovelTao aRqmasumankoobis xanad. bavSvebis momxibvleloba ufrosebSi aRZravs dacvis survils,nostalgias da upiratesobis SegrZnebas. Tu isini tkivils an ubedurebasganicdian, ufrosebi Tavs valdebulad Tvlian, TanagrZnoba da zneobriviaRSfoTeba gamoxaton. Tumca amis Sedegad bavSvebi iZenen statuss, romelicsadRac moqalaqeobis qvemoT imyofeba.bavSvebis gamosaxva msxverplis an ufrosebis sayvareli danamatis saxiTSezRudul da yalb warmodgenas qmnis maT Sesaxeb. mediis warmomadgenlebmaSeiZleba ganacxadon, rom aseTi winaswarganwyoba modis im faqtidan, rom
  • 50. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 49sainformacio gamoSvebebi yuradRebis centrSi aqceven uCveulos. magram amiTxdeba ignorireba mediis aranakleb mniSvnelovani funqciisa _ warmoadgendessazogadoebis sarkes, raTa xalxma ukeTesad gaigos, Tu ra xdeba mis garSemo.mediis muSakebma sxvebze ukeTesad ician, rom xSirad faqtebze ufro metizegavlenis moxdena maT aRqmas SeuZlia. axalgazrdebis aRqmis damaxinjebiTmedia daTvur samsaxurs uwevs rogorc bavSvebs, aseve mTel sazogadoebas. amiTSeiZleba maTi uflebebic dairRves.bavSvTa uflebebis darRvevaramdenime gza arsebobs, riTac bavSvis uflebebi SeiZleba dairRves maTiaraswori warmodgeniT da stereotipuli CvenebiT mediaSi. adamianis uflebaTa daZiriTad TavisuflebaTa evropuli konvenciis me-8 muxli mouwodebs ojaxisa dapiradi cxovrebis uflebis pativiscemisken, xolo me-14 muxli – diskriminaciisakrZalvisken.gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis Tanaxmad, bavSvis uflebebi moicavs:  me-12 muxli: bavSvis uflebas, Tavisuflad gamoTqvas Tavisi Sexedulebebi nebismier sakiTxze, romelic mas exeba;  me-13 muxli: bavSvis ufleba, Tavisuflad gamoTqvas Tavisi azri, SesaZloa, erTgvarad SeizRudos, magram es SezRudva kanoniT gaTvaliswinebuli da aucilebeli unda iyos `saxelmwifo uSiSroebis an sazogadoebrivi wesrigis ... an mosaxleobis janmrTelobis an zneobis dacvisaTvis~;  me-16 muxli: `piradi da ojaxuri cxovrebis, sacxovrebeli binis xelSeuxeblobis an korespondenciis saidumloebis... Rirsebisa da reputaciis~ dacvas Carevis an xelyofisagan;  me-17 muxli: mediis mniSvnelobis aRiarebas da masalebis gavrcelebas `bavSvis socialuri da kulturuli keTildReobisTvis~ da `im saxis informaciisa da masalebisagan bavSvis dacvis saTanado principebis SemuSavebis waxalisebas, romelic sazianoa bavSvis keTildReobisaTvis.~es muxlebi garkveviT ayalibebs bavSvis uflebebs, romlebic SeiZleba dairRvesmediis upasuxismgeblo moqmedebiT, kerZod, gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciisme-17 muxlis Tanaxmad, media pasuxismgebelia bavSvis keTildReobis xelSewyobaze.bavSvis uflebaTa darRveva gulisxmobs maTTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebisugulisyurod gaSuqebas da damaxinjebas an maTi Sexedulebebis ugulebelyofas.bavSvTa dacvamiuxedavad imisa, rom cota vinme Tu moiZebneba, vinc damoukidebel mediaSisaxelmwifos Carevas miesalmeba, bavSvTa uflebebma moiTxova garkveulsferoebSi Careva. magaliTad, gaerTianebuli samefos kanonmdebloba krZalavssasamarTlo saqmeebSi CarTuli axalgazrdebis identificirebas bavSvebisa daaxalgazrdebis 1933 wlis aqtis 39-e TavSi. es kanoni aRiarebs, rom axalgazrdasamarTaldamrRvevi imsaxurebs, rom gamosworebis Sansi mieces mediis
  • 51. 50yuradRebisa da sajaro stigmatizaciis gareSe. Tumca zogierT SemTxvevaSiamgvari dacvac ar aRmoCnda sakmarisi; mediam Secvala bavSvebis pirdapiriidentifikacia samarTaldamrRvevebisTvis iarliyebis stereotipuli mikvriT.miuxedavad iseTi organizaciebis Zalisxmevisa, rogoricaa saerTaSorisofederacia, romelmac sakuTari iniciativa wamoiwyo 1998 wels da miznadisaxavda bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqebis dros pasuxismgeblobiswaxalisebas, bavSvebis am tipis stereotipebiT gaSuqebis tendencia yvelakontinentze TvalsaCinoa.aRsaniSnavia, rom bavSvebisadmi miZRvnili sakiTxebis gaSuqeba iSviaTadfigurirebs Jurnalistur treningebSi, radgan mTlianobaSi Jurnalistebiufrosebisadmi miZRvnili da maTive samyaroSi arsebuli iseTi TemebiTarian dakavebuli, romlebic zrdasruli adamianebis auditoriisaTvis arisgankuTvnili. iSviaTad SegxvdebaT siuJeti imis Sesaxeb, Tu ra gavlena SeiZlebamoaxdinos axalma socialurma an fiskalurma politikam bavSvebze, Tu is ar exeba,magaliTad, bavSvebisTvis dawesebul SeRavaTebs an maT ganaTlebas. iSviaTia,agreTve, gazeTi, romelic cdilobs, gamoaqveynos axalgazrdebis komentarebimimdinare problemebis Sesaxeb.Sesabamisad, bavSvebi seriozulad ar ganixilebian mediis profesionalebis mier,radgan maTi ZiriTadi samiznea zrdasruli adamianebis bazari. sirTule isaa,rom bavSvebi arian mediis im ZiriTadi produqtebis momxmareblebi, romlebickonkretulad maTTvis ar aris Seqmnili. axali ambebi miCneulia iseT ramed, rac,uwinares yovlisa, zrdasruli adamianebisTvis da maT Sesaxebaa.damatebiTi safrTxea is, rom zrdasruli adamianebisTvis gankuTvnil bazarzebavSvebs xeli miuwvdebaT potenciurad mavne masalaze, maT Soris Zaladobis,seqsis da bavSvebis `seqsualuri~ saxeebis amsaxvel masalaze. komunikaciebisaxali formebis ganviTareba, rogoricaa interneti, garkveul SeSfoTebas iwvevs,radgan Zalian umniSvneloa an saerTod ar arsebobs kontroli internetSiganTavsebul informaciaze.sanam grZeldeba kamaTi imis Taobaze, Tu ra pirdapir gavlenas axdens amgvarimasala bavSvebis qcevaze, mediis mwarmoeblebis umniSvnelovanesi amocana undaiyos imis uzrunvelyofa, rom garkveuli tipis masalis (iseTi vizualuriinformaciis CaTvliT, romelic dasaSvebad miiCnevs an popularizacias uwevsZaladobas an Seusabamo seqsualur aqtivobas) advilad xelmisawvdomobam mavnezegavlena ar moaxdinos bavSvebze an safrTxe ar Seuqmnas maT.yuradReba unda mieqces, agreTve, bavSvebSi mediis Sesaxeb codnis gavrcelebas.aseve mniSvnelovania, rom bavSvebi afasebdnen mediis rols samoqalaqosazogadoebaSi da SeeZloT, kritikulad Sexedon amas, raTa JurnalistebiiTvaliswinebdnen bavSvebis saWiroebebs, problemebs da uflebebs.iunisefis azriT, is faqti, rom ver moxerxda Tanamedrove mediis kritikisswavleba, `udidesi xelidan gaSvebuli SesaZleblobaa ganaTlebaSi~. britaneliparlamentari tesa joueli ambobs, rom mediis swavleba, mediis efeqtianregulirebasTan erTad, saukeTeso gzaa imisaTvis, rom bavSvebs gauadvilourTierToba mediaSi warmodgenil samyarosTan.
  • 52. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 51media axali TaobisTvismiuxedavad imisa, rom bolo wlebSi media gafarTovda, axali aTaswleulisdasawyisSi iunisefis aRmasrulebeli direqtoris mier internetSi Catarebulma`CeTma~ 17 qveynis mediis 70-mde axalgazrda aqtivistTan, gamoavlina erTsulovanigzavnili _ media ar upasuxebs axalgazrdebis problemebs.mediam xelaxla unda gaiazros bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis TematikisgaSuqeba _ ise, rom stereotipuloba da, aqedan gamomdinare, Sedegebigamoiricxos _ da xeli Seuwyos mediis Sesaxeb codnis gafarToebas. izrdebaaxali Taoba, romelic daTrgunulia mZime axali ambebiT da maTi damaxinjebiT;raki axali teqnologiebi TiTis erTi dakvriT aris maTTvis xelmisawvdomi,isini sakuTar medias qmnian onlain reJimSi da gverds uvlian misi warmoebistradiciul meTodebs.ukve vnaxeT, rogor Seiqmna onlain sazogadoebebi da samauwyeblo arxebi Bebo,Youtube da MySpace. 2007 wels aSS-is yofilma vice-prezidentma al gorma axalisakabelo televizia gaxsna axalgazrdebisTvis Current TV, romlis SinaarsimTlianad axalgazrda mayureblebis mier iqmneba. b-n goris TqmiT, axalgazrdamayurebels saSualeba eZleva, `Caebas dialogSi demokratiis Sesaxeb~ da SeqmnassakuTari satelevizio programebi. misive TqmiT, am koncefciis safuZvelze`SeiZleba moxdes Tavad satelevizio mediis gardaqmna~, radgan mayurebelseZleva SesaZlebloba, xma miawvdinos mas.masmediiT ukmayofilo axalgazrdebi gverds uvlian tradiciul medias dasakuTar dRis wesrigs aweseben. aman SeiZleba mniSvnelovani zegavlena iqoniosmasmediis da tradiciuli (komerciuli) popkulturis momavalze.profesiuli pasuxismgeblobaJurnalistebis winaaRmdegobas iwvevs, rodesac vinme karnaxobs, Tu rogorunda imuSaon. maT aRaSfoTebs zewola da skeptikurad ganawyobs Zlevamosilielitis zraxvebi. bevrma Jurnalistma sicocxle da Tavisufleba Seswira iseTidanaSaulebis gamomJRavnebas, romlebic SeiZleboda miCqmaluliyo presisTavisuflebis SezRudvis SemTxvevaSi.mediis profesionalebs TavianT movaleobad miaCniaT, pasuxi mosTxovonimaT, vinc samoqalaqo sazogadoebaze axdens zewolas. isini ufrTxildebiansakuTar damoukideblobas. maTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani roli samoqalaqosazogadoebaSi imaSi gamoixateba, rom samoqalaqo interesebis sadarajozeidgnen da popularizacia gauwion debatebs, codnis, informirebulobisamaRlebas da saxelmwifos mier iseTi problemebis aRiarebas, romlebsacgadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvT demokratiis damkvidrebis da adamianisuflebebis pativiscemisTvis. Jurnalistebis mier am rolis Sesrulebisunari maSin qveiTdeba, rodesac isini angarebaze dafuZnebuli interesebisgamtareblebi xdebian.
  • 53. 52Sida regulirebaJurnalistebi xels aweren qcevis kodeqss, romelic maTi profesiuli kavSiris,profesiuli asociaciis an damqiraveblis mier aris gamocemuli. Tumcapraqtikulad Jurnalistebis umravlesobas bundovani warmodgena aqvs amkodeqsis detalebze da eyrdnoba Jurnalistikis principebis zogad gagebas.magram bavSvebs zusti protokolebi sWirdebaT, rodesac saqme maTi uflebebisdacvas exeba.Jurnalisturi saqmianoba, romelic bavSvis sicocxles da keTildReobasexeba, yovelTvis unda iTvaliswinebdes bavSvis perspeqtivas. Jurnalistebida mediaorganizaciebi eTikuri qcevis umaRlesi standartebis dacvas undaeswrafodnen, rodesac bavSvebTan dakavSirebul Temebs aSuqeben.gaerTianebul samefoSi komunikaciebis ofisis da `bi-bi-sis~ saxelmZRvaneloprincipebi udides mniSvnelobas aniWebs bavSvis uflebaTa dacvas, iseve, rogorcamas akeTebs britaneTis sagazeTo industriis saproceso kodeqsi, romelsacpresasTan dakavSirebuli pretenziebis ganmxilveli komisia akontrolebs. isiniacnobiereben, rom mediis profesionalebis movaleobaa, zrunavdnen, rom mediaSidamkvidrebulma praqtikam ar Selaxos bavSvis uflebebi.JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis saxelmZRvanelo principebi.JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciam bavSvis uflebebi Seitana profesiulieTikis kodeqsSi da axorcielebs programebs gaTviTcnobierebulobisdonis asamaRleblad. is xels uwyobs saukeTeso saerTaSoriso praqtikisurTierTgacvlas sxvadasxva kavSirs Soris, upirispirdeba Jurnalistebsa damediaze komerciul zewolas `sensaciuri axali ambebis~ moTxovniT da saSualebasaZlevs bavSvebs, rom maTi problemebi danaxuli da gagonili iyos.JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis saxelmZRvanelo principebi, `bavSvisuflebebi da media: bavSvis probelemebisadmi miZRvnili sakiTxebis ganxilvissaxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi da principebi~, 70 qveynis Jurnalisturmaorganizaciebma daamtkices Jurnalizmisa da bavSvis uflebebisadmi miZRvnilpirvel saerTaSoriso sakonsultacio konferenciaze, romelic braziliis qalaqresifeSi Catarda 1998 wlis 2 maiss. es saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi bavSvebsdaexmareba imis danaxvaSi, rom Jurnalistebi maT problemebsa da Sexedulebebsseriozulad uyureben. am dokumentSi naTqvamia: `yvela Jurnalisti da mediis profesionali muSaki valdebulia, SeinarCunos umaRlesi eTikuri da profesiuli standartebi da dargis farglebSi popularizacia gauwios bavSvis uflebaTa saerTaSoriso konvenciisa da damoukidebeli JurnalistikisTvis misi mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb informaciis farTod gavrcelebas.~JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebis Tanaxmad:mediaorganizaciebi bavSvis uflebaTa darRvevas, bavSvis usafrTxoebis,
  • 54. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 53piradi cxovrebis, ganaTlebis da socialuri uzrunvelyofis sakiTxebsda eqspluataciis yvela formas gamoZiebisa da sajaro msjelobis sagnadunda miiCnevdnen.bavSvebs piradi cxovrebis absoluturi ufleba aqvT, im gamonaklisebis garda,romlebic garkveviT aris miTiTebuli saxelmZRvanelo principebSi.Jurnalisturi saqmianoba, romelic bavSvebis cxovrebasa da keTildReobasexeba, yovelTvis unda warimarTos maTi daucvelobis gaTvaliswinebiT.Jurnalistebma da masobrivi informaciis saSualebebma yvelaferi unda gaakeTonimisaTvis, rom ar gadauxvion umaRles eTikur standartebsa da normebs bavSvTaproblemebis gaSuqebisas. kerZod: 1. bavSvebis sakiTxebis gaSuqebisas maT Zalisxmeva ar unda daiSuron sizustisa da koreqtulobis dasacavad; 2. unda moeridon iseTi fotoebisa da informaciis gamoqveynebas bavSvebisaTvis gankuTvnil mediasivrceSi, romelic saziano iqneba maTTvis; 3. moeridon publikaciebisaTvis popularobis mopovebis mizniT bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli problemebis sensaciur da stereotipul gaSuqebas; 4. bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli nebismieri masalis gamoqveynebisas saguldagulod awon-dawonon SesaZlo Sedegebi da minimumamde daiyvanon zianis faqtori; 5. Tu amas sazogadoebrivi interesi ar moiTxovs, daicvan bavSvis vinaoba da ar gamoaqveynon misi fotoebi; 6. rodesac es SesaZlebelia, miscen bavSvebs masmediis saSualebiT TavianTi azrebis gamoxatvis SesaZlebloba yovelgvari zewolis gareSe; 7. uzrunvelyon bavSvis mier mowodebuli informaciis damoukidebeli Semowmeba da gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miaqcion imas, rom am informaciis Semowmebisas informator bavSvs safrTxe ar Seeqmnas; 8. moeridon bavSvebis seqsualur formaSi gadaRebuli fotoebis gamoqveynebas; 9. gamoiyenon bavSvebis fotoebis mopovebis samarTliani, Ria da pirdapiri meTodebi da, rodesac es SesaZlebelia, moipovon isini bavSvebis, maTze pasuxismgebeli piris an meurvis TanxmobiT; 10. Seamowmon im organizaciebis uflebamosileba, romlebic bavSvebis saxeliT laparakoben an warmoadgenen bavSvTa interesebs; 11. bavSvis cxovrebis pirobebis amsaxveli siuJetisaTvis mopovebuli masalis safasuri ar gadauxadon arc bavSvs da arc bavSvis mSoblebsa Tu meurveebs, Tu es namdvilad bavSvis interesebSi ar Sedis.
  • 55. 54Jurnalistebma kritikulad unda Seiswavlon warmodgenili reportaJebi damTavrobebis mier gamoTqmuli pretenziebi gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciisganxorcielebasTan dakavSirebiT.mediam ar unda ganixilos da gaaSuqos bavSvebis problemebi, mxolod rogorcmomxdari faqtebi, aramed `gamudmebiT unda werdes im procesebis Sesaxeb,romlebsac mivyavarT an migviyvanen msgavs faqtebTan~.saxelmZRvanelo JurnalistebisTvis`media uaizma~ da `iunisefma~ gamosces saxelmZRvanelo JurnalistebisTvis,saxelwodebiT `media da bavSvis uflebebi~, romlebic bavSvebs warmoadgenenmediaSi, (2005). es saxelmZRvanelo mediis muSakebis da sxvebis dasaxmarebladdaiwera. igi miznad isaxavs, isini, vinc am sferoSi saqmianobs, daafiqrosimaze, Tu ra gavlenas moaxdens gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciabavSvebis warmoCenaze mediaSi da mediis mier. moqmedi Jurnalistebispraqtikul gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT saxelmZRvanelo eswrafvis, biZgimisces pasuxismgeblobis amaRlebas bavSvebis sakiTxebis, agreTve bavSvebiscxovrebaze ufrosebis qcevisa da gadawyvetilebebis gavlenis gaSuqebisas. essaxelmZRvanelo mouwodebs mediis muSakebs, saukeTeso gza moZebnon bavSvisuflebaTa dasacavad da daexmaron maT masobriv mediaSi garkveuli rolisSesrulebaSi.bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis sakiTxebis gaSuqebas Tavisi problemebi aqvs. bavSvisuflebaTa sainformacio qselma Seqmna `bavSvebisgan intervius aRebis eTikurisaxelmZRvanelo principebi~, xolo `iunisefma~ SemuSava sakuTari, `bavSvebTandakavSirebuli sakiTxebis eTikurad gaSuqebis principebi~.saqme is aris, rom media ara mxolod samarTlianad, patiosnad da zustad undaaSuqebdes bavSvobis problemebs, aramed adgils tovebdes Tavad bavSvebisgansxvavebuli, kolorituli da SemoqmedebiTi azrebis gamosaxatavad. axaliambebi iqneba es, mimdinare movlenebi Tu SemoqmedebiTi da saSemsrulebloxelovnebis rTuli samyaro, mediis yvela muSaki da organizacia pasuxismgebelniarian, cnon bavSvis uflebebi da asaxon isini TavianT SemoqmedebaSi.es ki iseT mniSvnelovan sakiTxs ukavSirdeba, rogoricaa mediis muSakebistreningi. amJamad yuradReba gadatanilia treningis monawileebisTvis iseTiunar-Cvevebis Camoyalibebaze, rom maT SeZlon mudmivad cvalebad samuSaogaremosTan Segueba, rodesac mTavaria moqniloba.treningebis dros bavSvebisTvis fotoebis gadaRebas da maT videokameriTgadaRebas imdenive yuradReba unda daeTmos, ramdenic teqnikur kvalifikacias,radgan vizualuri gamosaxulebis mopovebisTvis gamoyenebuli meTodebi,gamosaxulebis konstruirebis gzebi da demonstrirebis formebi SeiZlebagansakuTrebiT problemuri aRmoCndes.
  • 56. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 55imisaTvis, rom mediis muSakebi ufro aqtiurad Caeban bavSvis uflebaTa dacvaSi,saWiroa SemuSavdes saxelmZRvanelo treningis, sainformacio masalebis da mediisdargebs Soris saerTaSoriso TanamSromlobis Sesaxeb, raTa uzrunvelyofiliqnes bavSvobasTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqeba da bavSvis uflebebismimarT yuradReba da zrunva.bavSvis problemebis da uflebebis ukeT gageba maT mier, vinc umaRles eSelonebSia,iseve mniSvnelovania, rogorc imis uzrunvelyofa, rom Jurnalistebma daprogramebis Semqmnelebma ndobaze dafuZnebuli urTierToba daamyaron sxvaprofesionalebTan, romlebic bavSvebTan muSaoben (maswavleblebi, socialurimuSakebi da sxv.).bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebisas mediis eTikisa da JurnalistTaprofesiuli standartebis dacvis Sesaxeb saqarTveloSi2008 wels gaeros bavSvTa fondis egidiT Catarda kvleva saxelwodebiT `bavSvTasakiTxebis gaSuqeba da media eTika saqarTveloSi – situaciuri analizi~. eskvleva mimoixilavs saqarTveloSi arsebuli media eTikis kodeqsebsa da mediisTviT-regulirebis meqanizmebs bavSvTa uflebebis dacvis TvalsazrisiTda asaxavs qarTuli mediis samTviani monitoringis Sedegebs imis Taobaze,Tu ramdenad icavs media bavSvTa uflebebs bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebisas.kvlevis Tanaxmad, qarTul mediaSi ar arsebobs erTiani profesiuli standartebibavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebasTan dakavSirebiT, romlebsac Jurnalistebi damenejerebi erTnairad scemdnen pativs. mxolod ramdenime mediasaSualebasaqvs Tavisi kodeqsi, romlis aRiareba da dacva ver qmnis saTanado aminds.qarTul mediaSi Warbobs stereotipuli midgoma bavSvebis mimarT, rac sakmaodrTuli Sedegebis momtania. bavSvTa sakiTxebs Jurnalistebi ganzogadebuliformulebiT aSuqeben.qarTul mediaSi xSiria imgvari statiebi, sadac ar aris mkafiod gamijnulifaqti da komentari, figurirebs dauzustebeli da gadaumowmebeliinformacia. bavSvebze saubrisas Jurnalistebi ar eridebian ganzogadebas,rac TavisTavad xels uwyobs stereotipebs. garda amisa, naklebad xdebaproblemis detaluri gaanalizeba da informaciis gaSuqeba ramdenime wyarossafuZvelze.xSiria faqtebi, rodesac xdeba kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi an Zaladobismsxverpli bavSvebis Sesaxeb informaciis sensaciuri kuTxiT gaSuqeba da ambavSvebis identificireba. quCis bavSveis mimarT ki xSirad ismis diskriminaciulida stereotipuli gamoTqmebi.kvlevis Sedegad SemuSavda konkretuli rekomendaciebi, romelTa Sorisacdidi adgili uWiravs JurnalistebisTvis bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqebis saswavlokursis SemoRebasa da treningebis organizebas.
  • 57. 56SefasebabavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qselis eTikuri saxelmZRvanelo principebisganxilva da ZiriTadi momentebis identificireba sakuTar praqtikaSigamoyenebisTvis. ra informacias awvdis saxelmZRvanelo dRevandel praqtikas?damatebiTi literatura da resursebi`ciliswameba, sentimentaloba Tu siCume? ras eguebian axalgazrdebi mediaSi~.maik jemfsoni, “MediaWise Trust”, 2003`bavSvebi da media: globaluri problema~maik jemfsoni, “MediaWise Trust”, 2003`uTanasworoba da axalgazrdebis warmoCena stereotipulad~doqtori moris devlini, NUI Maynooth, 2006http://www.unicef.org/magic/users/resources.html`bavSvis uflebebi da media: bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqebis saxelmZRvanelomiTiTebebi da principebi~, JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacia, 1998:http://www.ifj.org/default.asp?index=192&Language=EN`bavSvebisgan intervius aRebis saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebis kompilacia~, bavSvis uflebaTasainformacio qseli (CRIN) 2005:http://www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.asp?ID=5572`glokal iuT~: www.glocalyouth.net`gadavarCinoT bavSvebi~: http://www.savethechildren.org.uk/scuk/jsp/newhome.jsp?flash=true`karent tivi~ (Current TV): http://uk.current.com/mediis monitoringis proeqti: http://www.mediamonitoring.org.za`iunisefi~: `bavSvebis Sesaxeb sakiTxebis gaSuqebis eTikuri principebi~:http://www.unicef.org/media tools guidlines.html`bavSvebisgan intervius aReba: saxelmZRvanelo Jurnalistebisa da sxvebisTvis~“Save the Children”, 1998`media da bavSvis uflebebi~, `mediauaiz~, 2005:http://www.mediawise.org.uk/files/uploaded/The%20Media%20and%20Children%20Rights%202005.pdf`bavSvisgan intervius aRebis eTikuri saxelmZRvanelo principebi~, bavSvis uflebaTasainformacio qseli:http://www.crin.com/resources/infoDetail.asp?ID=5572&flag=reportkvleva `bavSvTa sakiTxebis gaSuqeba da media eTika saqarTveloSi – situaciuri analizi~ -http://www.unicef.org/georgia/resources_6521.html
  • 58. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 576. informaciis gavrcelebis saukeTeso praqtika bavSvebis Sexedulebebis gaTvaliswinebiTZiriTadi Sesaswavli Temebi `msoflio bavSvebisaTvis~ erovnuli samoqmedo gegmebi bavSvebisaTvis bavSvebis monawileoba saukeTeso praqtikis principebi bavSvTa Tvalsazrisis gageba: magaliTebigaeros mier 2002 wlis maisSi Catarebul bavSvebTan dakavSirebul sagangebosesias udidesi mniSvneloba hqonda bavSvebisa da, zogadad, adamianebisganviTarebisTvis. es iyo generaluri asambleis pirveli sagangebo sesia,romelic mieZRvna bavSvebs da romelzec isini mowveulni iqnen oficialurdelegatebad. sesiaze Tavi moiyares 69 qveynis liderebma; 190-ma erovnulmadelegatma; arasamTavrobo organizaciebis 1 700-ze metma warmomadgenelma;mSvidobis dargSi nobelis premiis xuTma laureatma; sxvadasxva biznesis,religiis, xelovnebis mimdinareobis, samecniero da samoqalaqo sazogadoebisuamravma warmomadgenelma da, pirvelad gaeros arsebobis istoriaSi, 600-zemetma bavSvma, rogorc delegatma da aqtiurma monawilem.`msoflio bavSvebisaTvis~2002 wels gamarTul sagangebo sesiaze, istoriaSi pirvelad, axalgazrdebmauSualod mimarTes generalur asambleas da SesTavazes TavianTi mosazrebebi daSemoqmedebiTi gadawyvetilebebi. bavSvebis monawileobam gamoacocxla Sexvedrada gaaCina meti mizanmimarTulebisa da pasuxismgeblobis grZnoba. msofliosqveynebis liderebma gaaTviTcnobieres, rom, imisaTvis, rom Secvalon msofliobavSvebisaTvis, maT msoflios Secvla bavSvebTan erTad mouwevT.am axalgazrdebis enTuziazmiT da xedviT STagonebulma generalurma asambleammiaRwia SeTanxmebas dokumentTan `msoflio bavSvebisaTvis~ dakavSirebiT – esaris detaluri gegma, romelic exeba jansaRi cxovrebis, ZiriTadi ganaTlebisuzrunvelyofas, aiv/Sids-is damarcxebas da bavSvebis dacvas Seuracxyofis,eqspluataciisa da Zaladobisagan.`iunisefis~ yofili aRmasrulebeli direqtoris, kerol belamis, TqmiT,`gaeros arc erT sxdomaze ar yofila mowveuli amdeni bavSvi da axalgazrdaoficialuri delegatis saxiT... swored maTi monawileoba aqcevs sagangebodsagangebo sesias~.`msoflio bavSvebisaTvis~ adgens miznebs, romelTa Sesrulebis safuZvelzegaizomeba progresi 2015 wlisTvis gaeros aTaswleulis ganviTarebis miznebismiRwevaSi. igi aseve adgens miznebs konkretulad bavSvebisTvis:
  • 59. 58`bavSvebs, maT Soris mozardebs, unda hqondeT TavianTi uflebebisgamoyenebis saSualeba imisaTvis, rom Tavisuflad gamoxaton TavianTi azrebi,Camoayalibon sakuTari Tavis pativiscemis grZnoba, SeiZinon codna daunarebi, romlebic dakavSirebuli iqneba konfliqtebis gadaWrasTan,gadawyvetilebis miRebasa da urTierTobasTan, rac maT cxovrebaSi gamoadgebaT.aucilebelia bavSvebis, maT Soris mozardebis, azrebis Tavisufladgamoxatvis uflebis pativiscema da xelSewyoba, aseve aucilebelia maTiSexedulebebis gaTvaliswineba bavSvebTan dakavSirebul yvela sakiTxSi _maT azrebs unda mieniWos Sesabamisi mniSvneloba maTi asakis da simwifismixedviT. aucilebelia bavSvebis energiulobis da SemoqmedebiTobisxelSewyoba ise, rom maT SeZlon aqtiuri monawileobis miReba maTi garemocvis,Temebisa da im msoflios cxovrebaSi, romelic maT memkvidreobiT unda miiRon.~es sityvebi da bavSvebis aqtiuri monawileoba generalur asambleaSi asaxavs bavSvisuflebaTa konvenciis me-12 muxlSi mocemul ideebs – bavSvis Sexedulebis daazris Tavisuflad gamoxatvis uflebas. yovel bavSvs, romelsac aqvs sakuTariazris formulirebis unari, aqvs am azrebis Tavisuflad gamoxatvis uflebayvela im sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT, romelic uSualod moqmedebs mis cxovrebaze.bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli erovnuli samoqmedo gegmebigaeros bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sagangebo sesiis erT-erT sxdomaze ganixilessaxelmwifo strategiaSi bavSvebis CarTvis sakiTxi. prioritetuli reagirebisaTvisdaadgines bavSvebis winaSe arsebuli oTxi ZiriTadi sakiTxi: janmrTeloba,ganaTleba, dacva Zaladobisgan, Seuracxyofisa da eqspluataciisgan da aiv/Sids-i.globaluri samoqmedo gegmis ganxorcielebis mizniT msoflios mTavrobebiSeTanxmdnen, moemzadebinaT bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli erovnuli samoqmedogegmebi 2003 wlis bolosTvis. es samoqmedo gegmebi ganmartavs, rogor imuSavebsTiToeuli mTavroba globaluri samoqmedo gegmis miznebis da amocanebisSesrulebisTvis sakuTar qveynebSi.sagangebo sesiam yvelas daanaxva, Tu ra wvlilis Setana SeuZliaT bavSvebsada mozardebs maTze moqmedi sakiTxebis gadawyvetaSi da ra didi mniSvnelobaaqvs gadawyvetilebis mimRebebisTvis bavSvebTan konsultirebas da maT mosmenas.mTeli msoflios bavSvebSi didi gamococxleba SeimCneoda sesiis SemdgomprocesebSi maTi CarTvis gamo. bavSvebma da mozardebma mkafiod gamoxates,rom maT surdaT, mizanmimarTulad yofiliyvnen CarTuli qveynis erovnulisamoqmedo gegmebis CamoyalibebaSi, ganxorcielebasa da monitoringSi.organizaciam `gadavarCinoT bavSvebi~ 14 qveynis 4 500 bavSvs hkiTxa, Tu ratomundaT am procesSi monawileoba. qvemoT CamoTvlilia maT mier dasaxelebulimTavari mizezebi: isini Tavad warmoadgenen aRniSnuli gegmebis uSualo mizans da yvelaze mniSvnelovan dainteresebul pirebs;
  • 60. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 59 maT yvelaze kargad ician bavSvebis mdgomareoba da, aqedan gamomdinare, SeuZliaT daexmaron mTavrobebs bavSvebis problemebis ukeT gagebaSi; yvela bavSvi ar aris erTnairi, mTavrobebma unda icodnen bavSvebis sxvadasxva jgufebis azrebi; maT aqvT ufleba, Tavisuflad gamoTqvan TavianTi Sexedulebebi nebismier sakiTxze, romelic maT exeba (gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis me-12 muxli); bavSvebs da mozardebs SeuZliaT (da aqvT amis survili) garkveuli rolis Sesruleba gegmis ganxorcielebaSi; maTi monawileobis Sedegad samoqmedo gegma ufro efeqtiani da qmedunariani gaxdeba; gegma xels uwyobs demokratiis mSeneblobas da warmoSobs bavSvebSi pasuxismgeblobas sakuTari sicocxlis, Temebis da sazogadoebis mimarT; maT didi wvlilis Setana SeuZliaT procesSi.globalur samoqmedo gegmasTan dakavSirebiT mTavrobebi SeTanxmdnenSemdegze: `Cven pativi unda vceT [bavSvebis da mozardebis] uflebas,Tavisuflad gamoxaton TavianTi Sexedulebebi da azri da monawileobamiiRon maTTan dakavSirebul yvela sakiTxSi maTi asakis da simwifismixedviT. vinaidan erovnuli samoqmedo gegmebi iqmneba bavSvebis cxovrebisgaumjobesebis da maTi uflebebis ganxorcielebis realobad qcevismizniT, amitom didi mniSvneloba eniWeba Tavad bavSvebis da mozardebismonawileobas am gegmebis SemuSavebaSi. bavSvebi mTavari dainteresebulipirebi arian da aucilebelia maTi mosmena imisaTvis, rom daisaxos sworimiznebi da maTi miRwevis saukeTeso gzebi~.bavSvebis monawileobagaeros generaluri asambleis 2002 wels gamarTulma sesiam da saxelmwifo donezeerovnuli samoqmedo gegmebis Camoyalibebis procesma daanaxva sazogadoebas, Tura enTuziazmiT Sexvdnen bavSvebi monawileobas maTTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebisgadawyvetaSi. maTi monawileobis Sedegad bavSvebSi izrdeba Tanamonawileobisada bavSvebis cxovrebasTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze momuSave organizaciebismxridan dafasebis grZnoba.monawileoba ar aris martivi; mas sWirdeba liderebi erovnul, adgilobrivda saorganizacio doneebze. kerZod, saWiroa Zlieri lideri organizaciebSibavSvebis da axalgazrdebis realuri da aqtiuri monawileobis SesaZleblobisinicirebisa da gafarToebisaTvis.organizaciebis mzadyofnasa da bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis CarTvis survilzemravali faqtori moqmedebs, maT Soris, kulturuli faseulobebi, resursebissakiTxebi, ufrosebis azri bavSvTa Sexedulebebis mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb,organizaciaSi arsebuli SesaZleblobebi da TviT bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebismzadyofna monawileobisTvis.bavSvebs da axalgazrdebs monawileobisTvis sWirdebaT informacia, unarebi da
  • 61. 60sakuTari Tavis rwmena. monawileobisaTvis aucilebeli am unarebis CamoyalibebaojaxSi iwyeba. ojaxebs SeuZliaT bavSvebs yoveldRiur cxovrebaSi mianiWon amissaSualeba maTTvis arCevanis SeTavazebis, maTi moqmedebebis da gadawyvetilebebisSedegebis ganmartebis da maTi azrebis pativiscemis kulturis Camoyalibebis gziT.ojaxis Semdeg yvelaze didi mniSvneloba eniWeba skolaSi arsebul garemosda kulturas, romlis xelSewyobiTac bavSvebs SeuZliaT SeiZinon aqtiurimonawileobis da moqalaqeobis Cvevebi, unarebi da pasuxismgebloba.vinaidan bavSvebis umravlesoba udides dros atarebs saswavlodawesebulebebSi, aRniSnuli dawesebulebebi aqtiurad unda TanamSromlobdnenbavSvebTan.skolebSi specialuri treningi unda gaiaron maswavleblebma da skolisTanamSromlebma, romlis daxmarebiTac isini SeZleben saskolo sabWoebis muSaobisda bavSvebis monawileobis xelSewyobas. skolebs ekisreba gansakuTrebulipasuxismgebloba ganaTlebis procesSi ormxrivi komunikaciis xelSewyobaSi,sadac aqtiuri monawileebi bavSvebi arian.Temis doneze adgilobriv xelisuflebas SeuZlia bavSvebisa daaxalgazrdebisaTvis konsultaciebis gamarTva, romelTa safuZvelzebavSvebi SeZleben sakuTari adgilobrivi sabWos arCevas, romelic, Tavismxriv, SeZlebs monawileobas da integrirebas ufrosebis saqmianobaSi.sazogadoebaSi teqnologiebis sul ufro mzardi rolidan gamomdinareyalibdeba meqanizmebi, romlebic moicavs internetis gamoyenebas, xolomobilur telefonebs kidev ufro metad SeuZlia monawileobis xelSewyoba.internetis msoflio qseli sul ufro farTovdeba da qmnis msofliosxalxebis forums, sadac bavSvebs da axalgazrdebs SeuZliaT sakuTariSexedulebebisa da gamocdilebis gaziareba sxvebisTvis da Tavisi wvlilisSetana saxelmwifo politikis ganviTarebaSi saxelmwifo da adgilobrivdoneebze.monawileobiT miRebuli sargeblobagadawyvetilebaTa miRebaSi monawileobas pirdapiri sargebloba moaqvsbavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis. isini iZenen iseT unarebs, rogoricaris gunduri muSaoba, molaparakebis warmoeba, problemebis mogvarebada zemoqmedeba. isini swavloben, rogor yalibdeba politika da rogormuSaoben organizaciebi. isini swavloben muSaobas ufrosebTan, rogorcpartniorebTan, da swored aseTi monawileoba zrdis maTSi sakuTari Tavisrwmenas da sakuTari Tavis pativiscemas.monawileobis SesaZleblobas praqtikuli sargeblobis motana SeuZliamarginalizebuli bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisaTvis, romlebic ganicdian angariyulni arian sazogadoebisgan, Tavisi Temis kulturuli, ekonomikuri Tupolitikuri cxovrebidan.
  • 62. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 61bavSvebs da axalgazrdebs TavianTi unikaluri perspeqtivebis da gamocdilebisSemoTavazeba SeuZliaT iseT sakiTxebze, romlebic gavlenas axdens maTcxovrebaze. Tu movusmenT bavSvebis azrs imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor unda Seiqmnas,wardges, Sefasdes, Semowmdes da gaumjobesdes politika da momsaxurebebi,uzrunvelyofili iqneba am politikis Tu momsaxurebis Sesabamisoba maTsaWiroebebTan da daukmayofilebeli saWiroebebis aRiareba.roca bavSvebi da axalgazrdebi monawileoben saxelmwifo politikisCamoyalibebaSi, isini ufrosebis mier miRebuli gadawyvetilebebis pasiurimimRebebidan iqcevian `uflebamosil~ pirebad, romlebsac ZaluZT sakuTari dasazogadoebis cxovrebis Secvla. `mopovebuli informaciisa da warmomadgenelTaSexedulebebis miRebis garda, TviT procesi wevrebs aZlevs sakiTxebis ganxilvisda momzadebis saSualebas da, aseve, mosalodnels xdis maT monawileobascvlilebebis ganxorcielebaSi da ganamtkicebs maTSi sakuTari Tavisadmi,rogorc moqalaqisadmi, rwmenas~ (`usmineT axalgazrda xmebs~, maqolei dabratmani, `bavSvTa uflebebis aliansi~, 2002).perspeqtivebi bavSvebisTvis: magaliTebibavSvTa ombudsmenievropis mTelma rigma qveynebma SemoiRes bavSvTa ombudsmenis Tanamdeboba, maTSoris avstriam, belgiam, xorvatiam, daniam, fineTma, islandiam, irlandiam,norvegiam, SvedeTma da espaneTma.konkretuli magaliTi: irlandiairlandiaSi bavSvTa ombudsmenis daniSvnis procesSi bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebismonawileobis marTva bavSvTa saxelmwifo ofisma ikisra, romelmac irlandiurprocesebSi CarTo sxva qveynebis gamocdileba da rekomendaciebi. 64-maaxalgazrdam 9-dan 17 wlamde monawileoba miiRo ombudsmenis SerCevis damasTan gasaubrebis procesSi. maT aseve miiRes monawileoba axalgazrdebissakonsultacio komisiis SeqmnaSi, romlis samuSaoa bavSvTa ombudsmenisTviskonsultaciis miwodeba im sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebsac zegavlenismoxdena SeuZlia Tanamedrove axalgazrda irlandielebze. ofisTan regularulSexvedrebze isini atyobineben ombudsmens maTTvis mniSvnelovan sakiTxebs dauyvebian, Tu rogor isurvebdnen maT mogvarebas.ombudsmenis ofisi yuradRebas aqcevs iseTi struqturebis Camoyalibebas dagaumjobesebas, romlebic bavSvebs da axalgazrdebs miscems monawileobissaSualebas (rogoricaa Dail na nOg – axalgazrdebis parlamenti da Comhairle na nOg– axalgazrdebis sabWo). igi aseve axorcielebs monawileobasTan dakavSirebulproeqtebs saxelmwifo organoebTan, xelisuflebis departamentebTan daarasamTavrobo organizaciebTan TanamSromlobiT.bolo sami wlis ganmavlobaSi monawileobasTan dakavSirebiT ganxorcielebuliproeqtebi iyo sakmaod farTo da moicavda TanamSromlobas mraval dainteresebul
  • 63. 62mxaresTan. samuSaos magaliTebia: konsultaciebi axalgazrdebTan im sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT, romlebic gaTvaliswinebuli unda iqnes seqsualuri aqtivobis asakis gansazRvrisas; muSaoba irlandiis samauwyeblo komisiasTan bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis CarTvis sakiTxebze im saxelmwifo procesebSi, romlebic exeba bavSvebis sakiTxebs sareklamo kodeqsSi; `axalgazrdobis xmebis” Seqmna: saxelmZRvanelo principebi imisa, Tu rogor unda moxdes bavSvebis da axalgazrdebis CarTva muSaobaSi, irlandiis axalgazrdobis saxelmwifo sabWosTan da bavSvTa uflebebis aliansTan TanamSromlobis safuZvelze; bavSvebis da axalgazrdebis CarTva janmrTelobis dacvis momsaxurebaTa dagegmvaSi.bavSvTa parlamentebiaxalgazrdebis parlamentebi arsebobs msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxeSi, racuzrunvelyofs axalgazrdebis monawileobas momavlis SenebaSi.`oqsfam interneiSenalis~ (Oxfam International) axalgazrduli parlamentiwarmoadgens `Oxfam International~-is iniciativas. `Oxfam International~-isaxalgazrduli parlamenti mobilizebas uwevs axalgazrda liderebsada aqtivistebs pozitiuri da mdgradi cvlilebebis Setanis sakiTxebSiTanamSromlobisTvis. igi axerxebs amas axalgazrdobis iniciativebismxardaWeriT, SesaZleblobaTa ganviTarebis programebis daxmarebiTda axalgazrdebis TanadgomiT maTi da maTi Temebis uflebebisa daTavisuflebebis dacvaSi. `oqsfam interneiSenalis~ axalgazrduliparlamenti mxars uWers axalgazrdebs, rogorc liderebs, cvlilebebisSemotanis mizniT dadebiTi, mdgradi, inovaciuri da Temze orientirebuliiniciativebis ganxorcielebaSi. konkretuli magaliTi: axalgazrduli sabWo, safrangeTi axalgazrduli sabWoebi safrangeTSi 1970-iani wlebidan muSaobs. amJamad maTi raodenoba ramdenime aseuls aRwevs. maTi funqciaa bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis problemebis Setyobineba adgilobrivi TemebisTvis. 1991 wels daarsda bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis saqalaqo sabWoebis erovnuli asociacia. mis pirvel Sexvedras 700 axalgazrda da 400 zrdasruli daeswro; Semdgom Sexvedrebs eswrebodnen ministrebi.
  • 64. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 63 axalgazrduli sabWoebis miRwevebi mniSvnelovania – sqeitbordis ferdobebis ageba, moednebis mowyoba SezRuduli SesaZleblobebis mqone bavSvebisTvis, multfilmebis videoTeka, gaumjobesebuli satransporto saSualebebi, socialuri RonisZiebebi, qalaqis rukebis Seqmna brailis sistemiT, videofirebis gadaReba, sadac asaxulia bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis problemebi maT mSobliur qalaqebSi. axalgazrduli sabWoebis raodenoba da maTi arsebobis xangrZlivoba gviCvenebs, Tu ra seriozulad ganixileba amgvari organoebi safrangeTSi. maTi efeqtianobis mniSvnelovan elements warmoadgens politikuri valdebulebebi maT mimarT rogorc saxelmwifo, aseve adgilobriv doneebze. isini seriozulad ganixileba rogorc adgilobriv sazogadoebaSi axalgazrdebis mniSvnelovani rolis Sesrulebis efeqtiani saSualeba.axalgazrdebis evropuli forumi warmoadgens saerTaSoriso organizacias,romelic Camoyalibda axalgazrduli erovnuli sabWoebisa da axalgazrdebissaerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebis mier evropis yvela kuTxisaxalgazrdebis interesebis gamoxatvis mizniT. forumi stimuls aZlevsaxalgazrdebs monawileobisTvis evropisa da im sazogadoebebis mowyobaSi,sadac isini cxovroben. igi warmoadgens axalgazrdebis organizaciebssaerTaSoriso dawesebulebebSi – umTavresad evrokavSirSi, evrosabWosada gaeroSi. maTi saSualebiT imarTeba informaciis nakadi axalgazrdebsa dagadawyvetilebebis mimRebTa Soris.forumSi gaerTianebulia 93 wevri axalgazrduli erovnuli sabWoebidanda axalgazrdebis saerTaSoriso arasamTavrobo organizaciebidan. forumiaerTianebs aTobiT milion axalgazrdas evropis yvela qveynidan.axalgazrdebis parlamenti warmoadgens gaerTianebuli samefos iniciativas,romelic Seiqmna axalgazrdebis dasaxmareblad maTTvis sainteresoyvela sakiTxze xmis uflebis mopovebaSi. organizacia Seiqmna birminhemSiforumis saxiT, sadac axalgazrdebs SeeZloT Sexvedra erTmaneTTansxvadasxva sakiTxis gansaxilvelad da iseTi politikis Camosayalibeblad,romelic qalaqs axalgazrdebisTvis ukeTes adgilad gadaaqcevda. amJamadaxalgazrdebis parlamenti regionis sabaziso organizaciaa, igi aseveaxorcielebs saxelmwifo da saerTaSoriso RonisZiebebs da akavSirebserTmaneTTan axalgazrdebs.
  • 65. 64 konkretuli magaliTi: bavSvTa parlamenti sloveniaSi sloveniaSi 1990 wels saparlamento demokratiis SemoRebasTan erTad Seiqmna bavSvTa parlamenti. yovel wels bavSvebs skolaSi eZlevaT raime erTi Tema da misi siRrmiseulad Seswavlis saSualeba. 13-15 wlis 100-ze met axalgazrdas Tavis skolebSi irCeven sloveniis parlamentSi Seswavlili sakiTxebis gansaxilvelad SexvedrisTvis. Sexvedris bolosTvis isini irCeven Temas momavali wlisTvis. pirveli wlis sakiTxs warmoadgenda `usafrTxo da jansaRi garemo~. bavSvTa parlamentis meore SexvedrisTvis suraTi Zirfesvianad Seicvala. sloveniaSi, xorvatiasa da bosniaSi omi daiwyo. axalgazrdebi parlaments iyenebdnen momavalTan dakavSirebiT sakuTari azrebis gamosaxatavad da xmamaRla acxadebdnen TavianT SeniSvnebs politikosebis mimarT, romlebmac ver SeZles qmediTi mTavrobis Seqmna. isini gamoxatavdnen risxvas, SiSsa da Ralatis SegrZnebas omTan dakavSirebiT, daucvelobis grZnobas, skolaSi siarulis SeuZleblobas. politikosebi iZulebuli iyvnen, maTTvis moesminaT. maT parlamentSi sabolood warmoadgines angariSi samuSaos mimdinareobis Sesaxeb, romelSic mocemuli iyo wina parlamentis mier gakeTebuli rekomendaciebi. marTalia, angariSi mxolod ramdenime konkretulad Sesrulebul sakiTxs moicavda, magram igi uCvenebda bavSvebs, rom maTi azrebi seriozulad ganixileba. parlamentis mesame sxdoma fokusirebuli iyo bavSvebisTvis megobruli garemos mqone skolis Seqmnaze. wina wlebisgan gansxvavebiT, yuradReba gamaxvilebuli iyo gaumjobesebaze da ara kritikaze. arsebiTi mniSvnelobis mqone faqtori, romelsac unda eCvenebina, rom parlamenti ar iyo ubralod simboluri Jesti, iyo is, rom politikosebma uCvenes yvelas, rom maT surdaT bavSvebis mosmena, maTi winadadebebisa da maT mier wamoWrili sakiTxebis gaTvaliswineba da praqtikulad moqmedeba, rodesac ki es SesaZlebeli iqneboda. garda amisa, procesma yvelas daanaxva, rom bavSvebs SeuZliaT sakuTar TavSi demokratiuli pasuxismgeblobis grZnobis Camoyalibeba.monawileobisTvis arsebuli barierebimiuxedavad kargi magaliTebisa, bavSvebis da axalgazrdebis xmebis mniSvnelobisgaTviTcnobiereba da maTTan praqtikuli muSaoba jer kidev Canasaxis stadiaSia.saxelmwifo politikasTan dakavSirebuli konsultaciebi bavSvebTan daaxalgazrdebTan kvlavac axal da bolomde gaurkvevel koncefciad rCeba. jerkidev bevria gasakeTebeli imisaTvis, rom bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis xmebistruqturulad CairTos samoqalaqo sazogadoebis gadawyvetilebebSi.gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi monawileobis miRebisas axalgazrdebis mxardaWeraufrosebisTvis rTuli da sapasuxismgeblo amocanaa, Tumca jer kidev cota
  • 66. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 65maTgani Tu gadis Sesabamis trenings. ufrosebis (maT Soris mSoblebis) uaryofiTidamokidebuleba axalgazrdebis monawileobis mimarT bariers qmnis.miuxedavad imisa, rom axalgazrdebi sul ufro metad ebmebian monawileobazedafuZnebul proeqtebSi, Sefasebis Sedegebi gviCvenebs, rom maTi gavlenasaxelmwifo gadawyvetilebebis miRebaze jer kidev mcirea, Tumca es maCvenebeligansxvavdeba konteqstebis da sxvadasxva tipis organizaciebis mixedviT.kidev karga xani gava, vidre bavSvebis mosmenis kultura maTTan dakavSirebulisakiTxebis da Sesabamisi gadawyvetilebebis miRebis nawili gaxdeba. imisaTvis,rom daculi iyos bavSvebis ufleba, moisminon maTi azri, ufrosebma jerovaniyuradReba unda miaqcion da gaiTvaliswinon maTi Sexedulebebi.SefasebaganixileT Tqvens qveyanaSi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli erovnuli samoqmedogegmis statusi da mis SemuSavebaSi bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis monawileoba.damatebiTi literatura da resursebibavSvebTan Sexvedris oficialuri angariSi: bavSvebis sakiTxebze momuSave ombudsmenebisevropuli qseli, 17/11/2003:http://www.ombudsmet.org/Organisations/vieworg.asp?id=2872&fromEnoc=egaeros bavSvebTan dakavSirebul sagangebo sesiaze bavSvebis monawileobis Sedegad miRebuli 12gakveTili, `Save the Children~, 2004:http://www.savethechildren.ca/whatwedo/rights/12lessons stc.pdfirlandiis obmudsmenis ofisi, 2005-2006 wlis wliuri angariSihttp://www.oco.ie/whatsNew/annual reports.aspxmsoflio moZraoba bavSvebisTvis:http://www.gmfc.org/index.php/gmc6/homepagebavSvebis CarTva bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli erovnuli samoqmedo gegmis CamoyalibebaSi: saerTomiTiTebebi mTavrobebisTvis; 2002, `Save the Children~: www.crin.org/resources/infoDetail.asp?ID=3145`SeiZleba saocrebis gazomva: saxelmwifo gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi axalgazrdebismonawileobis Sefaseba da kvleva~; perpetua qirbi, karnegis axalgazrdaTa iniciativa:http://cypi.carnegieuktrust.org.uk/files/2643 MeasuretheMagic 001.pdf
  • 67. 66Tavi 2: bavSvis uflebebi da profesiuli Jurnalisturi praqtika1. qcevis kodeqsebi da saredaqcio saxelmZRvanelo principebi ZiriTadi Sesaswavli Temebi  ra saWiroa qcevis kodeqsebi?  kodeqsebi detaluri da normatiuli unda iyos Tu zogad principebs moicavdes?  qcevis kodeqsebi da movaleoba  qcevis kodeqsebi da presis Tavisufleba  pasuxismgeblobis da Tavisuflebis Sedarebaqcevis kodeqsebi im wesebis krebulebia, romlebiTac imarTeba qceva dasaredaqcio gadawyvetilebebis miReba. msoflios sxvadasxva qveyanaSiCamoyalibebuli Jurnalisturi qcevis kodeqsebi exmianeba profesionaliJurnalistebis winaSe wamoWril sirTuleebs. es principebi JurnalistebisTvisufro farTod cnobilia profesiuli eTikis kodeqsis, qcevis kodeqsisan Jurnalistikis kanonebis saxeliT. ZiriTad kodeqsebs, Cveulebriv,adgenen JurnalistTa profesiuli asociaciebi da, agreTve, individualurisagamomcemlo, samauwyeblo da internet-axali ambebis organizaciebi.Tumca kodeqsebSi SeiniSneba garkveuli gansxvaveba. ZiriTadad, maTSimocemulia iseTi saerTo elementebi, rogorebicaa WeSmaritebis principebi,sizuste, obieqturoba, miukerZoebloba, samarTlianoba, pasuxismgeblobisgrZnoba sazogadoebis winaSe faseuli informaciis mopovebisTvis gamoyenebulisainformacio wyaroebis anonimurobis dacvasa da amgvari informaciissazogadoebisTvis Setyobinebaze.mravali sxva eTikuri sistemis msgavsad, Jurnalisturi eTika moicavs`zianis SezRudvis~ princips. es xSirad niSnavs iseTi detalebis dafarvassazogadoebisgan, rogorebicaa bavSvebis vinaoba, gaupatiurebis msxverplTavinaoba, informacia, romelsac ar gaaCnia raime mniSvnelovani kavSirikonkretul ambavTan (romlis gamJRavnebas, magaliTad, SeuZlia vinmesTvis zianismiyeneba) da, aseve, TviTmkvlelobis dros gamoyenebuli meTodebi.Jurnalistikis kodeqsebis ganviTarebaJurnalistikis aRiarebuli principebis mizania sazogadoebisTvis umaRlesixarisxis ambebis miwodeba, informaciis gavrcelebis misiis ganxorcielebasaxelmwifo interesTa momsaxurebis mizniT. Tu ras niSnavs `saxelmwifointeresi~, dRemde debatebis sagania. igi SeiZleba exebodes `saerTo~ an`zogad~ keTildReobas.gaerTianebuli samefos da irlandiis JurnalistTa erovnulma kavSirma
  • 68. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 67Camoayaliba Tavisi Tvalsazrisi `saxelmwifo interesebis~ mniSvnelobasTandakavSirebiT: seriozuli danaSaulis an samarTaldarRvevis aRmoCena an gamoaSkaraveba; sazogadoebis janmrTelobisa da usafrTxoebis dacva; romelime individis an organizaciis raime gancxadebis saSualebiT sazogadoebis SecdomaSi Seyvanis Tavidan acileba; saxelmwifo organoebis mier saxelmwifo saxsrebis aradaniSnulebisamebr gamoyenebis an korufciis sxva formebis gamomJRavneba; xelisuflebisa da zegavlenis mqone jgufebs Soris interesTa potenciuri konfliqtis gamoaSkaraveba; korporaciuli angarebis gamovlena; farisevluri qcevis gamomJRavneba maRali Tanamdebobis pirebis mxridan.zogadad Tu vimsjelebT, Jurnalisturi kodeqsebi warmoiqmna JurnalistebisZvel eTikur Secdomebze dakvirvebis da maTze reagirebis safuZvelze. dResdasaqmebis zogierTi piroba savaldebulod acxadebs amgvari kodeqsebis dacvas,rogorc TanamSromlebis, aseve StatgareSe JurnalistebisTvis; JurnalistebiSeiZleba daiTxovon samuSao adgilebidan eTikuri kodeqsis darRvevis gamo.Jurnalistebi Zalian xSirad aRmoaCenen xolme, rom, Tu ar surT samsaxurisdakargva, sakuTari eTikuri Sexedulebis sawinaaRmdegod mouwevT moqmedeba.msoflioSi qcevis pirveli kodeqsi 1936 wels gamosca gaerTianebuli samefos dairlandiis JurnalistTa erovnulma kavSirma, rogorc damqiravebelma organom.kodeqsebis formulireba xSirad warmoadgenda Jurnalistebis gamoxmaurebassakiTxebze, romlebic dakavSirebuli iyo mediasaSualebaTa sakuTrebasTan dasakuTrebis koncentraciasTan.Jurnalisturi eTikis kodeqsebi Seqmnilia gzis gasakvlevad sxvadasxva iseTsirTuleebSi, rogorebicaa interesTa konfliqti an Jurnalistebis daxmarebaeTikur dilemebTan dakavSirebiT. kodeqsebi Jurnalistebs aZlevs sistemasTviTmonitoringisa da sakuTari saqcielis cvlilebisTvis. profesiulistandartebis dacva aseve zrdis axali ambebis saagentoebis reputacias dandobas maT mimarT, rac, Tavis mxriv, zrdis maTi mkiTxvelebisa Tu auditoriismoculobas. axali ambebis im organizaciebSi, romlebmac miiRes JurnalisturieTikis zogadi standartebi da cdiloben maT dacvas, SeiZleba sxvadasxva iyomaTi muSaobis da aRniSnuli standartebis dacvis xarisxi. miuxedavad amisa,axali ambebis saagentos sam upirveles aqtivs warmoadgens profesionalizmi,sandooba da angariSvaldebuleba sazogadoebis winaSe. organizacia maRalreputacias moipovebs da inarCunebs, nawilobriv, eTikuri standartebis mudmividacviT, rac zegavlenas axdens mis mdgomareobaze sazogadoebaSi da dargSi.yvelaze maRali reputaciis mqone inglisurenovan gamocemebsa da mauwyeblobebsSorisaa: britaneTis samauwyeblo korporacia (BBC), kanadis samauwyeblokorporacia (CBC), gazeTi `gardiani~ (Guardian) (romelsac hyavs mkiTxvelTawarmomadgeneli); aSS-Si `uoSington posti~ (Washington Post), `niu iork taimsi~
  • 69. 68(New York Times)”, `uol strit jorneli~ (Wall Street Journal), axali ambebis sakabeloarxi (CNN), erovnuli sazogadoebrivi radio (NPR) da saxelmwifo mauwyeblobissamsaxuri (PBS). zemoT CamoTvlili organizaciebis umetesobas aqvs sakuTarisaredaqcio saxelmZRvanelo principebi.presis Tavisuflebakodeqsebi SemuSavebuli aqvT im qveynebis axali ambebis organizaciebs, sadacpresas miniWebuli aqvs Tavisufleba. zogierT qveyanaSi erTze meti kodeqsiarsebobs. Cveulebriv, gazeTebsa da mauwyeblobebs gansxvavebuli kodeqsebi aqvTda isini gansxvavebul iuridiul bazas asaxavs. mauwyeblobaTa Jurnalistebiufro regulirebul garemoSi muSaoben.ganviTarebul qveynebSi presis Tavisufleba gulisxmobs, rom yvela adamiansaqvs sakuTari azris werilobiT an misTvis sasurveli sxva formiT gamoxatvisufleba. adamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciaSi naTqvamia:`yvelas aqvs azrisa da gamoxatvis Tavisufleba. es Tavisufleba moicavsadamianis uflebas, hqondes sakuTari azri da daubrkoleblad moiZios, miiRosda gaavrcelos informacia da mosazrebebi yovelgari saSualebiT, miuxedavadsazRvrebisa~.arasamTavrobo organizaciebma Seamowmes presis Tavisuflebis donemsoflioSi. organizaciam `reportiorebi sazRvrebs gareSe~, romlis saqmianobaadamianis uflebaTa sayovelTao deklaraciis zemoxsenebul muxls eyrdnoba,Camoayaliba msoflio presis Tavisuflebis indeqsi, romlis gamoyenebiTac igiiTvlis romelime qveyanaSi mokluli, JurnalistTa rigebidan garicxuli anSeuracxyofili Jurnalistebis raodenobas, saxelmwifo monopoliis arsebobasteleviziasa Tu radioSi da cenzuris an TviTcenzuris dones mediaSi. igi aseveafasebs mediis saerTo damoukideblobas da im sirTuleebs, romlebic SeiZlebawarmoiSvas ucxoeli Jurnalistebis winaSe. organizaciis `reportiorebisazRvrebs gareSe~ informaciiT, msoflios mosaxleobis mesamedze meticxovrobs iseT qveynebSi, sadac presa ar aris Tavisufali (qveynebisklasificireba mocemulia internetSi misamarTze http://www.rsf.org/). im sxvaorganizaciebs Soris, romlebic monitorings uweven presis Tavisuflebas, arisJurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacia.presis damoukideblobis cneba mWidrod ukavSirdeba presis Tavisuflebiscnebas. imisaTvis, rom mediam kargad imuSaos demokratiis pirobebSi, aucile-belia misi Tavisufleba rogorc politikuri, aseve ekonomikuri zewolisagan.Jurnalisturi standartebis da eTikis Temas aSS-Si yvelaze xmamaRla ganixilavsprofesional JurnalistTa sazogadoeba. misi eTikis kodeqsis preambulaSinaTqvamia:`...sazogadoebis ganaTleba win uZRvis samarTlianobas da demokratiis
  • 70. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 69safuZvels warmoadgens. Jurnalistis movaleobaa aRniSnuliskenswrafva simarTlis gziT da movlenebisa da sakiTxebis samarTliani dayovlismomcveli gaSuqeba. mediis nebismieri formis da sferos samarTlianiJurnalistebi cdiloben, umwikvlod da gulwrfelad emsaxuronsazogadoebas. Jurnalistisadmi ndobis safuZvels profesiuli wesierebada Tanmimdevruloba warmoadgens.~es exmaureba amerikis konstitucias, sadac sityvis Tavisufleba daculiakanoniT, xolo cnobili pirveli Sesworeba acxadebs, rom `kongresi ar miiRebsraime imgvar kanons, romelic SezRudavs sityvis an presis Tavisuflebas...~axali respublikis mier gamocxadebul arc erT doqtrinas ar gamouwveviaaseTi didi gamoxmaureba msoflioSi, rogorc azris Tavisuflad gamoxatvisdeklaracias. Tumca sxvadasxva saxelmwifos SeiZleba sakuTari mizezi hqondesJurnalistebis qcevis SezRudvisTvis _ magaliTad, JurnalistebisTvissamuSao licenziis gacemisTvis mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu isini mTavrobissurvilebis mixedviT moqmedeben. amgvari damokidebuleba miuRebeli unda iyosJurnalistisTvis, romelic afasebs sakuTar damoukideblobas da sakuTar Tavsganixilavs rogorc sazogadoebis Tvalebs da yurebs da ara rogorc marionetselitis xelSi.mTavrobebs xSirad `mediis araswori moqmedeba~ mohyavT mizezad imisTvis, romgaamarTlon maTTvis dawesebuli SezRudvebi. ai, ratom aris mniSvnelovaniJurnalistikisTvis TviTregulireba iseTi sistemiT, romelic iqneba gamWvirvaleda zogadad miRebuli mediis sferoSi.mediis regulireba sul ufro mniSvnelovani xdeba, Tumca aseve xSiriasruliad sawinaaRmdego azrebic. zogierTi gamonaklisiT, winaaRmdegobiskoncentrireba xdeba ara im standartebze, romlebiskenac unda miiswrafodesmedia demokratiul garemoSi, aramed TviTregulirebis da kanonmdeblobissafuZvelze regulirebis urTierTsawinaaRmdego mxareebze.magaliTad, gaerTianebuli samefos presis sabWos qcevis kodeqsi gansazRvravsJurnalistebisa da redaqtorebisaTvis mTel rig standartebs, maT Sorissizustes, piradi cxovrebis pativiscemis zogierT formas, dacvas bavSvebisada daucveli pirebisTvis, magram ara _ samarTlianobas an miukerZoeblobas.Tumca es kodeqsi ar aris kanonis ZaliT savaldebulo. presis sabWomSeadgina igi sakanonmdeblo regulirebis Sesaferxeblad garkveuli xarisxisTviTregulirebis dawesebiT. qcevis kodeqss zurgs umagrebs saCivrebisprocedura da ara Jurnalistebisa da redaqtorebis qcevis yoveldRiuridisciplina. misi ganmtkicebis reJimi seleqciuri da retrospeqtiulia: presissaCivrebis komisia, romelic Sedgeba gazeTis redaqtorebisa da araprofesionaliwevrebisgan, Seiswavlis saCivarebs kodeqsis darRvevasTan dakavSirebiT dagamoaqvs saTanado gadawyvetilebebi.kodeqsebi, romlebic Seqmnilia Jurnalisturi organizaciebis, profkavSirebis,
  • 71. 70presis sabWoebis an `bi-bi-si~-s msgavsi organizaciebis mier da uzrunvelyofssaxelmZRvanelo principebs da xelmZRvanelobas, SeiZleba SevadaroT iseTkodeqsebs, romlebic iZleva miTiTebebs da asrulebs maregulirebeli wesebisfunqcias, rogorebicaa presis sabWoebis kodeqsebi skandinaviis qveynebSi.arsebobs winaaRmdegoba im adamianebs Soris, romlebic yvela tipis kodeqsebspresis Tavisuflebis SezRudvad miiCneven da romlebic kodeqsebSi xedavendaxmarebas pasuxismgeblobiT aRsavse JurnalistikisaTvis. es ukanaskneliSexeduleba, ZiriTadad, axasiaTebs evropul tradicias, xolo pirveli ufroamerikeli JurnalistebisTvis aris damaxasiaTebeli, romelTa tradiciagamomdinareobs aSS-is konstituciis zemoT moyvanili pirveli Sesworebidan.ras unda moicavdes kodeqsi?miuxedavad imisa, zedmetad dawvrilebiTia Tu ara miTiTebebis Semcvelikodeqsi, igi SeiZleba moicavdes sityvis Tavisuflebas da JurnalisturgamoZiebas. magram kodeqsi, iqneba es mxolod misi monaxazi Tu dawvrilebiTiteqsti, SeiZleba imden saSualebas Seicavdes interpretaciisTvis, rom TiTqmisSeuZlebeli gaxdes misi amoqmedeba.efeqtianobisTvis kodeqsSi mocemuli unda iyos ZiriTadi principebi, romelTasafuZvelzec surT Jurnalistebs sakuTari Sromisa Tu qcevis Sefaseba.magaliTad, marTalia, Jurnalistebs aqvT sakuTari azris gamoTqmis ufleba,maTi mxridan Tanamdebobis borotad gamoyenebaa maTi piradi SexedulebebiswarmoCena da iseTi informaciis ugulebelyofa, romelsac isini ar eTanxmebian.axali ambebis komentireba da analizi kanonieri da sasurveli saSualebaa,romlis daxmarebiTac xdeba azrebis gaziareba, Tumca gansxvaveba unda gakeTdesaxal ambebsa da informacias da komentarsa Tu analizs Soris.regulirebis nebismieri forma uzrunvelyofs angariSvaldebulebis sistemas.am sistemis arsebiTi damaxasiaTebeli Tviseba is aris, rom `wesebi~ zegavlenasaxdens praqtikul muSaobaze – an Sesabamisobis garantirebiT, an darRvevebisswrafad aRdgenis uzrunvelyofiT.mediis TviTregulireba angariSvaldebulebis gansakuTrebuli formaa, vinaidanmisi mizania sazogadoebis darwmuneba imaSi, rom SeiZleba mediis sferosprofesionalebis ndoba, rom isini daicaven sazogadoebis uflebas _ hqondesTavisufali da damoukidebeli media.sawyis wertilad TviT praqtokosebi unda mogvevlinon. adamianebis umetesobadasTanxmdeba Semdegi sakiTxebis kodeqsSi Setanas: mediis Tavisuflebis principebis, sazogadoebis uflebis, xeli miuwvdebodes informaciaze da Jurnalistebi uflebis, imoqmedon sakuTari sindisis mixedviT, dacva; sizuste da uzustobebis gasworeba;
  • 72. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 71 faqtebisa da komentarebis gansxvaveba; piradi cxovrebis pativiscema, gansakuTrebiT janmrTelobis arasaxarbielo mdgomareobisas da uaxloesi adamianis dakargvis dros; bavSvebis, danaSaulis msxverplis an sxva daucveli jgufebis dacva; informaciis wyaroebis dacva; zianis miyenebis da diskriminaciis Tavidan acileba; waqezebis da interesTa konfliqtis Tavidan acileba.yovelTvis iarsebebs wesebidan gamonaklisi. marTalia, sizuste mediis yvelaprofesionalisTvis xelSeuxebel siwmindes unda warmoadgendes, aseve saWiroamiTiTebebis Camoyalibeba iseTi SemTxvevebisTvis, roca ufro metma sargeblobam(sazogadoebis uflebam, icodes) _ rasac zogjer `sazogadoebis upirvelesiinteresis sagans~ uwodeben _ SeiZleba gaamarTlos kodeqsidan gadaxveva.gaerTianebul samefoSi, magaliTad, azris gamoxatvis ufleba TavisTavadganixileba `saxelmwifo interesis~ konteqstSi. rogorc sagazeTo industria(presis saCivarTa komisia), aseve gaerTianebuli samefosa da irlandiisJurnalistTa erovnuli kavSiri moiTxovs `gamonaklis~ garemoebebs kodeqsisiseTi darRvevebis dasasabuTeblad, roca saqme exeba bavSvebs, magram aseveaRiarebs, rom gadaxra maTi (msgavsi, magram gansxvavebuli) kodeqsebidan SeiZlebadasabuTdes, Tu misi motivia: danaSaulis an seriozuli administraciuli samarTaldarRvevis aRmoCena an gamoaSkaraveba; sazogadoebrivi janmrTelobis da usafrTxoebis dacva; sazogadoebis dacva romelime individis Tu organizaciis araswori gancxadebis an qmedebisgan.efeqtianobis misaRwevad aucileblad unda arsebobdes kodeqsis Sesrulebiszedamxedvelobis saSualeba _ Jurnalisturi organizaciebisa Tu iseTiarasaxelmwifo organos mier, romelsac endoba rogorc media, aseve sazogadoeba– da romlis daxmarebiT darRvevebis SemTxvevebSi SesaZlebeli iqneba garkveuliformiT situaciis gamosworeba an kompensaciis miReba.Jan klod bertrani (ix. qvemoT) gvirCevs, rom xarisxis kontroli SeiZlebaCaataros dainteresebul pirTa samma jgufma – mflobelebma, profesionalebmada momxmareblebma – cal-calke an erTad sxvadasxva kombinaciaSi, da amisaTvisgamoiyenon `mediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi“.mediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebimediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi is saSualebebia, romlebicuzrunvelyofs mediis socialur pasuxismgeblobas da mediisa daJurnalistebis mxridan profesionalTa mier dadgenili eTnikuri wesebispativiscemas. mediis angariSvaldebulebis yvela sistemis mizania axal
  • 73. 72ambebze momuSave mediis gaumjobeseba, Tumca aRniSnuli sistemebi Zalianmravalferovania. es SeiZleba iyvnen: individebi (magaliTad, ombudsmeni an mkiTxvelTa warmomadgenlebi); adamianebis jgufebi (magaliTad, Sinaarsis Semfasebeli komisiebi); regularuli Sexvedrebi (magaliTad, presis adgilobrivi sabWoebi); individualuri dokumentebi (magaliTad, eTikuri kodeqsebi); mcire media (magaliTad, Jurnalisturi ganxilvebi); sagangebo operaciebi (magaliTad, eTikuri auditi); xangrZlivi procesi (magaliTad, sauniversiteto ganaTleba an siRrmiseuli kvleva).mediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi ramdenime mizans isaxavs. es miznebia: kritika, mediis gamosworebis yvelaze martivi da yvelaze popularuli meTodi; monitoringi, amJamad aucilebeli, radgan gamodis uamravi mediaproduqti, Tumca maTi sicocxlis xangrZlivoba moklea; mediis xelmisawvdomoba - yvelas unda SeeZlos yvela saxis mediiT sargebloba da mosaxleobis yvela jgufs unda SeeZlos informaciis gavrceleba mediasaSualebebiT; treningi, mediis problemaTa umetesobis grZelvadiani gadaWra: rogorc profesionalTa ganaTleba, ise moqalaqeebis aRqmis unaris gazrda.mediis angariSvaldebulebis zogierTi sistema warmoiSva Tavad mediaSi (amismagaliTia mediasaSualebebSi araswori informaciisTvis bodiSis moxda), sxvebigaCnda sistemis gareT (magaliTad, Jurnalisturi ganxilva), xolo zogierTiefuZneba TanamSromlobas mediasa da sazogadoebas Soris (magaliTad, presissabWoebi).Secdomebis aRiareba yovelTvis Znelia, gansakuTrebiT iseT sferoSi, romlisfunqciaa sando informaciis miwodeba sazogadoebisTvis im movlenebisa dasakiTxebis Sesaxeb, romlebic zemoqmedebas axdens mis cxovrebaze. magramSecdomis aRiareba saqveynod da uzrunvelyofa imisa, rom amgvari SecdomebiaRar gameordes, yvelaze efeqtiani gzaa mediasa da sazogadoebas Soris ndobisganmtkicebisTvis.saerTaSoriso kodeqsebimsoflios TiTqmis yvela qveynis mier bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis ratificirebamiuTiTebs imaze, rom adamianis da bavSvis uflebebi sayovelTao da ganuyofel
  • 74. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 73uflebebad ganixileba. da mainc, aris Tu ara raime sayovelTao standartebi,romlebsac unda icavdes Jurnalisti? dRevandlamde ar Seqmnila JurnalistTaqcevis sayovelTao kodeqsi. arsebobs mravali regionuli da saxelmwifokodeqsi, saerTaSoriso korporaciebs Camoyalibebuli aqvT Tavisi sakuTarimiTiTebebi (Tumca adamianis uflebaTa evropul sasamarTlos Seqmnili aqvspresis TavisuflebasTan dakavSirebuli wesebi).werilobiTi formiT Camoyalibebuli kodeqsebi da praqtikuli standartebigansxvavdeba sxvadasxva qveyanasa da organizaciaSi, Tumca ZiriTadad maincxSiria maT Soris Tanxvedra.eTikis kodeqsi zrdis eTikuri sakiTxebis aRqmis da maTze msjelobis unars,ganamtkicebs daxmarebas individis mimarT moraluri TvalsazrisiT da xelsuwyobs organizaciis identurobis grZnobis Camoyalibebas.JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis azriT, Jurnalisturi samuSaossafuZvels warmoadgens sityvis da informaciis Tavisufleba. igi mouwodebssaredaqcio damoukideblobisa da mediis TviTregulirebisken da xels uwyobsdebatebs JurnalistikaSi eTikasTan dakavSirebiT. igi aseve propagandasuwevs profesiul standartebs, rogoricaa deklaracia Jurnalistebis qcevisprincipebis Sesaxeb. federaciam specialuri saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebiCamoayaliba bavSvebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze muSaobisTvis. Jurnalisturisaqmianoba, romelic exeba bavSvebis cxovrebasa Tu keTildReobas, yovelTvisunda ganxorcieldes bavSvebis daucvelobis donis gaTvaliswinebiT.JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis kodeqsi Zalian mniSvnelovania, vinaidanigi mravali saxelmwifos kodeqsebs daedo safuZvlad.bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli qcevis kodeqsiJurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacias miaCnia, rom yvela Jurnalistis damediis profesionalis valia ara mxolod umaRlesi eTikuri da profesiulistandartebis dacva, aramed bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis Sesaxeb informaciisrac SeiZleba farTod gavrceleba.JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis azriT, mediaorganizaciebi bavSvisuflebaTa darRvevis da bavSvis usafrTxoebasTan, pirad cxovrebasTan,uSiSroebasTan, ganaTlebasTan, janmrTelobis dacvasa da socialuruzrunvelyofasTan, aseve eqspluataciis yvela formasTan dakavSirebulsakiTxebs unda ganixilavdnen, rogorc gamoZiebisa da sazogadoebrivimsjelobis sagans.garda amisa, media ar unda ganixilavdes da acnobdes sazogadoebas bavSvebisSesaxeb siuJetebs mxolod rogorc calkeul ambebs. igi mudmivad undasaubrobdes im procesebze, romlebsac mivyavarT an SeuZlia Cveni miyvana amgvarSemTxvevebamde.
  • 75. 74JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis bavSvebTan dakavSirebulisakiTxebis gaSuqebis saxelmZRvanelo principebi Jurnalistebma da masobrivi informaciis saSualebebma yvelaferi unda gaakeTon imisaTvis, rom ar gadauxvion umaRles eTikur standartebsa da normebs bavSvTa problemebis gaSuqebisas. kerZod: 1. bavSvebis sakiTxebis gaSuqebisas maT Zalisxmeva ar unda daiSuron sizustisa da koreqtulobis dasacavad; 2. unda moeridon iseTi fotoebisa da informaciis gamoqveynebas bavSvebisaTvis gankuTvnil mediasivrceSi, romelic saziano iqneba maTTvis; 3. moeridon publikaciebis gapopularebis mizniT bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli problemebis sensaciur da stereotipul gaSuqebas; 4. bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli nebismieri masalis gamoqveynebisas saguldagulod awon-dawonon SesaZlo Sedegebi da minimumamde daiyvanon zianis faqtori; 5. Tu amas sazogadoebrivi interesi ar moiTxovs, daicvan bavSvis vinaoba da ar gamoaqveynon misi fotoebi; 6. rodesac es SesaZlebelia, miscen bavSvebs masmediis saSualebiT TavianTi azrebis gamoxatvis SesaZlebloba yovelgvari zewolis gareSe; 7. uzrunvelyon bavSvis mier mowodebuli informaciis damoukidebeli Semowmeba da gansakuTrebuli yuradReba miaqcion imas, rom am informaciis Semowmebisas informator bavSvs safrTxe ar Seeqmnas; 8. moeridon bavSvebis seqsualur formaSi gadaRebuli fotoebis gamoqveynebas; 9. gamoiyenon bavSvebis fotoebis mopovebis samarTliani, Ria da pirdapiri meTodebi da, rodesac es SesaZlebelia, moipovon isini bavSvebis, maTze pasuxismgebeli piris an meurvis TanxmobiT; 10. Seamowmon im organizaciebis uflebamosileba, romlebic bavSvebis saxeliT laparakoben an warmoadgenen bavSvTa interesebs; 11. bavSvis cxovrebis pirobebis amsaxveli siuJetisaTvis mopovebuli masalis safasuri ar gadauxadon arc bavSvs da arc bavSvis mSoblebsa Tu meurveebs, Tu es namdvilad bavSvis interesebSi ar Sedis.mediis organizaciebi Tavad qmnian saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebs, romlebicexeba maT muSaobas bavSvebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze. `bi-bi-sis~ saredaqciosaxelmZRvanelo principebi, romlebic aqamde cnobili iyo saxeliT `prodiuserissaxelmZRvanelo principebi~, adgens im standartebs, romlebsac `bi-bi-si~ icavs
  • 76. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 75yvela Tavis gadacemaSi televiziiT, radioTi Tu internetSi. es principebiyvela im adamianisTvisaa, romlebic qmnian eTerSi gasaSveb gadacemebs. isiniexmareba Jurnalistebs rTuli sakiTxebis gadaWraSi. aRniSnuli principebiSeicavs sagangebo nawilebs bavSvebTan dakavSirebiT.`bi-bi-si~-s saxelmZRvanelo principebSi naTqvamia, rom korporacia cdilobs,daicvas im bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis keTildReoba, romlebic monawileobenda Cndebian maT gadacemebSi, cdiloben, agreTve, daicvan bavSvebis ufleba, maTixma gaigonon msoflios yvela kuTxeSi, sadac ki mauwyeblobs `bi-bi-si~.`bi-bi-si~-s saxelmZRvanelo principebi mniSvnelovania ara mxolod imitom,rom gamoxatavs `bi-bi-si~-s, rogorc maRali xarisxis axali da mimdinareambebis momwodeblis pozicias, aramed imitomac, rom `bi-bi-si~ aqtiurmonawileobas iRebs Jurnalistebis treningSi msoflios mraval qveyanaSi. misisaxelmZRvanelo principebi Targmnilia ara erT enaze da JurnalistebisTviseTikis araoficialuri kodeqsis saxe miiRo.`bi-bi-si~-s saxelmZRvanelo principebis miznebisTvis, bavSvebs ganekuTvnebianadamianebi 15 wlamde, xolo 15, 16 da 17 wlis adamianebi ukve axalgazrdebiarian. Tumca es ar aris iuridiuli gansazRvra da gansxvavdeba gaeros bavSvisuflebaTa konvenciaSi mocemulisgan, romlis mixedviTac bavSvad iTvlebaadamiani 18 wlamde. es asakobrivi gansxvaveba SeiZleba bavSvis uflebebisdamcvelebsa da romelime Jurnalists Soris davis safuZveli gaxdes. gardaamisa, es erT-erTi im sakiTxTagania, romlebic axali ambebis konteqstSi undaiqnes ganxiluli.`bi-bi-si~-s saxelmZRvanelo principebSi naTqvamia:`bavSvebi da axalgazrdebi Zalian mniSvnelovani arian `bi-bi-si~-sTvis. Cvenimizania, mivawodoT maT mravalmxrivi, SemecnebiTi, gasarTobi da sainteresoSinaarsis mqone gadacemebi, raTa davexmaroT, ukeT gaicnon msoflio, sadaccxovroben. isini mravali sxvadasxva gziT urTierTqmedeben CvenTan –rogorc Jurnalistebi, msaxiobebi da wamyvanebi, urTierTqmedeben aseve Cveniinternetis da interaqtiuli samsaxurebis meSveobiT.`yovelTvis advili ar aris balansis dacva Cveni gadacemebis monawile bavSvebis,maTi mSoblebisa Tu auditoriis urTierTsawinaaRmdego interesebs Soris. Cvenmudmivad unda vicavdeT im bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis keTildReobasa dausafrTxoebas, romlebsac Tavisi wvlili SeaqvT Cvens gadacemebSi, sadac arunda vimyofebodeT, rac gulisxmobs maT uflebasac, ilaparakon Tavisufladda monawileoba miiRon sxvadasxva movlenaSi.~zogierTma organizaciam, romelTa muSaoba mimarTulia bavSvebisken,Camoayaliba Sesabamisi saxelmZRvanelo principebi mediisTvis. magaliTad,`iunisefi~ gvTavazobs saxelmZRvanelo principebs, romlebic, misi azriT,daxmarebas gauwevs medias, iseTi sifrTxiliTa da delikaturobiT gaaSuqosbavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi, rogorc es maT asaks Seesabameba. aRniSnuli
  • 77. 76saxelmZRvanelo principebi mimarTulia eTikurobis saukeTeso ganzraxvebisdacvisken – emsaxuro sazogadoebis interesebs ise, rom ramenairad arSeizRudos bavSvebis uflebebi. es principebia: 1. aucilebelia TiToeuli bavSvis Rirsebisa da uflebebis pativiscema yvelanair pirobebSi. 2. bavSvebisgan intervius aRebisas da maTze masalebis momzadebisas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda daeTmos TiToeuli bavSvis uflebas konfidencialurobaze, maTi azris mosmenaze, maT Sesaxeb gadawyvetilebebis miRebaSi monawileobaze da zianis miyenebisa da SurisZiebisgan, maT Soris zianis miyenebisa da SurisZiebis SesaZleblobisgan dacvaze. 3. TiToeuli bavSvis WeSmariti interesebis dacvas unda mieniWos upirvelesi mniSvneloba nebismier sxva sakiTxTan SedarebiT, maT Soris bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis lobirebisa da bavSvis uflebaTa xelSewyobasTan SedarebiT. 4. bavSvis WeSmariti interesebis gansazRvrisas gansakuTrebuli yuradReba unda mieqces bavSvis uflebas, mxedvelobaSi iqnes miRebuli misi Sexeduleba misi asakisa da simwifis gaTvaliswinebiT. 5. bavSvis situaciasTan yvelaze axlos mdgom da mis sakiTxebSi kargad garkveul adamianebTan unda Catardes konsultaciebi nebismieri reportaJis politikur, socialur Tu kulturul Sedegze. 6. arasodes unda gamoqveyndes raime iseTi ambavi an foto, romelmac SeiZleba riskis qveS moaqcios bavSvi, misi da-Zma an Tanatolebi, maSinac ki, roca maTi vinaoba Secvlilia, daukonkretebelia an sulac ar aris moxseniebuli.saxelmZRvanelo principebi JurnalistebisTvis, romlebic maT unda gamoiyenonbavSvebisgan intervius aRebisas, bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qselmacCamoayaliba.bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qseli: eTikuri saxelmZRvaneloprincipebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqebisaTvis  arasodes gamoaqveynoT raime iseTi siuJeti an foto, romelmac SeiZleba riskis qveS moaqcios bavSvi, misi da-Zma an Tanatolebi, maSinac ki, roca maTi vinaoba Secvlilia, daukonkretebelia an sulac ar aris moxseniebuli;  nu miayenebT raime zians bavSvs; moerideT iseT kiTxvebs an komentarebs, romlebic SeiZleba sadavo aRmoCndes kulturuli TvalsazrisiT da romlebic bavSvs Seuqmnis safrTxes, daucvels gaxdis Seuracxyofisgan an gaaRviZebs masSi tkivils da wuxils, gamowveuls travmuli movlenebiT;
  • 78. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 77  interviusTvis bavSvis SerCevisas nu mimarTavT diskriminacias sqesis, rasis, asakis, rwmenis, mdgomareobis, ganaTlebis an fizikuri SesaZleblobebis niSniT;  moerideT stereotipebis gamoyenebas da sensaciur prezentacias im Jurnalisturi masalis popularizebis mizniT, romelic bavSvebs exeba;  moerideT inscenirebas: ar sTxovoT bavSvs im ambebis moyola an gansaxiereba, romlebic piradad mis cxovrebaSi ar momxdara;  darwmundiT, rom bavSvma da misma meurvem ician, rom esaubrebian korespondents. auxseniT intervius mizani da Tanamimdevroba;  intervius aRebis, videoCanaweris gakeTebisa da fotogadaRebebis SemTxvevaSi miiReT nebarTva bavSvisa da misi meurvisgan. roca es SesaZlebelia, nebarTva unda iyos werilobiTi. nebarTva imisTvisaa saWiro, rom uzrunvelyoT bavSvis da misi meurvis interviuSi Zaldautaneblad monawileoba. isini unda aTviTcnobierebdnen, rom im siuJetis moqmedi pirebi arian, romelic SeiZleba gaSuqdes adgilobrivad da globalurad;  SezRudeT korespondentebisa da fotografebis raodenoba. ecadeT, rom intervius msvlelobisas bavSvebi komfortulad grZnobdnen Tavs da ar ganicdidnen zewolas;  yovelTvis zustad gadmoeciT bavSvis Sesaxeb siuJetis an fotos konteqsti;  yovelTvis SecvaleT vinaoba da dafareT grafikuli gamosaxuleba im bavSvisa, romelic aris a) seqsualuri Zaladobis an eqspluataciis msxverpli; b) damnaSave fizikur an seqsualur ZaladobaSi; g) aiv matarebeli an cxovrobs Sids-iT daavadebul adamianebTan, Tu amis uflebas ar mogcemT bavSvi, misi mSobeli an meurve; d) danaSaulSi eWvmitanili an msjavrdebuli.  sxva bavSvebTan an/da ufrosebTan (sasurvelia orivesTan) gasaubrebis gziT darwmundiT bavSvis monaTxrobis sizusteSi;  Tu eWvobT, rom bavSvs safrTxe emuqreba, moyeviT bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli zogadi situaciis Sesaxeb da ara konkretuli bavSvisa, ramdenad sensaciuric unda iyos ambavi.mediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi saqarTveloSisaqarTveloSi mediis angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi uaxles warsulSiCamoyalibda. moqmedi sistema iyofa or kategoriad, savaldebulod Sesasrulebelqcevis wesebad, romlis ukanac dgas saxelmwifoebrivi instituti, saqarTveloskonumikaciebis erovnuli komisiis saxiT, da JurnalistTa nebayoflobiTigaerTianeba – qartia.
  • 79. 78garda amisa, saqarTveloSi moqmedi mediasaSualebebi amkvidreben sakuTareTikur standartebs, romlis Sesruleba iq dasaqmebuli Jurnalistis SromisxelSekrulebis ganuyofeli nawili xdeba. magaliTad, sazogadoebrivimauwyeblisa da gazeT “baTumelebis” eTikis kodeqsebi.`mauwyebelTa qcevis kodeqsiT~ arasrulwlovanTa gaSuqebis standartebimimovixileT pirveli nawilis meore TavSi `adamianis uflebebi saqarTveloskanonmdeblobaSi~.5rac Seexeba Jurnalistebis eTikis qartias, is miiRes da daamtkics im pirebma,romlebic dasaqmebuli arian mediaSi. 2009 wlis 4 dekembers 138 Jurnalistmamoawera xeli eTikur standartebs, riTac nebayoflobiT aRiara am principebisadmierTguleba da maTi dacvis valdebuleba.rogor muSaobs angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi?angariSvaldebulebis sistemis efeqturobas mniSvnelovnad ganapirobebs orifaqtori: 1. moqalaqeTa aqtiuroba; 2. TviTregulirebis sistemis uflebamosilebis farglebi.moqalaqeTa aqtiuroba vlindeba TviTregulirebis Sesabamis organoSi6gancxadebebis an saCivrebis wardgeniT. mniSvnelovania, rom umetes SemTxvevaSiTviTregulirebis organo ixilavs iseTi saxis darRvevebs, romlebic TavisiSinaarsiT sasamarTlos gansaxilveli ar aris. dava sasamarTlo ganxilvissagani SeiZleba gaxdes mxolod im SemTxvevaSi, Tu Juranlistma daarRviakonkretuli piris uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi. magaliTad, `mauwyeblobisSesaxeb~ saqarTvelos kanonis me-14 muxlis Tanaxmad TviTregulirebisfarglebSi Cadenili darRvevis SemTxvevaSi dainteresebul pirs uflebaaqvs idavos mxolod am sistemis farglebSi. es gulisxmobs imas, rom sadavosakiTxis (an Tundac TviTregulirebis farglebSi miRebuli gadawyvetilebis)gasaCivreba SeuZlebelia komunikaciebis erovnul komisiaSi an sasamarTloSi.mocemuli wesidan arsebobs mxolod ori gamonaklisi. dava mauwyebelTaTviTregulirebis sistemas SesaZlebelia gascdes, Tu mauwyebelma daarRviaprocedura, anu saCivris ganxilvis wesebi. agreTve, uxamsi masalis gavrcelebiTdairRva saqarTvelos konstituciiT daculi sxva romelime ufleba. magaliTad,piris pativi da Rirseba.mauwyebelTa TviTregulirebis farglebSi momxdar darRvevasTan dakavSirebiTmniSvnelovani precedentia saqarTvelos komunikaciebis erovnuli komisiis 2010wlis 15 martis gadawyvetileba `teleimedis~ mier mauwyebelTa qcevis wesebisdarRvevasTan dakavSirebiT.5 ix. zemoT6 aq igulisxmeba komisiebi, saapelacio sabWoebi, qartiis sabWo da a.S. yvela is organo, romelic ixilavs mediaeTikis wesebis darRvevis sakiTxebs. mniSvnelovania, rom yovel maTgans aqvs dadgenili wesebi, romlebic gansazRvravs maT uflebamosilebas da romelTa dacviTac unda imoqmedon.
  • 80. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 79rac Seexeba, JurnalistTa eTikis qartiis sicocxlisunarianobasa da misipasuxismgeblobis xarisxs, masac mniSvnelovnad gansazRvravs qartiis sabWo,romelsac evaleba qartiis principebis darRvevasTan dakavSirebuli saCivrebisganxilva da gadawyvetilebis miReba. `teleimedis~ mier Cadenil darRvevasTandakavSirebiT sabWomac Seqmna saintereso precendenti 2010 wlis 25 marts.aRniSnuli gadawyvetileba mniSvnelovania im TvalsazrisiT, rom qartiis sabWo,komunikaciebis erovnuli komisiisgan gansxvavebiT, msjelobs ara mauwyeblismier Cadenil darRvevaze, aramed konkretuli Jurnalistis mier eTikurinormebis dacvis sakiTxze.7angariSvaldebulebis sistemebis umTavresi funqciaa masalis Seqmnis procesSieTikuri standartebis Sesruleba. es uzrunvelyofs sazogadoebisaTvis sando,zusti da drouli informaciis miwodebas. garda amisa, Jurnalistebsa damediasaSualebebs aZlevs darRvevebis minimumde dayvanis SesaZleblobas.damatebiTi literatura  saqarTvelos kanoni `mauwyeblobis Sesaxeb~;  saqarTvelos komunikaciebis erovnuli komisiis 2009 wlis 12 martis dadgenilebiT damtkicebuli `mauwyebelTa qcevis kodeqsi~.  saqarTvelos sakonstitucio sasamarTlos 2009 wlis 10 noembris N 1/3/421,422 gadawyetileba saqmeze: `saqarTvelos moqalaqeebi – giorgi yifiani da avTandil ungiaZe saqarTvelos parlamentis winaaRdeg~.  www.gpb.ge  www.mediasabcho.blogspot.com  www.gncc.geSefasebaam nawilis dasawyisSi CamoTvlilia ramdenime ZiriTadi Sesaswavli Tema.SegiZliaT upasuxoT qvemoT mocemul kiTxvebs? moqmedebis standartebi,kanonebis msgavsad, moraluri normebis kodificirebis mcdelobaa. xandaxanmoraluri da eTikuri normebi erTmaneTs ewinaaRmdegeba. igive xdeba kanonebisSemTxvevaSic. SegiZliaT moiyvanoT magaliTi, roca Tavisufali sityvisa dapresis Tavisuflebis ufleba ewinaaRmdegeba bavSvis uflebebs? romeli iqnebodaprioritetuli?7 saqme exeboda 2010 wlis 13 marts telekompania `imedis~ mier `modelirebuli qronikis~ eTerSi gaSvebas, romelic warmoadgenda inscenirebas, Tumca kadrs ar axlda warwera inscenirebis Taobaze. am gadawyvetilebis gacnoba SesaZlebelia qartiis blogze www.mediasabcho.blogspot.com
  • 81. 80damatebiTi literatura da resursebi`qcevis kodeqsebi~, maik jemfsoni, “ze presuaiz trasti” (The PressWise Trust):http://www.mediawise.org.uk/display_page.php?id=792`iunisefi~: `bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli Temebis eTikuri gziT gaSuqebis principebi~:http://www.presswise.org.uk/display page.php?id=594profesional JurnalistTa sazogadoeba; eTikis kodeqsi:http://www.spj.org/ethiccode.asp`vin aris pasuxismgebeli kontrolze?~ _ saxelmZRvanelo globaluri mediis pirobebSi azrisTavisuflad gamoxatvis uflebisTvis Seqmnili safrTxeebis Temaze mrgvali magidis garSemodiskusiisTvis, JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacia, 2005.`bavSvTa uflebebi da media~: JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebida principebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis gaSuqebisas:http://www.ifj.org/default.asp?index=192&language=ENJurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacia: http://www.ifj.org/`Jurnalistebis eTika~, riCard qibli, London: Routledge, 2001.`mediis eTika da angariSvaldebulebis sistemebi~, klod-Jan bertrani, tranzeqSen pabliSerzi(Transaction Publishers), 2000.`globaluri Jurnalistika: ZiriTadi sakiTxebi da mediasistemebi~. arnold de biri da jon si.merili, Allyn & Bacon, 2003.
  • 82. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 81danarTebi`bi-bi-si~-s saredaqcio principebi bavSvebis gaSuqebasTandakavSirebiTprogramaze muSaobis, misi eTerSi gaSvebis an internetSi ganTavsebis dros undauzrunvelvyoT, rom daculi iyos 18 wlamde adamianebis, gansakuTrebiT ki 15wlamde asakis bavSvebis Rirseba, aseve maTi fizikuri da emociuri keTildReoba,miuxedavad maTi an maTi mSoblebis, meurveebis an mSoblebis magieri sxva pirebisTanxmobisa.unda uzrunvelvyoT, rom bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis programebSi CarTvam argamoiwvios maTi aRelveba an daTrgunva. maTi CarTva saredaqcio TvalsazrisiTunda iyos sruliad gamarTlebuli da saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi maT daxmarebaunda gaewios.Cven unda davabalansoT Cveni pasuxismgebloba _ davicvaT bavSvebi daaxalgazrdebi Seuferebeli Tanxmobis micemisgan da, amave dros, SevunarCunoTazris Tavisuflad gamoxatvisa da informaciis Tavisuflad miRebis ufleba.bavSvebi da TanxmobabavSvebis da 18 wlamde axalgazrdebisgan intervius asaRebad unda movipovoTTanxmoba maTi mSoblebis, kanonieri meurveebis an mSoblebis magieri pirebisgan.rac ufro mcirewlovani da daucvelia bavSvi da rac ufro delikaturia misiistoria, miT ufro aucilebeli xdeba Tanxmoba. kerZod, Tanxmobis gareSedauSvebelia, vTxovoT bavSvebs, gviambon TavianTi Sexedulebebi iseT sakiTxebze,romlebic scildeba maT SesaZleblobas, gagvcen saTanado pasuxi.programis Sinaarsze pasuxismgebelma adamianma, romelic Tavis produqciaSiapirebs bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis CarTvas: • unda uzrunvelyos, rom bavSvs da, saWiroebis SemTxvevaSi, mis mSobels/ meurves an 18 wlis an ufrosi asakis adamians, vinc misi mSoblis magivrobas asrulebs, esmodes programis Sinaarsi da gacnobierebulad SeeZlos Tanxmobis micema; • unda moipovos Tanxmoba bavSvis an axalgazrdisgan, xolo uaris SemTxvevaSi pativi sces mis gadawyvetilebas. imis gadawyvetisas, SeuZlia Tu ara bavSvs interviuze Tanxmobis micema, mxedvelobaSi unda iqnes miRebuli misi ganviTarebis done, asaki da informaciis gaTviTcnobierebis unari. • programaSi bavSvis monawileobasTan an TanamSromlobasTan dakavSirebiT, Cveulebriv, unda moipovos mSoblis/meurvis/mSoblis magieri sxva adamianis Tanxmoba, garda im SemTxvevebisa, roca bavSvi monawileobs gadacemaSi iseT araproblemur sakiTxebze, rogoricaa, vTqvaT, jibis fuli an sayvareli momRerali.
  • 83. 82 • roca mSobeli uars ambobs Tanxmobis gacemaze, unda mimarTos maRali rangis redaqtors an, damoukidebeli telekompaniis SemTxvevaSi, mTavar redaqtors an gamoSvebis redaqtors, romlebmac problemis gadasaWrelad unda gamoiyenon saredaqcio politika. nebismieri gadawyvetileba mSoblis Tanxmobis gareSe bavSvis an axalgazrdis monawileobis gagrZelebasTan dakavSirebiT mxolod maSin aris dasaSvebi, Tu es SemTxveva sazogadoebrivi interesis sagania, an Tu irRveva bavSvis an axalgazrdis ufleba, Tavisuflad gamoxatos da gamoTqvas sakuTari azri. • unda uzrunvelyos, rom bavSvs ganemartos misi monawileobis nebismieri savaraudo Sedegebi, magaliTad, masze zewolis SesaZlebloba. • finansurad ar unda daainteresos bavSvi an misi mSobeli/meurve Tanxmobis miRebis mizniT. xarjebis anazRaureba dasaSvebia mxolod maSin, Tu isini dasabuTebuli da kanonieria. • bavSvebis gadaRebisas skolis SenobaSi an saswavlo periodSi unda aiRos nebarTva ufrosi maswavleblisgan. kanonis mixedviT, saswavlo mecadineobebis saaTebSi nebismieri gadaRebis nebarTvas gascemen ganaTlebis adgilobrivi uflebamosili organoebi.Tu bavSvs piradi informaciis mowodebas internetis meSveobiT vTxovT, undamovifiqroT, mSoblis mxridan, ra saxis Tanxmoba iqneba Sesaferisi.nebismieri SemoTavazeba, romelic exeba bavSvis piradi cxovrebis Sesaxebinformaciis mesame mxarisTvis Tanxmobis gareSe gadacemas, magaliTad, im SemTxvevaSi,Tu veWvobT, rom bavSvze Zaladoba ganxorcielda, unda ecnobos redaqciismaRali Tanamdebobis pirs, xolo damoukidebel telekompaniaSi _ gamoSvebisredaqtors, romelic aRniSnul sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT konsultaciasgaivlis saredaqcio politikis zedamxedvelTan da programis iuridiulkonsultantTan.bavSvis satelefono interviuze mowvevis SemTxvevaSi unda vTxovoT mas,darekvamde aiRos nebarTva mSoblisgan an saubris safasuris gadamxdelipirisgan. gamonaklis SemTxvevaSi, roca satelefono saubari grZeldeba erTwuTze met xans, Setyobineba unda daiwyos imiT, rom bavSvs ecnobos, rom saWiroaTanxmobis miReba. bavSvebTan dakavSirebul yvela samsaxurSi unda gamoiyenebodessatelefono saubrebis gawyveta, xolo bavSvebis momsaxurebasTan dakavSirebulisatelefono zarebis Rirebuleba, Cveulebriv, ar unda aRematebodes werilismoweris xarjebs.bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis monawileobaunda gaviTvaliswinoT yvelanairi zemoqmedeba da SesaZlo Sedegi, romelicSeiZleba mohyves bavSvis monawileobas raime masalaSi, iqneba es mzadebisprocesi Tu masalis gamoqveynebis Semdgomi periodi. es exeba yvela SemTxvevas,miuxedavad imisa, miRebulia Tu ara mSoblis Tanxmoba.
  • 84. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 83bavSvebs xSirad uxariaT programebSi monawileoba. Tumca imis gamo, rom araaqvT sakmarisad ganviTarebuli gansjis unari, ver xvdebian, Tu ra gavlenaSeiZleba iqonios maT cxovrebaze maTi istoriis gamoqveynebam. bavSvebisasocialuri qmedebebis gaSuqebisas, saukeTeso midgomis gamosaZebnad dastresis minimumamde dasayvanad, unda gaviTvaliswinoT eqspertTa azri.gansakuTrebiT iseTi qmedebebis gaSuqebisas, rogorebicaa narkotikulinivTierebebis moxmareba, Zaladoba, kvebasTan dakavSirebuli darRvevebi dafizikuri Tu fsiqologiuri zewola.xSirad mizanSewonilia, rom mtkivneuli sakiTxis ganxilvisas bavSvs axldes mesamepiri _ naTesavi, ojaxis megobari an maswavlebeli. es niSnavs, rom bavSvTan iqnebaadamiani, romelsac is icnobs da romelic daexmareba misi interesebis dacvaSi.unda uzrunvelvyoT, rom bavSvebs da axalgazrdebs hqondeT TavianTi saTqmelisgamoxatvis saSualeba, magram imaSic unda davrwmundeT, rom maTi naTqvami simarTlesSeesabameba, rom isini ar cdiloben movlenis gazviadebas, vinmes saameblad arasworiinformaciis mowodebas an Woris faqtad gasaRebas. uyuradRebod ar unda darCessisxlis samarTlis danaSauli an antisocialuri qceva.anonimurobarTuli eTikuri sakiTxi wamoiWreba, rodesac unda gadavwyvitoT, asocialurian kriminaluri qcevis SemTxvevaSi ra aris bavSvis interesSi: misi vinaobisgamJRavneba Tu anonimurobis dacva. rogorc wesi, aseTi qcevis asaxvisas arunda gavamJRavnoT bavSvis vinaoba movlenis ilustrirebis mizniT, garda imSemTxvevebisa, roca bavSvis vinaobis gamJRavnebas safuZvlad udevs mkafiosaredaqcio dasabuTeba. aseT dros, Tu darwmunebuli ara xarT, rogor moiqceT,yovelTvis mimarTeT redaqciis maRali Tanamdebobis pirs an, damoukidebeltelekompaniaSi, gamoSvebis redaqtors.asocialuri qcevis SemTxvevaSi bavSvis identificirebasTan dakavSirebuliyvela sakiTxi SeTanxmebuli unda iyos programis iuridiul konsultantTan.im bavSvis CarTva programaSi, gadaReba da vinaobis gamJRavneba, romlismSoblebic CarTulni arian asocialur da kriminalur saqmianobaSi, SesaZlebeliamxolod maSin, Tu amiT bavSvis keTildReobas safrTxe ar daemuqreba da Tu esdasabuTebulia saredaqcio politikiT. amas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs,rodesac bavSvebs SeiZleba raime safrTxe emuqrebodeT, magaliTad, rodesacbavSvi loT mSoblebTan cxovrobs an rodesac mas aiZuleben, Seasrulosnarkokurieris roli.bavSvebis dacva internetSiCveni mizania, uzrunvelvyoT, rom uaxlesi teqnologiiT sargeblobisas bavSvebida axalgazrdebi acnobierebdnen SesaZlo riskebs da icodnen, rogor Seamcirones riskebi. bavSvTa dacva internetSi `bi-bi-si~-s, mSoblis/meurvis da bavSviserToblivi pasuxismgeblobaa.
  • 85. 84bavSvisTvis Seuferebelia internet-sivrce, sadac ucxo pirebs SeuZliaTinformaciis gacvla-gamocvla, Tu ar aris xelmisawvdomi cifruliidentifikaciis saimedo meTodi. es saWiroa imisaTvis, rom SeuZlebeliainternetis momxmarebeli bavSvis dacva. nebismieri sapirispiro SeTavazeba undaecnobos axali mediisa da teqnologiis direqtors.sifrTxile gvmarTebs imasTan dakavSirebiT, Tu ra raodenobis personalurinformacias SevagrovebT, SevinaxavT da gamovaqveynebT `bi-bi-si~-s vebgverdzebavSvebze. informaciis didi moculobiT gamoqveynebam SeiZleba safrTxeSeuqmnas bavSvs.bavSvebi, internetSi ganTavsebuli masalebis Sinaarsi da bmulebiunda uzrunvelvyoT, rom is vebgverdebi, romlebsac savaraudod bevri bavSvida axalgazrda estumreba, maTi asakisTvis Sesabamisi Sinaarsis matarebeli iyos.kerZod: • `bi-bi-sis~ sawyis vebgverdze ganTavsebuli nebismieri informacia misaRebi unda iyos farTo sazogadoebisTvis, aseve bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisTvis. `bi-bi-sis~ sawyisi vebgverdidan erTi dawkapunebiT SeuZlebeli unda iyos iseTi Sinaarsis gverdze gadasvla, romelic miuRebelia farTo sazogadoebisTvis; • samauwyeblo vebgverdze, romelic izidavs bavSvebsa da mozardebs, ar unda iyos miTiTebuli iseTi samauwyeblo bmuli, romlis radio- an teleprograma moicavs bavSvebisTvis Seuferebel Sinarss. • sawyis vebgverdze pirdapir gaSvebuli satelevizio kadrebi misaRebi unda iyos ojaxuri auditoriisTvis; • Cven unda vamowmebdeT mesame mxareebis internetgverdebs da imas, Tu sad SeiZleba iqidan gadasvla; • bavSvebis auditoriisTvis ar unda ganvaTavsoT iseTi `CeTis~ bmuli, romelsac ar hyavs moderatori. • Cven moderatorobas vuwevT bavSvebisTvis mimzidvel vebgverdebs, sadac informacia momxmareblebis mieraa gamoqveynebuli, da, aseve, internetsivrceebs, sadac momxmareblebs sTavazoben suraTis gamogzavnas misi gamoqveynebis mizniT.Jurnalistebis statusi da Jurnalisturi eTika: JurnalistTasaerTaSoriso federaciis principebi1. zogadi principebi1.1 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacias, romelic warmoadgens 450 000-ze met Jurnalists 100-ze meti qveynidan, miaCnia, rom Tavisufal da damoukidebel
  • 86. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 85 profkavSirebSi organizebuli profesionali Jurnalistebi gadamwyvet rols TamaSoben demokratiuli mediakulturis ganviTarebaSi.1.2 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis rwmeniT, demokratiis ganviTareba damokidebulia azris gamoxatvis Tavisuflebis da sazogadoebrivi samarTlis sazRvrebis gafarToebaze. demokratiis ganviTarebas gansazRvravs demokratiul sazogadoebaSi mediis gansakuTrebuli rolis gacnobiereba.1.3 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacias miaCnia, rom mediam pativi unda sces presis Tavisuflebis profesiul, eTikur principebs, rasTanac pirdapir kavSirSia azris gamoxatvis Tavisufleba.JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacia presis Tavisuflebas SemdegnairadgansazRvravs:`es aris SezRudvebisgan gaTavisufleba, rac aucilebelia imisaTvis, romJurnalistebs, redaqtorebs, gamomcemlebsa da mauwyeblobebs mieceTSesaZlebloba, gazardon sazogadoebrivi interesi faqtebis gamoqveynebis,gaSuqebisa Tu gavrcelebis meSveobiT, ris gareSec demokratiul eleqtoratsar SeuZlia pasuxismgeblobiT aRsavse gadawyvetilebebis miReba.~JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis azriT, am Tavisuflebis gamoxatvamxolod iq aris SesaZlebeli, a) sadac arsebobs Tavisufali, pluralisturi media, romelic gamoxatavs sxvadasxva azrs; b) sadac arsebobs informaciis Tavisufali nakadi, rac SesaZlebels xdis informaciis demokratiul gacvla-gamocvlas sazogadoebis nebismier fenebs Soris, geografiuli sazRvrebis, eTnikuri warmomavlobis, faseulobebisa Tu enis miuxedavad; g) sadac moqalaqeebis mier informaciis Tavisuflad miRebis ufleba kanoniT aris daculi; d) sadac pativs scemen Jurnalistebis profesiul statuss da maT damoukidebel rols.1.4 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacias miaCnia, rom axali ambebisa da informaciisadmi, rogorc moxmarebis sagnisadmi, damokidebuleba ar unda uSlides xels Jurnalistis movaleobas, miawodos auditorias informacia da rom media unda imarTebodes sajaroobis da gamWirvalobis umaRlesi standartebiT.1.5 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacias miaCnia, rom sajaro da kerZo mauwyeblobis Tanaarseboba icavs Tavisuflebas, pluralizms da programebis mravalferovnebas sazogadoebis yvela fenis sasargeblod.
  • 87. 861.6 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacia adasturebs, rom Jurnalisturi eTikis dacva da maRali standartebis uzrunvelyofa mediis profesionalebis pasuxismgeblobaa.1.7 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis Rrma rwmeniT, kanoni ar unda ereodes im sakiTxebSi, romlebic Jurnalistebis uSualo pasuxismgeblobas warmoadgens, kerZod, informaciis momzadebaSi, SerCevasa da gadacemaSi.2. profesiis miReba2.1 profesiis miReba Tavisufali unda iyos. momavali Jurnalistis profesiuli done rac SeiZleba maRali unda iyos.2.2 staJiorma Jurnalistma unda gaiaros saTanado treningi gamomcemlebisa da Jurnalistebis profkavSirebTan SeTanxmebuli pirobebis Sesabamisad.2.3 Tanamdebobaze unda dainiSnon mxolod kvalificiuri Jurnalistebi, anu adamianebi, romlebsac aqvT minimaluri profesiuli kvalifikacia, dadasturebuli Jurnalistebis profkavSiris da mediis organizaciebis mier. amgvari Jurnalistebi kvalificiurad koleqtiuri xelSekrulebebiT unda iqnen aRiarebulni. damqiraveblebi aRiareben, rom im sazogadoebis asaxva, romelsac emsaxurebian, zogadad mediis, kerZod ki damqiraveblis movaleobaa.3. sindisi3.1 Jurnalistebs unda hqondeT maTi sindisis Sesabamisad moqmedebis ufleba. damqiraveblis politikuri, filosofiuri an religiuri msoflmxedvelobis fundamenturi cvlilebis SemTxvevaSi Jurnalists unda hqondes ufleba, gaufrTxileblad Sewyvitos kontraqti da miiRos iseTive kompensacia, ramdensac damqiravebeli gadauxdida kontraqtis Tavisi iniciativiT gawyvetis SemTxvevaSi.3.2 damqiravebelma an damqiraveblis saxeliT moqmedma romelime pirma ar unda miuTiTos arc erT Jurnalists iseTi qmedebis Cadena, romelic, Jurnalistis azriT, xelyofs mis profesiul eTikas, romelic gansazRvrulia Jurnalistebis mier miRebul eTikis kodeqsSi, an arRvevs JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis mier damtkicebul Jurnalisturi qcevis principebis kodeqss. arc erTi Jurnalisti ar unda daisajos sakuTari sindisis Tanaxmad moqmedebis uflebis dacvis gamo.4. saredaqcio damoukidebloba4.1 masobrivi informaciis yvela saSualebaSi daculi unda iyos saredaqcio damoukideblobis saerTo minimaluri standartebi.
  • 88. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 874.2 aRniSnuli minimaluri standartebi unda asaxavdes:  im faqts, rom redaqciis TanamSromlebi warmoadgenen redaqciebisa da mauwyeblobebis moralur da inteleqtualur kapitals;  saredaqcio sabWos uflebas, masTan SeTanxmdes gadawyvetilebebi, romlebic gavlenas axdens: o ufrosi redaqtoris daniSvnasa da ganTavisuflebaze; o saredaqcio politikisa da gazeTis/mauwyeblobis Sinaarsis gansazRvraze; o sakadro politikaze; o saredaqcio departamentSi Jurnalistebs Soris davalebebis ganawileba/cvlilebaze;  saredaqcio sabWos uflebas, gamoTqvas Tavisi mosazreba saredaqcio politikasTan dakavSirebuli saCivrebis Sesaxeb;  Jurnalistis uflebas, uari Tqvas davalebaze, Tu es davaleba daarRvevs Jurnalistis profesiul eTikas, romelic Camoyalibebulia qcevis kodeqsSi;  saredaqcio kolegiis uflebas, airidos mesame mxareTa menejmentis mxridan saredaqcio SinaarsSi Carevis SesaZlebloba;  evropis Jurnalistebis uflebas, miiRon Tanabari anazRaureba da iyvnen Tanasworni karieruli zrdis TvalsazrisiT;  saCivrebis SemTxvevaSi saredaqcio sabWo, ufrosi redaqtori da menejmenti atareben molaparakebas, romelSic, arsebuli Sromis/presis kanonis gaTvaliswinebiT, SeiZleba monawileobdnen JurnalistTa asociaciebisa da profkavSirebis warmomadgenlebi.5. TviTregulireba da Jurnalisturi eTika5.1 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacias miaCnia, rom eTikis an qcevis kodeqsebi unda Seiqmnas Tavad Jurnalistebis mier.5.2 JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis mier 1954 wels Camoyalibebuli qcevis pirveli kodeqsi gvacnobs eTikis principebs, romlebic miRebulia evropis yvela saxelmwifos Jurnalistur organizaciaTa warmomadgenlebis mier. Sesabamisad, JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis qcevis kodeqsi iZleva baziss Jurnalistebisa da gamomcemlebis mier eTikuri sakiTxebis saerTo gagebisaTvis (rac nebayoflobiT xasiaTs atarebs). JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federacias miaCnia, rom am sferoSi saxelmwifoTa mTavrobebi ver Seasruleben aqtiur rols.
  • 89. 88JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis deklaracia Jurnalisturiqcevis principebis Sesaxebwinamdebare saerTaSoriso deklaracia gamocxadebulia profesiuli saqmianobisstandartad JurnalistebisTvis, romlebic movlenebis aRweris mizniT agroveben,gadascemen, komentars ukeTeben da avrceleben axal ambebsa da informacias. 1. Jurnalistis upirvelesi movaleobaa, pativi sces simarTles da sazogadoebis uflebas, icodes simarTle; 2. aRniSnuli movaleobis Sesrulebisas, informaciis patiosani gziT Segrovebisa da gamoqveynebis procesSi, Jurnalistma yovelTvis unda daicvas Tavisuflebis principi da samarTliani komentarisa da kritikis ufleba; 3. Jurnalistma movlenebis Sesaxeb unda ganacxados mxolod im faqtebze dayrdnobiT, romelTa warmoSobis wyaro misTvis cnobilia. man ar unda dafaros an gaayalbos dokumentebi; 4. informaciis, fotoebisa da dokumentebis Segrovebisas Jurnalistma mxolod samarTliani meTodebi unda gamoiyenos; 5. Tu Jurnalistma aRmoaCina, rom gamoqveynebuli informacia arasworia, rasac zianis motana SeuZlia, man unda mimarTos yvela SesaZlo gamosasworebel zomas; 6. konfidencialurad mopovebuli informaciis SemTxvevaSi Jurnalistma unda daicvas informaciis wyaros anonimuroba; 7. Jurnalists gaTviTcnobierebuli unda hqondes mediis mier diskriminaciis gaRvivebis saSiSroeba. man yvelaferi unda gaakeTos imisaTvis, rom xeli ar Seuwyos diskriminacias rasis, sqesis, seqsualuri orientaciis, enis, religiis, politikuri xedvis, erovnuli da socialuri warmoSobis niSniT; 8. Jurnalistma seriozul profesiul danaSaulad unda miiCnios:  plagiati;  informaciis Segnebulad damaxinjebulad gadmocema;  Worebi, reputaciis Selaxva, diskreditacia, usafuZlo dadanaSauleba;  nebismieri saxis qrTamis miReba informaciis damalvis an gamoqveynebis mizniT; 9. Jurnalistebma, romlebic Rirsni arian, erqvaT Jurnalistis saxeli, zemoT CamoTvlili principebis Sesruleba Tavis valdebulebad unda CaTvalon. TiToeuli qveynis zogadi kanonmdeblobis farglebSi Jurnalistebi profesiul sakiTxebSi unda aRiarebdnen mxolod kolegebis avtoritets da ar unda uSvebdnen mTavrobebis an sxva pirebis mxridan raime saxis Carevas.
  • 90. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 89miRebulia JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciis 1954 wlis msofliokongresze. Sesworebulia 1986 wlis msoflio kongresze.saqarTvelos Jurnalisturi eTikis qartiapreambulasityvisa da gamoxatvis Tavisufleba adamianis erT–erTi ZiriTadi uflebaa.Jurnalistis nebismieri profesiuli ufleba-movaleoba gamomdinareobssazogadoebis uflebidan, iyos informirebuli movlenebisa da TvalsazrisebisSesaxeb.qartia efuZneba evropis sabWos „adamianis ZiriTad uflebaTa da TavisuflebaTaevropuli konvenciis” me–10 muxlsa da „Jurnalistebis saerTaSoriso federaciis“mier aRiarebul „Jurnalistebis qcevis principebis deklaracias“. es principebiprofesiuli qcevis standartad damkvidrda im JurnalitebisTvis, romlebicmoipoveben, gadascemen da avrceleben informaciasa da komentarebs mimdinaremovlenebze.saqarTvelos mediis warmomadgenlebi vcnobT da vaRiarebT qvemoT CamoTvliliprincipebis dacvis valdebulebas da am valdebulebasTan dakavSirebulpasuxismgeblobas. saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobis farglebSi, profesiul sakiTxebsmxolod Cvenive kolegebis uflebamosilebad ganvixilavT da gamovricxavTxelisuflebis an sxva Zalis nebismieri saxiT Carevas am uflebamosilebebisganxorcielebaSi. 1. Jurnalistma pativi unda sces simarTles da sazogadebis uflebas – miiRos zusti informacia. 2. dauSvebelia Jurnalistis iZuleba, profesiuli saqmianobisas moiqces an azri gamoxatos sakuTari sindisis winaaRmdeg. 3. Jurnalistma unda gadasces informacia mxolod im faqtebze dayrdnobiT, romelTa wyaro dadasturebulia. Jurnalistma ar unda miCqmalos mniSvnelovani faqtebi, ar unda gaayalbos dokumentebi da informacia. 4. informaciis, fotoebis an dokumentebis mopovebisas Jurnalistma mxolod keTilsindisieri da samarTliani meTodebi unda gamoiyenos. 5. media valdebulia, Seasworos gamoqveynebuli arsebiTad arazusti informacia, romelsac SecdomaSi Sehyavs sazogadoeba.
  • 91. 90 6. Jurnalistis moraluri pasuxismgeblobaa, ar gaamJRavnos konfidencialurad mopovebuli informaciis wyaro. 7. Jurnalists unda esmodes mediis mier diskriminaciis waxalisebis safrTxe; amitom yvelaferi unda iRonos nebismieri piris diskriminaciis Tavidan asacileblad rasis, sqesis, seqsualuri orientaciis, enis, religiis, politikuri da sxva Sexedulebebis, erovnuli an socialuri warmoSobis safuZvelze an raime sxva niSniT. 8. Jurnalisti valdebulia, daicvas bavSvis uflebebi; profesiuli saqmianobisas upiratesi mniSvneloba mianiWos bavSvis interesebs, ar moamzados da ar gamoaqveynos bavSvebis Sesaxeb iseTi statiebi an reportaJebi, romlebic saziano iqneba maTTvis. Jurnalistma ar unda CamoarTvas interviu da ar unda gadauRos foto 16 welze naklebi asakis mozards mSoblis an meurvis Tanxmobis gareSe im sakiTxebze, romlebic misi an sxva romelime mozardis keTildReobas exeba. 9. saredaqcio masalebi mkveTrad unda gaimijnos marketinguli, sareklamo da sponsoris mier dafinansebuli masalebisagan. 10. Jurnalistma pativi unda sces adamianis pirad cxovrebas da ar SeiWras pirad cxovrebaSi, Tu ar arsebobs gansakuTrebuli sazogadoebrivi interesi. 11. Jurnalistma umZimes profesiul danaSaulad unda miiCnios Semdegi qmedebebi: • faqtis ganzrax damaxinjeba; • nebismieri saxis qrTamis, saCuqris an sxva sargeblis miReba profesiul saqmianobaze gavlenis moxdenis sanacvlod; • plagiati. miRebulia 2009 wels
  • 92. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 912. bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi  bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi. ras warmoadgens es strategiebi da ra Sexeba aqvs maT JurnalistebTan?  bavSvTa dacvis strategiebis SemuSaveba  bavSvTa dacvis strategiebis gaziareba  bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi da presis TavisuflebaJurnalistebi, romlebic am sferoSi muSaoben, unda icnobdnen bavSvTa dacvisstrategiebs, unda SeeZloT maTTan dakavSirebiT kritikuli recenziebismomzadeba, unda uzrunvelyon kritikuli mosazrebebis gamoqveyneba damonitoringi unda gauwion organizaciebsa da mTavrobas, raTa darwmundnenstrategiebis SesrulebaSi.rogorc CvenTvis ukve cnobilia, gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciaSi bavSvTadacvasTan dakavSirebuli yvelaze mniSvnelovani muxlebia:  me-19 muxli, romelic iTvaliswinebs, rom bavSvebs ufleba aqvT, daculi iyvnen bavSvze mzrunveli piris mxridan yvelanairi formis fizikuri Tu sulieri Zaladobisagan, Seuracxyofisa Tu uflebis borotad gamoyenebisagan, mzrunvelobis moklebisa Tu daudevari mopyrobisagan, uxeSi moqcevisa Tu eqspluataciisagan, maT Soris seqsualuri Zaladobisagan;  me-12 muxli, romelic iTvaliswinebs sakuTari Sexedulebebis Camoyalibebis unaris mqone bavSvis uflebas, Tavisuflad gamoTqvas Tavisi Sexedulebebi nebismier sakiTxze, romelic mas exeba, da bavSvis SexedulebebisTvis saTanado yuradRebis daTmobas misi asakisa da simwifis Sesabamisad;  dasasrul, me-3 muxli, romelic iTvaliswinebs, rom, roca organizaciebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebul gadawyvetilebebs iReben, upirvelesi yuradReba unda daeTmos bavSvis interesebis dacvis ukeT uzrunvelyofas.bavSvTa dacvabavSvTa dacva gulisxmobs bavSvebis dacvas rogorc ganzrax, aseve winaswariganzraxvis gareSe miyenebuli zianisagan. es gansakuTrebiT exeba organizaciebis_ da aRniSnul organizaciebTan dakavSirebuli pirebis _ movaleobas maTimzrunvelobis qveS myofi bavSvebis mimarT. yvela organizaciis pasuxismgeblobaa,yvelaferi gaakeTos imisaTvis, rom daicvas bavSvebi, romlebTanac urTierTobaaqvs, miuxedavad imisa, bavSvs zians organizaciis SigniT ayeneben Tu mis farglebsgareT.
  • 93. 92yvelaze martivi formiT bavSvTa dacva gulisxmobs dacvas yvela bavSvisuflebisa, ar miayenon ziani. es ufleba avsebs sxva uflebebs, romlebicuzrunvelyofs, rom bavSvebma miiRon yvelaferi, rac maTi arsebobis,ganviTarebisa da keTildReobisaTvis aris saWiro.bavSvis dacva mTel rig mniSvnelovan da gansxvavebul sakiTxebs moicavs. bevriiseTi sakiTxi, rogoricaa bavSvTa prostitucia, ekonomikur faqtorebTanaris mWidrod dakavSirebuli. sxva sakiTxebi, magaliTad, ojaxSi an skolaSiZaladoba, ufro metad siRaribesTan, socialur faseulobebTan, normebTanda tradiciebTan aris dakavSirebuli. xSirad saqme kriminalur qmedebebsacexeba, magaliTad, bavSvebiT trefikingis dros. bavSvTa dacvasTan dakavSirebulsxvadasxva aspeqts teqnologiuri progresic ki wamoWris. amaze bavSvTapornografiis qselis gafarToeba metyvelebs.gaerTianebuli samefos organizacia `Caildhoup~ (ChildHope) aRwers bavSvebSiZaladobis/Seuracxyofis oTx tips:TviTdazianeba: magaliTad, sakuTari Tavis ganzrax daWra an sakuTari TavisTviszianis miyeneba; Tavis mokvlis mcdeloba an Tavis mokvla.Tanatolebis Seuracxyofa: magaliTad, daSineba (`bulingi~); fizikuri daseqsualuri Zaladoba; jgufuri Zaladoba.Zaladoba ufrosebis mxridan: magaliTad, ojaxSi Zaladoba (fizikuri,fsiqologiuri, seqsualuri); fizikuri dasja skolebSi da organizaciebSi;seqsualuri Zaladoba da eqspluatacia.socialuri Zaladoba: socialuri, politikuri, ekonomikuri da kulturuligaremo, romelic aqtiurad an Sefarulad uwyobs xels Zaladobas bavSvebis mimarT,magaliTad, politikuri kampaniebi, romlebic xels uwyobs quCis bavSvebisganquCebis `gawmendas~; religiebi da kulturebi, romlebic xels uwyoben bavSvebisfizikur da damamcirebel dasjas, rogorc bavSvis aRzrdis miRebul praqtikas;masobrivi informaciis saSualebebis mier Zaladobis faqtebis farTo gaSuqeba;im kulturebis midgomebi, romlebic qadagebs ideebs, rom qalebi da bavSvebimamakacebis/mSoblebis `sakuTrebas~ warmoadgenen da ara adamianebs, romlebsacsxvebis Tanaswori uflebebi aqvT.bavSvebis winaaRmdeg mimarTuli Zaladoba SeiZleba ganaxorcielon adamianebmarogorc dawesebulebebSi (magaliTad, maswavleblebma, socialurma muSakebma,mSoblebma, Tanatolebma, sponsorebma, moxaliseebma), ise dawesebulebebisgareT (magaliTad, mSoblebma, policiam, gareSe maswavleblebma, maRaziebismepatroneebma, bandebma TemSi/sazogadoebaSi).imis garda, rom dacvaze bavSvis uflebis darRveva adamianis uflebisdarRvevaa, igi bavSvis arsebobisa da ganviTarebisTvis farTod gavrcelebulda bolomde gauTviTcnobierebel bariers warmoadgens. da piriqiT, roca bavSvis
  • 94. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 93uflebebi kargad aris daculi, izrdeba imis Sansi, rom bavSvi fizikurad dafsiqikurad janmrTel, Tavdajerebul da Rirseul pirovnebad Camoyalibdesda naklebad savaraudoa, rom man sxvebis, maT Soris sakuTari Svilebis, mimarTCaidinos Zaladoba an eqspluatacia gauwios vinmes.bavSvis dacva msoflios yvela qveyanaSi aqtualuri sakiTxia:  30-ze met qveyanaSi 300 000-ze meti jariskaci bavSvi, zogierTi maTgani 8 wlis, ganicdis eqspluatacias SeiaraRebul konfliqtebSi. monacemebis Tanaxmad, 1990 wlidan moyolebuli, uSualod SeiaraRebuli konfliqtebis Sedegad or milionze meti bavSvi daiRupa (es sakiTxi ufro detalurad Semdgom mecadineobazea warmodgenili);  erT milionze meti bavSvi msoflio masStabiT sapatimroebSia moTavsebuli kanonTan konfliqtis gamo. marto centralur da aRmosavleT evropaSi TiTqmis 1,5 milioni bavSvi imyofeba saxelmwifos mzrunvelobis qveS;  13 milionze meti bavSvi msoflio masStabiT daoblebulia aiv/Sids-is Sedegad;  daaxloebiT 250 milioni bavSvia CarTuli bavSvTa SromaSi, xolo 180 milioni bavSvi saxifaTo situaciebSi an pirobebSi muSaobs;  yovelwliurad 1,2 milioni bavSvi xdeba trefikingis msxverpli;  1995 wlis monacemebiT yovelwliurad erTi milioni bavSvi emateba komerciuli seqsis mravalmiliardian bizness (umetesad gogonebi, magram bevri biWic). amJamad es cifri SeiZleba ufro maRali iyos;  15 welze umcrosi asakis 40 milioni bavSvi ganicdis Zaladobas da ugulebelyofas. isini janmrTelobis dacvas da socialur dacvas saWiroeben.roca bavSvebi daculi ar arian, es qveynis ganviTarebas uSlis xels da didsamomavlo danaxarjebsa da uaryofiT Sedegebs iwvevs adamianis mTeli cxovrebismanZilze. vidre bavSvebi Zaladobas, Seuracxyofas da eqspluatacias ganicdian,msoflio ver Seasrulebs bavSvebis winaSe nakisr valdebulebas; is aseve verganaxorcielebs Tavis swrafvas ganviTarebisaken, rac iseT dokumentebSiaCamoyalibebuli, rogoricaa `aTaswleulis programa~ da misi `aTaswleulisganviTarebis miznebi~, ver Seasrulebs verc bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciiTgaTvaliswinebul saxelmwifoTa valdebulebebs.bavSvebze unda vrceldebodes adamianis yvela ufleba da, Sesabamisad, maT dacvasunda axorcielebdes adamianis uflebaTa dacvis yvela meqanizmi saerTaSorisoda regionul doneebze. es aseve exeba gaeros an adamianis uflebaTa regionulorganoebs (rogoricaa adamianis da xalxebis uflebaTa afrikis komisia) daqveynebsac, sadac bavSvis ufleba dacvaze unda uzrunvelyon adamianis uflebaTadacvis iseTma meqanizmebma, rogoricaa konstituciuri sasamarTloebi.mTavrobebs SeuZliaT uzrunvelyon, rom ZiriTadi wesebi Sevides kanonmdeblobaSida miiRon da danergon ufro yovlismomcveli da detaluri saxelmZRvanelomiTiTebebi, romelTa Sesrulebas Sesabamisi profesiuli asociaciebi daorganoebi gauweven monitorings.
  • 95. 94bavSvis uflebaTa ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso meqanizmia bavSvis uflebaTakomiteti, romlis ZiriTadi funqciaa konvenciis monawile yvela saxelmwifosmier periodulad warmosadgeni angariSebis ganxilva. es angariSebi undaSeicavdes informacias kanonmdeblobis da sxva zomebis Sesaxeb, romlebicsaxelmwifom konvenciaSi aRiarebuli uflebebis xorcSesxmis mizniTgaatara, maT Soris aRniSnuli uflebebis dacvisa da miRweuli warmatebebisSesaxeb.bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis Tanaxmad, saxelmwifoebi valdebulni arian, daicvanyvela bavSvi da akisriaT angariSvaldebuleba nebismier warumateblobaze.magram samarTlebriv standartsa da mis ganxorcielebas Soris didi SeusabamobarCeba. es is sferoa, romelSic Jurnalistebs SeuZliaT Careva da kiTxvebisdasma saxelmwifoTa angariSvaldebulebasTan dakavSirebiT.bavSvis dacvis Zireuli mizania is, rom yvela im adamianma, romlis movaleobasacbavSvebis dacva warmoadgens, aRiaros es movaleoba da SeZlos misi cxovrebaSigatareba. Jurnalistebma unda dasvan kiTxvebi im adamianebis Sesaxeb, romlebsacdavalebuli aqvT bavSvebis dacva. aqvT Tu ara maT saTanado momzadeba?Semowmebulia, ramdenad sandoni arian?eTikuri da samarTlebrivi imperativebis gaTvaliswinebiT bavSvTa dacvasazogadoebis yovel doneze yoveli adamianis saqmea. bavSvTa dacvis valdebulebaekisreba saxelmwifoebs, mosamarTleebs, policias, maswavleblebs, eqimebs,socialur muSakebs, jandacvis muSakebs, mSoblebs da medias. es movaleobebiSeiZleba aisaxos samarTlebriv standartebSi, romlebsac saxelmwifopraqtikulad ganaxorcielebs. isini aseve SeiZleba aisaxos mTavrobis miergakeTebul sxvadasxva arCevanSi, resursebis gamoyenebis CaTvliT. isini sul ufromet asaxvas poveben maregulirebel normebSi da mediis organizaciebisaTvisgankuTvnil saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebSi.bavSvTa dacva organizaciebSibavSvTa dacva yvela im adamianis saqmea, vinc axalgazrdebTan muSaobs. ismiznad isaxavs yvela bavSvis da axalgazrdis keTildReobisa da usafrTxoebisuzrunvelyofas. bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi xels uwyobs bavSvebisaTvisusafrTxo organizaciebis Seqmnas, agreTve rTul situaciebTan dakavSirebulisamarTlebrivi bazis Camoyalibebas. isini aseve xels uwyobs iseTi kulturisdamkvidrebas, romelSic gaTvaliswinebulia bavSvTa saWiroebebi, raTaorganizaciebma sakuTari saqmianoba bavSvis uflebaTa dacvis perspetividandainaxon.`kargad Camoyalibebuli strategia gixelmZRvanelebT rTuli situaciebisgadaWraSi. krizisis dros SeiZleba ufro Zneli iyos naTlad azrovneba. Tusaimedo strategia geqnebaT, SeZlebT informaciaze dayrdnobiT imoqmedoTda Tavidan aiciloT braldebebi mikerZoebul damokidebulebaSi romelimemonawilis sasargeblod an sawinaaRmdegod.~ (ECPAT avstralia).
  • 96. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 95bevr organizacias bavSvTa dacvis sakuTari strategia aqvs, romelSic aRniSnulsferoSi maTi saqmianoba da procedurebia aRwerili. bavSvTa samsaxurebsramdenime qveyanaSi gamocemuli aqvT saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi da es samsaxurebimouwodeben organizaciebs, romlebsac bavSvebTan da axalgazrdebTan kontaqtiaqvT, SeimuSaon bavSvTa dacvis strategia.organizacia `Caild houpma~ (gaerTianebuli samefo) moamzada paketi bavSvTa dacvisstrategiebisa da procedurebis SemuSavebaSi organizaciebis dasaxmareblad.am paketSi mocemulia bavSvTa dacvis ZiriTadi principebi da is etapebi,romlebic saWiroa bavSvTa dacvis strategiebis SemuSavebis, ganxorcielebisada SefasebisaTvis. masSi CamoTvlilia eqvsi nabiji `bavSvebisaTvis usafrTxoorganizaciis~ Sesaqmnelad: 1. bavSvTa dacvisa da bavSvebze Zaladobis koncefciebis Seswavla; 2. imis gaanalizeba, Tu ratom sWirdeba organizacias bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi da procedurebi; 3. bavSvTa dacvis strategiebisa da procedurebis efeqtiani SemuSavebisa da ganxorcielebisaTvis saWiro saorganizacio principebis ganxilva; 4. rogor unda SemuSavdes politika da procedurebi organizaciaSi; 5. maT Soris maTi ganxorcielebis saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi; 6. rogor unda gadailaxos organizaciebis winaSe warmoqmnili dabrkolebebi da problemebi da maTi gadaWris SesaZlo gzebis ganxilva.mediis bavSvTa dacvis strategiebimedias SeuZlia, mniSvnelovani roli Seasrulos bavSvTa dacvis saqmeSi. pirvelrigSi, mediis organizaciebs SeuZliaT ganaxorcielon bavSvTa dacvis strategiebi,raTa miiRon zomebi sakuTari TanmSromlebis iseTi qcevis winaaRmdeg, romelsacSeuZlia, safrTxe Seuqmnas bavSvis uflebebs. magaliTad, `bi-bi-si~ moiTxovs,rom TanamSromlebma bavSvebTan da axalgazrdebTan mimarTebaSi daicvan misi`bavSvTa dacvis politika~:`18 wlamde asakis yvela axalgazrdis keTildReobas CvenTvis gadamwyvetimniSvneloba aqvs. es niSnavs, rom maTi interesebi da usafrTxoeba nebismiersaredaqcio moTxovnaze ufro prioritetuli unda iyos. yvela bavSvs daaxalgazrdas, maTi asakis, SezRuduli unaris, sqesis, rasobrivi Tu eTnikuriwarmomavlobis, religiuri mrwamsis da seqsualuri orientaciis miuxedavad,ufleba aqvs, rom isini daculi iyvnen zianisa da Zaladobisagan~.`Tu Cveni saqmianobis procesSi gagviCndeba eWvi, rom bavSvs SeiZleba raime riskidaemuqros, an Tu axalgazrda gvafrTxilebs, rom yuradReba mivaqcioT bavSviskeTildReobis sakiTxs (`bi-bi-sis~ TanamSromlebis winaaRmdeg braldebebis
  • 97. 96CaTvliT), aRniSnuli situaciis Sesaxeb dauyovnebliv unda ecnobosganyofilebis menejers, romelic bavSvTa dacvis politikazea pasuxismgebeli.~axali ambebis saagentoebSi arsebul bavSvTa dacvis strategiaTa umetesobaSimocemuli iqneba saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi, romlebic exeba bavSvebis vinaobisgamJRavnebas, axalgazrdebis piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobis pativiscemasda mzrunvelobis qveS myofi bavSvebis saxelebis gamoyenebis akrZalvas. essaxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi uzrunvelyofs, rom procedurebi saTanadod iqnesgamoyenebuli bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis keTildReobis dasacavad. bavSvebTanmomuSave zogierTma arasamTavrobo organizaciam gamouSva saxelmZRvanelomiTiTebebi JurnalistebisaTvis, romlebic bavSvebTan muSaoben da sakuTaristrategiebi aqvT, magaliTad, bavSvebis fotoebis gamoyenebis Sesaxeb.gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, rom mediam daxmareba gauwios sazogadoebriviazris mobilizebas bavSvTa dacvaSi monawileobasTan da im adamianebisgamomzeurebasTan dakavSirebiT, romlebic raime formiT (Zaladobis formiTTu ubralod Sesabamisi sistemebis naklebobis gamo) safrTxes warmoadgenenbavSvebisaTvis. mediam mTavrobas angariSi unda mohkiTxos, Tu is ver moaxerxebssakuTari bavSvebis dacvas.Sefasebaramdenad mniSvnelovania JurnalistebisaTvis bavSvTa dacvis strategiebiscodna? moiZieT magaliTebi axali ambebidan, sadac mTavari Tema bavSvTa dacvaa.ramdenad informirebulia Jurnalisti bavSvTa dacvis strategiebis Sesaxeb?rogor gaaumjobesebdiT am statias?damatebiTi literatura da resursebi`Caild houpi~ (gaerTianebuli samefo), bavSvTa dacvis politikis meqanizmebis paketi:http://www.childhope.org.uk/toolkit.php`bavSvTa dacva~, saxelmZRvanelo parlamentarebisaTvis, centraluri da aRmosavleT evropisada damoukidebel saxelmwifoTa Tanamegobrobis `iunisefis~ regionuli ofisi, 2004
  • 98. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 973. kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebi ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi  im bavSvebis sakiTxebis gaSuqeba, romelTa saqme sasamarTloSia;  patimrobaSi myof bavSvebTan Sesvlis ufleba;  ra kanoni arsebobs, romelic bavSvebis sasamarTlo procesebs da patimrobis sakiTxebs exeba?  patimrobaSi myofi bavSvebis uflebaTa codna.  arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sistema saqarTveloSitermini `kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebi~ exeba 18 wlamde nebismier pirs.kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebis umetesobas Cadenili aqvs naklebad mZimedanaSauli, an iseTi wvrilmani samarTaldarRveva, rogoricaa mawanwaloba, skolisumizezod gacdena, maTxovroba an alkoholis gadaWarbebiT moxmareba. zogierTimaTgani cnobilia, rogorc `statusuri samarTaldarRveva~ da ar iTvlebasisxlis samarTlis danaSaulad, Tu is zrdasruli adamianis mier aris Cadenili.realurad, amgvari danaSauli naklebad sainteresoa JurnalistebisaTvis, TumaT raime gansakuTrebuli interesi ara aqvT, rodesac, magaliTad, bavSvigamoCenili adamianis naTesavia. aseT SemTxvevebSi umniSvnelo kanondarRvevebsufro metad sensaciuri gamocemebi aSuqeben.xSirad kanonTan konfliqtSi myof bavSvebs aRar epyrobian rogorc bavSvebs.amis sanacvlod iTvleba xolme, rom maT mier Cadenili kanondarRveva arTmevsmaT bavSvTa uflebas dacvaze da maT zustad ise epyrobian, rogorc zrdasruldamnaSaveebs an, uares SemTxvevaSi, sargebloben maTi daucvelobiT.monacemebi patimrobaSi myofi bavSvebis Sesaxeb mwiria, magram `iunisefis~Sefasebebis Tanaxmad, kanonTan konfliqtSi yofnis gamo erT milionze metibavSvi imyofeba patimrobaSi. bevr qveyanaSi ukve mosmenilia sisxlis samarTlissistemaSi moxvedrili bavSvebis saqmeebi da SesaZlebelia maT Sesaxeb oficialuricnobebis mopoveba, ase rom, informaciis naklebobas gasamarTlebeli sabuTiara aqvs.patimrobaSi myofi bavSvebis mimarT Zaladobrivi mopyroba farTod gavrcelebulida seriozuli problemaa. bavSvis uflebaTa komitetis 37-e Sexvedraze gamoiTqvaSeSfoTeba sxvadasxva qveyenis, maT Soris braziliis, marTlmsajulebis sistemaSimoxvedrili bavSvebis mimarT arsebul procedurebTan da bavSvebis dacvasTandakavSirebiT; aRiniSna, agreTve, angariSebi dakavebis adgilebSi wamebisa dagausamarTleblad mkvlelobis faqtebis Sesaxeb.patimrobaSi yofnis periodSi, sasamarTlo procesamdec da mis Semdegac,bavSvebi Zaladobis riskis winaSe dganan. es SeiZleba iyos fizikuri da
  • 99. 98seqsualuri Zaladoba ufrosi asakis patimrebis, badragis, policielebisa Tusxva arasrulwlovani patimrebis mxridan, romlebsac xSirad Tavad sistemisTanamSromlebi aqezeben an zog SemTxvevaSi ubiZgeben kidec. zogjer Tavadgamasworebeli reJimia gadametebulad sastiki, moicavs gaurkveveli xniTdakavebas, bavSvebis izolaciaSi an ufrosi asakis patimrebTan erTad gadaWedilda antisanitariul pirobebSi xangrZlivi periodis manZilze yofnas. zog qveyanaSiarasrulwlovani patimrebis mimarT jer kidev iyeneben sikvdiliT dasjas.saerTaSoriso samarTali krZalavs sikvdiliT dasjas 18 wlamde axalgazrdebismier Cadenili danaSaulisaTvis, magram, amis miuxedavad, zogierTi qveyanaagrZelebs damnaSave bavSvebis sikvdiliT dasjas.2005 wlis aprilSi, gaeros generaluri mdivnis bavSvebis mimarT ZaladobissakiTxebisadmi miZRvnili kvlevis farglebSi konsultaciebis saxiT gaimarTasaerTaSoriso eqspertTa jgufis Sexvedra. aRniSnulma jgufma Camoayaliba isZiriTadi faqtorebi, romlebic marTlmsajulebis sistemaSi bavSvebis mimarTZaladobas uwyobs xels. es faqtorebia:  samarTaldamcavi organoebis TanamSromelTa, dawesebulebaTa da im personalis dausjeloba da angariSvaldebulebis nakleboba, romelic pasuxismgebelia bavSvis mimarT Zaladobaze;  aRmkveTi RonisZiebis saxiT patimrobis gadaWarbebiT gamoyeneba, gansakuTrebiT winaswari dakavebis dros, maT Soris arasamarTaldamrRvevebis mimarT;  oficialuri marTlmsajulebis sistemis sazogadoebrivi alternativebisa da sapatimro sistemis alternativebis, maT Soris zrunvisa da dacvis sistemebis nakleboba;  arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis saTanado sistemebis nakleboba, maT Soris Sesabamisi dawesebulebebis nakleboba da bavSvebis ufrosi asakis patimrebisagan izolirebulad moTavsebis SeuZlebloba;  dawesebulebebze gareSe kontrolis nakleboba, maT Soris efeqtiani damoukidebeli saCivrebisa da sagamoZiebo procedurebis, damoukidebeli monitoringisa da arasamTavrobo organizaciebis mxridan sapatimroebSi Sesvlis uflebis nakleboba;  sazogadoebaSi Zaladobis `daSveba~, rasac mivyavarT Zaladobis mimarT tolerantul damokidebulebamde yvela doneze: ojaxSi, skolasa da TemSi;  samarTaldamcavi organoebisa da arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sistemis TanamSromelTa treningebis nakleboba;  `borotmoqmedebis mimarT sastiki damokidebulebis~ strategiebi, quCis bavSvebisa da socialurad da ekonomikurad diskriminirebuli sxva bavSvebis mimarT mediis uaryofiTi damokidebuleba da maTi damamcirebeli imijis Seqmna.
  • 100. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 99konkretuli magaliTis ganxilva: ukanono dakavebis sakiTxebzemomuSave jgufiukanono dakavebis sakiTxebze momuSave jgufi warmoadgens gaeros mandatis mqoneadamianis uflebaTa eqspertebis damoukidebel organos. igi iZiebs ukanonodakavebis SemTxvevebs, romlebmac SeiZleba daarRvios adamianis uflebaTasaerTaSoriso samarTali. es organo 1991 wels daarsda adamianis uflebaTayofili komisiis mier da amJamad gaeros adamianis uflebaTa sabWos kontrolisqveS imyofeba.sxvadasxva wyarodan, maT Soris arasamTavrobo organizaciebisgan,mTavrobaTaSorisi saagentoebisa da msxverplTa ojaxebisagan miRebuliinformaciis dadasturebis Semdeg samuSao jgufi mTavrobebs ugzavnisgadaudebel moTxovnebs, daadginon dakavebulis adgilsamyofeli da pirobebi.samuSao jgufs SeuZlia Caataros sagamoZiebo gasvliTi vizitebic im qveynebSi,romlebmac gaugrZeles jgufs mowveva. samuSao jgufSi Sedian adamianisuflebaTa eqspertebi, romlebic SerCeuli arian samarTlebriv sakiTxebSi maTigamocdilebis da miukerZoeblobis gamo.jgufis azriT, bevri bavSvi dakavebuli imis gamoa, rom isini marto arian:`zogjer bavSvebi dakavebis adgilebSi imitom ki ara xvdebian, rom danaSauliaqvT Cadenili, aramed imis gamo, rom ar hyavT ojaxi, romelic maTze izrunebda.isini arian oblebi, romlebic moTavsebulni arian cixis magvar `dacul dakavebisadgilebSi~.kanadaSi, TurqeTsa da norvegiaSi, adamianis uflebaTa komisiis informaciiT,am mxriv kargi mdgomareobaa. kanadaSi mkvlevarma verc erTi bavSvi ver naxadakavebis adgilebSi. TurqeTSi moqmedebs axali programa, Tumca is sruladar aris amoqmedebuli, romelic uzrunvelyofs specialurad momzadebulpoliciis muSakebs da prokurorebs bavSvebTan samuSaod. iq aseve arsebobsbavSvTa dakavebis specialuri centrebi da bavSvebi ufrosebisagn yovelTvisizolirebulni arian.mTavrobebs akisriaT mkafiod Camoyalibebuli pasuxismgebloba, daicvandakavebuli bavSvebi Zaladobisa da zianisagan. magram sazogadoebam daJurnalistebma unda dasvan kiTxva, saerTod unda iyvnen Tu ara bavSvebidakavebulni. dakaveba ukiduresi saSualeba unda iyos, magram bevr SemTxvevaSiaseTi formiT reagirebas axdenen bavSvebis an mozardebis mxridan antisocialuran mavneblur saqcielze. TiTqos, Tu maT Tvals moaSoreben an maTze fiqrsSewyveten, sasurvel mizans miaRweven.`hiuman raiTz uoCs~ 1995 wlidan arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis Sesaxeb17 angariSi aqvs gamoqveynebuli da igi mniSvnelovan sazogadoebriv propagandaseweva. organizacias dokumenturad aqvs dafiqsirebuli is sistematuridarRvevebi, romlebic bavSvis iuridiuli warmomadgenlobis an saqmis samarTlianisasamarTlo mosmenis uzrunvelyofas exeba braziliaSi, bulgareTSi, gvatemalaSi,
  • 101. 100indoeTSi, iamaikaSi, keniaSi, pakistanSi, ruseTsa da amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi.gansakuTrebul SeSfoTebas iwvevs sasamarTloebis mier gamotanili iseTiganaCenebi, romlebic arRvevs saerTaSoriso princips, rom Tavisuflebis aRkveTaunda iyos ukiduresi zoma, rac SeiZleba xanmokle da ar unda warmoadgendeswamebas an sastik, araadamianur Tu damamcirebel mopyrobas.bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis miRebis da TiTqmis sayovelTao ratificirebisSemdeg bevrma qveyanam Seitana cvlilebebi sakuTari qveynis arasrulwlovanTamarTlmsajulebasTan dakavSirebul kanonebSi, raTa uzrunveleyo konvenciasada sxva saerTaSoriso dokumentebSi Camoyalibebuli bavSvTa uflebebi. sxvaqveynebi ganixilaven reformebs, magram kanoni jer miRebuli ara aqvT. dakidev bevri qveyanaa, romelmac unda miiRos zomebi imisaTvis, rom sakuTarikanonmdebloba konvenciasTan SesabamisobaSi moiyvanos.im qveynebSi, sadac am sakiTxs yuradReba eqceva, sakanonmdeblo reformebiwarmoadgens pirvel pozitiur nabijebs bavSvis uflebebis aRiarebisTvalsazrisiT. amis miuxedavad, Seusabamoba kanonsa da praqtikas Soris maincxSirad didia. bevr bavSvs uars eubnebian saTanado sasamarTlo procesze,autanel pirobebSi amyofeben, isini badragis da policiis xelSi sastikZaladobas ganicdian, zogierTi maTgani ki sikvdiliTac isjeba.saerTaSoriso samarTlis Tanaxmad, bavSvebs aqvT ufleba, ar daeqvemdebaronwamebas, sastik mopyrobas, TviTneburad an ukanonod dapatimrebas. maTi saqmeebisamarTlianad da miukerZoeblad unda iqnes ganxiluli. Tu bavSvebs apatimreben,es unda iyos ukiduresi zoma da rac SeiZleba xanmokle periodiT. bavSvebsaqvT ufleba, sapatimroSi ufrosebisgan gancalkevebiT iyvnen moTavsebulni,hqondeT sakuTari ojaxebis naxvis ufleba da miiRon iuridiuli daxmareba.magram aTasobiT bavSvi ver iRebs am uflebas. zogierT qveyanaSi daucvelijgufebi, rogorebic arian quCis bavSvebi, kriminalebad arian gamocxadebulnida maT mzrunvelobis nacvlad sapatimroebSi amwyvdeven.xSirad bavSvebs uars eubnebian iuridiul daxmarebaze an mSoblebTanurTierTobaze, aTavseben saknebSi ufrosi asakis damnaSaveebTan erTad, maTara aqvT saTanado kveba da sanitariuli saTavsoebi, zogjer ki maT saknebSiizolirebulad amyofeben. sapatimroSi moxvedris Semdeg isini uCinarebixdebian da advil nadavlad iqcevian im adamianebis (policielebisa da cixiszedamxedvelebis) xelSi, romlebsac maTi usafrTxoeba aqvT Cabarebuli. bevradgilebSi arasrulwlovanTa mimarT sastiki mopyroba, maTze seqsualuriZaladoba da maTi wamebac ki farTod aris gavrcelebuli.gasuli ramdenime wlis ganmavlobaSi pakistanSi miiRes kanonmdebloba, romelickanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebis mdgomareobis gaumjobesebas exeba. magrampraqtikulad bevri bavSvisaTvis didi araferi Secvlila. pakistanSi Svidi wlisbavSvs SeiZleba wauyenon braldeba danaSaulis CadenaSi. `rac ufro daucvelixar, ufro naklebad savaraudoa, rom samarTali ipovo. bavSvebs xmis ufleba araaqvT, amitom isini aravis enaRvleba.~
  • 102. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 101keniaSi Raribi da dangreuli ojaxebidan gamosuli bavSvebis mzardi raodenobaqalaqSi daexeteba, Rameebs Ria cis qveS atarebs, webos isunTqavs da qurdobsimisaTvis, rom iarsebos. quCis bavSvebs policia da qalaqis xelisufleba iWerenda Semdeg maT marTlmsajulebis sistema STanTqavs.aSS-Si _ erT-erTSi im ori qveynidan, romlebmac ar moaxdines gaeros bavSvisuflebaTa konvenciis ratificireba – arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebissistema gasuli ramdenime aTwleulis ganmavlobaSi seriozulad gauaresda.sazogadoebrivma protestma mozardebis Zaladobriv danaSaulebTandakavSirebiT 1980-1990 wlebSi qveynis masStabiT zewola moaxdinapolitikosebze, gaemkacrebinaT zomebi danaSaulis winaaRmdeg. ormocma StatmamiiRo kanonmdebloba, romelic iTvaliswinebs arasrulwlovanTa gasamarTlebaszrdasruli adamianebis msgavsad da kidev ufro mkacri reJimis momxrea.norma xdeba bavSvebis dasja da ara reabilitacia. sul ufro xSirad usjianarasrulwlovanebs uvado patimrobas da maTze arc pirobiT vadamdeganTavisufleba vrceldeba.bavSvebis cixeSi moTavseba alternatiuli meTodebis gamonaxvis nacvlad axdensmaT stigmatizacias da mTeli cxovrebis manZilze damnaSavis saxels akerebs,arTmevs maT samuSaos an stipendiis miRebis SesaZleblobas da im adamianebisgaremocvaSi agdebs, visac ufro seriozuli danaSauli aqvs Cadenili. es asevezrdis bavSvebis mier kanonis xelaxla darRvevis albaTobas.arsebobs Tu ara patimrobis raime alternativa? arsebobs, acxadebs `iunisefi~da ramdenime rekomendacias gvTavazobs:  nu daapatimrebT im bavSvebs, romlebic mxolod arsebobisaTvis sCadian danaSauls;  aarideT sisxlis samarTalwarmoebis sistemas bavSvebi, romlebmac msubuqi danaSauli Caidines;  patimrobis Sefardeba mxolod ukidures zomad gamoiyeneT;  ar moaTavsoT dapatimrebuli bavSvebi ufrosebTan erTad saknebSi;  mTavrobebma unda Caataron situaciis zedmiwevniTi monitoringi, sul mcire, maT unda hqondeT monacemebi imis Sesaxeb, Tu ramdeni bavSvia cixeSi da ramdeni xania, rac iq aris.
  • 103. 102`hiuman raiTz uoCis~ rekomendaciebi`hiuman raiTz uoCi~ rekomendacias iZleva, rom yvela qveyanam miiRos, sulmcire, Semdegi zomebi kanonTan konfliqtSi myof bavSvTa uflebebis dasacavad(es rekomendaciebi saintereso sadiskusio Temebia):1) yvela saxelmwifom unda uzrunvelyos, rom kanonTan konfliqtSi myof bavSvebs patimroba SeefardoT mxolod ukiduresi zomis saxiT da rac SeiZleba mokle xniT. bavSvebi arasodes unda daapatimron im qmedebebis gamo, romlebic danaSaulad ar CaiTvleba, Tu zrdasruli adamianebis mier aris Cadenili.2) dakavebis da patimrobis pirobebi unda Seesabamebodes saerTaSoriso standartebs. bavSvebi arasodes unda movaTavsoT sapatimroebSi zrdasrulebTan erTad. maT unda daerToT neba, regularuli da xSiri kontaqti hqondeT sakuTari ojaxis wevrebTan, iuridiul warmomadgenlebTan da sxva pirebTan gare samyarodan; maTTvis xelmisawvdomi unda iyos ganaTleba, jandacva da fsiqikuri janmrTelobis dacva, unda hqondeT sakmarisi sakvebi da sanitariuli pirobebi.3) im qveynebma, sadac arsebobs bavSvebis sikvdiliT dasja an uvado sasjeli, dauyovnebliv unda Sewyviton amgvari praqtika da sakuTar kanonmdeblobaSi Seitanon Sesabamisi Sesworebebi.kiTxvebi JurnalistebisaTvis • dakavebis rogori wesi arsebobs sasamarTlo sistemaSi moxvedrili bavSvebisaTvis? • arian Tu ara dakavebuli iseTi bavSvebi, romlebic ar arian danaSaulis CadenaSi damnaSaveebad cnobili? • arian Tu ara dakavebulTa Soris ltolvilebi da politikuri TavSesafris maZieblebi?kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebis mdgomareobas gaeros bavSvis uflebaTakonvenciis ori muxli exeba: 37-e muxli wamebis da Tavisuflebis aRkveTis Sesaxebda me-40 muxli arasrulwlovanTa saqmeebis warmoebis Sesaxeb.37-e muxlSi naTqvamia, rom arc erTi bavSvi ar unda iyos wamebis, sastiki,araadamianuri Tu Rirsebis Semlaxveli mopyrobis an sasjelis msxverpli.18 wlamde asakis pirTa mier Cadenil danaSaulebs ar SeiZleba Seefardosarc sikvdiliT dasja, arc mudmivi patimroba, romelic ar iTvaliswinebsganTavisuflebis SesaZleblobas; yoveli TavisuflebaaRkveTili bavSvi undagancalkevdes ufrosebisagan, Tu ar miiCneva, rom bavSvis WeSmariti inter-esebisaTvis amis gakeTeba ar aris saWiro; dakavebul bavSvs unda hqondes
  • 104. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 103ufleba, kavSiri iqonios Tavis ojaxTan. yovel TavisuflebaaRkveTil bavSvsunda hqondes ufleba, dauyovnebliv miiRos samarTlebrivi da sxva Sesabamisidaxmareba.me-40 muxlSi naTqvamia, rom kanonTan konfliqtSi myof bavSvs iseTi mopyrobisufleba aqvs, romelic xels uwyobs misi Rirsebisa da sakuTari mniSvnelobisgrZnobis ganviTarebas, iTvaliswinebs bavSvis asaks da mis reintegraciassazogadoebaSi. bavSvs aqvs ZiriTadi garantiebis miRebis ufleba, aseve ufleba,dauyovnebliv miiRos samarTlebrivi da sxva Sesabamisi daxmareba. rodesacSesaZlebelia, sasamarTlo procesi da dakaveba Tavidan unda iqnes acilebuli.bavSvis uflebaTa komitetma Tavis mecxre sxdomaze, romelic 1995 wlis maisSigaimarTa, Caatara zogadi ganxilva arasrulwlovanTa saqmeebis administrirebisTemaze. komitetis rekomendacia iyo, rom saxelmwifoebma daamkvidron `bavSvzeorientirebuli sistema, romelic bavSvs ZiriTadi uflebebisa da Tavisuflebebismqone adamianad aRiarebs, aseve aRiarebs imas, rom bavSvTan dakavSirebuliyvela qmedeba, upirveles yovlisa, bavSvis WeSmariti interesebisaken unda iyosmimarTuli.~imis miuxedavad, rom am bolo dros bavSvis uflebaTa organizaciebis yuradRebagamaxvilebulia bavSvebis mier maTTan dakavSirebuli gadawyvetilebebis mimarTsakuTari azrebis gamoxatvis mniSvnelobaze, kanonTan konfliqtSi myof bavSvebsiSviaTad usmenen. es ewinaaRmdegeba gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciisme-12 muxls, romelic iTvaliswinebs bavSvis uflebas, mousminon. bavSvisuflebaTa komitetma konvenciis me-12 muxlis ganmartebisas ganacxada, rom esmuxli moiTxovs bavSvebisaTvis saCivrebis procedurebis uzrunvelyofas dayuradReba gaamaxvila saCivrebis procedurebis gansakuTrebul saWiroebazeTavisuflebaaRkveTili bavSvebisaTvis.arasrulwlovanTa saqmeebis administrirebis Temaze komitetis zogadi ganxilvisSesaxeb angariSSi aRniSnulia, rom arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebissistemaSi moxvedril bavSvebs `xSirad ... uars eubnebodnen uflebaze, waredginaTsaCivrebi, roca es bavSvebi maTi ZiriTadi uflebebis darRvevis, maT Soriscudi mopyrobis da seqsualuri Zaladobis ... msxverplni xdebodnen~.sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis asakibavSvis uflebaTa konvencia mouwodebs yvela saxelmwifos, daaweson minimaluriasaki, `romlis miRwevamdec, rogorc iTvleba, bavSvebs ara aqvT sisxlis samarTliskanonmdeblobis darRvevis unari~. magram konvencia ar awesebs konkretul asaksda es asaki sxvadasxva qveyanaSi mniSvnelovnad gansxvavdeba.saerTaSoriso standartebi, rogoricaa pekinis wesebi arasrulwlovanTamarTlmsajulebis Sesaxeb, rekomendacias uwevs, sisxlis samarTlispasuxismgeblobis asaki daefuZnos emociur, gonebriv da inteleqtualursimwifes da rom es asaki Zalian dabali ar unda iyos.
  • 105. 104bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti, romelic saxelmwifoebis mier konvenciis Sesrulebismonitorings awarmoebs, iZleva rekomendacias, rom aRniSnuli asakis dadgenisassaWiroa bavSvis WeSmariti interesebis gaTvaliswineba.aSS-Si sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis asaki dadgenilia saxelmwifokanoniT. mxolod 13 Stats aqvs dadgenili iseTi minimaluri asaki, romelic6-dan 12 wlamde meryeobs. Statebis umravlesoba eyrdnoba zogad kanons, romlisTanaxmad igulisxmeba, rom 7-dan 14 wlamde asakis bavSvebi ver itvirTavenpasuxismgeblobas, magram maT SeiZleba daekisroT pasuxismgebloba.iaponiaSi 20 wlamde asakis damnaSaveebs sisxlis samarTlis sasamarTlo sistemisnacvlad ojaxur sasamarTloSi asamarTleben. skandinaviis yvela qveyanaSisisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis asakad 15 welia miCneuli, xolo 18 wlamdeasakis axalgazrdebi eqvemdebarebian marTlmsajulebis iseT sistemas, romelicufro metad socialuri momsaxurebisken aris mimarTuli, xolo dapatimrebaukiduresi zomaa. 1997 wlis aprilSi SvedeTSi mxolod 15 arasrulwlovaniixdida sasjels cixeSi.CineTSi 14-dan 18 wlamde asakis bavSvebisaTvis arasrulwlovanTamarTlmsajulebis sistema moqmedebs da bavSvebs gansakuTrebiT mZimedanaSaulisTvis SeiZleba samudamo patimroba miusajon.laTinuri amerikis umetes qveynebSi mimdinareobs reformebi arasrulwlovanTamarTlmsajulebasTan dakavSirebul kanonmdeblobaSi. amis Sedegad sisxlissamarTlis pasuxismgeblobis asaki braziliaSi, kolumbiasa da peruSi 18 wlamdegaizarda, 12-dan 18 wlamde bavSvebis pasuxismgeblobas ki arasrulwlovanTamarTlmsajulebis sistema gansazRvravs.evropis umetes qveynebSi sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis asakad 13-16welia miCneuli, xolo irlandiaSi _ 12 weli.didi gansxvavebebi sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis asakis dadgenaSisaerTaSoriso konsensusis naklebobaze metyvelebs. im qveynebis raodenoba,sadac sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobisaTvis dabali asakia dadgenili,miuTiTebs imaze, rom arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis bevri sistemasaTanadod ar iTvaliswinebs bavSvis WeSmarit interesebs.sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis asaki mxolod erTi cvladi maCvenebelia,romelic gavlenas axdens imaze, Tu rogor epyrobian marTlmsajulebissistemebi arasrulwlovanebs. sxva cvladebia: arsebobs Tu ara calkekanoni arasrulwlovanebisTvis, romelic bavSvis uflebebzea dafuZnebuli;axalgazrdebze sadamsjelo sanqciebi vrceldeba Tu mxolod socialuri dasaganmanaTleblo zomebi arsebobs; da arsebobs Tu ara qveyanaSi damoukidebelisasamarTlo sistemebi da sapyrobileebi axalgazrdebisTvis. arasrulwlovanTamarTlmsajulebis sistemam unda uzrunvelyos samarTlebrivi dacva da
  • 106. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 105mopyrobis miukerZoebeli standarti. amgvari sistemis ararsebobis pirobebSiaxalgazrdebis mimarT gamoyenebuli iqneba zrdasruli adamianebisaTvisgankuTvnili sisxlis samarTlis marTlmsajuleba an isini moxvdebian `damcav~samzrunvelo dawesebulebaSi, sadac maT aranairi samarTlebrivi dacva areqnebaT da SeiZleba Seejaxon TviTnebur da sastik mopyrobas.media da kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebi: vinaobis dacvabritaneTSi arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebisa da sisxlis samarTlis aqti(1999 w.) danaSaulis kvalifikacias aniWebs saqmes, romlis gamoZiebasac iwyebspolicia da romelic exeba raime iseTi masalis gamoqveynebas, rac gamoiwvevs18 wlamde im axalgazrdis identificirebas, romelsac bralad danaSaulisCadena edeba. es piroba SeiZleba moixsnas, Tu Jurnalisti SeZlebs sasamarTlosdarwmunebas, rom amgvari detalebis gamoqveyneba sazogadoebis interesebSia.aRniSnuli SezRudvebi uqmdeba, roca msjavrdebuli 18 wlis asaks aRwevs. `bi-bi-sis ~ saredaqcio miTiTebebi bavSvebis identifikaciis Sesaxeb rTuli eTikuri sakiTxi wamoiWreba, rodesac unda gadavwyvitoT, asocialuri an kriminaluri qcevis SemTxvevaSi ra aris bavSvis interesSi: misi vinaobis gamJRavneba Tu anonimurobis dacva. rogorc wesi, aseTi qcevis asaxvisas ar unda gavamJRavnoT bavSvis vinaoba movlenis gaSuqebis mizniT, garda im SemTxvevebisa, roca bavSvis vinaobis gamJRavnebas safuZvlad udevs mkafio saredaqcio dasabuTeba. im bavSvis CarTva programaSi, gadaReba da vinaobis gamJRavneba, romlis mSoblebic CarTulni arian asocialur da kriminalur saqmianobaSi, SesaZlebelia mxolod maSin, Tu amiT bavSvis keTildReobas safrTxe ar daemuqreba da Tu es dasabuTebulia saredaqcio politikiT. amas gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba aqvs, rodesac bavSvebs raime safrTxe SeiZleba emuqrebodeT, magaliTad, rodesac bavSvi loT mSoblebTan cxovrobs an rodesac mas aiZuleben, Seasrulos narkotikebis kurieris roli.konkretuli magaliTi (1): didi britaneTi: meri belimeri beli ori biWis - martin braunis (oTxi wlis) da braian houvis (sami wlis)mkvlelobaSi damnaSaved 1968 wlis dekemberSi cnes. meri belma bavSvebi `mxolodsiamovnebis da mkvlelobiT gamowveuli aRgznebis gamo~ daaxrCo.mkvlelobebis Cadenis dros beli 10 wlis iyo. damnaSaved cnobis Semdeg masdid yuradRebas uTmobda britanuli presa da germanuli Jurnali `Sterni~.misi deda mis ambebs presas mihyidda xolme da xSirad korespondentebs aZlevdanawerebs, romlebic, misi TqmiT, meris ekuTvnoda. Tavad beli isev moxvdagazeTebis pirvel gverdebze, roca 1979 wlis seqtemberSi gaiqca `mur kortis~(Moor Court) Ria tipis cixidan.
  • 107. 106beli 1980 wels gaaTavisufles cixidan da anonimurobas Sehpirdnen, raTaTavis qaliSvilTan erTad (romelic 1984 wels daibada) axali cxovreba daewyo(gamogonili saxeliT). qaliSvilma araferi icoda dedis warsulis Sesaxeb,magram belis adgilsamyofeli reportiorebma aRmoaCines da deda-Svils saxlisdatoveba mouxda. maT Tavze loginis TeTreuli Semoixvies da ise gaiparnen.qaliSvilis anonimuroba Tavdapirvelad, vidre is 18 wlis ar gaxda, daculiiyo. Tumca 2003 wlis 21 maiss belma moigo saqme umaRles sasamarTloSi mTelicxovrebis manZilze sakuTari da Tavisi qaliSvilis anonimurobis dacvasTandakavSirebiT.konkretuli magaliTi (2): didi britaneTi: jeims balgeris mkvlelebijeims (`jemi~) balgeri iyo ori wlis bavSvi, romelic orma 10 wlis biWma moitacada mokla mersisaidSi, inglisSi. eseni iyvnen jon vineiblsi da robert Tompsoni.ori bavSvis mier mcirewlovani bavSvis mkvlelobam sazogadoebaSi Soki, risxvada mwuxareba gamoiwvia, gansakuTrebiT liverpulSi. mosamarTlem, romelsacsasamarTlo procesi mihyavda, brZaneba gasca, rom es ori biWi `mravali, mravaliwliT~ moeTavsebinaT sapatimroSi.sasamarTlo procesidan sul cota xnis Semdeg lordma teilorma gosfortidan,lordma – mTavarma mosamarTlem, gamosca brZaneba, rom biWebs, sul mcire, 10weli unda gaetarebinaT cixeSi. isini cixidan mxolod 2003 wels gamovidodnen.magram masobrivma presam da sazogadoebis garkveulma nawilma CaTvales, romganaCeni Zalze rbili iyo da gazeT `sanis~ redaqtorebma maSindel SinagansaqmeTa ministrs, maikl houvards, gadasces 300 000 xelmoweriani peticia,romelSic biWebisaTvis cixeSi darCenis vadis gaxangrZlivebas moiTxovdnen. 1995wels orive biWis patimrobis minimaluri vada 15 wlamde gaizarda. am ganaCenisTanaxmad maT cixidan 2008 wlamde ar gamouSvebdnen. am droisaTvis isini 26wlis iqnebodnen.1999 wels vineiblsis da Tompsonis advokatebma mimarTes adamianis uflebaTaevropul sasamarTlos imis niadagze, rom `biWebis sasamarTlo saqmis garCevaar iyo miukerZoebeli, vinaidan isini metad axalgazrdebi iyven imisaTvis,rom sasamarTlo saqmisaTvis Tvali miedevnebinaT da gaegoT srulwlovanTasasamarTlos qmedebebi. advokatebi aseve acxadebdnen, rom hovardisCarevam atmosfero ufro damuxta, ramac samarTliani sasamarTlo garCevaSeuZlebeli gaxada. aRniSnulma sasamarTlom saqme biWebis sasargeblodgadawyvita.`manCester ivning niusma~ (Manchester Evening News) debatebis provocireba moaxdinaim daxuruli tipis dawesebulebebis dasaxelebiT, sadac es ori biWi imyofebodada amiT daarRvia presis sajaroobis Sesaxeb sasamarTlos amkrZalavi miTiTeba,romelic 2001 wlis dasawyisSi ganaxlda. imave wlis dekemberSi gazeTi damnaSavedcnes sasamarTlos Seuracxyofis gamo, 30 000 girvanqa sterlingiT daajarimesda 120 000 girvanqa sterlingis odenobis xarjebis dafarva daakisres.
  • 108. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 107ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso dokumentebi arasrulwlovanTamarTlmsajulebis sferoSiarasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sistemaze saubrisas, aucilebeliamimovixiloT am sferoSi arsebuli ZiriTadi saerTaSoriso dokumentebi,romlebSic mocemulia kanonTan konfliqtSi myof bavSvebTan dakavSirebulifuZemdebluri principebi.ZiriTad dokuments warmoadgens gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciis 1989 w. bavSvisuflebebaTa konvencia (saqarTvelo miuerTda 1994 wels). kanonTan konfliqtSimyofi bavSvebis zogierT Zireul damcav zomas Seicavs adamianis uflebaTa daZiriTad TavisuflebaTa dacvis evropuli konvencia 1950 w. (ratificirebulia1999 wels) samoqalaqo da politikuri uflebebis saerTaSoriso paqtSic (1966w.) aseve asaxulia arasrulwlovanTa mimarT marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebisZireuli standartebi (saqarTvelo miuerTda 1994 wels).aRniSnuli konvenciebis garda, arsebobs mTeli rigi sarekomendacio xasiaTisdokumentebisa, kerZod:  gaerTianebuli erebis saxelmZRvanelo principebi arasrulwlovanTa Soris danaSaulis Tavidan acilebis Sesaxeb (1990 w. cnobilia, rogorc riadis saxelmZRvanelo principebi), romelic gansazRvravs im socialur politikas, rac danaSaulis Cadenis riskis qveS myof mozardTa dasacavad unda iqnes gatarebuli.  arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis administrirebis gaeros minimaluri standartebi da wesebi (1985 w. cnobilia, rogorc pekinuri wesebi). es wesebi gansazRvravs mozardTa mimarT marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebis minimalur standartebs.  gaerTianebuli erebis wesebi TavisuflebaaRkveTil arasrulwlovanTa dacvisaTvis (1990, JDL). aRniSnuli warmoadgens TavisuflebaaRkveTil mozardebTan mopyrobis wesebs.  gaerTianebuli erebis saxelmZRvanelo principebi marTlmsajulebis sistemaSi bavSvebis mimarT gansaxorcielebeli RonisZiebebis Sesaxeb (1997) (venis debulebebi).  gaerTianebuli erebis minimaluri standartuli wesebi arasapatimro zomebis Sesaxeb (1990 w. cnobilia, rogorc tokios wesebi).gaeros bavSvis uflebebis komitetma 2007 wels SeimuSava zogadi komentari #10marTlmsajulebis sistemaSi bavSvis uflebebis Sesaxeb, romelic detaluradganmartavs sistemis arss da masTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebs.rogorc aRvniSneT, upirvelesi mniSvneloba eniWeba bavSvis uflebaTakonvencias, romlis 37-e da me-40 muxlebSi detaluradaa gawerili kanonTan
  • 109. 108konfliqtSi myof bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi. rac Seexeba zemoTmocemul sarekomendacio xasiaTis dokumentebs, marTalia, maT xelmowerilixelSekrulebebisagan gansxvavebiT, qveynisaTvis ar gaaCnia savaldebulo Zala,Tumca isini gamoxatavs saerTaSoriso sazogadoebis xedvas imis Sesaxeb, Turogor unda imuSaos arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sistemam. maTSimocemuli principebi gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa komitetis da adamianis uflebaTaevropuli sasamarTlos mier aRiarebulia arasrulwlovanTa marTlsamajulebissistemisaTvis Sesaferis standartebad.arasruwlovanTa marTlsamjulebis ZiriTadi saerTaSorisoprincipebimarTalia, kanonTan konfliqtSi myof bavSvebze ZiriTadad konvenciis 37-e dame-40 muxlebSi asaxuli standartebi vrceldeba, Tumca arsebobs principebi,romlebic aranakleb mniSvnelovania da Tanabrad gamoiyeneba marTlmsajulebissistemaSi moxvedrili bavSvebis mimarT. es pricipebia:1. bavSvis interesebis dacvis ukeT uzrunvelyofagaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis me-3 muxlis mixedviT:`bavSvis mimarT nebismier qmedebaTa ganxorcielebisas, miuxedavad imisa,Tu vin aris maTi ganmaxorcielebeli, saxelmwifo Tu kerZo dawesebulebebi,romlebic muSaoben socialuri uzrunvelyofis sakiTxebze, sasamarTloebi,administraciuli Tu sakanonmdeblo organoebi, upirvelesi yuradReba eTmobabavSvis interesebis dacvis ukeT uzrunvelyofas~.komitetis zogadi komentaris mixedviT, marTlmsajulebis sistemaSi moxvedrilibavSvis interesis dacva swored mis reabilitaciasa da reintegracias gulismobs.konvenciis me-40 muxlis pirveli nawili exmianeba me-3 muxlSi mocemul principsda aRniSnavs, rom `monawile saxelmwifoebi cnoben yoveli bavSvis uflebas,romelmac, rogorc miiCneven, daarRvia sisxlis samarTlis kanoni, braladedeba misi darRveva an aRiarebulia mis damrRvevad, rom misdami mopyrobaxels uwyobdes misi Rirsebisa da sakuTari mniSvnelobis grZnobis ganviTarebas,ganumtkicebdes mas adamianis uflebaTa da sxvaTa Tavisuflebebisadmipativiscemas, iTvaliswinebdes bavSvis asaks da misi reintegraciis, sazogadoebaSimis mier sasargeblo rolis SesrulebisaTvis xelSewyobis sasurvelobas.2. sicocxlis, gadarCenisa da ganviTarebis uflebagaeros bavSvTa uflebebis konvenciis me-6 muxlis mixedviT:«saxelmwifo organoebi aRiareben, rom yovel bavSvs aqvs sicocxlis xelSeuvaliufleba».sicocxlis ufleba daculia adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTadacvis evropuli konvenciiTa da sxva mravali saerTaSoriso dokumentiT.3. ufleba mosmenaze - umniSvnelovanesi uflebaa da mocemulia konvenciis me-12 muxlSi:
  • 110. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 109monawile saxelmwifoebi uzrunvelyofen sakuTari Sexedulebebis Camoyalibebisunaris mqone bavSvis uflebas, Tavisuflad gamoTqvas Tavisi Sexedulebebinebismier sakiTxze, romelic mas exeba. amasTan, bavSvis Sexedulebebs saTanadoyuradReba eTmoba misi asakisa da simwifis Sesabamisad.am mizniT bavSvs, kerZod, eZleva SesaZlebloba, mousminon mas sasamarTlo Tuadministraciuli wesiT nebismieri saqmis ganxilvisas, romelic bavSvs exeba,rogorc uSualod, aseve warmomadgenlis an Sesabamisi organos meSveobiT,erovnuli kanonmdeblobis procesualuri normebiT gaTvaliswinebuli wesiT».4. mniSvnelovania Tansaworuflebianobisa da diskriminaciisagan dacvis ufleba, romelic asaxulia konvenciis me-2 muxlSi:`monawile saxelmwifoebi pativs scemen da uzrunvelyofen maTi iurisdiqciisfarglebSi myofi TiToeuli bavSvis yvela uflebas, romelic winamdebarekonvenciiTaa gaTvaliswinebuli, nebismieri saxis diskriminaciis gareSe, rasis,kanis feris, sqesis, enis, religiis, politikuri Tu sxva mrwamsis, erovnuli,eTnikuri Tu socialuri warmoSobis, qonebrivi mdgomareobis, bavSvis, misimSoblebisa da kanonieri meurveebis janmrTelobisa da dabadebis mdgomareobisan sxva ram viTarebis ganurCevlad~.es principi aseve ganmtkicebulia adamianis uflebaTa da ZiriTad TavisuflebaTadacvis evropuli konvenciiTa (muxli 14) da saerTaSoriso paqtiT samoqalaqoda politikur uflebaTa Sesaxeb (muxli 26).mokled SevexoT uSualod arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebasTan dakavSirebulZiriTad principebs, romlebic, rogorc aRvniSneT, konvenciis 37-e da me-40muxlebSia asaxuli. es principebia:  ufleba, iTvlebode udanaSaulod, anu udanaSaulobis prezumfcia (m.40.2 (b)(i))  ufleba wayenebuli braldebis Sesaxeb informaciis dauyovnebliv miRebaze 40(2)(b)(ii)  ufleba braleulobis dayovnebis gareSe dadgenaze 40(2)(b)(iii)  saqmis ganxilva kompetenturi, damoukidebeli da miukerZoebeli organos an sasamarTlos mier 40.2(b)(iii)  iuridiuli daxmarebis an sxva Sesabamisi konsultaciis miRebis ufleba (muxli 40.2(b)(ii))  mSoblebisa da kanonieri warmomadgenlebis mxardaWera procesSi 40.2(b(iii)  bavSvis dacva Cvenebis micemis an danaSaulis aRiarebis mizniT Zaldatanebis moxdenisagan me-40.2(b)( iv)umniSvnelovanesi principia Tavisuflebis aRkveTis, rogorc ukiduresi zomis,gamoyeneba, romelic asaxulia 37-e (b) muxlSi. kerZod, `arc erT bavSvs ar
  • 111. 110unda aRekveTos Tavisufleba ukanonod an TviTneburad. bavSvis dapatimreba,dakaveba an cixeSi moTavseba xorcieldeba kanonis Tanaxmad da ganixileba,rogorc mxolod ukiduresi zoma, rac SeiZleba naklebi periodis ganmavlobaSi~.TavisuflebaaRkveTili bavSvi ufrosebisagan gancalkevebiT unda ganTavsdes.aseve didi yuradReba eTmoba bavSvisaTvis keTilganwyobili garemos Seqmnas.pekinuri wesebis me-14 muxlSi aRniSnulia: `sasamarTlo ganxilva unda upasuxebdesarasrulwlovanis interesebs da ganxorcieldes gagebis atmosferoSi, racsaSualebas miscems arasrulwlovans, miiRos masSi monawileoba da TavisufladgamoTqvas Tavisi Tvalsazrisi“. rogorc vxedavT, aRniSnuli pirdapir kavSirSiasasamarTlo procesSi aqtiur monawileobasTan, rac, aseve, Zalian mniSvnelovaniaarasrulwlovanTa saqmeebis ganxilvisas.piradi cxovrebis dacvis uzrunvelyofa saerTaSoriso standartebis mixedviTpiradi cxovrebis dacvis uzrunvelyofa umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxia,gansakuTrebiT maSin, roca saqme kanonTan konfliqtSi myof bavSvs exeba.es principi ganmtkicebulia, rogorc bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciiT, asevesxva mniSvnelovani dokumentebiT. konvenciis me-16 muxlis mixedviT `arcerTi bavSvi ar SeiZleba iyos piradi da ojaxuri cxovrebis, sacxovrebelibinis xelSeuxeblobis an korespodenciis saidumlobis uflebaTa mismier ganxorcielebaSi TviTneburi an ukanono Carevis, an misi Rirsebisada reputaciis ukanono xelyofis obieqti~ konvenciis me 40(2)(b)(vii) muxliuzrunvelyofs bavSvis piradi cxovrebis srul pativiscemas saqmis ganxilvisyvela etapze.gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa komitetis ganmartebis mixedviT `saqmis mimdinareobisnebismieri etapi~ gulisxmobs yovel etaps samarTaldamcavebTan pirvelikontaqtidan moyolebuli (mag., informaciis moTxovna da identifikacia)saqmis saboloo dasrulebamde – kompetenturi uflebamosili organosmier gadawyvetilebis gamotanamde, an zedamxedvelobis qveS gamoSvebamde, andapatimrebamde da Tavisuflebis aRkveTamde. misi mizania, Tavidan aviciloTaramizanSewonili sajaroobiT an stigmatizaciis procesiT gamowveuli ziani.dauSvebelia gamoqveyndes nebismieri informacia, riTac SeiZleba moxdes bavSvisamocnoba, radganac es iwvevs stigmatizacias da, SesaZloa, ziani miadges misSesaZleblobas, miiRos ganaTleba, samuSao, hqondes saxli an daemuqros misusafrTxoebas. sajaro organoebs mxolod gamonaklis SemTxvevebSi aqvT ufleba,gaavrcelon presrelizi, romelic Seexeba mxolod mozardis mier CadenildanaSauls. maT unda miiRon saWiro zomebi, raTa am presrelizis saSualebiT armoxdes bavSvis amocnoba.komiteti iZleva rekomendacias, rom saxelmwifo organoebma danergon wesi,romlis Tanaxmadac sasamarTlo da sxva mosmenebi kanonTan konfliqtSi myofibavSvis saqmis Sesaxeb daxurul kars miRma Catardeba. am wesidan gamonaklisisdaSveba Zalze SezRuduli unda iyos da mkveTrad unda Camoyalibdes kanonSi.sasamarTlo darbazSi ganaCeni imgvarad unda warmoiTqvas, rom ar gamJRavndes
  • 112. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 111bavSvis pirovneba. piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxeblobis ufleba (muxli 16)moiTxovs saqmeSi CarTuli yvela profesionalisagan, romelic sasamarTlosmier dadgenil zomis gatarebaSi monawileobs, an sxva kompetenturi pirisagan,daicvan informacia, ramac SeiZleba bavSvis amocnoba SesaZlebeli gaxados.piradi cxovrebis xelSeuxebloba niSnavs imasac, rom arasrulwlovnis saqmismasalebi mkacrad konfidencialuri da xelmiuwvdomeli unda iyos mesamepirebisaTvis, im pirebis garda, romlebic uSualod monawileoben gamoZiebaSi,ganaCenis gamotanasa da mis aRsrulebaSi.piradi cxovrebis dacvis moTxovnas Seicavs e.w. pekinuri wesebi, romlis me-8wesis mixedviT:8.1 yvela etapze daculi unda iqnes arasrulwlovanis ufleba pirad cxovrebaze raTa Tavidan iqnes acilebuli arasaTanado sajaroobiT an reputaciis SelaxviT gamowveuli ziani.8.2 zogadad ar unda gamoqveyndes informacia, romelic xels Seuwyobs arasrulwlovanis vinaobis dadgenas. me-8 muxlis komentarSi aRniSnulia, rom axalgazrdebi gansakuTrebiT eqvemdebarebian stigmatizacias. reputaciis Selaxvis Sesaxeb kriminologiurma kvlevam daadastura, rom arasrulwlov- nis mudmiv identifikacias samarTaldamrRvevebad da damnaSaveebad mosdevs sxvadasxva saxis damRupveli Sedegebi. swored amitom me-8 wesi xazgasmiT aRniSnavs arasrulwlovanis dacvis aucileblobas saqmesTan dakavSirebiT masobrivi informaciis saSualebebSi informaciis (mag., eWvmitanilis, braldebulis, msjavrdebulis saxelebi) vinaobis Sedegebisagan.amave dokumentis 21-e wesis mixedviT `21.1 arasrulwlovan samarTaldamrRvevTadosie unda inaxebodes sruliad saidumlod da daxuruli unda iyos mesamemxarisaTvis. masalebis xelmisawvdomoba unda Semoifarglos im pirebiT,romelTac pirdapir exeba saqmeze gadawyvetilebis miReba an sxva saTanadoduflebamosili pirebiT.21.2 arasrulwlovani samarTaldamrRvevebis Sesaxeb arsebuli masalebi ar gamoiyeneba srulwlovanTa saqmeebis, an Tavad am samarTaldamRvevebTan dakavSirebuli saqmeebis ganxilvisas.~gaeros wesebi TavisuflebaaRkveTil arasrulwlovanTa dasacavad aseve xazsusvams sasjelaRsrulebis dawesebulebaSi arasrulwlovnis Sesaxeb arsebuliCanawerebis konfidencialurobas. am dokumentis me-19 wesSi aRniSnulia, rom`angariSebi, samarTlebrivi da samedicino Canawerebisa da disciplinurisamarTalwarmoebis Canawerebis CaTvliT, aseve, dokumentebi mopyrobis formis,Sinaarsisa da detalebis Sesaxeb moTavsebuli unda iqnes konfidencialurindividualur failad, romelic iqneba mudmivad ganaxlebuli da xelmisawvdomimxolod amaze uflebamosili pirebisaTvis, klasificirebuli imgvarad, romiolad iqnes aRqmuli... arasrulwlovanTa gaTavisuflebis Semdeg Canawerebiunda dailuqos da garkveuli drois Semdeg unda ganadgurdes~.
  • 113. 112arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sistema saqarTveloSisaqarTvelos mTavrobis, iunisefis, evrokavSirisa da sxva partniorisaerTaSoriso da adgilobriv organizaciebis erToblivi ZalisxmeviTmimdinareobs arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sistemis reforma. 2009 welsganaxlda sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobis reformis startegia, romliserT-erTi ZiriTadi mimarTuleba arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebaa.arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebis sistemis reformis ZiriTadimimarTulebebia: 1. prevencia 2. samarTliani sasamarTlos uflebis uzrunvelyofa 3. intervencia (alternatiuli sqemebi, alternatiuli sanqciebi, Tavisuflebis aRkveTa) 4. reintegracia 5. kvalificiuri muSaxeli 6. monacemTa Segroveba, Sefaseba da kvlevasisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis minimaluri asaki saqarTveloSisanam uSualod arasrulwlovanTa saqmis warmoebasTan dakavSirebulsakiTxebze gadavidodeT, ramdenime sityviT unda SevexoT sisxlis samarTlispasuxismgeblobis minimalur asaks saqarTveloSi. minimaluri asakobrivizRvari iyo 14 weli yvela saxis danaSaulisaTvis iqamde, vidre 2007 welssisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobaSi Sevidoda cvlilebebi da es zRvari 12wlamde daiweoda. unda aRiniSnos, rom pasuxismgeblobis asakis daweva yvelakategoriis danaSaulze ar vrceldeboda. kerZod, es exeboda mxolod 7 saxisdanaSauls (ganzrax mkvleloba, ganzrax mkvleloba damamZimebel garemoebebSi,sxeulis ganzrax mZime dazianeba, Zarcva Cadenili damamZimebel garemoebebSi,yaCaRoba, gaupatiureba da 21 wlis asaks miuRweveli an nasamarTlobis mqonean/da narkotikebis moxmarebisaTvis administraciul sasjeldadebuli pirismier civi iaraRis tareba). cvlilebebi ZalaSi 2008 wlis 1 ivliss Sevida.kanonis mixedviT 12-14 wlis arasrulwlovanTaTvis specialuri dawesebulebisaSenebamde, maT sasjelis saxiT mxolod jarima unda SefardebodaT. rogorccnobilia, msgavsi dawesebulebis modificireba ar ganxorcielda da,Sesabamisad, saqarTvelos sasamarTloebi msgavsi kategoriisarasrulwlovanebisaTvis sasjelis Sefardebisas mxolod jarimiT undaSemofargluliyvnen. uzenaesi sasamarTlos monacemebiT, 2008 - 2009 wlebSi,msjavri daedo xuT 12-14 wlis arasrulwlovans. aqedan ori gaasamarTles2008 wels.unda aRiniSnos, rom am iniciativas sakmaod mkacri reaqcia mohyva saerTaSorisoda adgilobrivi organizaciebis mxridan. gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa komitetmadabejiTebiT mouwoda saqarTvelos mTavrobas, dauyovnebliv aRedgina 14 weli,rogorc sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobis minimaluri asaki.
  • 114. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 113yovelive zemoaRniSnulis gaTvaliswinebiT, arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebissistemis reformis farglebSi kvlav aiwia pasuxismgeblobis zRvari da 14wels daubrunda. sisxlis samarTlis kanonmdeblobaSi 2010 wels Sevidacvlilebebi am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT. unda aRiniSnos, rom sisxlis samarTlispasuxismgeblobis asakis sayovelTaod dadgenili zRvari ar arsebobs, Tumcakomiteti mouwodebs saxelmwifoebs, rom is rac SeiZleba maRali iyos.saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba marTlmsajulebis sistemaSi moxvedrilarasrulwlovanTa Sesaxeb8ZiriTadi kanonia saqarTvelos konstitucia, romlis meore TavSi asaxuliadamianis uflebebi da ZiriTadi Tavisuflebebi Tanabrad vrceldebaarasrulwlovanebzec.rac Seexeba sxva, ZiriTad, kanonebs, esenia: • saqarvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi (1999w) • saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi (2009w)9 • saqarTvelos kanoni patimrobis Sesaxeb (2010w)10 • saqarTvelos kanoni arasapatimro sasjelTa aRsrulebis wesisa da probaciis Sesaxeb (2007 w)arasrulwlovanTa saqmeebis gamoZiebisas gasaTvaliswinebeli procesualuri sakiTxebi(saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi)rogorc zemoTmocemuli muxlebidan Cans, kanoni procesis mwarmoebelsavalebs Seiswavlos arasrulwlovnis pirovneba da misTvis damaxasiaTebeliTaviseburebebi.unda aRiniSnos, rom sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsis mixedviT,arasrulwlovanTa saqmeSi damcvelis monawileoba savaldebuloa (muxli 45;321). arasrulwlovani braldebulis mSobels, kanonier warmomadgenels anaxlo naTesavs, aseve pedagogs ufleba aqvT, daeswron sasamarTlo sxdomasan saproceso moqmedebas, romelSic arasrulwlovani monawileobs. TusasamarTlo an prokurori miiCnevs, rom es arasrulwlovani braldebulisinteresebs emsaxureba, mas SeuZlia savaldebulo wesiT uzrunvelyos mSoblis,kanonieri warmomadgenlis an axlo naTesavis, aseve pedagogis monawileoba.arasrulwlovnis interesebis dacvis mizniT sasamarTlos an prokurorsSeuZlia aukrZalos arasrulwlovani braldebulis mSobels, kanonierwarmomadgenels an axlo naTesavs, aseve pedagogs sasamarTlo sxdomaze daswrebaan saproceso moqmedebaSi monawileoba (muxli 317. 2.3). sasamarTlo sxdoma,romelsac arasrulwlovani braldebuli eswreba, daxurulad tardeba (muxli8 konkretul SemTxvevaSi Cvens mizans ar warmoadgens saqaTvelos knonmdeblobis analizi saerTaSoriso standartebTan Sesabamisobis dasadgenad. dokumentSi zogadad aris aRwerili is Taviseburebebi, rac kanonmdeblobis mier arasrulwlovnebTan mimarTebaSia gaTvaliswinebuli. Kkonkretuli dokumentis mizans aseve ar warmoadgens arasrulwlovnebTan mimarTebaSi kanonmdeblobiT gaTvaliswinebuli yvela detaluri sakiTxis mimoxilva9 2009 wels, saqarTvelos parlamentma miiRo sisxlis samarTlis axali saproceso kodeqsi, romelic amoqmedda 2010 wlis 1 oqtombers10 2010 wels, saqarTvelos parlamentma miiRo patimrobis kodeqsi, romelic aseve, amoqmedda 2010 wlis 1 oqtombers
  • 115. 114317.1) arasrulwlovans procesis yvela stadiaze epyrobian gansakuTrebuliyuradRebiT. mxedvelobaSi unda iqnes miRebuli misi asaki da resocializaciisgansakuTrebuli sazogadoebrivi interesi, aseve misi xelaxali aRzrdisaTvisxelis Sewyobis aucilebloba. arasrulwlovnis mimarT sisxlis samarTlisprocesis ganmavlobaSi savaldebuloa arasrulwlovnis uflebaTa saerTaSorisogarantiebis sruli dacva (muxli 316).dakaveba, aRkveTis RonisZiebebis gamoyeneba arasrulwlovnis mimarTTu arsebobs sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsSi mocemuli dakavebissafuZveli, damkavebeli moxele valdebulia dakavebuls gasagebi formiTSeatyobinos es, ganumartos, ra danaSaulis CadenaSia is braldebuli da acnobos,rom mas aqvs ufleba advokatze, dumilisa da kiTxvebze pasuxis gacemisaganTavis Sekavebis ufleba, ufleba, ar daibralos danaSauli, da rom yvelaferi,rasac igi ityvis, SesaZlebelia mis winaaRmdeg iqnes gamoyenebuli sasamarTloSi.dauSvebeli mtkicebulebaa is gancxadeba, romelic dakavebulma am nawiliTgaTvaliswinebuli ganmartebis miRebamde gaakeTa. damkavebelma moxelemdakavebuli dauyovnebliv unda miiyvanos policiis uaxloes dawesebulebaSi ansxva samarTaldamcav organoSi. dakavebis adgilas miyvanisTanave dakavebulijanmrTelobis zogadi mdgomareobis dasadgenad, misi moTxovnis SemTxvevaSi,unda Semowmdes eqimis mier da unda Sedges saTanado cnoba. dakavebis vada arunda aRematebodes 72 saaTs. dakavebis vada iTvleba braldebulis patimrobisvadaSi (muxli 174).rogorc vxedavT, am kuTxiT ar arsebobs raime saxis specifikuri moTxovnebiarasrulwlovnebTan dakavSirebiT da maTi dakavebis sakiTxi zogadi normebiTregulirdeba.moqmedi saproceso kanonmdeblobis mixedviT aRkveTis RonisZieba gamoiyeneba immizniT, rom braldebulma Tavi ar aaridos sasamarTloSi gamocxadebas, aRikveTosmisi Semdgomi danaSaulebrivi saqmianoba, uzrunvelyofil iqnes ganaCenisaRsruleba. braldebuls patimroba an sxva aRkveTis RonisZieba ar SeiZlebaSeefardos, Tu am nawiliT gaTvaliswinebuli miznebis miRweva SesaZlebelia sxva,naklebad mkacri aRkveTis RonisZiebis gamoyenebiT (muxli 198.1).arasrulwlovnis mimarT SesaZloa, gamoyenebul iqnes Semdegi saxis aRkveTisRonisZiebebi: 1. girao; 2. arasrulwlovani braldebulis meTvalyureobaSi gadacema; 3. piradi Tavdeboba; 4. SeTanxmeba gausvlelobisa da saTanado qcevis Sesaxeb; 5. patimroba;girao – girao aris fuladi Tanxa an uZravi qoneba. fuladi Tanxa saqarTvelosiusticiis saministros mmarTvelobis sferoSi Semavali sajaro samarTlisiuridiuli piris – aRsrulebis erovnuli biuros sadepozito angariSze Seaqvsbraldebuls an misi saxeliT an mis sasargeblod sxva pirs sasamarTlosaTvis
  • 116. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 115micemuli werilobiTi valdebulebiT braldebulis saTanado qcevisa dagamomZiebelTan, prokurorTan, sasamarTloSi droulad gamocxadebisuzrunvelyofis Taobaze (muxli 200).piradi Tavdebobisas sando pirebi kisruloben werilobiT valdebulebas,rom isini uzrunvelyofen braldebulis saTanado qcevas da gamomZiebelTan,prokurorTan, sasamarTloSi gamocxadebas (muxli 203)arasrulwlovani braldebulis meTvalyureobaSi gadacema – mSoblis,meurvis, mzrunvelis an specialuri sabavSvo dawesebulebis administraciismeTvalyureobaSi arasrulwlovnis gadacemis mizania, aRniSnul pirTagan erT-erTma an administraciam ikisros arasrulwlovani braldebulis gamomZiebelTan,prokurorTan, sasamarTloSi gamocxadebisa da saTanado qcevis werilobiTivaldebuleba (muxli 201).sainteresoa is faqti, rom Tu piradi Tavdebobis and arasrulwlovnismeTvalyureobaSi gadacemis gamoyenebisas braldebuli aRkveTis gamoyenebispirobas daarRvevs, maSin Tavmdebs an pirs, romelic axorcielebdameTvalyureobas arasrulwlovanze, SesaZloa sasamarTlos mier daekisroTfuladi jarima (muxli 203.6; 201.5)SeTanxmeba gausvlelobisa da saTanado qcevis Sesaxeb SeiZleba gamoyenebuliqnes mxolod im danaSaulis saqmeze, romelic sasjelis saxiT ar iTvaliswinebsTavisuflebis aRkveTas 1 welze meti vadiT (muxli 202).patimroba – patimroba, rogorc aRkveTis RonisZieba, gamoiyeneba mxolod maSin,Tu es erTaderTi saSualebaa, raTa Tavidan iqnes acilebuli:a) braldebulis mimalva da mis mier marTlmsajulebis ganxorcielebisaTvis xelis SeSla;b) braldebulis mier mtkicebulebaTa mopovebisaTvis xelis SeSla;g) braldebulis mier axali danaSaulis Cadena.braldebulis patimrobis saerTo vada ar unda aRematebodes 9 Tves. (muxli 205)arasrulwlovani braldebuli, romelsac aRkveTis RonisZiebad SerCeuliaqvs patimroba, unda moTavsdes srulwlovani braldebulebisagan(msjavrdebulebisagan) da arasrulwlovani msjavrdebulebisagan gancalkevebiT(muxli 323).arasrulwlovanTa sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgebloba da masTandakavSirebuli Taviseburebebi(saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi)arasrulwlovanTa sisxlissamarTlebriv pasuxismgeblobasTan dakavSirebulisakiTxebi mocemulia sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis XVI TavSi. magram sanam uSualodpasuxismgeblobis saxeebze gadavidodeT, oriod sityviT SevexoT danaSauliskategoriebs. sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis mixedviT arsebobs danaSaulis samikategoria:
  • 117. 116  naklebad mZime danaSauli;  mZime danaSauli;  gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSauli.naklebad mZimea iseTi danaSauli, romlis CadenisaTvis gaTvaliswinebulimaqsimaluri sasjeli ar aRemateba xuTi wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTas;mZimea iseTi danaSauli, romlis CadenisaTvis am kodeqsiT gaTvaliswinebulimaqsimaluri sasjeli ar aRemateba aTi wliT Tavisuflebis aRkveTas;gansakuTrebiT mZimea iseTi danaSauli, romlis CadenisaTvis am kodeqsiTgaTvaliswinebulia sasjelis saxiT Tavisuflebis aRkveTa aT welze meti vadiTan uvado Tavisuflebis aRkveTa.aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom saqarTvelos kanonmdebloba arasrulwlovanTaTvissasjelis saxiT ar iTvaliswinebs uvado Tavisuflebis aRkveTas.rac Seexeba sasjelis saxeebs, sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis mixedviTarasrulwlovans SeiZleba Seefardos:  jarima;  saqmianobis uflebis CamorTmeva;  sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo Sroma;  gamasworebeli samuSao;  Tavisuflebis SezRudva;  vadiani Tavisuflebis aRkveTa. (muxli 82)jarimis SemTxvevaSi, Tu msjavrdebuli arasrulwlovani da gadaxdisuunaroa,sasamarTlo misTvis dakisrebuli jarimis gadaxdas akisrebs mSobels, meurvesan mzrunvels (muxli 42.51).rac Seexeba vadian Tavisuflebis aRkveTas, sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsis88-e muxlis mixdeviT, ToTxmetidan Teqvsmet wlamde arasrulwlovnisaTvisdaniSnuli Tavisuflebis aRkveTis vada ar unda aRematebodes aT wels. xoloTeqvsmetidan Tvramet wlamde arasrulwlovnisaTvis daniSnuli TavisuflebisaRkveTis vada ar unda aRematebodes TxuTmet wels.sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi iTvaliswinebs pirobiTi msjavris gamoyenebasarasrulwlovnis mimarT, Tu msjavrdebuls ganaCenis gamotanis momentisaTvis arSesrulebia Tvrameti weli da man pirvelad Caidina danaSauli, Tu mas Cadeniliara aqvs gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSauli (muxli 63.5). pirobiTi msjavris dros,Tu arsebobs saamiso safuZveli, sasamarTlos SeuZlia daakisros msjavrdebulsgansazRvruli movaleobis Sesruleba, magaliTad, probaciis biuros nebarTvisgareSe ar Seicvalos mudmivi binadrobis adgili, ar daamyaros urTierTobaimasTan, vinc SeiZleba igi Caabas antisazogadoebriv saqmianobaSi, ar moinaxulosgansazRvruli adgili, materialurad daexmaros ojaxs da sxva movaleobaromelic xels Seuwyobs mis gamosworebas (muxli 65). uzenaesi sasamarTlosmonacemebis mixedviT, alternatiul sasjelTagan yvelaze farTod sworedpirobiTi msjavris gamoyeneba xdeba.
  • 118. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 117sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi iTvaliswinebs sasjelis moxdisagan pirobiT vadamdegaTavisuflebas. zrdasrulebisagan gansxvavebiT, arasrulwlovnebisaTvisdadgenilia SedarebiT Semcirebuli vadebi. kerZod, kodeqsis mixedviTsazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo SromiT an gamasworebeli samuSaoTimsjavrdebuli arasrulwlovani sasamarTlom, xolo Tavisuflebis aRkveTiTmsjavrdebuli arasrulwlovani –saqarTvelos sasjelaRsrulebis, probaciisa daiuridiuli daxmarebis sakiTxTa saministros adgilobrivma sabWomSeiZleba pirobiT vadamde gaaTavisuflos sasjelis moxdisagan, Tu manfaqtobrivad moixada:a) naklebad mZime danaSaulisaTvis mosaxdeli sasjelis vadis aranakleb erTi mesamedi;b) mZime danaSaulisaTvis mosaxdeli sasjelis vadis aranakleb naxevari;g) gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSaulisaTvis mosaxdeli sasjelis vadis aranakleb ori mesamedi.pirobiT vadamde gaTavisuflebuli msjavrdebulis yofaqcevis kontrolsaxorcielebs saamisod uflebamosili probaciis samsaxuri rogorc aRiniSna,Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT msjavrdebuli arasrulwlovnis pirobiT vadamdegaTavisuflebis sakiTxis gadawyveta saqarTvelos sasjelaRsrulebis,probaciisa da iuridiuli daxmarebis sakiTxTa saministros adgilobrivi sabWoskompetenciaSi Sedis. arasrulwlovanTa saqmeebs ganixilavs arasrulwlovanTasaqmeebis ganmxilveli adgilobrivi sabWo. adgilobrivi sabWo aseveuflebamosilia, kanoniT ganszazRvrul SemTxvevebSi ganixilos da gadawyvitosmsjavrdebulisaTvis sasjelis mouxdeli nawilis ufro msubuqi sasjeliTSecvlis sakiTxi.sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi adgens nasamarTlobis gaqarwylebis Semcirebulvadebs im pirebisaTvis, romelmac danaSauli 18 wels miRwevamde, ese igi,arasrulwlovnobis periodSi Caidina.arasrulwlovnis sisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobisagan gaTavisuflebasaqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi iTvaliswinebs arasrulwlovnissisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobisagan gaTavisuflebas iZulebiTixasiaTis aRmzrdelobiTi RonisZiebebis gamoyenebiT. arasrulwlovani,romelmac pirvelad Caidina naklebad mZime danaSauli, sasamarTlom SeiZlebagaaTavisuflos sisxlissamarTlebrivi pasuxismgeblobisagan, Tu miiCnevs, rommisi gamosworeba mizanSewonilia aRmzrdelobiTi zemoqmedebis iZulebiTiRonisZiebis gamoyenebiT (muxli 90).aRmzrdelobiTi zemoqmedebis iZulebiTi RonisZiebebia: gafrTxileba;sazedamxedvelod gadacema; zianis anazRaurebis movaleobis dakisreba;qcevis SezRudva; specialur aRmzrdelobiT an samkurnalo aRmzrdelobiTdawesebulebaSi moTavseba. Cvens xelT arsebuli infrmaciiT, zemoTdasaxelebuli RonisZiebebis gamoyeneba faqtobrivad ar xdeba sxvadasxvamizezis gamo.
  • 119. 118saqarTvelos sisxlis samarTlis kodeqsi aseve iTvaliswinebs arasrulwlovnissisxlis samarTlis pasuxismgeblobisagan gaTavisuflebas dazaralebulTanSerigebis gamo (muxli 891). aRniSnuli RonisZiebac, Cvens xelT arsebuliinformaciiT, naklebad gamoiyeneba.ganrideba da mediaciasainteresoa ganridebisa da mediaciis instituti, romlTac xdebaarasrulwlovnis marTlmsajulebis sistemisagan da formaluriprocedurebisagan ganrideba. kerZod, axali sisxlis samarTlis saprocesokodeqsis mixedviT, Tu arsebobs dasabuTebuli varaudi, rom pirma Caidinanaklebad mZime an mZime danaSauli da danaSaulis Cadenis momentisaTvis mas arSesrulebia 18 weli, prokurori uflebamosilia dasabuTebuli dadgenilebiTmiiRos gadawyvetileba sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis ardawyebis an ukvedawyebuli sisxlissamarTlebrivi devnis Sewyvetis Sesaxeb. am SemTxvevaSiprokurori uflebamosilia arasrulwlovanTan gaaformos xelSekrulebaganridebis an mediaciis Sesaxeb, romlis pirobebi ganisazRvreba saqarTvelosiusticiis ministris brZanebiT. am xelSekrulebis moqmedebis maqsimaluri vadaa1 weli. Tu arasrulwlovani arajerovnad asrulebs masTan gaformebuliganridebis an mediaciis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebiT dakisrebul valdebulebas,prokurori uflebamosilia axali dadgenilebiT daiwyos an ganaaxlos sisxlissamarTlebrivi devna (sisxlis samarTlis saproceso kodeqsi muxli 105).ganridebis sqemaSi moxvedril arasrulwlovanTan muSaobs sxvadasxvaprofesionali (prokurori, socialuri muSaki, zog SemTxvevaSi mediatori),rac xels uwyobs ganridebis miznebis miRwevas. SesaZloa, procesSi monawileobamiiRos dazaralebulmac. arsebobs mTeli rigi sakiTxebisa, rac mxedvelobaSiamisaRebi ganridebis sqemis ganxorcielebisaTvis. uaxloes momavalSi dagegmiliaganridebis sxva formebis danergvac.patimrobaSi myofi da TavisuflebaaRkveTili arasrulwlovnebi(patimrobis kodeqsi)TavisuflebaaRkveTil arasrulwlovnebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi mocemuliapatimrobis kodeqsSi. arsebobs ori tipis dawesebuleba, sadac arasrulwlovnebiSeiZleba ganTavsdnen: patimrobis dawesebuleba, sadac ganTavsebuli arianwinaswar patimrobaSi myofi, braldebuli arasrulwlovnebi da TavisuflebisaRkveTis dawesebuleba, sadac Tavisuflebis aRkveTiT msjavrdebuliarasrulwlovnebi Tavsdebian. braldebuli arasrulwlovnebi saqarTvelosteritoriaze arsebul ramodenime dawesebulebaSi arian moTavsebulni.msjavrdebuli arasrulwlovnebisaTvis arsebobs specialuri dawesebuleba,romelic gaTanabrebulia naxevrad Ria tipis dawesebulebasTan.braldebul da msjavrdebul arasrulwlovnebs garantirebuli aqvTsaqarTvelos konstituciiT, saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso xelSekrulebebiTada saqarTvelos kanonmdeblobiT aRiarebuli uflebebi da Tavisuflebebi.isini uzrunvelyofilni unda iyvnen sxvadasxva uflebiT, maT Soris zogadida profesiuli ganaTlebis miRebis, sportul, kulturul, aRmzrdelobiT
  • 120. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 119da religiur RonisZiebebSi monawileobis, ufaso iuridiuli daxmarebis,informaciis miRebis, gare samyarosTan komunikaciis da sxva mniSvnelovaniuflebebiT. msjavrdebuls damatebiT gaaCnia sareabilitacio programebiTsargeblobisa da dawesebulebis gareT xanmokle gasvlis ufleba (patimrobiskodeqsi muxli 14).kanonis mixedviT TiToeul arasrulwlovan msjavrdebulze sacxovrebelifarTis norma ar unda iyos 3,5 metrze naklebi. aseve arasrulwlovnebs, sxvabraldebulebTan/msjavrdebulebTan SedarebiT unda hqondeT gaumjobesebulisacxovrebeli pirobebi (muxli 15).rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, msjavrdebuli arasrulwlovnebi, anu msjavrdebulebi,romelTac dawesebulebaSi Sesaxlebis momentisaTvis ar Sesrulebia 18 weli,moTavsebulni arian arasrulwlovanTa specialur dawesebulebaSi, sadac isiniimyofebian srulwlovanebis asaks miRwevamde. Tumca arsebobs gamonaklisic,kerZod, patimrobis kodeqsis 68–e muxlis mixedviT, resocializaciis,zogadi ganaTlebisa da profesiuli momzadebis miRebis mizniT 18 welsmiRweuli arasrulwlovani msjavrdebuli SesaZlebelia piradi gancxadebiT,dawesebulebis direqtoris gadawyvetilebiT, sasjelis mosaxdelad darCesimave dawesebulebaSi, sadac is ixdida sasjels srulwlovanebis miRwevamde,ara umetes 20 wlis miRwevisa. srulwlovanebas miRweul msjavrdebulze,romelic sasjelis mosaxdelad datovebul iqna arasrulwlovanTa specialurdawesebulebaSi, vrceldeba arasrulwlovani msjavrdebulisaTvis dadgenilisasjelis moxdis pirobebi, kvebisa da sayofacxovrebo normebi.kanonis mixedviT arasrulwlovan msjavrdebuls ufleba aqvs: 1 Tvis ganmavlobaSi hqondes 4 xanmokle paemani, rac gulisxmobs kanoniT gansazRvrul pirebTan Sexvedras, romelmac SeiZleba gastanos 1dan 2 saaTamde; 1 wlis ganmavlobaSi hqondes 3 xangrZlivi paemani, xolo waxalisebis formiT – weliwadSi 1 damatebiTi xangrZlivi paemani. xangrZlivi paemani gulisxmobs am kodeqsiT gansazRvrul pirebTan erTad cxovrebas Tavisuflebis aRkveTis dawesebulebis teritoriaze, amisaTvis specialurad gamoyofil oTaxSi, msjavrdebulis an Sesabamisi pirebis xarjiT, administraciis warmomadgenlis dauswreblad. xangrZlivi paemani grZeldeba araumetes 24 saaTisa. yovelTviurad, arasrulwlovanTa specialuri dawesebulebis teritoriaze arsebul maRaziaSi kvebis produqtebisa da pirveladi moxmarebis sagnebis SeZenisaTvis gamoiyenos mis pirad angariSze arsebuli Tanxa gansazRvruli limitis farglebSi; 1 Tvis ganmavlobaSi sakuTari xarjiT hqondes 5 satelefono saubari, TiToeuli – ara umetes 15 wuTisa; iqonios da isargeblos piradi televizoriTa da radiomimRebiT, garda Ramis saaTebisa.arasrulwlovan msjavrdebulebs ufleba aqvT, weliwadSi samjer isargeblonTavisuflebis aRkveTis dawesebulebis gareT xanmokle gasvlis uflebiT.
  • 121. 120xanmokle gasvlis xangrZlivoba ar unda aRematebodes 5 dRes, romelSic Sedismsjavrdebulis daniSnulebis adgilamde mgzavrobis droc. arasrulwlovanmsjavrdebuls Tavisuflebis aRkveTis dawesebulebis gareT xanmokle gasvlisufleba eZleva mas Semdeg, rac man faqtobrivad moixada: a) naklebad mZime danaSaulisaTvis mosaxdeli sasjelis – Tavisuflebis aRkveTis vadis aranakleb erTi mesamedi; b) mZime danaSaulisaTvis mosaxdeli sasjelis – Tavisuflebis aRkveTis vadis aranakleb naxevari; g) gansakuTrebiT mZime danaSaulisaTvis mosaxdeli sasjelis – Tavisuflebis aRkveTis vadis aranakleb ori mesamedi.msjavrdebulis resocializaciisa da damoukidebeli cxovrebisaTvismomzadebisaTvis xorcieldeba erTiani saswavlo-aRmzrdelobiTi procesisorganizeba, romlis mizania, msjavrdebuls Camouyalibdes zogadi unar-Cvevebi,miiRos zogadi an profesiuli ganaTleba. kanonis moTxovnis Sesabamisad,arasrulwlovanTa specialur dawesebulebaSi swavlebis procesi undaSeesabamebodes qveyanaSi arsebul ganaTlebis standartebs.saqarTvelos penitencialur sistemaSi, arasrulwlovan msjavrdebulebTanmimarTebiT dainerga sasjelis individualuri dagegmvis midgoma,romelic gulisxmobs TiToeuli msjavrdebuli arasrulwlovnis Sefasebasmultidisciplinaruli jgufis mier da sasjelis dagegmvas arasrulwlovanTasaWiroebidan gamomdinare. dawesebulebaSi momuSave socialuri muSakebi dafsiqologebi exmarebian arasrulwlovans sasjelis moxdis individualurigegmis farglebSi dasaxuli miznebis miRwevaSi.damatebiTi literatura da resursebibavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qseli - saerTaSoriso normebisa da standartebis saxelmZRvanelomiTiTebebi arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajulebisaTvis 10/08/2006 (meaTe sxdomis angariSi,oqtomberi/noemberi 1995, CRC/C/46, punqti 220): http://www.crin.org/resources/infodetail.asp?id=9711`Save the Children UK~, `arasrulwlovanTa marTlmsajuleba: axali ideebi kanonTan konfliqtSimyof bavSvebTan muSaobisTvis~:http://www.crin.org/resources/infodetail.asp?id= 11042gaero: `mouTxrobeli istoria kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebis Sesaxeb~:http://www.un.org/events/tenstories 2006/story.asp?storyID = 2800bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qseli (CRIN) – Tema: kanonTan konfliqtSi myofi bavSvebi:http://www.crin.org/themes/ViewTheme.asp?id = 16`bi-bi-si nius~ - `sasamarTlo uflebebi jemi balgeris mkvlelebisaTvis~:http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/295752.stmhttp://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/567578.stm`bavSvebi da danaSauli: iaponiasa da amerikis SeerTebul StatebSi axalgazrdebis sakiTxebisgaSuqebis SedarebiTi Seswavla~, tom brislini da iasuhiro inoue. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 200722(1), gv. 3-17
  • 122. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 1214. siuJetebisa da wyaroebis moZiebasiuJetebis ageba bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis konteqstSi ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi  ra aris wyaro?  SeiZleba, rom bavSvi iyos wyaro?  wyaroebis mniSvneloba JurnalistebisaTvis;  anonimuri wyaroebi;  saidan vgebulobT ambebs?Jurnalistis roliar aris aucilebeli, rom Jurnalisti gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciispropagandisti iyos. Tu adamianebis umetesoba icavs bavSvebs da maTTvisyovelive saukeTeso surT, JurnalistebisaTvis es sazogadoebriv interesebzedafuZnebuli movaleobaa da bavSvebis dacviT isini sakuTari profesiulieTikis principebs asruleben. Jurnalisti itovebs uflebas, mimarTos kritikas,rodesac es saWiroa da uzrunvelyofs imas, rom yvelas azri moisminos.jer kidev 1920-ian wlebSi, saidanac Tanamedrove Jurnalistika iRebs saTaves,mwerali uolter lipmani da amerikeli filosofosi jon diui kamaTobdnenJurnalistikis rolze demokratiaSi. maTi gansxvavebuli azrebi Jurnalistikisrolze sazogadoebasa da saxelmwifoSi dRevandeli debatebisTvisac aqtualuria.lipmans sjeroda, rom Jurnalistikis roli gulisxmobda Suamavlobassazogadoebasa da politikur gadawyvetilebaTa mimReb elitas Soris.Jurnalisti gadaiqca Suamavlad. roca elita laparakobda, Jurnalistebiusmendnen da iwerdnen informacias, Semdeg `filtravdnen~ mas da sazogadoebasgadascemdnen moxmarebisaTvis. lipmanis argumentacia is iyo, rom sazogadoeba araris mzad, Tavi gaarTvas Tanamedrove sazogadoebaSi warmoqmnili informaciismzard da kompleqsur nakads da amitom saWiroa Suamavali, romelic axal ambebsmasebisaTvis gadasacemad filtrSi gaatarebs.amis sapirispirod, diuis sjeroda, rom sazogadoebas araTu elitis mierwamoWrili sakiTxebis da gacemuli pasuxebis gageba SeuZlia, aramed romswored sazogadoebrivma forumma unda miiRos gadawyvetilebebi diskusiisa dadebatebis Semdeg.sakiTxebis detalurad Seswavlis Semdeg zedapirze saukeTeso azrebiamotivtivdeba xolme. diuis miaCnda, rom Jurnalistebma sazogadoebas martoinformacia ki ar unda miawodon, aramed angariSi unda Caabaron konkretulisakiTxebis Sesaxeb da ar Semoifarglon mxolod informaciis gadacemiT. diuisazriT, Jurnalistebma unda miiRon informacia da Semdeg awon-dawonon, Tu raSedegebs moutans sazogadoebas elitis mier gatarebuli politika.
  • 123. 122Tu lipmanis Jurnalisturi filosofia saxelmwifos meTaurebisaTvis iyoufro metad misaRebi, diuis midgoma ukeTesi saSualeba iyo imis gasagebad,Tu ramden Jurnalists hqonda gaazrebuli sakuTari roli sazogadoebaSi da,Tavis mxriv, ramdeni adamiani elodeboda Jurnalistebis mxridan moqmedebas.magaliTad, amerikelebi SeiZleba akritikebdnen Jurnalistebis mxridanzog SemTxvevaSi uflebamosilebis gadametebas, magram isini JurnalistebsmTavrobis, biznesis warmomadgenlebis da sxva subieqtebis makontrolebladmiiCneven, rac sazogadoebas saSualebas aZlevs, informaciaze dayrdnobiTmiiRos gadawyvetilebebi gansaxilvel sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT.rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, media sazogadoebis interesebs unda emsaxurebodes.farTod aris gavrcelebuli azri, rom Jurnalistebis movaleobaa, sazogadoebisim warmomadgenlebsa da organoebs daakisron angariSvaldebuleba, romelTasaqmianobac socialur da politikur cxovrebaze axdens gavlenas. swored esaris siuJetebis masalebis umetesi nawilis wyaro. bavSvTa uflebebisa da gaerosbavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis konteqstSi aman SeiZleba axali perspeqtividandagvanaxvos axali ambebi.magaliTad, bavSvze Zaladobis Sesaxeb statiaSi ZiriTadi siuJeturi xazi mxolodZaladoba ki ar unda iyos, aramed saxelmwifos pasuxismgebloba bavSvTa da maTiuflebebis mimarT da, agreTve, bavSvebis dacva, rac maT gaeros konvenciiT aqvTnakisri. msoflios TiTqmis yvela qveyanam moaxdina konvenciis rafiticirebada Jurnalistebis movaleobaa, mohkiTxon mTavrobebs konvenciis xelmoweriTdadasturebuli valdebulebebis Sesruleba. kiTxvebi JurnalistebisaTvis  rogor asrulebs Tqveni qveynis mTavroba bavSvis uflebaTa konvencias?  Seasrula Tu ara Tqvenma mTavrobam konvenciis moTxovna, rom masSi gansazRvruli principebi da debulebebi sajarod iyos gamoqveynebuli?  CamorCeba Tu ara qveyana bavSvis uflebaTa komitetSi angariSebis wardgenis grafiks? Catarda Tu ara sajaro konsultacia?aris Tu ara redaqtorebis da maRali rangis Jurnalistebis movaleobabavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebis Setana dRis wesrigSi? sazogadoebaJurnalistebsa da wamyvan redaqtorebs meTvalyureebad miiCnevs _ isiniiReben gadawyvetilebas imis Sesaxeb, Tu romeli siuJetebi da ra dros undaSeirCes gamosaqveyneblad an mauwyeblobisaTvis. magram onlain JurnalistikisgaCenasTan erTad da im faqtis gaTvaliswinebiT, rom bevri qseluriblogeri SeiZleba garkveulwilad Jurnalistad CaiTvalos, es tradiciuliroli icvleba. `Jurnalistikis elementebis~ avtori, bil kovaCi, acxadebs:`Cveni Sexeduleba Jurnalistebis Sesaxeb, rom isini meTvalyureebi arian,
  • 124. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 123moZvelebulia. internetma yvela zRvari moxsna~. amJamad redaqtori ufro metyuradRebas arazusti informaciis gacxrilvas da axali ambebis konteqstSida perspeqtivaSi Casmas uTmobs.magram mkiTxvels warmodgena ara aqvs, Tu ramdenad realuri an uzustoauSualod internetidan miRebuli informacia. Tu Jurnalistika axali ambebisda informaciis gamoqveynebis kanonieri damcvelia, aseve, Tu is gansazRvravs,ra unda iyos an ar unda iyos gamoqveynebuli, maSin misi movaleoba da uflebaa,daicvas da SeinarCunos es pozicia. mis movaleobaSi aseve Sedis bavSvis uflebaTasakiTxebis Setana axali ambebis dRis wesrigSi.bavSvis uflebaTa dacvis Sesaxeb masalebis momzadebisaTvis saWirounar-Cvevebiadamianis uflebebi yovelTvis iqneba Jurnalistikis ZiriTadi komponenti,magram mediis bevri mesveuri an informirebuli ar aris, an saerTod ar gaaCniasakmarisi codna adamianis uflebaTa sakiTxebTan dakavSirebiT. adamianis dabavSvis uflebaTa sakiTxebSi ganaTleba pirveli nabijia Jurnalistebis mieruflebebis dacvis sakiTxebze masalebis momzadebis gzaze.Jurnalistebs, romlebisTvisac nacnobia bavSvis uflebebTan dakavSirebulisakiTxebi, xelT upyriaT saTanado instrumentebi makontroleblis rolisSesasruleblad. isini SeiZleba sazogadoebis `Tvali da yuri~ gaxdnen dauzrunvelyon, rom adamianebma, gansakuTrebiT im adamianebma, romlebsacmniSvnelovani roli akisria sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi, saTanadod da patiosnadimoqmedon.sityvis Zalam da misma arasworma gamoyenebam SeiZleba aseve zegavlena moaxdinosadamianis uflebaTa darRvevis Sesaxeb momzadebul siuJetebze. mediis mierdanaSaulis, ojaxuri Zaladobis, brbos mier Zaladobis da politikuri Zaladobissxva formebis Sesaxeb momzadebul reportaJebSi gamoyenebulma enam adamianisuflebaTa darRvevebi daamkvidra. mediis mier informaciis wyaros sityvebis(rogoricaa, magaliTad, teroristi) citirebam SesaZloa (SeiZleba yovelgvaricudi ganzravis gareSe) garkveuli adamianebisa da Temebis demonizeba moaxdinon.bavSvebi trefikingis msxverplni gaxdnen Tu isini ukanonod gaiyvanes qveynidan?adamianebs Soris azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa Tu isini Cxuboben?xom ar aRweren bavSvebs Semdegi sityvebiT: `patara~, `pawawina~? xom ar laxavses maT Rirsebas?es mxolod ramdenime magaliTia im problemebisa, romlebsac awydebianJurnalistebi enasTan dakavSirebiT. bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli siuJetebismomzadeba Jurnalistebisagan gansakuTrebul gamocdilebasac moiTxovs;magaliTad, siuJeti bavSvebis trefikingis Sesaxeb saWiroebs JurnalisturigamoZiebis warmoebis karg unars. sagamoZiebo reportaJis momzadeba
  • 125. 124gulisxmobs sakiTxis detalur, Rrma Seswavlas sakmaod xangrZlivi periodisganmavlobaSi. amgvari tipis siuJetis momzadebis arsi mdgomareobs sakiTxisdetalur SeswavlaSi da masTan dakavSirebuli adamianebisgan sistematuriinterviuebis aRebaSi imisaTvis, rom saqme Seivsos da SesaZlebeli iyos zogadilogikuri daskvnebis gakeTeba. amgvari siuJetebi, rodesac saqme udidesimniSvnelobis sazogadoebriv interesebs exeba, xSirad informaciis mosaZiebladkanonmdeblobaSi Cawvdomas saWiroebs.gansakuTrebiT mniSvnelovania, Tu rogor vekidebiT gansaxilvel Temas aramxolod maSin, rodesac saqme gvaqvs bavSvebTan, romlebic uSualo wyaroswarmoadgenen, aramed im TvalsazrisiTac, Tu rogori midgoma gvaqvs am sakiTxebTandakavSirebiT. `iunisefma~ gamouSva mediaSi bavSvebTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebisgaSuqebis saxelmZRvanelo principebi, romlebSic mocemulia sasargeblo rCevebibavSvebis Sesaxeb siuJetebis momzadebisTvis da sadiskusio Temebi.rogorc wesi, Jurnalistebi yvela statiasa Tu siuJetSi, maT Soris iseTebSic,romlebic bavSvis uflebebs exeba, deben ZiriTad faseulobebs, rogorebicaa:zegavlena, drouloba, sinamdvilesTan siaxlove, konfliqti, aqtualuroba,siaxle da Sesabamisoba. am faseulobebis gareSe, ragind kargi unda eCvenebodeTmasala Jurnalistebsa Tu bavSvis uflebaTa propagandistebs, igi auditoriasver daainteresebs.`iunisefis~ saxelmZRvanelo miTiTebebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebulisakiTxebis gaSuqebisaTvis1. ufro metad nuRar moaxdenT bavSvis stigmatizacias; Tavi aarideT kategorizaciebs an siuJetis iseT aRweras, ramac SeiZleba gamoiwvios bavSvisaTvis samagieros gadaxda – damatebiTi fizikuri an fsiqologiuri zianis miyeneba, damcireba, diskriminacia, an adgilobrivi sazogadoebis mier gariyva.2. yovelTvis gadmoeciT bavSvis ambavi an misi saxe Sesabamis konteqstSi.3. yovelTvis SecvaleT bavSvis saxeli da dafareT misi garegnoba, Tu bavSvi aris: a. seqsualuri Zaladobis msxverpli; b. fizikuri an seqsualuri Zaladobis Camdeni; g. aiv-dadebiTi an SidsiT daavadebuli, garda im SemTxvevebisa, Tu bavSvi, mSobeli an masze pasuxismgebeli piri ar ganacxadebs Tanxmobas sruliad Segnebulad; d. eWvmitanili an msjavrdebuli; e. saomar moqmedebebSi CarTuli bavSvi iaraRiT xelSi.4. bavSvisaTvis zianis miyenebis an samagieros gadaxdis riskis an potenciuri riskis SemTxvevaSi SecvaleT bavSvis saxeli da SeniRbeT misi garegnuli saxe, Tu bavSvi: a. iyo meomari, amJamad ar aqvs iaraRi, magram SeiZleba arsebobdes riski; b. eZebs TavSesafars, aris ltolvili an iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli piri.
  • 126. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 1255. zogjer SeiZleba bavSvis vinaobis gamxela – misi saxelis, an amosacnobi niSnebis miTiTeba, - Tuki es bavSvis saukeTeso interesebSia. magram mainc frTxilad unda iyoT da daicvaT is mavne zemoqmedebisagan, stigmisa an sapasuxo qmedebebisagan.aseTi SemTxvevebis magaliTebia: a. rodesac TviTon bavSvis iniciativiT xdeba JurnalistTan kontaqti, radgan bavSvis surs gamoiyenos azris Tavisuflad gamoxatvis ufleba. b. rodesac bavSvi monawileobs socialuri mobilizaciis an sxva raime kampaniaSi da mas unda, rom misi vinaoba iyos gamJRavnebuli; g. rodesac bavSvi CarTulia fsiqo-socialur programaSi da miaCnia, rom misi saxelisa da vinaobis Tqma aucilebelia janmrTeli ganviTarebisaTvis;6. gadaamowmeT imis siswore, ris Tqmasac apirebs bavSvi sxva bavSvebTan an ufrosTan; sasurvelia orivesTan.7. Tu eWvobT, rom bavSvs SeiZleba emuqrebodes safrTxe, yuradReba gaamaxvileT zogad situaciaze, problemaze da ara am konkretul bavSvze, imisda miuxedavad, Tu raoden mniSvnelovan informacias Seicavs misi ambavi.gaeros konvenciasTan dakavSirebiT kiTxvebis dasmaJurnalistebis saqmianoba saSualebas aZlevs maT, mosTxovon saxelmwifosmoqmedeba saerTaSoriso valdebulebebis Sesasruleblad. SegiZliaT, TqvenTavad wamoiwyoT kampaniebi imisaTvis, rom gaaumjobesoT sazogadoebisa dapolitikosebisTvis konvenciis Sesaxeb informaciis miwodeba? uwyobs Tu araxels Tqveni statiebi Tu siuJetebi bavSvTa uflebebis sakiTxebSi sazogadoebiscodnis gaRrmavebas da SeuZlia Tu ara, rom zegavlena moaxdinos bavSvisuflebebis xelSewyobis da dacvis saqmeSi Tqveni mTavrobis strategiis rolze?mniSvnelovania, rom Jurnalistebs SeeZloT, Tavisuflad gaakritikon gaerosbavSvis uflebaTa konvencia da masTan dakavSirebiT kiTxvebi dasvan. zogierTJurnalists SeiZleba problema Seuqmnas bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciaSi mocemulmaganmartebam, rom bavSvoba 18 wlis asakSi mTavrdeba, Tu es gulisxmobs, romar SeiZleba 16 an 17 wlis zogierTi adamianisagan intervius aReba an maTTviskiTxvebis dasma sajarod. es aris sfero, romelic SeiZleba ganxilvis saganigaxdes.esaubreT eqspertebs, bavSvis uflebaTa aqtivistebs da uSualod bavSvebsTqvens qveyanaSi bavSvebis winaSe arsebuli problemebis Sesaxeb. SeecadeT Tuara adgilobrivi da centraluri xelisuflebisagan ganmartebebis miRebasbavSvebisaTvis momsaxurebis uzrunvelyofaSi da maTi uflebebis dacvaSiarsebuli naklovanebebis Taobaze?migiciaT Tu ara bavSvebisTvis SesaZlebloba, rom maT xmas xelisuflebamdeda samoqalaqo sazogadoebamde mieRwia? SegimowmebiaT Tu ara arasamTavrobo
  • 127. 126organizaciebis saCivrebi da migipyriaT Tu ara yuradReba maT warmatebebisa danaklovanebebisaTvis?konvencia maregulirebeli wesia Tu moraluri saxelmZRvanelo? vinaidan iskanoni ki ar aris, aramed dokumentia, romlis ratificirebac saxelmwifoebmanebayoflobiT moaxdines, arsebobs Tu ara is moraluri norma, romlisSesrulebis mixedviTac SeiZleba qveyanaze msjeloba?statiebisa da siuJetebis wyaroebiinformaciis wyaros JurnalistebisaTvis gadamwyveti mniSvneloba aqvs.informaciis wyaro iZleva arsebiT informacias sagazeTo statiebis,radioprogramebisa da satelevizio gadacemebisaTvis. isini SeiZleba daiyos orkategoriad – pirvelad da meorad wyaroebad:pirveladi wyaroebikontaqtebi sasamarTloebi/tribunalebiuStato TanamSromlebi adgilobrivi mTavrobaregularuli satelefono zarebi sazogadoebrivi saqmeebigavleniani jgufebi preskonferenciebimeoradi wyaroebiwerilebi redaqtorTan presis saagentoebigancxadebebi axali ambebis organizaciebi (`roiteri~, ITN)presrelizebi adgilobrivi xelisuflebamediis sxva sainformaciosaSualebebi centraluri xelisuflebaxSirad Jurnalistebi informacias pirveladi wyaroebidan interviuebissaSualebiT iReben. Tu pirvelad wyaros bavSvebi warmoadgenen, Jurnalistebmaunda icodnen bavSvebisTvis intervius CamorTmevasTan dakavSirebuli da amdros gasaTvaliswinebeli sakiTxebi. am Temas Semdeg TavSi ganvixilavT, magramsayovelTaodaa aRiarebuli, rom axalgazrdebis piradi cxovreba ufro metadunda iyos daculi, vidre ufrosi asakis adamianebisa.wyaroebi mniSvnelovani sakiTxia JurnalistikaSi. zogierTi mecnieruli naSromimowmobs, rom Jurnalistebis mier gamoyenebuli wyaroebis diapazoni sakmaodpataraa da istebliSmentis interesebs emsaxureba. aseve arsebobs anonimuriwyaroebis sakiTxic; Jurnalistebis tradiciuli poziciaa, rom maT arasodesSeuZliaT daasaxelon wyaro, romelsac anonimurobis garantia misces. es sakiTxiimdenad mniSvnelovania, rom zogierTma qveyanam kanonic ki miiRo, romlisTanaxmadac Jurnalistebs SeuZliaT amgvari anonimuroba daicvan maSinac ki,roca aRniSnul informacias sasamarTlo moiTxovs. roca Jurnalistebs wyarosdasaxelebas sTxoven, maTi tradiciuli pasuxia, rom vinaobis dasaxeleba, ragindmniSvnelovani mizezic unda arsebobdes, Jurnalistikis reputacias Selaxavs da
  • 128. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 127Jurnalists aRaravin endoba.vrceldeba Tu ara es wesi im adamianebze, vinc bavSvze Zaladobis faqts aRiarebs?bevr Jurnalists am sakiTxze sruliad myari Sexeduleba aqvs da isini amboben,rom arasodes, aranair garemoebebSi ar unda gamJRavndes anonimuri wyaro.Jurnalistebis ufro mcire raodenoba acxadebs, rom es sakiTxi damatebiTdiskusias saWiroebs (ix. maikl folis `absolutizmi da konfidencialuroba~,`eTikal speis~ (Ethical Space), tomi 1, # 2, 2004 w.).sad SeiZleba moviZioT konkretuli informacia bavSvebisa da maTi uflebebisSesaxeb? gTavazobT ramdenime wyaros:qveyanaSi arsebuli wyaroebi  jandacvis adgilobrivi organoebi  socialuri uzrunvelyofis sistemebi  skolebi  saojaxo samarTlis sasamarTloebi  maswavlebelTa organizaciebi  mSobelTa organizaciebibavSvTa uflebebis damcveli organizaciebi  bavSvTa ombudsmeni  bavSvis uflebaTa nacionaluri koaliciebi: http://www.crin.org/NGOGroupforCRC/ViewOrgsByC.asp?typeID=7  bavSvebis, axalgazrdebisa da mediis sakiTxebis Semswavleli centri: www.childrenyouthandmediacentre.co.uk `Caild houp~: http://www.childhope.org.uk `Cildrenz eqspres~: www.childrens-express.org./ `CailduoC interneiSenal~: www.childwatch.uio.no/studentebma unda CamoTvalon maT qveyanaSi arsebuli nacionaluri wyaroebi dabavSvTa uflebebis damcveli organizaciebi.saerTaSoriso organizaciebi  `iunisefi~: www.unicef.org  `iunisefis~ kvleviTi centri `inoCenti~ bavSvTa uflebebis Sesaxeb: www.unicef-icdc.org  gaeros adamianis uflebaTa umaRlesi komisari: http://ohchr.org  bavSvis uflebaTa sainformacio qseli: www.crin.org  aliansi `gadavarCinoT bavSvebi~: http://savethechildren.net  `plen interneiSenal~: www.plan-international.org  `hiuman raiTs uoC~: http://www.hrw.org  `emnisti interneiSenal~: http://www.amnesty.org  `difens for Cildren interneiSenal~ (Defence for Children International): http://childhouse.uio.no/childrens rights/dci what.html
  • 129. 128  `mediaaqtivoba da kargi ideebi bavSvebis mier, bavSvebisaTvis da maTTan erTad~ (MAGIC): http://www.unicef.org/magic/index.htmlbavSvis uflebaTa komiteti  bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti: http://www.ohchr.org/english/bodies/crc/index.htm  gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa komitetis sxdomaze TiToeuli qveynis mier warmodgenili angariSebi: http://www.ohchr.info/english/bodies/crc/sessions.htm an http://www.unohchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf  alternatiuli angariSebi – arasamTavrobo organizaciebis alternatiuli angariSebis moZieba SeiZleba qveynis, sxdomis da organizaciis kombinaciiT: http://www.crin.org/NGOGroupforCRC/search.aspbavSvTa uflebebze momuSave da media organizaciebi saqarTveloSigaeros bavSvTa fondis saqarTvelos warmomadgenloba: www.unicef.org/georgiabritanuli arasamTavrobo organizacia _ yvela bavSvi : www.everychild.org.ukarasamTavrobo organizacia – bavSvi da garemo : www.childandenvironment.org.gesaerTaSoriso organizacia – gadavarCinoT bavSvebi: www.savethechildren.orguold viJeni : www.wvi.orgarasamTavrobo organizacia – saqarTvelos bavSvebi : www.cog.gegaeros asociacia: www.una.orgaxalgazrda iuristTa asociacia: www.gyla.gesaxalxo damcvelis ofisis bavSvis uflebaTa centri: www.ombudsman.gesaqarTvelos regionuli mediis asociacia: www.grma.gesaqarTvelos regionuli mauwyebelTa asociacia: http://www.garb.ge/mSvidobis, demokratiisa da ganviTarebis kavkasiuri instituti(kavkasiuri instituti): www.cipdd.geasociacia “studia re”: www.studiore.org.ge/adamianis uflebaTa sainformacio da sakonsultacio centri: www.humanrights.gemediis veb-portali: www.media.geinterniusi saqarTvelo: www.internews.geJurnalistikisa da mediamenejmentis kavkasiuri skola: www.gipa.geomisa da mSvidobis instituti: www.iwpr.netTbilisis saxelmwifo universiteti: www.tsu.edu.ge
  • 130. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 129ilias saxelmwifo universiteti: www.iliauni.edu.gesaqarTvelos universiteti: www.ug.edu.gesakontaqto wignaki: Jurnalistebma sakontaqto wignakis warmoeba karierisdasawyisSi unda daiwyon (roca jer kidev swavloben Jurnalistikas). saxelebi dagvarebi, misamarTebi, telefonis nomrebi da eleqtronuli fostis misamarTebisaimedod unda iyos Senaxuli. reportiorebi, romelTa specializacia bavSvebissakiTxebis Seswavla an masTan dakavSirebuli iseTi sferoa, rogorebicaaganaTleba an jandacva, regularulad unda urekavdnen TavianT sakontaqtopirebs, raTa saqmis kursSi iyvnen, Tu ra xdeba am sferoSi.axali ambebis wyaroebi SeiZleba iyos sxva sainformacio gamoSvebebic. siuJetSibavSvebis Sesaxeb ar aris aucilebeli naxsenebi iyos bavSvTa uflebebi, magramsaWiroa Tvalyuris devneba, Tu rogor aris daculi es uflebebi. JurnalebSidabeWdili samecniero statiebi, romlebic mcire tiraJiT gamodis, gvTavazobenuaxlesi kvlevebis Sedegebs, rac SeiZleba aseve mdidari wyaro iyos statiebisaTu siuJetebisaTvis.dasviT kiTxvebi: ratom ixsneba axali skola? ratom ixureba Zveli skola?gaTvaliswinebulia Tu ara axal ganaSenianebaSi Sesabamisi Senobebi bavSvebisaTvis,rogoricaa dawesebuleba skolamdeli asakis bavSvebisaTvis, sportuli moednebi,skolebi? rogori pirobebia bavSvebisaTvis adgilobriv saavadmyofoebSi?adgilobriv policias gavlili aqvs Tu ara specialuri treningi axalgazrdebTanurTierTobis sakiTxebSi? ra tipis treningi aqvs gavlili?damatebiTi literatura da resursebi`media uaiz trast~ (Media Wise Trust) da `iunisefi~: `bavSvTa uflebebi da media~, 1999 http://www.mediawise.org.uk/display page.php?id =125JurnalistebisaTvis gankuTvnili rigi saxelmZRvaneloebisa, rogoricaa devid rendalis`universaluri Jurnalisti~ (The Universal Journalist) an riCard kiblis `sagazeTosaxelmZRvanelo~(The Newspaper Handbook), romlebic informaciis wyaroebs exeba.maikl folis `absolutizmi da konfidencialuroba~, Ethical Space, Vol 1 No 2, 2004:www.ethicalspace.org
  • 131. 130ZiriTadi terminebi wyaroebTan urTierTobisasbevri Jurnalisturi Jargoni enaSi filmebidan da romanebidan Semovida.Tumca xSirad ar arsebobs erTi azri sityvebis mniSvnelobasTan dakavSirebiT.amitom mniSvnelovania, rom, roca informaciis wyaros esaubrebiT an interviusiRebT, auxsnaT, Tu ras gulisxmobT. aseve unda icodeT, rom zogi ufrokompetenturia mediis sakiTxebSi. iseve, rogorc yvela sxva sferoSi, saRiazri aqac saukeTeso gzamkvlevia. gaxsovdeT, rom bavSvTa uflebebis Sesaxebwera sakmaod delikaturi ram aris.gamosaqveyneblad gankuTvnili da konfidencialuri informaciaadamianebs, romlebic CarTuli arian bavSvis uflebaTa dacvaSi, eqnebaT bavSvebismimarT cudi mopyrobis an Zaladobis faqtebis gamomJRavnebis survili. amsferos delikaturi xasiaTis gaTvaliswinebiT, Jurnalistebma aucilebladunda icodnen, Tu rogor unda elaparakon adamianebs konfidencialuradda ras niSnavs es. roca romelime anonimur wyaros esaubrebiT, yovelTvisauxseniT, ras gulisxmobT konfidencialurobaSi.moyvanili citatebies swored is aris, rac Jurnalistebis umetesobas unda da sWirdeba: zustadmoaxdinos imis citireba, Tu ra Tqva adamianma. es Jurnalistur masalas metkompetenturobas da sarwmunoobas SesZens. idealur SemTxvevaSi dasaxelebuliunda iyos citatis avtori.gamosaqveyneblad gankuTvnili informaciaroca Jurnalisti informaciis oficialur wyaros esaubreba, mis miergamoTqmuli SeniSvnebi avtomaturad iwereba, anu SesaZlebelia am adamianiscitireba da misi vinaobis gamJRavneba.konfidencialuri informaciaar SeiZleba konfidencialurad gandobili informaciis citireba, is mxoloddamxmare informacias warmoadgens. metad mniSvnelovania, rom adamianma,romelsac esaubrebiT, Tavidanve gaigos, rom konfidencialurobasTandakavSirebuli nebismieri SeTanxmeba daculi iqneba. Zalian xSirad nudaTanxmdebiT konfidencialurobis dacvaze. Tqveni statia aradamajerebeliiqneba da cinikosebs SeiZleba eWvi gauCndeT, rom nawili informaciisa SeTxzulia.miwodebuli informacia unda tovebdes STabeWdilebas: `gasagebia, rom...~. zogSemTxvevaSi konfidencialuri informaciiT SeiaraRebulma SeiZleba moaxerxoTsaTanado kiTxvebis dasma sxva adamianisTvis da oficialuri versia miiRoT.
  • 132. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 131informaciis wyaros vinaobis gaumJRavneblobaviRacas SeiZleba surdes raime gancxadebis gakeTeba, magram ar surdes, rom esinformacia mis saxels daukavSiron (aseT dros SeiZleba iTqvas: `mrewvelobisdargis Sesaxeb informaciis wyaroebi~, `... daaxloebuli wyaroebi~, `seriozuliwyaroebi~ da a.S.). adamians SeiZleba undodes komentaris gakeTeba mrewvelobissferoze, magram ar undodes, rom sazogadoebam naxos, Tu ra komentarsakeTebs konkurentebze. zog qveyanaSi mTavrobis presmdivani yovelTvisvinaobis gaumJRavneblobis principiT muSaobs. ecadeT, daarwmunoT adamianebi,dagrTon neba, rom maTi vinaoba axsenoT informaciasTan dakavSirebiT, radganamis Sedegad masala ukeTesi da ufro damajerebeli gamova.komentaris gareSeecadeT, daarwmunoT adamianebi, romlebic acxadeben `komentaris gareSe~,rom aman SeiZleba ubiZgos sazogadoebas, sakuTari azri Seiqmnas sakiTxze dasakuTari daskvnebi gamoitanos.5. intervius aReba bavSvebisaganbavSvebi, rogorc informaciis wyaro da Tanxmobis miReba ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi  rogor unda aiRoT interviu bavSvebisagan?  bavSvisgan intervius aReba mxolod bavSvze pasuxismgebeli ufrosi adamianis daswrebiT SeiZleba?  rodis SeiZleba bavSvisagan intervius aReba mSoblis an meurvis dauswreblad?  saWiroebs Tu ara bavSvisgan intervius aReba im unar-Cvevebisgan gansxvavebul unarebs, romlebic zrdasrulisgan intervius aRebas sWirdeba?bavSvebi iSviaTad xvdebian axali ambebis yuradRebis centrSi, vidre maT raimemniSvnelovani an saSineli ambavi ar SeemTxvevaT. miCneulia, rom axali ambebipirvel rigSi ufrosebzea da ufrosebisaTvis aris gankuTvnili.gamoCenili adamianebis bavSvis dabadeba, gulaxdili aRiareba bavSvebzeseqsualuri Zaladobis an ltolvilTa banakebSi bavSvebis sikvdilis Sesaxeb _ esyvelaferi SeiZleba sensaciuri axali ambebi gaxdes, Tumca ZiriTadi yuradRebaufrosebis pasuxebzea gadatanili da ara bavSvis Sexedulebebze.rogorc bavSvebis, ise axalgazrdebis ukmayofileba imaSi mdgomareobs,rom maT aravin usmens. Tumca maT bevri aqvT ufrosebisTvis saTqmeli.bavSvebsa da ufrosebs saerTo fizikuri da socialuri garemo aqvT da
  • 133. 132bavSvebze Taviseburad axdens zemoqmedebas danaSaulis Tu ekonomikuri dasakanonmdeblo cvlilebebi.roca bavSvebis sakiTxebs mediaSi aSuqeben, rogorc wesi, maT streotipuladwarmoaCenen da maT mimarT mfarvelur damokidebulebas amJRavneben.Jurnalistebis specializacia bavSvebisagan saintereso siuJetebisada Sexedulebebis SegrovebaSi erT-erTi saSualebaa, romliTac mediisorganizaciebi SeZleben balansis damyarebas. situaciis gamosworebasxels Seuwyobda axalgazrda reportiorTa qselebis Seqmnac, vinaidanaxalgazrdebs maT garSemo mimdinare movlenebis Sesaxeb saRi azris mowodebaSeuZliaT.imis gageba, Tu rogor xedaven axalgazrdebi maT garSemo arsebul samyarosda sazogadoebisaTvis maTi xedvis gadacema erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovaniamocanaa, romelic Jurnalistebis winaSe dgas. amis miuxedavad, maT iSviaTadutardebaT treningebi imaSi, Tu rogor unda moiqcnen mediaSi bavSvebisaRwerisas. Jurnalistebis pasuxismgeblobaa, miukerZoeblad warmoaCinonbavSvebi, imgvarad, rom informaciis Segrovebis da gamoqveynebis dros maTaranairi ziani ar miayenon.Jurnalistebis movaleobebis dabalanseba im mizniT, rom maT simarTle Tqvanda Tan bavSvebi daicvan, bevr rTul da eTikur sakiTxTan aris dakavSirebuli.saWiroa Tu ara korespondentebis Careva iseTi bavSvebis cxovrebaSi, romlebsacsafrTxe emuqrebaT? unda CamoarTvan Tu ara Jurnalistebma interviuebi imbavSvebs, romlebsac travma aqvT gadatanili? ra garemoebebis dros arismisaRebi bavSvis vinaobis gamJRavneba an damalva?sayovelTaodaa aRiarebuli, rom axalgazrdebis piradi cxovreba zrdasruladamianebTan SedarebiT ufro met dacvas saWiroebs. Tumca bevr qveyanaSi ararsebobs kanoni, romelic krZalavs im bavSvebis vinaobis, naTqvamis an fotoebisgamoqveynebas, romlebic intervius sajarod CamorTmevaze Tanxmobas acxadeben.oficialuri azris gamoTqmis dros yvelaze mniSvnelovania bavSvis interesebisdacva. Jurnalistebma miznad unda daisaxon, rom bavSvs minimaluri zianimiayenon rogorc intervius aRebis momentSi, ise misi gamoqveynebiT gamowveuliSedegebiT.bavSvebis da axalgazrdebis keTildReobis dacva ar unda ewinaaRmdegebodesjansaR Jurnalistur praqtikas. yvela Jurnalistma unda dausvas sakuTar Tavsramdenime ZiriTadi kiTxva:  moxda Tu ara mcirewlovani bavSvebisagan intervius aReba ufrosebis TanxmobiT? arsebobs raime samarTlebrivi baza, romlis mixedviTac unda moxdes bavSvebisagan intervius aReba?  interviu bavSvis mimarT megobrul atmosferoSi Catarda? sakmao dro Tu
  • 134. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 133 daeTmo da Sesaferisi garemo Tu iyo?  gaTvaliswinebuli iyo Tu ara bavSvis mier gakeTebuli komentarebis, rogorc moklevadiani, ise grZelvadiani mosalodneli Sedegebi da ganumartes Tu ara es Sedegebi bavSvs?  miRebul iqna Tu ara zomebi bavSvis dacvis uzrunvelsayofad Jurnalisturi masalis gamoqveynebis Semdeg da arsebobs Tu ara damxmare sistemebi, romlebic xels uwyobs sxva bavSvebis kontaqts gamomcemelTan?  auxsnes Tu ara bavSvebs, ra bedi elis maT mier miwodebul informacias da SeuZliaT Tu ara gaecnon masalas dasrulebuli saxiT?pirdapir eTerSi axali ambebis gaSuqebis SemoRebasTan erTad, arsebiTimniSvneloba aqvs imas, rom TanamSromlebma, romlebsac mkacri vadebis pirobebSiuwevT saqmianoba, icodnen axalgazrdebTan muSaobis martivi wesebi. `si-en-enma ~ SeimuSava eqvsi faqtorisagan Sedgenili sia, romelic gaTvaliswinebuliunda iyos im dros, rodesac iReben gadawyvetilebas sensaciuri masalisaTvisbavSvebisagan intervius aRebis mizanSewonilebaze. es faqtorebia:  asaki da simwife;  Zaladobis xarisxi;  bavSvis kavSiri romelime msxverplTan;  mSoblis nebarTvis arseboba;  masala firzea gadaRebuli Tu pirdapiri eTeriT gadaicema.`bi-bi-sis~ aseve mkacri saxelmZRvanelo principebi aqvs bavSvebTan muSaobisaTvis:ixileT `bi-bi-sis~ saredaqcio principebi bavSvebTan dakavSirebiT.xSirad bavSvebi ufrosebsa da xelisuflebis warmomadgenlebs eubnebian imas,rac hgoniaT, rom undaT uTxran, magram es yovelTvis is ar aris, risi TqmacmaT sinamdvileSi surT. gamokvlevebi gviCvenebs, rom bavSvebi ufro zustinformacias maSin iZlevian, roca micemuli aqvT dro imisaTvis, rom Tavisufladilaparakon sakuTar ambebze, vidre maSin, roca maT pirdapir kiTxvebs usvamen.mizanSewonilia, rom intervius dros Soriaxlos bavSvebisaTvis nacnobiufrosebi imyofebodnen, magram yvelaze zusti informaciis miReba maSinSeiZleba, roca bavSvebi Tanatolebis garemocvaSi arian. amis miuxedavad,Cveulebriv mniSvnelovania, rom, Tu SesaZlebelia, miRebuli iqnes Sesabamisiufrosi adamianis (mSoblis an mzrunvelis) Tanxmoba.marTalia, unda arsebobdes zogadi wesi Sesabamisi zrdasruli adamianisagannebarTvis mopovebasa da imis uzrunvelyofaze, rom intervius Tema ar amoagdebsbavSvs kalapotidan, magram arsebobs Temebi, romlebTan dakavSirebiTac bavSvebisSexedulebebis gamokiTxva ar iqneba problemuri. magaliTad, siuJets kvebis da imisSesaxeb, Tu ras Wamen bavSvebi, SeiZleba axldes bavSvebTan gasaubreba, rodesacbavSvebi moyvebian, ris Wama uyvarT an ramden fuls aZleven jibis fulad.
  • 135. 134fotoebSi bavSvebis gamoyenebamediis mier warmodgenili yvelaze SemZvreli tragediis, konfliqtis, bunebrivikatastrofis an imedis gamomsaxveli zogierTi foto an gamosaxuleba bavSvebsexeba. magaliTad, dabombvis damangreveli Zala mudmivad asocirebuli iqnebacxra wlis fan Ti kim fukTan, romelic SiSveli garbis vietnamis gzaze.aRniSnulma fotom 1972 wels nik ats `msoflio presis fotos~ jildo moutana.sainteresoa, gamoqveyndeboda Tu ara amgvari foto dRevandel dRes da, Tuara, ratom? am fotos gamoqveynebis mizani bavSvis yuradRebis centrSi moqcevaiyo Tu is ufro farTo mizans _ vietnamis omis asaxvas _ emsaxureboda, ramacmis gamoqveynebas Seuwyo xeli?aRniSnuli fotos naxva SesaZlebelia misamarTze:http://www.worldpressphoto.org/index.php?option=com _ photogallery&task=view&id=177&Itemid=115&bandwidth=highamgvari fotoebis an gamosaxulebis gardauvali aspeqtia, rom bavSvebiidentificirebuli arian; isini realuri saxelebis da istoriebis mqone adamianebiarian. Tumca bavSvebis identificireba Tundac maTi saxelebis miuTiTebladSeiZleba sabediswero gaxdes. dasavleTis erT-erT gazeTSi jariskaci bavSvisCveneba imiT dasrulda, rom aTasobiT miliT daSorebul, omiT ganadgurebulerT-erT afrikul qveyanaSi es bavSvi mokles. imaT, vinc bavSvebs eqspluataciasuwevs, ar surT, rom maT sisastikes mowmeebi hyavdes. kosovos krizisis periodSibalkaneTis redaqtorebma uari Tqves im bavSvebis fotoebis gamoqveynebaze,romlebic gaasaxles, vinaidan icodnen samxedro danaSaulis sasamarTloprocesebze potenciuri mowmeebis identificirebis riskebis Sesaxeb. amgvariTavSekaveba ar SeiniSneboda dasavleTis qveynebis mediis sxva saSualebebSi,romlebmac naxes, rom aseTi fotoebis Zalam SeiZleba gaeros da nato-s mxridanintervencia gamoiwvios.omis, danaSaulis da bunebrivi katastrofebis dros gadaRebuli bavSvebisfotoebisa da gamosaxulebebis gamoyeneba seriozul dafiqrebas saWiroebs.fotoJurnalistebs gamouTqvamT pretenzia, rom maT mier gadaRebul fotoebsaramiznobrivad da konteqstidan amoglejilad iyeneben. humanitarulidaxmarebis muSakebi ukmayofilebas gamoTqvamdnen gadamRebi jgufebismier ltolvilTa banakebSi sasowarkveTili bavSvebis gadaRebis gamo. esreportiorebi ver acnobierebdnen, rom bavSvebis aSkara SiSi da travmirebaSeiZleba gamowveuli yofiliyo ucxoel JurnalistebTan moulodneli SexebiT.arasamTavrobo organizaciebma, romlebic xSirad gamoTqvamen ukmayofilebasmediis mier bavSvTa uflebebis darRvevis gamo, SeiZleba Tavad gamoiyenonbavSvis foto an gamosaxuleba Tanxebis mosazidad. ra aris bavSvis fotozeufro qmediTi, rac maT muSaobas warmoaCens?
  • 136. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 135bavSvis foto an gamosaxulebabavSvebis fotoebs xSirad iyeneben omis an katastrofebis aRsawerad amgvarifotoebis emociuri xasiaTis gamo.`msoflio presis fotos~ konkursis gamarjvebulTa fotoebi SegiZliaTixiloT Semdeg internetgverdze: http://www.worldpressphoto.org/ da dafiqrdeTbavSvis fotoebis gamoyenebaze.ra garemoebebSi (Tu odesme) aris axali ambebis Rirebuleba ufro mniSvnelovani,vidre bavSvis interesebi? ra meTodebia misaRebi bavSvis fotos an gamosaxulebisSeqmnisas, gansakuTrebiT iseTi ambebis sailustraciod, rodesac bavSvis vinaobisgamJRavnebasTan SeiZleba gansakuTrebuli riskebi iyos dakavSirebuli?iunisefma bavSvebisagan intervius asaRebad Semdegi saxelmZRvanelo principebiSeimuSava:iunisefis saxelmZRvanelo principebi bavSvebisagan interviusaRebasTan dakavSirebiT1. ziani ar miayenoT arc erT bavSvs. Tavi aarideT iseTi kiTxvebis dasmas, an iseTi damokidebulebis an mosazrebebis gamoxatvas, romlebsac aqvT gansjis xasiaTi, ar iTvaliswineben bavSvis kulturul faseulobebs da safrTxes uqmnian an amcireben bavSvs, an romlebic iwveven travmis Sedegad gamowveuli tkivilis da uaryofiTi emociis xelaxal gancdas.2. interviusaTvis bavSvis SerCevisas nu moaxdenT mis dirkiminacias sqesis, rasis, asakis, religiis, statusis, ganaTlebis an fizikuri SesaZleblobebis mixedviT.3. ar aris saWiro inscenireba. ar TxovoT bavSvs iseTi ambis moyola an moqmedebis ganxorcieleba, romelic ar aris kavSirSi mis sakuTar istoriasTan.4. aucilebelia, rom bavSvma an masze pasuxismgebelma pirma/meurvem icodnen, rom esaubrebian Jurnalists. auxseniT intervius mizani da sad da rogor iqneba is gamoyenebuli.5. aucilebelia bavSvis an misi meurvis/masze pasuxismgebeli piris Tanxmoba nebismieri intervius, video firze an, SesaZleblobis SemTxvevaSi, dokumenturi fotosuraTebis gadaRebisaTvis. Tu SesaZlebelia da marTebuli, Tanxmoba unda iyos werilobiTi xasiaTis. Tanxmoba bavSvisagan an masze pasuxismgebeli pirisagan unda iyos miRebuli yovelgvari iZulebis gareSe da maT unda icodnen, rom isini iqnebian im istoriis Semadgeneli nawili, romelic gavrceldeba adgilobrivi an farTo masStabiT. amis uzrunvelyofa, Cveulebriv, maSin aris SesaZlebeli, rodesac Tanxmobis miReba xdeba bavSvis mSobliur enaze da gadawyvetileba miRebulia im ufrosTan konsultaciis Sedegad, romelsac bavSvi endoba.
  • 137. 1366. miaqcieT yuradReba, sad da rogor xdeba bavSvisgan intervius aReba. SezRudeT fotografebis da im adamianebis raodenoba, romlebic mas dausvamen kiTxvebs. uzrunvelyaviT, rom bavSvebi Tavs ar grZnobdnen uxerxulad da SeZlon sakuTari ambis moyola garegani zewolis gareSe, maT Soris Jurnalistis mxridan. filmis, video an radio interviuebis dros gaiTvaliswineT video Tu audio saSualebebis gavlena bavSvis cxovrebasa da istoriaze. uzrunvelyaviT, rom bavSvs ar daemuqros safrTxe an masze uaryofiTad ar aisaxos misi saxlis, mezoblebis an saerTod, sacxovrebeli garemos Cvenebis gamo.intervius Semdeg...  madloba gadauxadeT bavSvs imisaTvis, rom dro gamonaxa da gagesaubraT.  hkiTxeT, xom ara aqvs raime SekiTxva.  ifiqreT bavSvisTvis kompensaciis gadaxdaze, vinaidan man Tqven dro dagiTmoTY(gansakuTrebiT momuSave an quCis bavSvebisTvis), magram gaxsovdeT, rom es aris drois kompensacia da ara gadaxda interviusTvis. monayoli ambisaTvis Tanxis gadaxdam SeiZleba damaxinjebuli saxe miiRos, radgan xSirad adamianebi Jurnalistebs awvdian informacias, romelic, maTi azriT, Jurnalistebs sWirdebaT, gansakuTrebiT, Tu maT miaCniaT, rom aRniSnuli informacia sensaciuria da met fuls moitans.  kidev erTxel ganumarteT bavSvs, risTvis iqneba gamoyenebuli statia da SeuTanxmdiT, rom gaugzavniT statias.  hkiTxeT, xom ar surs raimes amoReba an sakuTari saxelis Tu sxva detalebis Secvla.organizacia `gadavarCinoT bavSvebis~ bavSvebisgan intervius aRebissaxelmZRvanelo principebimomzadebagaerkvieT sakuTar damokidebulebaSi bavSvebis mimarT. nu gamoamJRavnebTmfarvelur damokidebulebas maT mimarT, nurc imas aCvenebT, rom maTze metiiciT. maT adgilas warmoidgineT Tavi da pativiscemiT moepyariT.detalurad ganumarteT, ras akeTebT da ratom gsurT maTTan saubari. aCveneTsxva bavSvebisgan aRebuli interviuebis magaliTebi. ganumarteT, risTvisgamoiyenebT masalas da aiReT maTgan nebarTva mis gamoqveynebaze. gulaxdiliiyaviT imasTan dakavSirebiT, rasac akeTebT, nu daaimedebT (magaliTad, fuliT,samuSaoTi, samedicino momsaxurebiT).Tu Tarjimani gWirdebaT, amoarCieT iseTi adamiani, romelsac advilad SeuZliabavSvTan kontaqtis damyareba, ar SeaSinebs mas da intervius mizani misTvisgasagebi iqneba. uTxariT Tarjimans, rom man yvelaferi Targmnos, gadmosces
  • 138. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 137bavSvis sityvebi da ara mxolod mokle Sinaarsi.gamoiyeneT diqtofoni (Tu stenografia kargad ar gexerxebaT). sxva SemTxvevaSibavSvis ena da is, ris gamoxatvac mas unda, SeiZleba daikargos.moZebneT Sesaferisi wynari adgili (SenobaSi an gareT), sadac bavSvi komfortuladda Tavisuflad igrZnobs Tavs. mieciT mas adgilis SerCevis saSualeba.uzrunvelyaviT, rom intervius, Tarjimnis garda, ufrosebi ar daeswron _garda proeqtis TanamSromlis, maswavleblis an sxva ufrosisa, romelsac bavSviicnobs da endoba.SeiZleba mizanSewonili iyos bavSvebis patara jgufTan (2-5 bavSvi) interviusCatareba _ bavSvebi erTmaneTs mxars dauWeren da azrebs gauziareben. magrammoifiqreT, rogor gaarCioT, romeli bavSvi ras ambobs.SeecadeT, SeqmnaT uSualo garemo. isaubreT, iTamaSeT, moasmenineT magnitofonzeCawerili sakuTari xmebi. gauSinaurdiT – magaliTad, iatakze maTTan erTaddajeqiT.moitaneT rame piradi nivTi, magaliTad, fotoebi, rac bavSvebs SeboWilobasmouxsnis an diskusiaSi Caabams.interviumieciT bavSvs saSualeba, Tavad airCios saubris tempi da ise giamboT sakuTariambavi.frTxilad moekideT iarliyebis gamoyenebas (magaliTad, rogoricaa `meZavi bozi~da ara `komerciuli seqsis muSaki~), romlebic bavSvisTvis ar aris Sesaferisi.Tavidan advili kiTxvebi dausviT – magaliTad, hkiTxeT saxeli, asaki, sadcxovrobs. mimarTeT saxeliT.dausviT Ria kiTxvebi. erideT Zalian bevr daxurul kiTxvas, romelzec bavSvma`diax~ an `ara~ unda gipasuxoT.TqvenTvis sasurveli informaciis miRebamde SeiZleba mogixdeT kiTxvebissxvadasxva gziT dasma. sasurvelia, frTxilad, daJinebiT isaubroT Temaze dagamoiwvioT bavSvi, ifiqros Tqven mier dasmul kiTxvebze.gaiTvaliswineT is garemoeba, rom bavSvi Tavs SeiZleba uxerxulad grZnobdesda nu aiZulebT, misTvis mtkivneul sakiTxebze isaubros. mzad iyaviT,daasruloT interviu an gadaxvideT naklebad mtkivneul Temaze, Tu SeatyobT,rom bavSvi daiZaba.
  • 139. 138damatebiTi literatura da resursebikanadis `media euearnes netuorkma~ (Media Awareness Network) SeimuSava `mediainstrumentebisnakrebi axalgazrdebisaTvis~, romelSic aris axalgazrdebisaTvis gankuTvnili Tavi `Tqveniuflebebis codna~ da mocemulia rCeva, Tu rogor unda moiqcnen axalgazrdebi presiswarmomadgenlebTan intervius dros:http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/index.cfmaSS-is pointeris institutma sakuTar internetgevrdze ganaTavsa saxelmZRvanelo principebi.aRniSnuli internetgverdi ufaso momsaxurebas uwevs yvela dainteresebul pirs imasTandakavSirebiT, Tu rogor imuSaon axalgazrdebTan: http://www.poynter.org/`gadavarCinoT bavSvebi UK“-m gamoaqveyna bukleti saxelwodebiT `bavSvebisagan interviusaReba. saxelmZRvanelo Jurnalistebisa da sxvebisaTvis~, romelic gvTavazobs praqtikulmiTiTebebs imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor unda aviRoT interviu bavSvebisagan. es bukleti msofliomasStabiT bavSvebs Soris Catarebuli kvlevaa. igi sasargebloa beWdviTi mediis, radio- dateleJurnalistebis, axali ambebis studiebisa da mediis sxva saSualebebisaTvis:www.savethechildren.org.uk6. bavSvebi SeiaraRebuli konfliqtebis dros ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi  jariskaci bavSvebis istoriebi  konteqsti, omi, samoqalaqo areuloba, samoqalaqo sazogadoebis kolafsi  jariskaci bavSvebis Temis sensaciuroba  unar-Cvevebis sxva ambebTan mimarTebiT gamoyenebajariskaci bavSvebis sakiTxi mTavar Temad iqca mediaSi. istoriebi jariskacibavSvebis Sesaxeb wamoWrian seriozul da rTul sakiTxebs ara mxolodbavSvTa uflebebis TvalsazrisiT, aramed eTikuri kuTxiTac, rac ukavSirdebamauwyeblobas omisa da samoqalaqo konfliqtis dros.sakiTxebi orientirebulia sensaciurobaze. marTebulia Tu ara konfliqtiszonebSi myofi bavSvebis iseTi fotoebis Cveneba, romlebic ar iqnebodanaCvenebi arakonfliqtur teritoriebze? iwvevs Tu ara 11 wlis bavSvis foto,romelsac samxedro forma acvia da TiTqmis Tavisxela `kalaSnikovi~ uWiravs,seriozul SekiTxvebs, Tu mxolod ydis karg gamosaxulebas iZleva? aris Tu araJurnalistebis samsaxurebrivi movaleoba, rom gaaSuqon jariskaci bavSvebicda sazogadoebaSi maTi reintagraciis mcdelobebic?
  • 140. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 139jariskaci bavSvebi _ es dausrulebeli Temaa. iseve, rogorc sxva xangrZliviTemebis SemTxvevaSi, mediis daRlam SeiZleba simZafre moaklos Temas. magramJurnalisti valdebulia, sxvadasxva kuTxiT Sexedos problemas, magaliTad imas,Tu rogor xdeba am bavSvebis reintegracia, da moZebnos sazogadoebis winaSe amTemis aqtualurobis SenarCunebis gzebi.2000 wels gaerTianebuli erebis organizaciam miiRo bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciisfakultatiuri oqmi SeiaraRebul konfliqtSi bavSvebis monawileobis Sesaxeb.oqmiT akrZalulia 18 wlamde asakis bavSvebis iZulebiTi gawveva an maTigamoyeneba saomari moqmedebebis dros. dRemde is ratificirebulia 110-ze metiqveynis mier.daaxloebiT 300 000 gogonasa da biWis samxedro gawveva da gamoyeneba SeiaraRebulkonfliqtebSi msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxeSi amJamad sayovelTaod aRiarebuliabavSvTa uflebebis darRvevad, rac mkacr saerTaSoriso reagirebas moiTxovs.SeiaraRebuli konfliqti mraval aspeqtSi aiZulebs bavSvebs, gamotovon TavianTibavSvoba. jariskacebad gawveuli bavSvebi ver iReben saTanado ganaTlebas dadacvas da xSirad maTTvis miuwvdomelia ZiriTadi jandacvis momsaxurebac.msgavs danakargebs ganicdian iZulebiT gadaadgilebuli da TavianT ojaxebsdaSorebuli bavSvebic. konfliqti zrdis bavSvTa mimarT Zaladobis, maTiSeuracxyofisa da eqspluataciis risks. seqsualuri Zaladoba xSirad gamoiyenebarogorc brZolis iaraRi.is bavSvebic ki, vinc sakuTar ojaxebSi, sakuTar saxlebSi rCeba, SeiZleba dadgnenskolidan gaSvebis riskis winaSe, darCnen jandacvis momsaxurebisa da dacvisgareSe fizikuri infrastruqturis ganadgurebis, jandacvisa da ganaTlebissistemebze zewolis, aseve mzardi piradi daucvelobis gamo, rac gamowveuliakonfliqtiT an misi narCenebiT – rogoricaa naRmebi da aufeTqebeli sabrZolomasala.msoflios 20-ze met qveyanaSi bavSvebi omis uSualo monawileebi arian. xSiradsaSineli Zaladobis msxverplni, 200 000-dan 300 000-mde bavSvi msaxurobsjarSi rogorc ajanyebulTa rigebSi, ise samTavrobo ZalTa mxares mimdinareSeiaraRebul konfliqtebSi. es axalgazrda mebrZolebi monawileobenTanamedrove saomari moqmedebebis yvela aspeqtSi. maT xelT upyriaT `AK-47~da `M-16~, dganan frontis wina xazze, msaxuroben rogorc ganmnaRmvelebi,monawileoben TviTmkvlelobis misiebSi, ezidebian maragebs da moqmedebenrogorc jaSuSebi an mzveravebi.magaliTad, komunisturi partiis mier nepalSi 10-wliani samoqalaqo omis drosjarSi ayvanili iyo aTasobiT bavSvi. bavSvebi msaxurobdnen frontis wina xazze,gadiodnen swavlebas iaraRis xmarebaSi da arsebiTi mniSvnelobis samxedroda logistikur daxmarebas uwevdnen maoistebs. 2006 wels mTavrobasTanyovlismomcveli samSvidobo xelSekrulebis xelmoweris Semdegac ki maoistebmaganagrZes bavSvebis gawveva da uari Tqves TavianTi rigebidan maT gaSvebaze.
  • 141. 140burundiSi mimdinare 13-wliani samoqalaqo omis dros konfliqtis yvela mxareiyenebda bavSvebs, rogorc mebrZolebs da, zogadad, damxmareebs. 3 000-ze metibavSvi demobilizebul iqna, magram meamboxeTa erT-erTi razmi saxelwodebiT`erovnuli ganmaTavisuflebeli Zalebi~ kvlav ganagrZobs bavSvebis gamoyenebasmebrZolebad da sxvadasxva davalebis Sesasruleblad. amasTan, aTobiT bavSvi,vinc am dajgufebaSi msaxurobda an brali edeba masTan kavSirSi, saxelmwifopatimrobaSi imyofeba daxmarebis gareSe.bavSvebi, rogorc wesi, morCili jariskacebi arian, radgan isini fizikuraddaucvelebi arian da maTi damcireba advilia. bevri maTgani motacebulia aniZulebiT aris gawveuli da xSirad brZanebebis Sesruleba sikvdilis muqarisqveS uwevs. zogierTi maTgani SeiaraRebul dajgufebebs sasowarkveTilebis gamouerTdeba. vinaidan konfliqtis dros xdeba sazogadoebis rRveva – rodesacbavSvebi veRar dadian skolebSi, iZulebulni xdebian, datovon saxlebi dadaSordnen TavianTi ojaxebis wevrebs – bevri bavSvi SeiaraRebul jgufebs uyurebs,rogorc gadarCenis saukeTeso Sanss. sxvebi cdiloben, Tavi daaRwion siRaribesan SeuerTdnen samxedro Zalebs, raTa Suri iZion ojaxis mokluli wevrebis gamo.saerTaSoriso samarTlis gaZliereba da gaeros uSiSroebis sabWos mier bavSvebissamxedro gawvevis problemis aRiareba mniSvelovani miRwevebia. magram aminiciativebs Tan unda sdevdes praqtikuli zomebi, romlebic miscems bavSvebs,maT ojaxebsa da sazogadoebas jarSi gawvevis stabilur alternativebs,romlebic gamiznuli iqneba bavSvebis ganTavisuflebisa da demobilizaciiskenda xels Seuwyobs sazogadoebaSi maT reintegracias.gadaudebel prioritets warmoadgens 18 wlamde asakis yvela piris samxedroZalebidan demobilizacia. bavSvebis monawileoba aRniSnuli unda iyos yvelasamSvidobo SeTanxmebaSi, raTa efeqtianad daigegmos maTi reintegraciisprogramebi.reintegraciis procesi exmareba bavSvebs cxovrebaSi axali fundamentisCamoyalibebaSi. ojaxsa da sazogadoebasTan kavSiris ganaxleba mniSvnelovaniayofili jariskaci bavSvebisTvis, romlebic TavianTi ojaxebisgan moSorebiTgaizardnen da moklebulni iyvnen fizikuri, emociuri da inteleqtualuriganviTarebis normalur SesaZleblobebs. yofili mcirewlovani mebrZolebisTvisganaTlebisa da dasaqmebis SesaZleblobebis Seqmna xels uwyobs maT, rom Tavidanairidon samxedro danayofebSi xelaxali gawevrianeba da, amave dros, zrdismaTi ojaxebis ekonomikur usafrTxoebas.yofili jariskaci bavSvisTvis ganaTleba ufro metia, vidre mxolod gzadasaqmebisaken. ganaTlebis saSualebiT misi cxovreba normalur kalapotsubrundeba da is SeZlebs Camoyalibdnen pirovnebad, romelic gansxvavebuliajariskacisgan. amasTan dakavSirebuli siZnele is aris, rom yofili mebrZolebiSesaZloa bevrad CamorCnen swavlas da SeiZleba Cairicxon dabal klasebSigacilebiT ufro mcirewlovan bavSvebTan erTad. SeiZleba saWiro gaxdesspecialuri zomebis miReba, rogoric aris specialuri klasebis Camoyalibeba
  • 142. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 141yofili jariskaci bavSvebisaTvis, romelTa reintegracia SemdgomSi SesaZlebeliiqneba Cveulebriv skolebSi.SemuSavebulia garkveuli zomebi, raTa minimumamde iqnes dayvanili an Tavidanacilebuli bavSvebis jariskacebad gamoyeneba. magaliTad, adgilobrivmosaxleobas meti informacia unda miewodos erovnuli da saerTaSorisokanonmdeblobis Sesaxeb, romelic aregulirebs samxedro gawvevis asakobrivzRvars. arasamTavrobo organizaciebs, religiur jgufebs da, zogadad,samoqalaqo sazogadoebas, SeuZliaT, mniSvnelovani roli Seasrulon zneobriviCarCoebis dadgenaSi, romlebic miuReblad aRiarebs bavSvebis monawileobasSeiaraRebul konfliqtebSi. peruSi iZulebiT gawvevis mcdelobebi Semcirda iq,sadac samociqulo eklesiebma dagmes aseTi qmedeba. el-salvadorSi, gvatemalasada paragvaiSi eTnikurma jgufebma da jariskaci bavSvebis dedebma Camoayalibesorganizaciebi, romlebic zewolas axdenen xelisuflebaze, raTa gaaTavisuflonarasrulwlovani jariskacebi.kidev erTi mniSvnelovani prevenciuli zoma aris ltolvilTa an iZulebiTgadanacvlebul pirTa banakebSi mitovebuli bavSvebis aqtiuri da adreuliaRricxva da gamovlena. devnilTa banakebis konfliqturi zonebidan Sor manZilzeganTavsebas aseve SeuZlia Seamciros Sansi imisa, rom bavSvebs gadaibireben anZaliT gaawevrianeben mebrZolTa rigebSi.gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvencia am sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT moicavs ramdenimemuxls, kerZod, 38-e muxls SeiaraRebuli konfliqtis Sesaxeb da 39-e muxlsSeiaraRebuli konfliqtebis msxverpli bavSvebis sareabilitacio mkurnalobisSesaxeb. garda amisa, 2002 wlis 12 Tebervals ZalaSi Sevida fakultatiuri oqmiSeiaraRebul konfliqtebSi bavSvebis monawileobis Sesaxeb. oqmi moiTxovs,rom xelmomwerma saxelmwifoebma uzrunvelyon, rom 18 wlamde asakis bavSvebiar iyvnen savaldebulo wesiT gawveulni maT SeiaraRebul ZalebSi. is asevemouwodebs xelmomwer saxelmwifoebs, miiRon yvela SesaZlebeli zoma imisaTvis,rom maTi SeiaraRebuli Zalebis 18 wlamde asakis wevrebma ar miiRon monawileobasamxedro moqmedebebSi.fakultatiuri oqmis interpretacia yovelTvis unda moxdes mTlianobaSi,Tavdapirveli SeTanxmebis WrilSi, am SemTxvevaSi ki diskriminaciis akrZalvis,bavSvis WeSmariti interesebisa da bavSvis monawileobis principebisgaTvaliswinebiT.gasuli aTwleulis manZilze ori milioni bavSvi iqna mokluli SeiaraRebulikonfliqtebis dros. uTvalav SemTxvevaSi SeiaraRebuli konfliqtiszegavlena bavSvebis cxovrebaze SeumCneveli rCeba. bavSvebi SeiZleba gairiyonsazogadoebisgan, moxvdnen specialur dawesebulebebSi, quCaSi an gaxdnenprostituciis msxverplni. is bavSvebi, vinc dakarga mSoblebi, xSirad ganicdiandamcirebas, uaryofas da diskriminacias, rasac isini uTqmelad itanen, xolomaTi TviTSefaseba ngrevas ganicdis.
  • 143. 142media da bavSvebi SeiaraRebuli konfliqtis drosjariskaci bavSvebis monawileoba konfliqtebSi mTels msoflioSi warmoadgensara marto humanitarul kriziss, aramed media sensaciasac. televiziiTa dapresiT gadaicema gamosaxulebebi 11 wlis bavSvebisa, romlebic ewevian sigarasda aRWurvilni arian iaraRiT, xolo oficialuri Setyobinebebi gaerodan daadamianis uflebebis damcveli oragnizaciebis mmarTveli organodan amxelenSemaSfoTebel detalebs imisa, rasac Cveulebriv aRweren, rogorc `mzardfenomens~. jariskaci bavSvebi amJamad figurireben filmebSi, rogoricaa`sisxliani almasi~, aseve deiv egersis romanSi, xolo bred pitma Seqmnadokumenturi filmi maTi gaWirvebis Sesaxeb. 2007 wels `starbaqsma~ wignis klubigaxsna yofili kileri biWis pirvel pirSi monaTxrobi ambiT. magram moaqvs Tuara am istoriebs sargebloba?mediis roli sazogadoebis mier sagangebo situaciebis ukeT gaTviTcnobierebaSiZalze mniSvnelovania qmediTi sapasuxo zomebis organizebisa da bavSvebissicocxlis gadarCenis mizniT. Tumca axali ambebis wamyvan saagento `roiteris~cnobiT, msoflios udidesi `daviwyebuli katastrofebis~ mTavar dartymasbavSvebi iRebdnen, maTma gaWirvebam ki mxolod odnav gaielva saerTaSirisoaxal ambebSi.`roiteris~ `alert netma~ Caatara humanitaruli eqspertebisa da JurnalistebisgamokiTxva, romelic gansazRvravs planetis yvelaze saxifaTo adgilebsbavSvebisaTvis. is ukeTebda analizs globalur mediareportaJebs inglisurenaze im pirveli 10 cxeli wertilidan, romlebic dasaxelebuli iyorespondentebis mier, da mcire kavSiri ipova tanjva-wamebis masStabebsa daSesabamisi sagazeTo svetebis sisqes Soris. nacvlad amisa, rogorc Cans, mediisyuradRebas dasavleTis ZalebisaTvis am adgilebis geopolitikuri mniSvnelobaiqcevda. mediis yuradRebis centrSi umTavresad erayi, palestinis teritoriebida avRaneTi iyvnen. nuTu Jurnalists ara aqvs valdebuleba bavSvebis winaSe sxvakonfliqtur wertilebSi?rogorc Jurnalists, Tqven gekisrebaT pasuxismgebloba im bavSvebis mimarT,romelTa Sesaxebac amzadebT reportaJs. Tqvens mier gamoqveynebul masalasgaecnobian adamianebi, romelTac SeiZleba ar hqondeT gamocdili bavSvebismier gadatanili saSineli movlenebi. Tqveni Tema SeiZleba gaxdes ucxo pirTasibralulis, TanagrZnobis an Tundac didsulovnebis sagani. magram ra bediewevaT im bavSvebs, visTanac Jurnalists aqvs urTierToba?magaliTad, devnilTa banakebi ufrosebisTvisac ki SeiZleba SiSis momgvrelida saxifaTo adgili iyos, rom araferi vTqvaT bavSvebze, gansakuTrebiT,rodesac isini mSobliuri garemodan Sors imyofebian. humanitaruli daxmarebismuSakebi gamoTqvamen pretenzias, rom ucxouri mediis Carevam SeiZlebagaaZlieros bavSvebis travma, aseve SeiZleba cru molodini Causaxos imaT, visacgarkveulwilad mainc esmis mediis roli.
  • 144. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 143amis sapirispirod, Jurnalisturi eTikis saqvelmoqmedo organizacia `mediauaiztrastma~ (MediaWise Trust) Seqmna saxelmZRvanelo principebi JurnalistebisTvis,romlebic intervius arTmeven bavSvebs omisa da bunebrivi katastrofebis dros,raTa Tavidan iqnes acilebuli maTTvis uneblieT zianis miyeneba, rodesacpirveladi ganzraxva aris `istoriis ageba~. `mediauaiz trast~: saxelmZRvanelo principebi reportiorebisTvis, romlebic intervius iReben bavSvebisgan omisa da bunebrivi katastrofebis dros 1. pirvel adgilze daayeneT bavSvis WeSmariti interesebi. Tqvens reportaJebs SeiZleba moulodneli Sedegebi mohyves da amitom ifiqreT Tqvens motivaciaze, imaze, Tu rogor iqneba warmodgenili ambavi da ra zemoqmedeba SeiZleba iqonios aman bavSvze. erT-erTi mTavari sakiTxia maTi individualuroba. magaliTad, (yofili) jariskaci bavSvi, romelic medias esaubreba, SeiZleba mkvlelobis msxverpli gaxdes, Tu misi zedamxedveli gaigebs, rom is gadascems informacias, romelmac SeiZleba Crdili miayenos ufrosebs. analogiurad, danaSaulebrivi qmedebebis mowme bavSvebi SeiZleba daisajon, devnilTa banakebSic ki. 2. moipoveT nebarTvebi, rodesac da sadac SesaZlebelia. Tu bavSvebi pasuxismgebeli ufrosebis meTvalyureobis qveS imyofebian, maTTan saubris dawyebamde gaigeT maTi mdgomareobis Sesaxeb. yovlad miuRebelia intervius CamorTmeva mZimed travmirebuli bavSvebisTvis, xolo rac ufro daTrgunulia bavSvi, miT ufro mniSvnelovania misi dakiTxva misTvis nacnobi ufrosis TandaswrebiT. yovelTvis SeamowmeT, misaRebia Tu ara maTi sruli identifikacia (saxelis an fotos gamoqveyneba). 3. dafiqrdiT sruli identifikaciis dadebiT da uaryofiT mxareebze. bavSvis pirovnuli identurobis aRiareba mis mimarT pativiscemisa da misgan ndobis mopovebis mniSvnelovani elementia, magram am monacemebis bolomde sajarod gaxmaureba SeiZleba miuRebeli iyos. SeiZleba bavSvs araferi hqondes sawinaaRmdego, magram rogorc pasuxismgebel ufross, Tqven mogeTxovebaT, gaiTvaliswinoT SesaZlo Sedegebi. maSinac ki, rodesac intervius iRebT bavSvebisgan, romelTac dakarges kavSiri TavianT ojaxebTan, gamoiCineT windaxeduloba maTi sruli piradi monacemebis gamJRavnebasTan dakavSirebiT. moZebneT saTanado gzebi, rom SeatyobinoT namdvil naTesavs, magram sifrTxiliT moekideT sruli identifikaciis gamJRavnebas im SemTxvevaSi, Tu damatebiTi riskis qveS ayenebT bavSvebs. dRes mediis yvela forma globaluria – ase rom, Tqveni istoria SeiZleba naxon adamianebma, romelTa ganzraxva, daekontaqton bavSvebs, SeiZleba saeWvo iyos. Tu eWvi gawuxebT, miiReT rCeva bavSvisTvis nacnobi ufrosebisgan. marTla aucilebelia Tu ara es suraTi?
  • 145. 144 4. yovelTvis mieciT bavSvs axsna-ganmarteba. SeecadeT, uzrunvelyoT, rom bavSvma icodes, ras akeTebT. Tqven ver iqnebiT darwmunebuli imaSi, megobrad gTvliT is Tu mtrad, amitom daiwyeT imis ganmartebiT, Tu vin xarT Tqven, ratom gindaT masTan saubari da ras gaakeTebT mopovebuli informaciiT, aseve, savaraudod, vin iqneba Tqveni auditoria. uCveneT Tqveni piradobis damadasturebeli sabuTi da auxseniT, rogor muSaobs Tqveni aRWurviloba. 5. mieciT bavSvs dro. SeiZleba Tqvens dRis wesrigSi vadebi SezRudulia, magram es arafers niSnavs travmirebuli bavSvebisTvis. rodesac es SesaZlebelia, mieciT saSualeba, kargad gagicnon, Tundac ramdenime dRis manZilze. Tqven unda SeZloT, rom misceT maT dro; Tu es ar SegiZliaT, kidev erTxel dafiqrdiT maTTan kontaqtis damyarebaze. isini ar arian iq TqvenTvis; isini Tqven giyureben rogorc ufross, romelic Cavida iq maT sanaxavad. maTi keTildReoba da sacxovrebeli pirobebi ufro mniSvnelovania, vidre maTi `istoria~ da mosalodnelia, rom isini ufro advilad gaixsnebian mas Semdeg, rac SeeCvevian Tqvens iq yofnas. yvelaze mniSvnelovania, rom realurad moisminoT maTi naTqvami da ara ubralod daiWiroT `frazebi, romelTa citirebac SeiZleba~. karg droSic ki zog bavSvs ar moswons, rodesac mas garkveuli jgufis an `tipis~ warmomadgenlad warmoaCenen. SesaZlebelia, Tqven SeZloT ganzogadeba ramdenime bavSvTan gasaubrebis Semdeg, magram SeecadeT, gaacnobieroT maTi individualuri gamocdileba, nacvlad imisa, rom eZioT krizisSi myofi bavSvebis `gamomsaxvelobiTi~ tipaJi da istoriebi. 6. SeamowmeT informacia, rodesac ki aris amis saSualeba. bavSvebi SeiZleba gasaocari da mimzidveli mowmeebi aRmoCndnen, magram maTi gamoucdeloba da mwiri leqsikoni SeiZleba gaugebrobis sababi gaxdes. SeiZleba maT Zalian moindomon, rom gasiamovnon da mogiyvnen imas, ris gagonebac Tqven gindaT, da ara imas, rac TviTon ician. travmirebuli bavSvis mier moyolil istoriebSi misi grZnobebi da SiSebi SeiZleba realurTan SedarebiT gazviadebulad iyos aRwerili. nu daeyrdnobiT bavSvs, rogorc `myar mowmes~, sanam ar SeamowmebT faqtebs sxva mowmeebTan an im adamianebTan, visac meti informacia aqvs bavSvis ambis Sesaxeb. 7. ar gamoiwvioT cru molodini. travmirebul bavSvs SeiZleba gauCndes mcdari molodini an SiSi, rodesac ucxo adamiani gansakuTrebul interess iCens mis mimarT. arasdros SeecadoT qrTamiT an pirferobiT maT dayoliebas da arasdros misceT cru dapirebebi, ramdenadac ar unda gindodeT maT mimarT TanagrZnobisa da simpaTiis gamomJRavneba. bavSvebi krizisul situaciebSi kidev didxans rCebian, mas Semdeg, rac media dakargavs interess maTi ambebis mimarT, xolo Seusrulebeli dapirebebi kidev ufro met zians ayenebs maT ndobas adamianebis mimarT. calkeuli bavSvebis an ojaxebis gamorCevam maTTan gansakuTrebuli urTierTobiT SeiZleba warmoSvas problemebi Tqveni wasvlis Semdeg.
  • 146. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 145 Tu daxmareba gsurT, SeuTanxmdiT kolegebs garkveuli gzebis Sesaxeb, rom gauziaroT Tqveni resursebi didi moculobis jgufebs – SesaZlebelia, saimedo adgilobrivi saagentos saSualebiT. 8. daamyareT kavSirebi. Tu Tqven unda gadmosceT bavSvis istoria, rodesac es SesaZlebeli iqneba, SeecadeT, uzrunvelyoT am bavSvTan xelaxali dakavSirebis SesaZlebloba, magaliTad, konkretuli adamianis saSualebiT humanitaruli daxmarebis saagentoSi. es mniSvnelovania ara mxolod Semdgomi kontrolis mizniT, aramed im SemTxvevisTvisac, Tu Tqveni istoria gamoiwvevs sapasuxo gamoxmaurebas, romelic SeiZleba mniSvnelovani iyos bavSvisTvis (magaliTad, qveynis gareT mcxovrebi naTesavebisgan). 9. iyaviT dadebiTze orientirebuli. nu SegeSindebaT, Riad isaubroT miwisZvraze/Setakebaze/mgzavrobaze, romelic gadaitanes bavSvebma, magram SeecadeT, Zalian Rrmad ar CaeZioT piradul sakiTxebSi. isini mixvdebian, Tu Tqven cdilobT, Tavi aaridoT Temas. airCieT imedismomcemi istoriebi da ara iseTebi, romlebic sasowarkveTilebaSi agdebs – istoriebi piradi gamZleobisa da gmirobis Sesaxeb. yvelaze cud viTarebaSic ki SeiZleba iyos sixarulisa da sicilis momentebi, romlebic xazs usvams Cvens erTian adamianur bunebas. bavSvebs aqvT swrafi sulieri reabilitaciis araCveulebrivi unari da ubralod dadebiTi ambebis moyola SeiZleba nugeSad iqces, rodesac irgvliv yovelive muq ferebSi Cans. 10. mieciT bavSvs saSualeba, ufro meti ilaparakos, vidre imoqmedos. bavSvebi yvelaze kargad `muSaoben~ TavianT TanatolebTan erTad, amitom maTTan kavSiris damyarebis erT-erTi saukeTeso gzaa jgufuri muSaoba. hkiTxeT, SegiZliaT Tu ara daeswroT an SeuerTdeT maT TamaSebs. mieciT saSualeba, agixsnan TamaSis principi, xolo mas Semdeg, rac interess gamoiCenT, maT SeiZleba xmaurianad moiTxovon erTmaneTis Sesaxeb moyola. Tu isini miwaze sxedan, Tqvenc SeuerTdiT. Tu isini Tqveni Camweri mowyobilobebiT dainteresdnen, mieciT ufleba, rom mosinjon – Seexon da gamoiyenon kidevac. yvelaze mniSvnelovania, rom Tqven gekisrebaT pasuxismgebloba _ ar gamoiwvioT maTi xelaxali travmireba. rodesac isini mohyvebian Tavis istoriebs, nu CaeZiebiT detalebs, Tu gamoxataven, rom es ar surT. rogorc ar unda gWirdebodeT es angariSisTvis, mieciT Tavisufleba, nacvlad imisa, rom emociuri damcireba gamoiwvioT. gaSordiT, rodesac dainaxavT, rom bavSvi Caiketa, moiwyina an zedmetad aJitirebulia da darwmundiT, rom pasuxismgebeli ufrosi saqmis kursSia momxdarTan dakavSirebiT.
  • 147. 146damatebiTi literatura da resursebi`hiuman raits uoC~: www.hrw.org`uorCaild~: www.warchild.org.uk`uoClist~: http://www.watchlist.org/koalicia jariskaci bavSvebis gamoyenebis sawinaaRmdegod: http://www.child-soldiers.org/`iunisefi~ – bavSvebi SeiaraRebul konfliqtSi:http://www.unicef.org/emerg/index_chilsoldiers.htmlgaeros generaluri mdivnis specialuri warmomadgenlis ofisi bavSvebisa da SeiaraRebulikonfliqtebisaTvis: http://www.un.org/children/conflict/english/home6.htmlT.j. rideli, `omi rCeba ucvlel realobad CrdiloeT ugandelebis cxovrebaSi~:www.law.utoronto.ca/documents/ihrp/report05_Riddell.docalertnet: rCevebis furceli – `rogor gavakeToT reportaJi krizisSi myof bavSvebze~http://www.alertnet.org/thefacts/reliefresources/115254539757.htmalertnet: `bavSvebi itanjebian mediis mzeris miRma~ - kvlevahttp://www.alertnet.org/thefacts/reliefresources/115254878772.htm7. sityvis Tavisufleba bavSvebs da bavSvebze orientirebuli media ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi  bavSvebisTvis mediis xelmisawvdomobis uzrunvelyofa  rogor uzrunvelvyoT bavSvis ufleba, gamoTqvas sakuTari mosazreba mediaSi  sabavSvo mediagaumjobesebuli teqnologiebisa da uaxlesi progresis meSveobiT mediisgamoyeneba gasul aTwleulSi sagrZnoblad gaizarda, vinaidan is aZlevs adamianebsukeTes SesaZleblobas, miiRon informacia da aimaRlon codna. aseTi winsvlaaZlevs bavSvebsa da axalgazrdebs mediasa da, aqedan gamomdinare, zogadadsazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi ufro metad CarTvis saSualebas, informirebis,mxardaWerisa da TavianT Tanatolebsa da aseve ufrosebze zegavlenis moxdenisTvalsazrisiT. miuxedavad winsvlis aseTi SesaZleblobebisa, mediis garkveulisaSualebebi eqspluatacias uweven bavSvebs da bavSvebisa da maTi mdgomareobisSesaxeb stereotipul cnobebs gadmoscemen.bavSvebis monawileobiT medias SeuZlia axali perspeqtivebis SeTavazeba. seriozuliargumentebi arsebobs imisaTvis, rom gaizardos bavSvebis monawileoba mediaSi.
  • 148. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 147bavSvebisa da mediis urTierTobis mniSvneloba aRiarebulia bavSvis uflebaTakonvenciis Semdegi muxlebiT:  me-12 muxli, romelic gansazRvravs wevri saxelmwifoebis rols _ uzrunvelyon bavSvebis ufleba, Tavisuflad gamoTqvan TavianTi azri yvela im sakiTxze, romelic maT Seexeba, da rom maTi azri mxedvelobaSi iqnes miRebuli;  me-13 muxli, romelic gansazRvravs bavSvis uflebas mediaSi sityvis Tavisuflebaze, misi arCevanis mixedviT;  me-17 muxli, romelic acxadebs, rom wevri saxelmwifoebi pasuxismgebelni arian, uzrunvelyon bavSvebisaTvis informaciis misawvdomoba sxvadasxva erovnuli Tu saerTaSoriso sainformacio wyaroebidan. masmediisaTvis es niSnavs bavSvisTvis sasargeblo socialuri da kulturuli saxis informaciis gamoqveynebas.medias didi potenciali aqvs, rom realobad aqcios bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciisprincipebi da standartebi, mas SeuZlia realurad daicvas da ganaxorcielosbavSvTa uflebebi saTanado informaciis miRebasa da sityvis Tavisuflebaze,aamaRlos konvenciisa da misi Sinaarsis Sesaxeb informirebulobis done dacentraluri rolis Seasrulos misi ganxorcielebis monitoringSi.da mainc, miuxedavad imisa, rom msoflios mosaxleobis erTi mesamedi 18 wlamdeasakisaa, bavSvebis azri da mdgomareoba iSviaTad aisaxeba mediaSi koreqtulad.rogorc gamokvlevam (mediis kvlevis proeqti 2004) aCvena, bavSvebi, Cveulebriv,seriozulad Semcirebuli raodenobiT arian warmodgenilni mediaSi. rogorcerT-erTma bavSvma aRniSna mediamonitoringis RonisZiebis dros: `axali ambebisdros Tavi gamotovebulad vigrZeni. TiTqos bavSvebi ar arsebobdnen“.rodesac bavSvebis istoriebi xvdeba mTavari Temebis saTaurebSi, rogorc wesi,es ar aris maTi cxovrebisTvis aqtualur sakiTxebze, Temebi moicavs mxoloddramatul da eqstremalur SemTxvevebs. realurad, mediis mier bavSvebisgaSuqebis didi wili negatiuria.ras fiqroben bavSvebi, rodesac maT eZlevaT saSualeba, monawileoba miiRonmediaSi? bavSvTa uflebebis damcvelma arasamTavrobo organizacia `pleninterneiSenalma“ dausva SekiTxva patara Jurnalistebis jgufs, Tu ratom arismaTi monawileoba mediaSi mniSvnelovani. maT aseTi pasuxebi gasces:  es aZlevs maT SesaZleblobas, gaecnon TavianT uflebebsa da movaleobebs da uzrunvelyofs maT saTanadod warmodgenas;  es aZlevs maT saSualebas, isargeblon monawileobisa da azris Tavisuflad gamoxatvis TavianTi uflebebiT da uzrunvelyofs maTi prioritetebisa da problemebis saTanadod gaSuqebas;  es aZlevs maT xmis uflebas, romliTac isini gaacnoben mSoblebs, sazogadoebasa da mTavrobas TavianT uflebebs da mosTxoven maT dacvas;
  • 149. 148  es aerTianebs bavSvebs da warmoadgens saSualebas, romliTac maT SeuZliaT, TavianT Tanatolebs mouTxron maT cxovrebaSi momxdari movlenebis Sesaxeb;  es exmareba bavSvebs, Seexon delikatur sakiTxebs SiSisa da dasjis gareSe, eZion daxmareba da iswavlon prevenciuli strategiebi (magaliTad, rogor daicvan Tavi uflebaTa iseTi darRvevisagan, rogoricaa trefikingi).bavSvebis mediaSi monawileobis xelSewyobis gamocdilebam aCvena, rom bavSvebsSeuZliaT mediasaSualebis daarseba, bavSvis uflebebTan dakavSirebulisakiTxebis gamokvleva, gamosavali gzebis Zieba da sakuTari uflebebis damcvelisrolSi gamosvla. TandaTanobiT ufrosebi iwyeben damokidebulebis SecvlasmediaSi bavSvebis monawileobis mimarT da bavSvebis Sefasebas sazogadoebiscvlilebis xelSemwyob agentebad. bavSvebis mier msoflio masStabiTganxorcielebuli warmatebuli mediaproeqtebis magaliTebi gviCvenebs, Turogor SeiZleba bavSvTa monawileobis uflebis xorcSesxma mizanmimarTulad.bavSvebis monawileoba mediaSibavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis mediis industriaSi CarTvis mTavari xelisSemSleli faqtori aris is, rom isini SeiZleba potenciurad saxifaTosamuSao garemoSi aRmoCndnen. Tu es aris saqmiani adgili, sadac bevri xalxi,moZraoba da aRWurvilobaa, es maT gansakuTrebul safrTxeebs Seuqmnis.bunebrivma cnobismoyvareobam da im faqtma, rom aseTi adgilebi ar arisgankuTvnili zrdasruli adamianis saSualoze dabali simaRlis adamianebisTvis,SeiZleba riskis qveS daayenos bavSvebi.samuSao reJimi maRali aqtivobis mediis dawesebulebebSi ar aris bavSvisadmikeTilganwyobili; is, rac Rirebuli gamocdileba unda iyos, zedmiwevniTimomzadebis gareSe SeiZleba damabneveli da saxifaTo gaxdes yvela mxarisaTvis.xSirad ufrosebs eSiniaT, rom bavSvebma ar daazianon Zvirad Rirebuli anmgZnobiare aparatura da mowyobilobebi.zogierTi aucilebeli usafrTxoebis zoma did xarjebTanaa dakavSirebuli,magram bavSvebis mimarT arsebuli safrTxeebis umravlesoba ufrosebisTvisacsafrTxes warmoadgens. samuSao adgilis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofabavSvebisaTvis damatebiTi garantia iqneba imisa, rom is ufrosebisTvisacusafrTxoa.winaswari dagegmva Zalze mniSvnelovania nebismier samuSao adgilzebavSvebis usafrTxo saqmianobis uzrunvelsayofad. bevr mediainiciativaSiSemuSavebulia Sida saxelmZRvanelo principebi (wesebi), magram xSiradaseTi sakiTxebis mogvareba sagangebo reJimSi xdeba. saukeTeso praqtikulmeTodebTan dakavSirebuli gamocdilebis gaziarebis SemTxvevaSi SesaZlebeliiqneba industriis normebis Camoyalibeba, danergva da gakontroleba. qvemoTmocemulia ramdenime rekomendacia:
  • 150. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 149  dauTmeT garkveuli dro bavSvebis momzadebas arasamuSao adgilze.  rodesac bavSvebi adgilze arian, gaacaniT maT, Tu ra potenciuri riskebi arsebobs da vis unda mimarTon daxmarebisTvis. darwmundiT, rom maTTvis xelmisawvdomia sufTa sveli wertilebi, saTanado zomis oTaxi dasasveneblad da gamagrilebeli sasmelebis miRebis saSualeba.  yvelaze mniSvnelovania, rom maT nebismier dros SeeZloT mimarTon daxmarebisTvis an rCevisTvis ufrosi asakis sul mcire erT adamians, romelsac icnoben.  is adamianebi, romlebic pasuxismgebelni arian bavSvebis monawileobaze, unda gaecnon jandacvisa da usafrTxoebis maregulirebel wesebs, rodesac maT bavSvebis mimarT iyeneben. maT unda uzrunvelyon, rom bavSvebsa da maT mzrunvelebs miewodoT martivi, gasagebi ganmartebebi samuSao adgilze usafrTxoebis normebis Sesaxeb da SemuSavebuli unda iqnes kontrolis martivi, bavSvebisTvis gasagebi meqanizmebi – magaliTad, avariuli situaciis dros evakuaciis savarjiSoSi maTi monawileobis uzrunvelyofiT.  isini, vinc adgilze muSaobs, informirebulni unda iyvnen, rom garkveul adgilebSi da garkveul dros SeiZleba iyvnen bavSvebi da unda mieceT saSualeba, imsjelon aqedan gamomdinare Sedegebze maTTvis da bavSvebisaTvis.  im adamianebma, vinc uSualod bavSvebTan muSaobs, unda imoqmedon detalurad ganxiluli da SeTanxmebuli saxelmZRvanelo principebis mixedviT.dasawyisisTvis sasurvelia, rom bavSvebs mieceT saSualeba, imsjelon an TavisiSeniSvnebi gamoTqvan maTTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze; maT SeuZliaT, magaliTad,naxon sabavSvo filmebi an wignebi ufrosebisTvis gankuTvnil presaSi da mediissxva saSualebebSi.bavSvebTan erTad da bavSvebisTvis momzadebuli mediaprogramebisdadebiTi mxareebimediaproeqtebis Sefasebebi cxadyofs, rom mediaSi bavSvebis monawileobasuamravi sasargeblo Sedegi moaqvs:gaumjobesebuli mediaproduqti: mediis profesionalebis sabavSvo mediaSiCarTulobis Sedegad iqmneba ara mxolod meti sabavSvo media, aramed amiTSeiZleba Seiqmnas ukeTesi xarisxis media bavSvebisTvis da bavSvebTan erTad:dasavleT afrikis 100-mde radiosadgurma monawileoba miiRo proeqtSi `mebavSvi var, magram mec maqvs Cemi uflebebi!~ (romelic acnobs mSoblebs,bavSvebs da xelisuflebas maT funqciebsa da movaleobebs gaeros bavSvisuflebaTa konvenciasTan mimarTebiT). Sedegad msmenelebis daJinebuli
  • 151. 150moTxovnis safuZvelze gaizarda sabavSvo programebis raodenoba, gaumjobesdaprogramebis xarisxi da procesSi ufro meti bavSvi CaerTo. aseve amaRldainformirebulobis done da codna bavSvebis uflebebis da qveyanaSi bavSvebismdgomareobis Sesaxeb.cvlilebis moxdena: mediaSi bavSvebis monawileobas SeuZlia, gavlena moaxdinospolitikis Semqnelebze samTavrobo doneze:indoeTSi ganxorcielebul proeqtSi `bavSvebs raRac aqvT saTqmeli~axalgazrdebi qmnian mxatvrul da animaciur filmebs im sakiTxebis speqtrze,romlebic zemoqmedebas axdens maT cxovrebaze. erT-erTma filmma `gutkaze~(Tambaqos, betelis Txilis da limonis saxeobis, laimis nazavi) damokidebulebisSesaxeb moswavleebi imdenad STaagona, rom maT Seadgines peticia maT skolebTanaxlomdebare maRaziebSi misi gayidvis akrZalvis moTxovniT. moswavleebmaTavianTi moTxovna warudgines raionul xelmZRvanelobas, romelmac, Tavismxriv, akrZala gutkis moxmareba raionis yvela skolaSi da wamoiwyo masobrivisainformacio kampania moswavleebTan TanamSromlobiT.bavSvebis ganviTareba: bavSvebis monawileobas mediaSi wvlili Seaqvs maTzogad ganviTarebaSi. teqnikuri da profesiuli unarebis SeswavlasTan erTad(rogoricaa aRWurvilobis gamoyeneba da scenaris teqstis wakiTxva dainterpretacia) isini iZenen sasicocxlo unar-Cvevebs, romlebic aZlevs maTganviTarebis da sakuTari azris ufro efeqtianad gamoTqmis SesaZleblobasproblemebis gadaWris, komunikaciis, TviTgamoxatvisa da molaparakebiswarmoebis unarebis gamomuSavebiT.mediaSi monawileoba exmareba bavSvebs, gaecnon mediis funqcionirebasda informaciis moZraobas da warmoebas da met SesaZleblobebs aZlevs,miiRon saTanado informacia da gaTviTcnobierebuli gadawyvetilebebi.mediaprogramebis monitoringsa da SefasebaSi monawileobiT isini iZenenRirebul ganaTlebas mediis sferoSi da SesaZlebloba aqvT, gaxdnen mediisyvela saxeobis kritikuli momxmareblebi.mediisTvis garkveuli komerciuli interesi arsebobs bavSvebis mozidvaSi, racimaSi gamoixateba, rom amiT yalibdeba momavali mediamomxmarebeli. bevri gazeTiaxorcielebda axalgazrdebisTvis gamiznul proeqtebs, magram cota maTgani Tuizidavda bavSvebs, anda amas mxolod periferiebSi akeTebda.sabavSvo mediaSi saqmianobiT bavSvebs SeuZliaT urTierToba daamyaron daiswavlon sxva biWebisa da gogonebisgan, gaiCinon axali megobrebi da iswavlonTavianTi Tanatolebis TanagrZnoba, rac aucilebeli unaria politikuricnobierebisa da socialuri Segnebis ganviTarebisTvis. amasTanave, mediisdaxmarebiT azris gamoxatvam SeiZleba xeli Seuwyos bavSvebis fsiqosocialurreabilitacias da normalur kalapotSi Cadgomas mtkivneuli gamocdilebisSemdeg da Causaxos maT imedi.
  • 152. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 151Sri-lankaSi aziis axalgazrdulma televiziam xeli Seuwyo bavSvebis jgufismonawileobas dokumentur filmSi, romelmac misca maT saSualeba, gamoexataTTavianTi grZnobebi 2004 wels indoeTis okeaneSi cunamis Taobaze. filmi, romelicTavidan bolomde bavSvebis gakeTebulia, asaxavs am tragediis Sedegebs da imas,Tu rogor Secvala am movlenam maTi cxovreba. niSaki (16 wlis) ambobs, rommaT undodaT, aqcenti gaekeTebinaT imaze, Tu rogori simamaciT umklavdebianbavSvebi cxovrebiseul siZneleebs.aqtiuri moqalaqeoba: mediaproeqtebis yvela etapze axalgazrdebis CarTulobasSeuZlia ganaviTaros maTi, rogorc aqtiuri moqalaqeebisa da damcvelebis,potenciali. bavSvebs SeuZliaT, imis kargi macneebi iyvnen, Tu ra gavlenasaxdens uflebebis darRveva maT cxovrebaze, xolo mediaSi monawileobas SeuZliamisces maT SesaZlebloba, Tavad moiTxovon cvlileba. gamocdileba exmarebamaT, efeqtianad gamoxaton TavianTi saTqmeli sxva forumebzec.mediaSi monawileobis Sedegad bavSvebi Tavs dafasebulad grZnoben da sakuTariTavis rwmena ematebaT. es aris sakuTari niWis aRmoCenisa da ufrosebisa daTanatolebisgan aRiarebis Sedegi. sazogadoebisaTvis sargeblobis motanisgrZnobasac SeuZlia waaxalisos bavSvebi, aqtiurad iRvawon sxva sferoebSic daTavis Tavze aiRon axali funqciebi da valdebulebebi.globaluri konteqstibavSvebisa da mediis Temaze gamarTul ramdenime globalur SexvedrazeaRiarebul iqna am sferoSi bavSvebis monawileobis mniSvneloba. es Sexvedrebia: bavSvis uflebaTa komitetis mier gamarTuli zogadi diskusiis dRe Temaze `bavSvi da media~ (Sveicaria, 1995): `medias mniSvnelovani roli aqvs bavSvebisTvis TviTgamoxatvis SesaZleblobebis micemis TvalsazrisiT. konvenciis erT-erTi principi imaSi mdgomareobs, rom bavSvis azri unda moisminon da gaiTvaliswinon... bavSvebs unda SeeZloT ara mxolod sainformacio masalebis SeTviseba, aramed Tavad unda miiRon monawileoba mediaSi~. `oslos gamowveva~ (norvegia, 1999): `gamowveva bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis mimarT aris is, rom moZebnon gzebi mediaSi da mediis ganviTarebaSi sakuTari aqtiuri monawileobis xelSewyobisaTvis; gamowveva mSoblebis, maswavleblebisa da mkvlevrebisadmi aris bavSvTa uflebebis aRiareba da dacva, rom maTTvis xelmisawvdomi iyos media, miiRon masSi monawileoba da gamoiyenon is winsvlis berketad~. me-4 msoflio samiti Temaze `media bavSvebisa da mozardebisaTvis~ (brazilia, 2004), sadac ufrosebis mxridan gakeTda winadadeba, rom `xeli unda Seewyos mediaproduqcias bavSvebisa da mozardebis monawileobiT~, xolo bavSvebis mxridan gamoiTqva azri, rom `bavSvebsa da mozardebs garantirebuli unda hqondeT adgili mediaproduqtebis warmoebasa da mauwyeblobaSi~.
  • 153. 152 axalgazrduli mediis ganviTarebis forumi (mali, 2006): eswreboda 400 delegati 60 qveynidan msoflio masStabiT, maT Soris iseTi qveynebidan, rogoricaa albaneTi, benini, burkina faso, kameruni, ekvadori, el-salvadori, eTiopia, gana, gvinea, gvinea-bisau, haiti. me-5 msoflio samiti Temaze `media bavSvebisaTvis~ (iohanesburgi, 2007): 1 000- ze meti adamiani 90-mde qveynidan, maT Soris, sul mcire 300 adgilobrivi da ucxoeli bavSvi, Seikriba konferenciaze; gaimarTa interaqtiuli seminarebi, debatebi da diskusiebi, raTa gansazRvruliyo gzebi bavSvebisTvis mediaSi xmis uflebis misacemad. konferencia Seexo mediaSi bavSvTa warmomadgenlobis sakiTxs da imas, Tu zogadad ra wvlili Seitana mediam sazogadoebis mier bavSvebis aRqmaSi. samitze aseve ganxiluli iqna bavSvebis mier sakuTari Tavisa da problemebis warmoCenaSi monawileobis xelSewyobis variantebi da saSualebebi. debatebis centraluri Tema iyo _ rogor SeiZleba CaerTon bavSvebi sakuTari Tavisa da problemebis warmoCenisa da gadacemebis Seqmnis procesSi.mediaSi bavSvebis monawileobasTan dakavSirebuli sirTuleebi dawinaaRmdegobebibavSvis uflebaTa komitetma erTxel ganacxada, rom `bavSvoba ar aris cxovrebismosacdeli oTaxi~. miuxedavad imisa, rom msoflios mosaxleobis TiTqmis erTmesameds 18 wlamde axalgazrdebi Seadgenen, media iSviaTad warmoaCens amjgufis Sexedulebebsa Tu realur yofas. zogadad, rogorc CrdiloeT, isesamxreT naxevarsferoSi media SezRudul SesaZleblobebs aZlevs bavSvebs, rommaT isargeblon monawileobisa da maTTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze sakuTariazris gamoTqmis TavianTi uflebebiT.araadekvaturi aqcenti keTdeboda mediis yvela doneze, maT Sorismediamonitoringis sferoSi, bavSvebis mizanmimarTuli monawileobissaWiroebasTan dakavSirebiT. maT monawileobas jer ar miupyria isprioritetuli yuradReba, romelsac imsaxurebs. da rCeba rigi zogadisirTuleebisa, romlebic unda gadailaxos, imisaTvis, rom xeli SeewyosmediaSi bavSvebis monawileobas.socialuri damokidebulebebi da winaaRmdegoba bavSvebis monawileobis mimarTmedia ufro xSirad kontroldeba ufrosebis mier, romelTac yovelTvis ar surT,rom daTmon TavianTi Zalaufleba da miscen bavSvebs ufleba, maT gansazRvrondRis wesrigi. meore mxriv, Tavad mSoblebs xSirad ar esmiT bavSvebis wvlilismniSvneloba; rogorc wesi, isini fiqroben, rom mediaproeqtebi bevr drosmoiTxovs da skolaSi bavSvebis demotivacias uwyobs xels. magram arsebobs imisdamadasturebeli faqtebi, rom bavSvebis swavlis done xSirad umjobesdeba aseTproeqtebSi maTi monawileobis Sedegad.SeiZleba garkveuli winaaRmdegoba arsebobdes mSoblebSi, rom TavianT Svilebsmiscen bavSvTa uflebebis Seswavlis neba. bevr qveyanaSi xSirad aRiqmeba, rom
  • 154. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 153uflebebi winaaRmdegobaSia tradiciebTan, romelTac bavSvebi ar ayenebeneWvqveS. mniSvnelovania, rom aseT damokidebulebebze reagireba moxdesinformaciis miwodebisa da mediaseqtorisa da mSoblebis sensitiurobisgazrdis gziT.eTikisa da dacvis sakiTxebimediaSi bavSvebis CarTulobis gazrdis mcdelobisas Cven aseve unda uzrunvelvyoTmaTi dacva mediisgan. magaliTad, im bavSvebis gamoCena mediaSi, romlebmacSeuracxyofa an Zaladoba ganicades, xSirad SeiZleba maTi xelaxali damcirebiswyaro gaxdes, vinaidan potenciurad SesaZlebelia, bavSvs devna dauwyon, Tu misivinaoba gaxmaurda. iseve rogorc ufrosi asakis Jurnalistebma, JurnalistmabavSvebmac SeiZleba zogjer ver SeZlon sxva bavSvebis dacva, visTan erTadacmuSaoben.komercializacia, Zaladoba, seqsualuri zewola, genderuli stereotipebi dasxva mavne zegavlenebi zRudaven bavSvebis SesaZleblobebs, rom maT monawileobamiiRon mediaSi. msoflios mraval kuTxeSi Souebisa da programebis (magaliTad,satelevizio) umravlesoba ar asaxavs bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis realurcxovrebas. mavne zegavlenebisa da uaryofiTi gamosaxulebebisgan bavSvebisdasacavad maT srulfasovani roli unda Seasrulon iseTi mediis SeqmnisprocesSi, romelic gadmoscems dadebiT informacias da sanaxaobas, sadacasaxulia maTi cxovreba da ar irRveva maTi uflebebi.investiciebisa da resursebis simcireuaRresad mniSvnelovania, rom mediasaSualebis gamoSvebisas bavSvebs gamoeyoTsaTanado resursebi, raTa uzrunvelyofili iyos misawvdomoba da xarisxi.mTel msoflioSi sabavSvo media `konkurencias~ uwevs sxva mediaproduqtebs;imisaTvis, rom is seriozulad aRiqvan da maT xma miawvdinon maqsimaluradfarTo auditorias, produqtic iseTive maRali xarisxisa unda iyos. mediisprofesionalebis daxmarebis gareSe bavSvebi damoukideblad ver SeZleben aseTimaRali xarisxis miRwevas.unar-Cvevebis ganviTarebis aucileblobabavSvebma, iseve, rogorc ufrosebis umravlesobam, yovelTvis ar ician, romufleba aqvT, Tavisuflad gamoxaton TavianTi azri. isini xSirad morcxvebiarian da uWirT azris gamoxatva, rodesac ar arian miCveulni amis gakeTebas.mediatreningis gareSe bavSvebs SeiZleba SeeSindeT xmamaRla azris gamoTqmisaim SemTxvevaSi, Tu araswor gzavnils awodeben an ar SeuZliaT sityvebiTgamoTqvan TavianTi azrebi da grZnobebi. wera-kiTxvis armcodne, SezRuduliSesaZleblobebis mqone bavSvebs da sxva socialurad izolirebul jgufebszogjer esaWiroebaT specialistis daxmareba, rom SeZlon srulfasovnadmonawileoba.media aris erT-erTi saSualeba, riTac yvelaze daucvelebs SeuZliaT, xma
  • 155. 154aRimaRlon. rodesac mediaprogramebi pativs scemen bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciisstandartebsa da principebs, maT SeuZliaT Secvalon ufrosebis damokidebulebabavSvebis mimarT dadebiTi misabaZi magaliTebis CvenebiT; maT SeuZliaT sajarodwamoWran iseTi sakiTxebi, rogoricaa Zaladoba, romelTa Sesaxebac CveulebrivZnelia msjeloba da gaakritikon ufrosebis saqcieli.bavSvebis mediaSi monawileoba damokidebulia imaze, rom maT mieceT saSualeba,ilaparakon, magram amave dros hyavdeT saTanado auditoria, romelic maTmousmens. im qveynebSi, sadac teqnologia saSualebas aZlevs bavSvebs, gamoiCinoniniciativa, magaliTad, sakuTari vebgverdebis SeqmniT, amocanas warmoadgens is,rom ar moxdes bavSvebis xmebisa da problemebis gadafarva uxvi informaciismasaSi. sazogadoeba unda icnobdes bavSvebis Sexedulebebs, xolo mediam undaSeqmnas sivrce bavSvebisaTvis.damatebiTi literatura da resursebi`plen interneiSenal~: http://www.plan-international.org/`laparaki, monawileoba da gadawyvitilebebis miReba – bavSvis ufleba, rom mousminon~, `PlanInternational~, 2006 w.`bavSvebi, axalgazrdebi da media mTel msoflioSi: tendenciebisa da problemebis mimoxilva~,`intermedia~ (2004 w.)`bavSvebi mediaSi~, `plen sviden~ (2006 w.)gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa komiteti (1996 w.), `bavSvi da media~.
  • 156. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 1558. saukeTeso Jurnalisturi praqtika bavSvebTan dakavSirebiT`me jer kidev mwams, rom, Tu Seni mizani msoflios Secvlaa, Jurnalistikayvelaze pirdapiri da swrafi moqmedebis iaraRia~ – tom stopardi ZiriTadi saswavlo Temebi  bavSvebis Sesaxeb axali ambebis gaSuqebis saukeTeso praqtika  sabavSvo mediis monitoringi da Sefaseba: presa, radio, televiziagaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis 10 wlisTavze gamocemuli `oslos gamowveva~mouwodebda mediasaSualebaTa mflobelebsa da muSakebs, maswavleblebs,politikosebs da Tavad bavSvebs, gamoeZebnaT axali gzebi imisaTvis, rom masmediagamxdariyo mTel msoflioSi bavSvebis cxovrebaze dadebiTi zegavlenis wyaro.gamowveva kerZo seqtoris, maT Soris mediasaSualebaTa mflobelebis mimarTaseTi iyo: axali mediaproduqtebisa da teqnologiebis Seqmnisas gaiTvaliswinon bavSvTa uflebebi sxvadasxva momsaxurebis xelmisawvdomobaze, monawileobaze, mediaganaTlebis miRebasa da saziano Sinaarsisgan dacvaze; komerciuli da finansuri warmatebis Ziebisas upirveles prioritetad daisaxon bavSvis WeSmariti interesebi, raTa bavSvebi aRizardon globalur sazogadoebaSi, romelSic yvela adamiani daculi, pativcemuli da Tavisufalia.rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, bevri Jurnalisti skeptikurad aris ganwyobilibavSvTa saWiroebebisaTvis (da uflebebisaTvis) esoden didi yuradRebisdaTmobasTan dakavSirebiT. britaneTSi, magaliTad, yovel kviras ekonomikuriJurnali `pres gazet~ (Press Gazette) aqveynebs istoriebs im iuridiulisirTuleebis Sesaxeb, romlebic ukavSirdeba 18 wlamde pirebis monawileobiTsasamarTlo saqmeebis gaSuqebis mimarT arsebul SezRudvebs. miuxedavadimisa, rom gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis gaTvaliswinebiT kanonSiSevida cvlileba, romelic gansazRvravs, rom kanonTan konfliqtSi myofbavSvebs ufleba aqvT, moixadon sasjeli sazogadoebrivi yuradRebis gareSe,zogierTi amas afasebs, rogorc presis Tavisuflebis SezRudvas, Tu mediasar SeuZlia damnaSaveebis dasaxeleba.Tumca bevri Jurnalisti iRebs Tavisi samuSaos orientirad bavSvTa interesebs.Cven SegviZlia davasaxeloT mTel msoflioSi maTi erToblivi muSaobismagaliTebi. `Jurnalistebi bavSvebisa da qalebis uflebebis Sesaxeb~ makedoniaSi,romelic Camoyalibda 2003 wels, awyobs bavSvTa uflebebis dacvis kampaniebsmediaprezentaciebis, biuletenebisa da filmebis saSualebiT. saerTaSorisoklubi – `Jurnalistebi bavSvTa uflebebisaTvis~ – Camoayalibes meTiu mak-kvamma ganis Jurnalistikis institutidan da frenk asare-donkohma ganisradiosadguridan `Cois ef em” (Choice FM).
  • 157. 156sabavSvo axali ambebis braziliuri saagento ANDI ajildoebs bavSvebis megobarJurnalistebs, raTa stimuli misces maT, rom Seiswavlon da gaaSuqon bavSvebTandakavSirebuli Temebi. saagentoSi aRmoaCines, rom aseTma waxalisebam bavSvebimaTTvis ufro misawvdomi gaxada – maT Soris cixeebSic.fondi “Prix Jeunesse Foundation” aseve cdilobs, gaaumjobesos sabavSvotelegadacemebis xarisxi mTel msoflioSi qveynebs Soris informaciisurTierTgacvliTa da komunikaciis xelSewyobiT. fondi mxars uWers ideas, romtelevizia ufro mimzidveli unda iyos samizne auditoriisTvis da saSualebamisces bavSvebs, dainaxon, moisminon da gamoxaton sakuTari azri da warmoaCinonTavianTi kultura, amavdroulad, xeli Seuwyos cnobierebis amaRlebas da sxvakulturebis dafasebas. fondis jildo sayovelTaod aRiarebulia, rogorcyvelaze prestiJuli satelevizio prizi sabavSvo mauwyeblobaSi msofliosmasStabiT.2003 wels JurnalistTa saerTaSoriso federaciam da samxreT afrikisJurnalistTa asociaciam Caatares ordRiani seminari keiptaunSi mediaSi bavSvTauflebebis Sesaxeb. diskusiebi fokusirebuli iyo Jurnalistebis socialurpasuxismgeblobaze da gansakuTrebul sifrTxileze, romelic aucilebeliabavSvebTan dakavSirebuli Temebis gaSuqebisas. monawileebma xazi gausvesim faqts, rom bavSvebi ar arian zrdasruli adamianebi da amitom sWirdebaTgansakuTrebuli daxmareba da dacva. magram umetes SemTxvevebSi adgili aqvsmediis mxridan bavSvebis mniSvnelovnad ugulebelyofas. Sexvedris Sedegadgamoica publikacia saxelwodebiT `swori mimarTulebis micema bavSvebisTvis– saerTaSoriso saxelmZRvanelo normebi Jurnalistebisa da mediisprofesionalebisaTvis~.sxva organizaciebic gascemen jildos bavSvebze orientirebuliJurnalistikisaTvis. 2002 wels `haitim~ da panos institutma vaSingtonSidaaarses erovnuli Jurnalistikis prizi bavSvTa uflebebis Sesaxeb gakeTebulisaukeTeso reportaJisTvis. iniciativis Sedegad ara mxolod gaizarda bavSvebisada maTi uflebebis Sesaxeb momzadebuli maRali xarisxis reportaJebis warmoeba,aramed man stimuli misca mediasaSualebaTa mflobelebsa da Jurnalistebs, rommeti yuradReba daeTmoT bavSvebisaTvis.saukeTeso praqtikis magaliTebigazeTebigazeTebi ganaTlebis sferoSimsoflio sagazeTo asociacia (World Association of Newspapers (WAN) globaluriorganizaciaa, romelic warmoadgens 18 000 gazeTs, 71 nacionalur sagazeToasociacias, sagazeTo aRmasrulebel organoebs 100 qveyanaSi, axali ambebis 13saagentos da cxra regionul da msoflio masStabis presjgufs. mTel msoflioSimiRebul gamocdilebaze dayrdnobiT man gamosca 30 ideisgan Semdgari paketiaxalgazrda mkiTxvelebis mosazidad. asociaciam gamoacxada proeqtebis
  • 158. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 157`gazeTebi ganaTlebis sferoSi~ xuTwliani programa, romelic finansdeboda1,74 milioni aSS dolariT umsxviles norvegiul kompania `norske skogis~ mier,romelic sagazeTo qaRaldis msoflioSi meore umsxvilesi mwarmoebeli daJurnalis qaRaldis mesame umsxvilesi mwarmoebelia.proeqti `gazeTebi ganaTlebis sferoSi~ mizania, rom beWdviTi publikaciebisSeqmna gaxdes mTel msoflioSi yoveldRiuri saskolo cxovrebis bunebrivinawili. axali programa koncentrirebuli iqneba balkaneTisa da aziis qveynebzeda SeimuSavebs saswavlo masalebs maswavleblebisaTvis adgilobriv enebze.idea isaa, rom sagazeTo publikaciebi gamoyenebuli iyos wignierebis donisamaRlebis, zogadi codnis gafarToebis, analitikuri unarebis ganviTarebisada sityvis Tavisuflebis, tolerantulobisa da demokratiuli faseulobebispopularizebisaTvis.evro-arabuli samezoblo: moswavleTa Jurnalebi arabeTis qveynebsa da evropaSi`iuneskos~ iniciativiT daiwyo proeqti `evro-arabuli mezobloba: moswavleebiaSeneben xidebs~ islamur samyarosTan dialogis programis farglebSi. proeqtidaiwyo 2003 wlis dekemberSi. germaniaSi gamarTuli seminaris dros ganaTlebissaministroebis, sajaro organizaciebis, gamomcemlobebisa da skolebiseqspertebma daniidan, egviptidan, germaniidan, iordaniidan, libanidan, libiidan,palestinidan, kataridan, sudanidan, siriidan, tunisidan da ukrainidansafuZveli daudes Zlieri, stabiluri saskolo Jurnalebis qselis Seqmnas.proeqtis mizania evro-arabuli dialogis stimulireba axalgazrdebs Sorissaskolo Jurnalebis TanamSromlobis meSveobiT. dialogi evropisa daarabeTis qveynebis moqalaqeebs Soris mSvidobiani Tanacxovrebis winapirobaamravali sxvadasxva kulturisa da religiisagan Semdgar sazogadoebaSi.evropisa da arabeTis saxelmwifoebis axalgazrdebs Soris gamocdilebisgaziareba ukiduresad mniSvnelovania imisaTvis, rom, rac SeiZleba malemoxdes stereotipebis msxvreva da gaRrmavdes urTierTgageba. amproeqtSi monawileobis miReba Tavisuflad SeuZlia yvela tipisskolas da nebismieri asakis axalgazrdebs, romlebic dainteresebulniarian Jurnalisturi TanamSromlobiT.kuleanis centri bavSvTa uflebebisTviskuleanis centri bavSvTa uflebebisTvis mvanzaSi (tanzania) mediasa daJurnalistikas seriozul mokavSireebad ganixilavs. axalgazrdebi Seadgenenmvanzis 800 000-iani mosaxleobis naxevars. maT Soris bevria quCis bavSvebi. masSemdeg, rac 1992 wels centri daarsda, quCis bavSvebma daiwyes TavianTi azrebisgamoqveyneba kedlis gazeTebSi, romlebsac mTel qalaqSi akravdnen. dResplakati-Jurnali `mambo leo~ (Mambo Leo) yvela skolis kedlebze qveyndeba.kuleanam mimarTa regionuli gazeTebis gamomcemlebs Semdegi mowodebiT: `esTqveni Svilebi arian: ris gakeTebas apirebT am situaciis gamosasworeblad?~
  • 159. 158Tavdapirvelad quCis bavSvebis Sesaxeb reportaJebi sensaciuri iyo. mas Semdeg,rac media ufro Tavdajerebuli gaxda, man daiwyo gamomwvevi mizezebis Zieba dapirvel rigSi im pirobebis gamokvleva, ramac aiZula soflad mcxovrebi bavSvebigasuliyvnen quCaSi. adgilobrivma radiosadgurebma gamoyves 15-wuTiani saeTerodro quCis bavSvebisaTvis da daaweses prizebi konkursSi gamarjvebulebisTvis.regularuli statiebi gamoCnda inglisurad da suahilize gamocemul gazeTebSi.centri TanamSromlobda tanzaniis qalTa mediaasociaciasTan bavSvTa mimarTZaladobis ukeT gaSuqebisaTvis.radioSedarebiT iafi, advilad xelmisawvdomi da mobiluri, radio yvelaze mdgradida qmediTi mediasaSualeba aRmoCnda yvelaze arakeTilmosurne socialurpirobebSic ki. afrikaSi aTasobiT radiosadguria, didi da patara, sadacis yvelaze mniSvnelovan sakomunikacio sistemad rCeba. axalgazrdebmaostaturad SeZles radioteqnologiebis TavianTi miznebisTvis morgeba, isiniradiotalRebs `piratuli radios~ meSveobiT euflebodnen, xSirad imisaTvis,rom maT musikalur gemovnebas miscemoda masobrivi moTxovnis dakmayofilebissaSualeba. maT SemoqmedebiT energias SeuZlia Zlieri zegavlena moaxdinosZiriTadi mimarTulebebis mauwyeblebze.`me bavSvi var, magram mec maqvs Cemi uflebebi~`me bavSvi var, magram mec maqvs Cemi uflebebi!~ – aris radiogadacema,romelsac qmnian bavSvebi. igi dasavleT afrikis teritoriaze gadaicema. ispirvelad gavida eTerSi 1998 wels da atyobinebda mSoblebs, bavSvebs daxelisuflebas maTi pasuxismgeblobis Sesaxeb, rom pativi unda scen bavSvTauflebebs. proeqtis mizania bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis propagandirebaradiotalRebis meSveobiT.radioproeqti gadaicema burkina fasoSi, gvineaSi, togoSi, maliSi, senegalSi,gvinea-bisausa da beninSi. 10-mde radiosadguri TiToeul qveyanaSi (romelTaSorisaa sazogadoebrivi, kerZo, soflisa da Temis radiosadgurebi) eTerSi uSvebsama Tu im qveynis unikaluri kulturis Sesabamisad adaptirebul programas.istoriebi mogviTxrobs bavSvebis uflebaze, iaron skolaSi, isargeblonsufTa wyliT, gaizardon janmrTelebi da daculni iyvnen eqspluataciisgan.istoriebSi CarTulia uamravi komediuri msaxiobi da bavSvi (daaxloebiT 600bavSvi da axalgazrda 6-dan 18 wlamde). bavSvebis monawileoba proeqtis umTavresnawils warmoadgens. isini monawileoben uSualod gadacemis Seqmnis procesSi,interviuebsa da debatebSi, radiokonkursebSi, gzavnian leqsebs, werilebsa danaxatebs.proeqti `me bavSvi var, magram mec maqvs Cemi uflebebi!~ scildeba radiokampaniisfarglebs. Teatrisa da skolis RonisZiebebi proeqtis Semadgeneli nawilia.saagitacio proeqti bevrad aWarbebs mis dagegmil uSualo amocanebs daTavdapirvel sazRvrebs. Sous Seqmnasa da mauwyeblobaSi CarTulia asobiT bavSvi,
  • 160. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 159xolo mis farglebSi gamarTul konkursebsa da sajaro CawerebSi monawileobakidev mraval aTas bavSvs miuRia.ambebis Txroba da saganmanaTleblo drama qmediTi da popularuli saSualebebiaRmoCnda bavSvTa uflebebis Sesaxeb informirebulobis donis asamaRleblad.bavSvebs SeuZliaT, pirdapir TavianT cxovrebas daukavSiron istoriebi.gzavnilebi gambedaobas aZlevs bavSvebs, moiTxovon daxmareba ufrosebisgan damoZebnon TavianTi problemebis gadaWris gzebi. isini iZenen codnas, romelsacgadascemen TavianT ojaxebsa da megobrebs, rodesac uyvebian gagonilis Sesaxeb.rodesac bavSvebi usmenen, rogor saubroben sxvebi radioSi, es stimuls aZlevsmaT, rom Tavadac miiRon monawileoba an ipovon sxva gza, rom maTi xmebi gaigonon.msoflio radioforumimsoflio radioforumi eZRvneba maRali xarisxis mauwyeblobis xelSewyobasbavSvebisaTvis da maT mier. 2001 wlis martSi saberZneTSi, salonikSi, gamarTulmesame msoflio samitze `media bavSvebisaTvis~ daarsebuli forumis mizania,radios meSveobiT daicvas bavSvTa uflebebi da maT sazogadoebaSi mcxovrebibavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis statusi. masSi Sedis proeqtebi da kerZo kompaniebiyvela kontinentidan, gansakuTrebiT ki afrikidan.televiziasavaraudod, televizias mTel msoflioSi 15 wlamde asakis daaxloebiT 1.8miliardi mayurebeli hyavs. maTgan 190 milioni cxovrobs umdidres regionebSi,xolo 1,6 miliardi _ ganviTarebad samyaroSi. TiTqmis 142 satelituri dasakabelo satelevizio arxi gamiznulia 15 wlamde adamianebisaTvis xuTkontinentze. am arxebidan 88 evropaSia.sazogadoebriv mauwyeblebs mTel msoflioSi akisriaT valdebuleba, Seqmnanprogramebi bavSvebisaTvis, romlebic iqneba SemecnebiTi, gasarTobi dasaganmanaTleblo, Tumca programebis xarisxi da raodenoba mniSvnelovnadgansxvavdeba.britanuli programebi axalgazrdebisTvisbritaneTSi `bi-bi-si~-s erT-erTi yvelaze cnobili sabavSvo satelevizio programa`blu piter~ (Blue Peter) Tavis 50 wlis iubiles 2008 wlis oqtomberSi aRniSnavs.mas Jurnalis formati aqvs da gadaicema bavSvebis skolidan dabrunebidan cotaxnis Semdeg. wlebis ganmavlobaSi mis programebze did gavlenas axdenda TavadbavSvebis mier gamoTqmuli azrebi. is gadascems `gaakeTe Sen TviTon~ seriisxelobis Semswavlel programebs, aRniSnavs bavSvebis warmatebas sxvadasxvasferoSi, atarebs konkursebs da organizebas uwevs erovnul peticiebs bavSvebisdasaxmareblad, romlebic SedarebiT gaWirvebulad cxovroben britaneTSi damis sazRvrebs gareT.
  • 161. 160programis axalgazrda wamyvanebi monawileoben saintereso gasarTobRonisZiebebSi (wyalqveSa curva/yvinTva, paraSutiT xtoma, TxilamurebiTsriali da a.S.). es RonisZiebebi awvdis bavSvebs warmodgenas im aqtivobebisSesaxeb, romelSic maT SeiZleba moundeT monawileoba, rodesac gaizrdebian.yovelwliurad gadamRebi jgufi estumreba xolme msoflios sxvadasxva kuTxes,raTa gaaSuqos bavSvebisTvis sxva bavSvebis yofa-cxovrebis detalebi.`bi-bi-si~-ze aseve gadaicema regularuli sainformacio-analitikuri gadacemasaxelwodebiT `Cildrenz niusraund~ (Children’s Newsround), romelic martivadda pirdapir gadmoscems dRis mTavar ambebs, maT Soris iseT mZime Temebze,rogorebicaa bavSvTa mimarT Zaladoba, SimSili da bunebrivi katastrofebi,gadmoscems, agreTve, bavSvebisTvis gansakuTrebiT saintereso specialurreportaJebs, romlebic SeiZleba ar gavides ufrosebisTvis gankuTvnilcnobebSi. imdenad, ramdenadac ZiriTadi samauwyeblo programebi gankuTvniliaufrosebisTvis, isini ar aris popularuli bavSvebSi. sakuTari versiis arsebobiTbavSvebs saSualeba eZlevaT, imsjelon mimdinare sakiTxebze ufrosebTan daamave dros daculi iyvnen im samwuxaro komentarebisgan, romlebic xSirad Tanaxlavs ufrosebis versias.britaneTis erT-erTma komerciulma mauwyebelma, me-4 arxma, moigo priziTineijerebisTvis Seqmnili gadacemisaTvis `Wise Up~ (`dabrZendi~), romelSicbavSvebi motivirebulni arian, rom Seadginon programa. gadacemis Temebisada mowveuli gamomsvlelebis moZieba xdeba mayureblebs Soris da skolebSivizitebis meSveobiT. mowveuli momxseneblebi Seadgenen gadacemis erT nawils,rodesac isini ikvleven maT cxovrebaSi wamoWril problemas. isini iRebenprofesionalur rCevas da daxmarebas ZiriTadad axalgazrdebisgan Semdgarigundisagan. gadacemis stili energiuli da axalgazrdulia swrafad moZravi,xelis kameriT gadaRebuli kadrebiT, magram is yuradRebiT aris damontaJebulida gamoSvebuli im saxelmZRvanelo normebis gaTvaliswinebiT, romlebicgansazRvrulia oficialuri maregulireblebis mier.`mukto xobor~ (Tavisufali ambebi)bangladeSSi `mukto xobor~ aris yovelkvireuli 25-wuTiani mozardTasainformacio gadacema, romelSic aqcenti keTdeba bavSvebze da bavSvTauflebebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze. gadacemis miznebia:1. bavSvebisTvis Tavisufali sivrcis Seqmna mediaSi; forumis Seqmna axalgazrdebisTvis, raTa gamoxaton TavianTi azri maT garSemo arsebul sakiTxebze da movlenebze, sadac maT mousmenen bavSvebi da ufrosebi yvela socialuri fenidan;2. axalgazrda JurnalistebisTvis uflebamosilebis miniWeba maTi saswavlo momzadebiT specialur unarebSi; bevri axalgazrda mayureblisTvis uflebebisa da stimulis micema. axalgazrdebi STagonebas iReben gadacemidan, romelic kargi magaliTia imisa, Tu rogor qmediTad SeuZliaT imuSaon, rodesac SesaZlebloba eZlevaT. gadacema aseve exmareba mozardebs, aimaRlon
  • 162. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 161 TviTdajerebuloba da TviTSefaseba;3. damatebiTi wonis miniWeba bavSvTa Sexedulebebisa da xmebisaTvis imis damtkicebiT, rom maTac SeuZliaT ideebisa da gadawyvetilebebis SeTavazeba; im tradiciuli warmodgenis Secvla, rom bavSvebma mxolod unda mousminon da bevri ar ilaparakon;4. am gadacemis safuZvelze mediaSi bavSvTa monawileobisaTvis Tanabari SesaZleblobebis modelis damkvidreba.saboloo produqti aris sayovelTaod popularuli gadacema, romelicorientirebulia bavSvTa uflebebze.bavSvebisadmi keTilganwyobili SerCevis procesi programaSi monawileobisaTvisuzrunvelyofs, rom moculi iyos sazogadoebis yvela seqtori. kandidaturebismowodebisaTvis ukavSirdebian ara mxolod skolebs, aramed organizaciebs,romlebic muSaoben bavSvebTan, romlebic ver iReben ganaTlebas. gadamRebjgufSi Sedian SedarebiT privilegirebuli bavSvebi, dasaqmebuli bavSvebi daiseTebi, romelTac SeiZleba elementaruli ganaTlebac ki ar hqondeT.programis msvlelobisas bevri ram xdeba mis auditoriaSi. iyo dro, rodesacSeiniSneboda daZabuloba da uxerxuloba erTad momuSave sxvadasxva warmoSobisbavSvebs Soris, magram maT daZlies es da SesaniSnavi saqmiani urTierTobebidaamyares. programa zustad asaxavs bangladeSis sazogadoebas da, rogorcaseTi, mimzidvelia mravalgvari auditoriisaTvis, riTac warmatebas aRwevs.bavSvTa mediacentri, yirgizeTibavSvTa media centri muSaobs audio-vizualur da beWdviT mediaSi da misisamuSao sruldeba eqskluziurad bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis mier. proeqtismizania bavSvebis TviTgamoxatvisTvis saTanado pirobebis Seqmna. centris wevrebiswavloben yirgizeTSi bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis winaSe arsebul problemebsda akeTeben TavianTi dakvirvebebis Sefasebebs. isini avrceleben informaciasacbavSvTa uflebebis Sesaxeb gaeros bavSvis uflebaTa konvenciis Sesabamisad.mediacentris wevrebi muSaoben bevr Temaze, romlebic asaxavs axalgazrdebisproblemebs, maT Soris bavSvTa dacvis, genderul da aiv/Sids-Tan dakavSirebulsakiTxebs. centri uSvebs videoklipebsa da beWdviTi mediis statiebs usaxlkarobavSvebis, SidsiT daavadebuli adamianebis da qalTa uflebebis darRvevisfaqtebis Sesaxeb. proeqtis yvelaze Zlieri mxare aris is faqti, rom mismediaproduqtebSi gamoxatuli poziciebi axalgazrdebis WeSmariti xmebia.`andi~sabavSvo axali ambebis saagento `andi~ (ANDI) braziliaSi CamoyalibdaJurnalistebis mier, romelTac awuxebdaT quCis bavSvebis bedi. Tavdapirvelad
  • 163. 162isini koncentrirebuli iyvnen saskolo dawesebulebebis Seqmnaze, vinaidanganaTleba miaCndaT siRaribis daZlevis gzad, gansakuTrebiT diqtaturispirobebSi.Semdeg maT daiwyes mediis monitoringi da SeniSnes, rom bavSvebis Sesaxebgadmocemuli informaciis udidesi nawili negatiuri iyo. maT gamoaqveynessareitingo cxrilebi, sadac aCvenebdnen, Tu romeli gamocemebi iyo yvelazeSeuracxmyofelebi da mouwodebdnen ufro pozitiuri damokidebulebisaken.TandaTanobiT masalebis tendencia Seicvala da gamomcemlebma daiwyes Sejibreba,rom ukeTesi pozicia daekavebinaT reitingSi.`andim~ daawesa erovnuli standarti saukeTeso Jurnalisturi naSromisTvisbavSvebsa da axalgazrdebTan dakavSirebul sakiTxebze. amisaTvis saagento: gansazRvravs da sTavazobs konkretul Temebs da awvdis maTze informacias Jurnalistebs; avrcelebs bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebis Sesaxeb mTavar ambebs, romlebic qveyndeba qveyanaSi; akeTebs raodenobriv da Tvisebriv analizs braziliur presaSi Jurnalistebis mxridan bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisadmi gamoxatuli damokidebulebis Sesaxeb; avrcelebs informacias sirTuleebisa da warmatebuli gamocdilebis Sesaxeb; aRiarebs profesionalebs, romelTa saqmianoba socialurad pasuxismgebeli Jurnalistikis magaliTia; trenings utarebs komunikaciis sferos axalgazrda profesionalebsa da studentebs.2000 wlis martSi Seiqmna `andis qseli~, romelic dRes braziliis sxvadasxvaStatis eqvsi sakomunikacio saagentosgan Sedgeba.`erTwuTiani iuniori~ (“One Minute Junior”)`erTwuTiani iuniori~ aris konkursi bavSvebisa da axalgazrdebisTvis, rom SeqmnansakuTari erTwuTiani videoklipebi da gamoxaton sakuTari Tavi mediis saSualebiT.`OneMinutesJr~ _ es aris axali kategoria erTwuTiani filmebis festivalSi,romelic imarTeba yovel noembers sandbergis institutis organizebiT qalaqamsterdamSi. is ar aris gamiznuli, rom warmoaCinos profesiuli kinoxelovneba.amis nacvlad, is stimuls aZlevs axalgazrdebs, Caataron eqsperimentebi daisargeblon im SesaZleblobebiT, romlebsac es Janri sTavazobs da moipovonaRiareba kreatiulobisa da interesebisaTvis.
  • 164. bavSvTa uflebebi da Jurnalistika - saxelmZRvanelo studentebisaTvis 163konkursSi TavianTi proeqtebis warsadgenad miwveulni arian 12-dan 20 wlamdeasakis axalgazrdebi evropidan da centraluri aziidan. yovelwliurad proeqtispartniorebi irCeven sakonkurso Temebs an sakiTxebs axalgazrdebTan mWidroTanamSromlobiT.festivalis dros imarTeba yvelaze SemoqmedebiTi filmebis nakrebis Cvenebada jildoebi gadaecemaT yvelaze gamorCeul Semsruleblebs. sponsoriorganizaciebis (evropis kulturuli fondi, sandbergis instituti da gaerosbavSvTa fondi) warmomadgenlebisa da sami axalgazrdisgan Semdgari JiuriakeTebs arCevans.yvela is, vinc monawileobs konkursSi, Rebulobs monawilis sertifikats.gamarjvebulebs gadascemen studentebis mier Seqmnil prizebs sandbergisinstitutidan da mcire finansur jildos. aqcenti keTdeba ara gamarjvebaze,aramed kreatiuli produqtis Seqmnaze, romelic stimuls miscems axalgazrdebs.yovel wels festivals aqvs TamaSismagvari elementi, romelic did diskusiebswarmoSobs auditoriaSi.axalgazrdebis mier axali cifruli mediis spontanurad da araordinaruladgamoyenebis unari adasturebs, rom maT didi wvlilis Setana SeuZliaTsazogadoebriv procesebSi. aucilebelia amis aRiareba da xelSewyoba daaxalgazrdebisTvis ufro farTo tribunis micema, raTa maTma eqsperimentulmaSemoqmedebam nayofi gamoiRos.axalgazrdebis mier axali cifruli mediis spontanurad da araordinaruladgamoyenebis unari adasturebs, rom maT didi wvlilis Setana SeuZliaTsazogadoebriv procesebSi. aucilebelia amis aRiareba da xelSewyoba daaxalgazrdebisTvis ufro farTo tribunis micema, raTa maTma eqsperimentulmaSemoqmedebam nayofi gamoiRos.Cveni eqspresi – saqarTveloproeqti „Cveni eqspresi“ - axalgazrduli yovelkvireuli telegadacemaa (20-25 wuTi), romelic 2005 wlidan mzaddeba 15-21 wlamde axalgazrdebis mier.“interniusi” proeqtSi monawile axalgazrdebs aZlevs Jurnalistur codnasda profesiul unarebs. isini sxvadasxva Teoriuli da praqtikuli treningebisganmavlobaSi swavloben scenaris da teqstis weras, gadaRebebis dagegmvas,muSaobas kamerasTan, montaJis safuZvlebs. „interniusis“ prodiuserebiperiodulad awvdian maT informacias teqnologiuri da stilisturi siaxleebisSesaxebac.„Cveni eqspresi“ saSualebas aZlevs axalgazrdebs, isaubron im sakiTxebisSesaxeb, romlebic gavlenas axdens piradad maTi, megobrebisa Tu TanatolebisyoveldRiur cxovrebaze, aseve, gaaSuqon Temebi, romlebic centraluri arxebiseTeriT ar gadaicema. axalgazrdebi TavianTi interesebisamebr, profesionalioperatorebisa da memontaJeebis daxmarebiT, iReben ara mxolod siuJetebs,
  • 165. 164aramed saavtoro filmebsa da Canaxatebsac.axalgazrdebis mier axalgazrdebisTvis Seqmnili videokontenti jersazogadoebriv televiziaze, Semdeg ki telekompania „imedis“ eTeriT gadioda.programis naxva aseve SesaZlebelia Semdeg veb-misamarTze http://blog.teentv.ge;damatebiTi literatura da resursebimsoflio sagazeTo asociacia: http://www.wan-press.info/msoflio radioforumi: http://www.worldradioforum.orgsazogadoebriv mauwyebelTa msoflio asociacia: http://www.amarc.org/`presuaizisa~ (PressWise) da `media eqSn interneiSenalis~ (Media Action International) mieridentificirebuli bevri sxva saintereso mediaaqtivoba da kargi ideebi bavSvebis mier,bavSvebisTvis da maTTan erTad (MAGIC) gadaicema specialur vebgverdze, romelic aseve Seicavsqcevis kodeqss bavSvebTan erTad muSaobisa da maTze statiebis dawerisaTvis. aq aseve mocemuliabevri sasargeblo bmuli da informacia im mravalricxovani oficialuri deklaraciebis Sesaxeb,romlebsac gamoscemen mauwyeblebi da sxva mediasaagentoebi da romlebSic xazgasmulia, rommediawarmoebaSi prioritetuli unda iyos bavSvis WeSmariti interesebi: www.unicef.org/magic`ANDI~: http://www.andi.org.br`presgazet~: http://www.pressgazette.co.uk`Prix Jeunesse International~: www.prixjeunesse.de`bavSvebi da media – globaluri problema~, maik jemfsoni, “The PressWise Trust”.
  • 166. Not for sale