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Istrazivanje o drustvenoj inklusiji djece sa smetnjama u razvoju u Crnoj Gori

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Istrazivanje o drustvenoj inklusiji djece sa smetnjama u razvoju u Crnoj Gori

Istrazivanje o drustvenoj inklusiji djece sa smetnjama u razvoju u Crnoj Gori

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Istrazivanje o drustvenoj inklusiji djece sa smetnjama u razvoju u Crnoj Gori Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Strategic Marketing Research Part of StrategicPuls Group and Member of ESOMAR Report Early childhood development • For: UNICEF June 2009 StrategicPuls Group Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 2. Early childhood development June 2009 Methodology Face to face interview at respondent’s home National representative sample of mothers/primary Guardians of children younger than 6 years Sample Frame: population Census 2003 and estimated population dynamics. Sample size is 1,200: • 1000 mothers/guardians living in Montenegro • over sample of 200 Roma in Roma settlements mothers/guardians living in Roma in Roma settlements Population of guardians is three stage stratified quota sample with sampling stages: 1. Polling station territory chosen with probability proportional to size (PPS) 2. Random route technique starting from the given addresses with equal probabilities (SRSWoR) until the quota is fulfilled 3. Primary Guardians responsible for child care. Stratification is done according to Type of settlement – urban/rural Three geo-economical regions Post stratification is performed regarding: gender, age, type of settlement, geo-economical region Fieldwork control is done in 12% of totally interviewed in all strata proportionally to sample size, and logic and consistency control of collected data is performed in 100% StrategicPuls Group 2 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 3. Early childhood development - DEMOGRAPHY June 2009 Relationship between respondent – care taker and child What is the relationship between respondent and the child that we will talk about in this questionnaire? Base: Total target population of guardians Mother 88% Father 9% Grandmother 2% Grandfather 1% Sister 0% Other 1% 88% of care takers are mothers, 9% fathers, 2% grandmothers, while other care takers are present to a lesser extent. StrategicPuls Group 3 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 4. PREGNANCY StrategicPuls Group Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 5. Early childhood development - PREGNANCY June 2009 Biological parenthood Are you the biological mother of the child? Base: Total target population of guardians Total target population of guardians Population of guardians from Roma settlements No No 13% 12% Yes Yes 87% 88% 87% of the sample of guardians of children under 6 years of age are their biological mothers. • Situation is similar among guardians from Roma settlements. StrategicPuls Group 5 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 6. Early childhood development - PREGNANCY June 2009 Getting informed about pregnancy During your pregnancy how did you obtain information about issues related to pregnancy, care about the new- born, etc.? Multiple answers; Base: biological mothers of the child (87% of target population) During pregnancy majority of mothers obtained information about issues related to pregnancy and care about the new-born from other family members (48%), experts - general practitioners, 48% Family members 38% nurses, gynecologists (46%) and friends (33%). Another 27% mention their previous experience. Experts (general practitioners, 46% nurses, gynecologists) 7% • Books and media (radio, TV, magazines, newspapers) are mentioned in smaller percentage – 15%, and 14% 33% Friends respectively. Brochures are mentioned by 9%, and Internet 19% by7%. 27% Previous experience 41% • 4% state that they were not informed in any way at all. 15% • Various types of media, brochures, Internet are mentioned Books 2% to a bigger extent by mothers with higher education, in cases when both parents are employed, and in households From media (radio, TV, magazines, 14% with bigger household income. newspapers) 9% General population • Among Roma population from Roma settlements, all Brochures 1% sources of information are used to a lesser extent, and Roma from Roma mothers rely to their own experience most of all (41%). As 7% settlements Internet much as ¼ of Roma from Roma settlements state that they were not informed in any way. 4% I did not get informed 25% • Only 7% of Roma state to have been informed by experts, and none of them mentions media (radio, TV, magazines, newspapers) as sources of information. StrategicPuls Group 6 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 7. Early childhood development - PREGNANCY June 2009 Satisfaction with quality of available information about pregnancy Please evaluate with grades from 1 to 5 your satisfaction with quality of information about pregnancy which were available to you? Multiple answers; Base: biological mothers of the child (87% of target population) Not satisfied at 8% 2% North all 68% Stratum 2 3% 3% Center 83% Sum - 6% 9% South 74% Sum - 3 16% Type of settlement Sum + 5% Urban 78% Sum + 76% 6% Other 4 33% 73% Roma from Roma 38% Very satisfied 43% settlement 40% 76% of mothers are generally satisfied with quality of information about pregnancy which are accessible to them. Just 6% are dissatisfied, while 16% are neither dissatisfied nor satisfied. • Somewhat more satisfied are the mothers of children up to 6 months who generally use Internet more frequently as a source of information. • Besides that, significantly more satisfied with quality of available information are mothers from central region and those from urban settlements. • Roma mothers from Roma settlements are generally less satisfied by far with quality of available information – even 38% of them are dissatisfied with quality of information. StrategicPuls Group 7 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 8. Early childhood development - PREGNANCY June 2009 Support during pregnancy Who from did you get support during pregnancy? Multiple answers; Base: biological mothers of the child (87% of target population) Population of mothers Population of mothers from Roma settlements Partner 77% Partner 42% Mother 49% Mother 40% Doctor 39% Doctor 17% Other family members 34% Other family 36% members Friends 21% Friends 11% Midwife 5% Midwife 2% Professionals Professionals (psychologists, 1% (psychologists, pedagogues...) pedagogues...) During pregnancy mothers got the strongest support from Among mothers from Roma settlements all forms of their partners – 77% of mothers state to have got their support are present to a much lesser extent: 42% of partner's support. The second strongest support was mothers mention the support of their partners, 40% received from mothers – 49%, and then doctors – 39%. mother's support, and only 17% doctor's support. StrategicPuls Group 8 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 9. Early childhood development - PREGNANCY June 2009 Information received from the doctor What are the three most important things which you learned when visiting your doctor during pregnancy? Multiple answers; Base: biological mothers of the child (87% of target population) Mothers mention as the three most important things which they learned when visiting their doctor during pregnancy: advices about health and correct nutrition, way of life and behavior, necessity to practice physical activity, hygiene, mental health, avoidance of stress, relaxation, harmfulness of smoking and alcohol. Mothers also frequently mention information about regular check-ups, laboratory analyses, ultrasound, development of fetus, preparations for childbirth, breastfeeding. Typical statements: “How to maintain pregnancy correctly, how not to be afraid of delivery, how to eat properly.” “To quit smoking, to pay attention to my nutrition, not to take any medications during pregnancy, to take folic acid for better blood count.” “Not to eat as much as I want only because I’m pregnant.” “To eat appropriately, to move around as much as I can, to avoid irritation, to go for check-ups regularly.” “He showed me my child with ultra sound.” Mothers from Roma settlements in almost ¼ of cases (22%) state that they didn't visit the doctor, or that they visited the doctor rarely, so they were not able to say what they learn during these visits. StrategicPuls Group 9 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 10. Early childhood development - PREGNANCY June 2009 Partner’s participation in pregnancy – visiting the doctor Did your partner visit the doctor together with you during your pregnancy? Base: biological mothers of the child (87% of target population) 25% 49% No, never North 34% Stratum Mainly no 15% 43% Center 40% Sum - 41% 26% South 38% Sum - Both yes and no 22% Sum + Type of settlement 42% Urban Sum + 38% 38% 38% Mainly yes 25% Other 37% Always 13% Roma from Roma 64% settlements 15% 38% of mothers state that they visited the doctor mainly together with their partner, while 41% state that they mainly visited the doctor alone. • Participation of fathers is less frequent in northern region and more frequent in southern region – in northern region as much as 49% of partners did not escort their wives when they visited the doctor and 26% in the southern region. • Among mothers from Roma settlements just 15% of fathers visited the doctor together with their wives. StrategicPuls Group 10 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 11. Early childhood development - PREGNANCY June 2009 Partner’s participation in pregnancy – getting informed by the doctor Was he informed by the doctor about his role in child-related issues? Base: if partner visited the doctor together with child’s mother during pregnancy (65% of target population) Not at all 10% 34% North 38% Mainly no 21% Strata 31% Center 44% Sum - 32% 30% South Partly 30% 27% Sum - Settlement type Sum + 33% Sum + 38% Urban 44% 30% Mainly yes 26% Other 27% Completely 12% Roma from Roma 28% settlements 37% 38% of mothers who visited the doctor together with partner at least occasionally think that fathers were informed by the doctor about their role in child-related issues. 32% of these mothers express opposite opinion. • Positive attitude is recorded more frequently among mothers from central region and urban settlements, as well as mothers of children up to 6 months. • There are no differences about this issue between mothers from general population and those from Roma settlements. StrategicPuls Group 11 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 12. Early childhood development - PREGNANCY June 2009 Partner’s participation in pregnancy – presence at delivery Was your partner present during the childbirth? Why wasn't the partner present during the childbirth? Base: biological mothers of the child (87% of target population) Multiple answers; Base: if partner was present during the childbirth (81% of target population) 52% He wasn`t allowed to attend 33% 7% General 39% population He wasn`t interested 93% 58% 7% He was absent from town 9% He didn`t meet medical 1% Roma from 2% conditions 2% General population Roma settlements 98% 4% Roma from Roma Other 1% settlements Yes Most frequently mentioned reason why father didn't attend childbirth is that father wasn't allowed to attend. This reason was No mentioned by as much as 52% of mothers. 39% of mothers state that fathers were not interested. • Higher percentage of mothers from rural areas think that Only 7% of fathers attended childbirth. To a somewhat father's attendance isn't allowed (61% of mothers name lesser extent these are younger people, and those this reason). Mothers with children up to 6 months from southern region. Among Roma from Roma mention this reason less frequently. settlements just 2% of fathers attended childbirth. • Higher percentage of fathers from Roma settlements are uninterested to attend childbirth (58%). StrategicPuls Group 12 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 13. Early childhood development - PREGNANCY June 2009 Satisfaction with maternity clinic Please evaluate with grades from 1 to 5 your satisfaction with delivery room in which you gave birth to your child? Base: biological mothers of the child (87% of target population) Population of mothers Population of mothers from Roma settlements Not satisfied at all 4% Not satisfied at all 6% 2 9% 2 8% Sum - 13% Sum - 14% 3 24% 3 11% Sum + 60% Sum + 53% 4 31% 4 30% Very satisfied 29% Very satisfied 23% My child was not born in hospital 1% My child was not born in hospital 21% 60% of mothers are generally satisfied with delivery room where they gave birth to their child. Mothers of children up to 6 months are even more satisfied – 75% of them give positive grade. • There is no difference in satisfaction with delivery room between mothers from general population and those from Roma settlements. However, as much as 21% of Roma mothers state that they didn't give birth in hospital! StrategicPuls Group 13 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 14. BREASTFEEDING AND NUTRITION StrategicPuls Group Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 15. Early childhood development - BREASTFEEDING AND NUTRITION June 2009 Involvement of parents/guardians in the breastfeeding process Are you the person who breastfed / breastfeeds or a person who knows details about how child was breastfed? Base: Total target population of guardians No 16% Yes, the person who knows how the child was breastfed 8% Yes, person who breastfed the child 76% Out of total population of guardians 76% state that they themselves breastfed or fed the child, 8% state that they know how the child was breastfed and fed. 16% either do not know or didn't answer. • Among male guardians even 59% claim not to know how the child was fed. • There is no differences between general population of guardians and population of guardians from Roma settlements StrategicPuls Group 15 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 16. Early childhood development - BREASTFEEDING AND NUTRITION June 2009 Assistance with breastfeeding Who helped you, or who helps you with breastfeeding, sterilization, cleaning, bathing the child, etc? Multiple answers; Base: persons who breastfed the child (76% of target population) No one helps/helped me Education Spouse/ partner 30% Elementary or less 31% Mother 25% Secondary 35% Mother-in-law 14% College or University 43% Employment Sister 5% Both employed 31% Midwife 5% Only father employed 37% Friend 2% Only mother employed 46% Family 1% Both unemployed 57% Up to 100 eur 48% Income Children 1% 101-200 eur 31% Grandmother 1% Over 200 eur 26% Nurse 1% North Stratum 49% Nanny 1% Center 38% Spouse's family memberrelative 1% South 21% Visiting nurse 0% Type of Urban 36% Other 1% settlement Other 39% No one helps/helped me 37% Roma from Roma settlements 71% 37% of breastfeeding mothers state that no one helped them with nutrition and breastfeeding, sterilization, cleaning, bathing the child. 30% state that their partner helps/ed them, 25% specify mother, and 14% mother-in-law. • In families where both parents are unemployed and those with low household income, mother is deprived of help more frequently. This is also recorded more frequently in northern region. • Among mothers from Roma settlements as much as 71% remain without any help, while just 1% state to be helped by their partner. Among these mothers help most frequently comes from mothers (13%) and mothers-in-law (3%). StrategicPuls Group 16 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 17. Early childhood development - BREASTFEEDING AND NUTRITION June 2009 Sources of information about breastfeeding What was/is your most frequent source of information about breastfeeding? Base: persons who breastfed the child (76% of target population) Previous experience 17% 33% 18% Mot frequently mentioned source of information about Family members 22% breastfeeding is doctor (20%), other family members (18%), 20% midwife (15%). 17% mention previous experience. Doctors 10% • Other sources of information are rarely mentioned: 15% magazines - 8%, books - 2%, brochures - 2%, Internet Nurses 3% – 1%, TV – 0,2%... Magazines 8% • Among mothers from Roma population even 21% state Friends 4% that they didn't even search for such information, while 3% in general population 5% of mothers claim the same. Books 2% Brochures 2% General population Most frequently mentioned magazines are Moja 1% beba, Mama, Majka i dijete, Trudnoća…. Internet Roma from Roma settlements Internet websites : www.wikipedia.com, 0% TV www.yumama.com, www.bebac.com. I don`t search for such information 5% Mothers which mentioned brochures state that they 21% were given these brochures in hospitals, children's counseling rooms, health centers, delivery rooms … StrategicPuls Group 17 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 18. Early childhood development - BREASTFEEDING AND NUTRITION June 2009 Information about breastfeeding – duration of breastfeeding period Average number of months How long after the birth was the child breastfed? - months Total 8.5 Base: persons who breastfed the child or they know details about how child was 9.3 Education Elementary or less breastfed (84% of target population) Secondary 8.9 College or University 7.4 Up to 3 months 18% Both employed 7.6 Employment Only father employed 9.1 Only mother employed 7.9 3.01-6 months 22% Both unemployed 10.0 Up to 100 eur 10.4 Income 101-200 eur 8.0 6.01-12 months 27% Over 200 eur 6.0 16 - 25 7.5 Mother age More than 12 26 - 30 8.0 12% months 31 - 35 8.6 >35 10.0 It is still Up to 3 6.5 18% breastfeed No. of HH 8.8 members 4 5 9.1 On the average, mothers stop breastfeeding between baby's 6th and 12th month of life (27% of mothers who breastfed their child). 22% of mothers were 6+ 10.9 breastfeeding between 3 and 6 months, and 18% up to 3 months. On the North 10.3 average children are breastfed for circa 9 months. Children are breastfed longer Strata 7.7 in case of mothers with lower educated families, unemployed, with lower Center household income. Also in case of households with bigger number of household South 7.6 members, from northern region, and from rural settlements. Urban 7.9 Type of • There are no significant differences in length of breastfeeding between settlement Other 9.5 mothers from general population and those from Roma settlements. Roma from Roma settlement 9.2 StrategicPuls Group 18 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 19. Early childhood development - BREASTFEEDING AND NUTRITION June 2009 Exclusive breastfeeding Average number of months How long after the birth was the child ONLY breastfed (given only breast milk even without water)? - months Total 3.2 Education Elementary or less 3.5 Base: persons who breastfed the child or they know details about how child was breastfed (84% of target population) Secondary 3.2 College or University 3.0 Up to 1 months 22% Both employed 2.8 Employment 1.01-2 months 13% Only father employed 3.3 Only mother employed 2.9 2.01-3 months 12% Both unemployed 4.2 3.01-4 months 8% Up to 100 eur 3.7 Income 101-200 eur 3.1 4.01-5 months 3% Over 200 eur 2.4 5.01-6 months 13% 16 - 25 2.7 Mother age 26 - 30 3.4 More than 6 months 3% 3.3 31 - 35 The child was not ONLY >35 3.0 14% breastfed Up to 3 2.5 7% No. of HH I still ONLY breastfeed the child members 4 3.1 5 3.7 Exclusive breastfeeding lasts for 3,2 months on the average. 14% of mothers who breastfed their child did not apply exclusive breastfeeding. Exclusive breastfeeding lasts 6+ 3.9 longer on the average among mothers from lower educated families, unemployed mothers, North 3.6 Strata mothers with lower household income, households with bigger number of household Center 2.7 members, those from northern region and from rural areas. South 3.5 • On the average Roma mothers exclusively breastfeed their children for longer time, but this is partly the result of the fact that higher percentage of mothers Urban 2.9 Type of continue exclusive breastfeeding even after 6 months (as much as 13% of Roma settlement Other 3.7 mothers who breastfeed their children). Roma from Roma settlement 4.8 StrategicPuls Group 19 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 20. Early childhood development - BREASTFEEDING AND NUTRITION June 2009 Introduction of supplemental food Average number of months When did you start supplemental feeding of your child (give him food Total 4.1 other than breast milk)? - months Education Elementary or less 5.2 Base: persons who said that they start supplemental feeding of their child (73% of target population) Secondary 4.2 College or University 4.0 Up to 1 months 12% Both employed 3.9 Employment Only father employed 4.2 1.01-2 months 13% Only mother employed 3.4 Both unemployed 5.2 2.01-3 months 15% Up to 100 eur 4.6 Income 101-200 eur 4.1 3.01-4 months 16% Over 200 eur 3.4 16 - 25 4.2 Mother age 4.01-5 months 7% 26 - 30 4.2 31 - 35 4.1 5.01-6 months 20% >35 4.1 Up to 3 3.6 More than 6 9% No. of HH members months 4 4.2 5 4.4 Along the lines of previous conclusions, mothers who breastfeed their children start supplemental feeding around the 4th month. Again, mothers who introduce 6+ 4.7 supplemental feeding later are those from lower educated families, unemployed North 4.5 Strata mothers, mothers with lower household income, from households with bigger Center 3.6 number of household members, from northern region and from rural settlements. South 4.3 • Roma mothers who are breastfeeding introduce supplemental feeding around the 5th month on the average, but even 18% of mothers start Urban 4.0 Type of supplemental feeding later, after the 6th month. settlement Other 4.4 Roma from Roma settlement 5.4 StrategicPuls Group 20 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 21. Early childhood development - BREASTFEEDING AND NUTRITION June 2009 Contact during feeding/breastfeeding Which of the following do you do while feeding your child? Multiple answers; Base: parents or guardians of children aged from 0 to 1 year - persons who breastfed the child or they know details about how child was breastfed (16% of target population) Population of mothers Population of mothers from Roma settlements I talk or sing to I talk or sing 55% 32% the child to the child I cuddle him 51% I cuddle him 11% I embrace the I embrace 34% 20% child the child I look at child`s I look at 24% 28% eyes child`s eyes I watch TV 5% I watch TV I talk with I talk with others 5% 5% others Nothing Nothing special 1% 21% special Breastfeeding or feeding is most frequently the time for closer contact between mother and child. 55% of mothers state that, while feeding the child, they talk with him, or sing to the child, 51% claim to cuddle the child, 34% claim to embrace the child, and ¼ look at child's eyes. Only 5% of mothers state that they watch TV or talk with others while feeding their child. 1% claim that they don't do anything special in these occasions. Lower percentage of Roma mothers cuddle the child – 11%, and higher percentage of them claim not to do anything special - 21%. This information could indicate that awareness of the need for closer contact with the child is lower among mothers from Roma settlements. StrategicPuls Group 21 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 22. Early childhood development - BREASTFEEDING AND NUTRITION June 2009 Frequency of consumption of various types of groceries How often do you give your child the following food? Base: parents or guardians of children aged from 6 and more months (90% of target population) Total target population of guardians Population of guardians from Roma settlements Every day Every day 2 – 3 times a week 2 – 3 times a week Once a week Once a week 2 – 3 times a month 2 – 3 times a month Once a month or less Once a month or less Never Never Cereals / bread / cereal 76% 15% Cereals / bread / cereal 83% 13% Milk products 90% 8% Milk products 27% 50% 14% 7% Meet/fish 49% 36% Meet/fish 11% 24% 40% 18% Fruits/ stone fruits 72% 23% Fruits/ stone fruits 7% 22% 31% 18% 14% Vegetables 73% 21% Vegetables 13% 24% 28% 19% 12% Sweets 55% 32% Sweets 14% 14% 11% 18% 28% 15% Soup 72% 25% Soup 24% 33% 20% 10% 8% Regarding children's nutrition, children are most frequently given milk products – 90% of mothers with children up to 6 months state to give milk products every day, another 8% give milk products 2-3 times a week. Next on the list are cereals and bread – 76% every day and 15% at least 2 to 3 times a week. ½ of mothers claim to give meet to their child every day, 36% give meet 2 to 3 times a week. 72% of mothers state that they give fruits to the child every day, 23% give fruits 2 to 3 times a week. Situation is similar with vegetables and soup. Sweets are given somewhat less frequently, 55% of mothers give children sweets every day, 32% give them 2 to 3 times a week. Mothers from Roma settlements give their children somewhat more frequently bread and cereals, and considerably less frequently milk products (just 27% give them every day), meat (just 11% every day), fruits (7% every day), vegetables (13% every day), sweets (14% every day), soup (24% every day). StrategicPuls Group 22 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 23. Early childhood development - BREASTFEEDING AND NUTRITION June 2009 Number of meals How many times a day do you give food to your child? Average number of meals Total 4.3 Base: parents or guardians of children aged from 1 to 6 years (81% of target population) Up to 100 eur 4.2 Income 1 1% 101-200 eur 4.5 2 1% Over 200 eur 4.6 3 19% North 4.2 4 34% Strata 5 30% Center 4.4 6 7% South 4.5 7 1% settlement Urban 4.4 Type of 8 1% 9 0% Other 4.2 10 0% Roma from Roma settlement 3.1 Children from 1 to 6 years most frequently have 4 meals a day – 34% of mothers give this answer. 30% of mothers give the child 5 meals a day, and 19% give 3 meals a day. More frequently 5 meals are given to children aged from 1 to 2 years – 43% of children of this age are given 5 meals. Average number of meals per day in general population in case of children aged from 1 to 6 years is 4,3. The number of meals is somewhat lesser in families with lower income, those from northern region and in rural areas. It is drastically reduced among children from Roma settlements, who have 3,1 meals per day on the average. StrategicPuls Group 23 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 24. Early childhood development - BREASTFEEDING AND NUTRITION June 2009 Children eating together with guardians Does your child eat his/her meals together with Why don't you eat together (occasionally)? other family members? Base: parents or guardians of children aged from 1 to 6 years (81% of Base: parents or guardians of children aged from 1 to 6 years - if child target population) doesn’t eat his/her meals together with other family members (15% of target population) Yes, all meals Due to obligations we are not at home at 46% that time 61% Yes, just some meals Has different rhythm than other family 14% No members There is no rule - changeable 6% The child is not hungry at that time 7% 48% 6% The child eats first, and then we eat 3% General 34% 7% population 4% The child is too small, it is still a baby 14% Not enough food 23% 4% He eats in kindergarten 51% 3% General population Roma from 31% He sleeps at that time Roma 6% 4% Roma from Roma settlements Other answers 13% settlements 12% Don't know 6% 48% of parents/guardians of children aged from 1 to 6 years state that the child eats all his/her meals together with other family members. 34% state that the child eats some meals with family members, in 4% of cases the child eats his/her meals alone, and 14% state that there is no rule about that. • Most frequently mentioned reason why the child doesn't eat together with the rest of the family is the fact that parents work, so they are not at home during the meals. • 23% of Roma guardians state that they don't have enough food. StrategicPuls Group 24 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 25. Early childhood development - BREASTFEEDING AND NUTRITION June 2009 Importance of mother-child contact immediately after birth Please evaluate with grades from 1 to 5 how important do you think it is Average that mother and child are together immediately after childbirth? Total 4.7 Base: Total target population of guardians Elementary or less 4.5 Education Secondary 4.7 Completely unimportant 3% College or University 4.8 2 0% Sum - 3% Both employed 4.8 Employment 3 3% Only father employed 4.6 Sum + 93% Only mother employed 4.7 4 12% Both unemployed 4.5 Very important 81% Up to 100 eur 4.5 Income 101-200 eur 4.7 Awareness of importance of close relationship between mother and Over 200 eur 4.9 child immediately after childbirth is very high. 93% of parents think that it is important for mother and newborn to be together immediately after North 4.7 childbirth, and as much as 81% think that this is very important. Strata Center 4.7 • Awareness about the importance of this contact is somewhat higher among parents who are both employed, with higher South 4.8 education, and higher household income. Urban 4.7 • Awareness about the importance of this contact is also high Type of settlement among Roma from Roma settlements – 87% of them consider Other 4.7 this experience very important, 63% very important. Roma from Roma settlement 4.4 StrategicPuls Group 25 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 26. Early childhood development - BREASTFEEDING AND NUTRITION June 2009 Importance of breastfeeding for child’s development In your opinion how important is breastfeeding for child's Average development? Total 4.8 Base: Total target population of guardians Elementary or less 4.6 Education Secondary 4.8 Completely unimportant 1% College or University 4.8 2 0% Both employed 4.9 Employment Sum - 1% Only father employed 4.8 Only mother employed 4.7 3 2% Both unemployed 4.7 Sum + 96% Up to 100 eur 4.7 Income 4 14% 101-200 eur 4.8 Very important 83% Over 200 eur 4.8 4.5 Gender Male 96% of guardians think that breastfeeding is important for child's Female 4.8 development, 83% think that it is very important. North 4.7 • This percentage is lower among lower educated, Strata unemployed, with lower income, male guardians, from Center 4.9 northern region and rural settlements. South 4.8 • Also, among Roma guardians awareness of importance Type of 4.8 Urban of breastfeeding is on somewhat lower level, but still high settlement - 84% of them think that breastfeeding is important for Other 4.7 child's development, 56% that it is very important. Roma from Roma settlement 4.3 StrategicPuls Group 26 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 27. Early childhood development - BREASTFEEDING AND NUTRITION June 2009 Importance of starting breastfeeding with the first child’s meal Please evaluate with grades from 1 to 5 how important do you think it is that Average breastfeeding starts immediately, from the child's first meal? Base: Total target population of guardians Total 4.7 Elementary or less 4.7 Education Completely unimportant 1% Secondary 4.7 2 1% College or University 4.8 Sum - 2% Both employed 4.8 Employment Only father employed 4.7 3 3% Only mother employed 4.7 Sum + 94% Both unemployed 4.7 4 13% Up to 100 eur 4.7 Income Very important 81% 101-200 eur 4.7 Over 200 eur 4.8 94% of guardians think that it is important to start Gender Male 4.5 breastfeeding immediately, from the child's first meal, 81% that it is very important. Female 4.8 • This percentage is somewhat higher among higher North 4.7 Strata educated, employed, with higher income, among female Center 4.9 guardians, from central region and urban settlements. South 4.6 • Also, among guardians from Roma settlements Type of Urban 4.8 awareness of importance of starting breastfeeding cycle settlement immediately, from the child's first meal is also on lower Other 4.7 level, but still high - 83% of caretakers think that Roma from Roma settlement 4.2 breastfeeding is important for child's development, 58% that it is very important. StrategicPuls Group 27 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 28. Early childhood development - BREASTFEEDING AND NUTRITION June 2009 Estimation of optimum breastfeeding period In your opinion how long should the child be breastfed? Percentage of those who said less then 6 months Base: Total target population of guardians Total 14% 16 - 25 27% Guardian gender Less then 6 14% months 26 - 30 14% 31 - 35 8% 6 months 20% >35 10% North 8% 7-11 months 13% Center 13% Strata South 23% 12 months 34% Urban 16% settlement Type of Other 11% Over 12 months 13% Roma from Roma settlements 18% The highest percentage of guardians think that children should be breastfed until the age of one year – 34%. 20% think that breastfeeding should be interrupted when the child turns 6 months, while as much as 14% of them think that breastfeeding should be interrupted before the sixth month. • It is worth mentioning that guardians who think that a child should be breastfed up to 6 months or even less are those aged up to 25 years, from urban settlements and southern region, that is, the categories of population who are more aware of issues related to breastfeeding and child care in general. • There are no bigger differences in attitudes on this issue between guardians from general population and those from Roma settlements. StrategicPuls Group 28 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 29. Early childhood development - BREASTFEEDING AND NUTRITION June 2009 Agreement with statements about breastfeeding Base: Total target population of guardians Breast milk may be of such quality (this refers to quality, not Child's brain develops the fastest during the first three quantity) that it fails to meet all the needs of the child for years of life. This process can sped up by close, warm nutrients stimulation from the baby`s environment I don`t agree I agree I don`t agree I agree Total 15% 64% Total 2% 82% North 15% 60% North 4% 77% Center 7% 74% Center 1% 82% South 29% 49% South 87% Urban 14% 68% Urban 2% 79% Other 16% 57% Other 1% 86% Roma from Roma settlement 11% 31% Roma from Roma settlement 5% 35% 64% guardians agree, 22% is not sure, 15% disagree. 81% of guardians was answered positively, 17% Agreement with this statement is bigger among guardians from answer that they are not sure, and just 2% of central region and lesser among guardians from southern region. guardians disagree. Percentage of agreement is lower among guardians from Roma Among the guardians from Roma settlements settlements where there is also considerably higher percentage percentage of agreement is considerably lower – of indecisive answers, that is, the cases where the guardians are just 35% of guardians agree with this statement, not sure whether this is true or untrue – 57%, compared to 22% while percentage of the indecisive, those who in general population of guardians. are not sure, is exceptionally high – 60%. StrategicPuls Group 29 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 30. CARE WITHIN FAMILY StrategicPuls Group Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 31. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Family members who take care of the child Which household members takes care about the child? Who spends the most time with the child? Multiple answers; Base: Total target population of guardians Base: Total target population of guardians 97% 82% Mother Mother 92% 86% 7% 81% Both parents Father 4% 55% 4% 38% Grandmother 6% Grandmother 34% 2% Father 17% 1% Grandfather 14% 1% Brother, sister 2% 12% Sister 17% 0% Grandfather 8% General population Brother General population 0% 10% Babysitter Roma from Roma settlements Roma from Roma settlements 5% 1% Someone else Someone else 2% Household members who take care about the child are, first of all, mother (in 97% of families with children up to 6 years of However, when asked who primarily takes care age) and father (81%), then grandmother (38%), grandfather of the child, in majority of cases the answer is (17%), sister (12%), and brother (8%). mother (82%), and all other household members are specified in less than 10% of cases. • In Roma households father has a role in child care to a considerably lesser extent (just 55% of fathers). StrategicPuls Group 31 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 32. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Family assistance with leaving the child at home What do you usually do with your child when you have to What do you usually do with your child when you have to leave leave house for longer time (going to work, field, etc.) house even for a short time, for going shopping, doing some administrative or similar job... or because of other reasons? Base: Total target population of guardians Base: Total target population of guardians 31% I leave the child with other parent 38% 17% I take the child with me 40% I leave the child with grandmother, 27% grandfather 26% 33% I leave the child with other parent 14% 22% I take the child with me 29% I leave the child with grandmother, 21% 11% grandfather 19% I take the child to nursery school 1% I leave the child with siblings who are 4% I leave the child with siblings who are 3% more than 10 years old 3% more than 10 years old 4% I leave the child with siblings who are 1% I leave the child with other adult 1% less than 10 years old 7% relatives 8% 1% I leave the child with siblings who are 1% I leave the child with other adult relatives 8% less than 10 years old 7% 1% I leave the child with other adult 1% I leave the child with other adult persons 5% General population persons 6% General population Roma from Roma 0% Roma from Roma 0% I leave the child unattended settlements I leave the child unattended settlements When the guardian has to leave home for longer period of time (going to work, field, etc..) the highest percentage of them leave the child with other parent (31%), or grandparents (27%). However, as much as 1/3 of guardians do not have this kind of family help, so they state that they take the child with them (22% of cases) or take the child to nursery school (11%). • In Roma families children are often left with other adult relatives (8%), but some answer to leave the child with siblings below 10 years of age (7%), which is a case that almost doesn't appear among general population. When they have to leave the house for shorter time the guardians most frequently take the child with them (38%). StrategicPuls Group 32 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 33. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Activities carried out with children – General population of guardians During the last week did you, or any other member of your family do… Base: parents or guardians of children aged from 1 to 6 years (82% of target population) No / DK Yes Bathe the child, change diapers, etc.. 9% 91% Regarding the activities which guardians and other household Sit with the child during the main meal 10% 90% members practice with their Play with the child 10% 90% children, we can see that the basic activities are the most Tell stories to the child 12% 88% represented: bathing the child, Take the child to walk, green market or shop, or a visit 13% 87% changing diapers, sitting with the outside of home child during the meal. Also, great Watch TV with the child 15% 85% majority of guardians play with Sing songs with the child 17% 84% children, take them for a walk, tells them stories, sings songs with the Feed the child or help him eat 17% 83% child, watches TV with the child. Praising the child 20% 80% It is observable that other family Read books or watched picture books with the child 22% 78% members are somewhat less included in educational activities, Talk with the child during the meal 23% 77% reading books, conversation. Draw with the child 28% 72% • Guardians with lower income, as Spent time with the child in educational activities such as well as guardians from the counting, naming things, drawing 33% 67% Together with child doing housework (such as cooking, northern region, perform the 53% 47% mentioned activities with children repairs, cleaning, care for pets....) Teach child about spiritual or religious customs 70% 30% to a lesser extent. StrategicPuls Group 33 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 34. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Activities carried out with children– Guardians from Roma settlements During the last week did you, or any other member of your family do… Base: parents or guardians of children aged from 1 to 6 years (82% of target population) No / DK Yes Sit with the child during the main meal 25% 75% Guardians from Roma settlements have less contact with children Play with the child 29% 71% observed by all mentioned Praising the child 29% 71% activities. Bathe the child, change diapers, etc.. 33% 67% Take the child to walk 38% 63% • Guardians from Roma Feed the child or help him eat 39% 61% settlements spend particularly Talk with the child during the meal 41% 59% less time on education activities: reading, drawing, Sing songs with the child 44% 56% counting, telling stories... Watch TV with the child 49% 51% • It is interesting that the Tell stories to the child 58% 42% slightest difference between Roma children and children Draw with the child 68% 32% from general population is on Teach child about spiritual or religious customs 68% 32% praising the child, at least Together with child doing housework (such as cooking, according to guardians’ 73% 27% repairs, cleaning, care for pets....) words. Spent time with the child in educational activities such as 73% 27% counting, naming things, drawing Read books or watched picture books with the child 84% 16% StrategicPuls Group 34 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 35. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Activities carried out with children – Family members Which family members took part in that activities: Multiple answers; Base: parents or guardians of children aged from 1 to 6 years - if during the last week someone took part in that activitie Total target population of guardians Population of guardians from Roma Mother Father Grandmother Sister Brother Grandfather Someone else settlements Watch TV with the child 73% 61% 51% 38% Praising the child 78% 59% 66% 39% Bathe the child, change diapers, etc.. 85% 26% 69% 15% Talk with the child during the meal 80% 46% 65% 32% Feed the child or help him eat 84% 35% 68% 17% Sit with the child during the main meal 82% 62% 73% 60% Draw with the child 65% 36% 18% Teach child about spiritual or religious customs 68% 40% 47% 56% Together with child doing housework 79% 40% 79% Spent time with the child in educational activities 73% 39% 23% Play with the child 72% 57% 55% 24% Take the child to walk 73% 54% 71% 17% Sing songs with the child 73% 43% 66% 25% Tell stories to the child 75% 48% 63% 20% Read books or watched picture books with the child 77% 46% 51% On average, about ¾ of mothers, about ½ of fathers and about ¼ of grandmothers perform the mentioned activities. Mothers bathe the child and assist with meals somewhat above average. Fathers take somewhat lesser part in educational activities, while they play with the child more, praise the child, watch TV together, go for walks … • In Roma families, father is significantly less included in almost all activities with children, mothers as well, but to a lesser extent, while brothers and sisters take their role over . StrategicPuls Group 35 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 36. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Children’s activities – Average duration How many hours a day does your child spend in doing the following activities? – Average Average; Base: those who participate in the following activities Sleeping 11.6 10.9 Stay in kindergarten 6.1 3.3 During the day, according to guardians, children Playing with other 2.3 spend most time sleeping –11,6 hours on average, children 3.4 6,1 hours in the nursery. Playing with other children Playing alone 2.1 spend they 2,3 hours on average, playing alone 2,1 3.2 hours, and playing with adults 1,9 hours. They spend Walking 2.0 1,6 hours watching TV, 1,3 hours in educational 2.0 activities, a 1,1 hours in sports activities. Feeding Playing with adults 1.9 takes 1,8 hours, and walking 2 hours. 2.0 • On average, Roma children spend more time 1.8 playing with other children and alone, they Eating 2.1 spend the same amount of time watching TV Watching TV 1.6 as do children from general population, while 1.8 they spend less time in sleeping and being in a Educational 1.3 nursery. activities 1.7 General population Sports activities 1.1 Roma from Roma (training) 1.4 settlements Household duties 1.0 1.4 StrategicPuls Group 36 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 37. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Home activities In which household activities do you include your child? Multiple answers; Base: parents or guardians of children aged from 1 to 6 years (82% of target population) 43% Making the bed 19% 32% Shopping 29% 12% Cleaning 28% 4% Cooking 4% General population 3% Roma from Roma Washing 2% settlements 26% Other 37% Guardians mainly include children 1 to 6 years old in the following household activities: making the bed (43%), shopping (32%), cleaning (12%), cooking (4%) and washing (3%). StrategicPuls Group 37 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 38. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Father’s participation in upbringing of children In your opinion, how important is it that father takes part in child breeding? Base: if respondent is not father (91% of target population) Total target population of guardians Population of guardians from Roma settlements Completely Completely 2% 5% unimportant unimportant 2 1% 2 9% Sum - 3% Sum - 14% 3 3% 3 17% Sum + 92% Sum + 66% 4 10% 4 22% Very important 82% Very important 45% 92% of guardians think that father’s participation in upbringing of children is important, while even 82% think that it is very important. • Guardians from Roma settlements perceive father’s importance in upbringing of children far more rarely – only 2/3 think that father’s role is important. StrategicPuls Group 38 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 39. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Children’s questions Children often ask numerous questions. How often do you answer the questions which your child asks? Base: parents or guardians of children aged from 1 to 6 years (82% of target population) Total target population of guardians Population of guardians from Roma settlements Always 69% Always 38% Almost always 20% Almost always 15% Sometimes 5% Sometimes 17% From time to From time to 2% 18% time time Almost never 2% Almost never 8% 69% of guardians of children 1 to 6 years old say that they always answer children’s questions, 20% almost always and 5% say that they answer sometimes. • Roma guardians answer children’s questions far more rarely – only 38% say that they answer always, and even 8% say that they answer almost never (relative to 2% in general population of guardians). StrategicPuls Group 39 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 40. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Children’s questions – reasons for non-responding What are the most frequent reasons why you don't answer, or occasionally answer the questions which your child asks you? Multiple answers; Base: parents or guardians of children aged from 1 to 6 years - those who don’t answer always the questions which child asks (25% of target population) 28% I am mainly too tired 15% 20% As the most frequent reason why they I usually don`t have the answer, don't know don’t answer children’s questions, the answer to this question 19% guardians say that they are too tired, that they don’t understand the question, that 20% I usually don`t understand the question they don’t know the answer, that they have 15% no time, that these questions can’t be answered. 13% I don`t have time, I am too busy 15% • Roma guardians mainly say that there is no need for them to answer 8% (23% of guardians), while this This is not necessary answer occurs in 8% of cases in 23% general population. 12% This question can not be answered 12% 7% General population Maybe I watch TV; read, chat with someone 1% Roma from Roma settlements StrategicPuls Group 40 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 41. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Reaction to child’s crying What do you usually do when your child is crying, although it is neither hungry nor wet? Base: Total target population of guardians I try to understand why he/she is 32% crying 15% 28% I take him/her in my arms instantly 26% When a child cries (being neither hungry 23% nor wet), the largest number of guardians I talk to the child 12% do something of the following: try to 6% understand why (32%), take the child in I give him/her toys 8% General population one’s arms (28%), talk to the child (23%). 5% • Roma guardians say that they try to I rock him/her Roma from Roma 8% settlements understand why the child is crying and to talk to him more rarely than 3% I ignore him/her 11% guardians from general population do, while they more frequently 1% ignore or feed the child. I feed him/her 10% I shout at him/her, I tell him/her to 0% shut up 8% I make him/her embarrassed in 1% some way StrategicPuls Group 41 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 42. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Reaction to positive child’s acts In what way do you usually praise your child’s positive acts? Base: parents or guardians of children aged from 1 to 6 years (82% of target population) 45% Verbally (with words) 46% Physically (I hug 42% and kiss him/her) 41% I give something 12% to him/her (like a candy, food, 6% prize) General population 0% Roma from Roma No way settlements 7% Guardians mainly praise positive acts of their children either verbally (words) – 45%, or physically (hugging, kissing) – 42% of guardians. 12% mention material reward (candy, food, prize). • 7% of Roma guardians say that they never praise their children’s positive acts, while this answer almost never occurs in general population of guardians! StrategicPuls Group 42 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 43. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Moral principles and punishing In your family, who mostly teaches your child what is good and what is bad? Who usually punishes … Base: Total target population of guardians Base: Total target population of guardians 86% 70% Mother Mother 87% 55% 21% 7% Father Father 39% 9% General population General population 4% 3% Other family Other family members Roma from Roma members Roma from Roma 5% 3% settlements settlements It is mother’s responsibility to teach a child his/her Although mother is mainly the one who punishes first moral principles, i.e. what’s good, what’s bad – (69%), this role is, however, taken by a higher this is mother’s responsibility in 86% of cases. percentage of fathers (21%). Fathers do this in only 7% of cases, and other family • In Roma families, fathers are significantly more members even more rarely. frequently those who punish – in 39% of cases. StrategicPuls Group 43 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 44. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Reaction to inappropriate child’s acts When your child does something that you think he/she shouldn’t do, what do you usually do? Multiple answers ; Base: Total target population of guardians 54% I say „no“ and I explain why 10% When a child does something considered 22% inadequate, guardians say that they mainly say I say „no“ and I expect him/her to obey 17% „no“ and try to explain why it shouldn’t be done I hit him/her on the hand when he/she 12% (this is the answer of 54% of guardians). Other touches something 37% answers occur frequently as well: I say „no“ 18% and expect the child to obey (22%), I distract I distract him/her with something him/her with some other activity (18%), I put 3% things out of his/her reach (13%), I slap 13% I place things out of his/her reach him/her on the hand when he/she touches 6% something forbidden (12%). 6% I shout at him/her 26% • In Roma families, children are much more rarely explained why they I limit his/her moving 9% shouldn’t do something (only 10% of 7% guardians), while the following answers I make the child sit down or go to the 4% occur much more frequently: I slap other room and be alone there 7% him/her on the hand when he/she General population 4% touches something forbidden (37%), I I take him/her somewhere 1% Roma from Roma shout at him/her (26%) and I ignore settlements him/her (9%). 2% Nothing – I ignore him/her 9% StrategicPuls Group 44 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 45. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Physical punishing Children sometimes behave nicely, while other times they misbehave. How many times during last week did you have to hit your child (if you did at all)? Base: Total target population of guardians 45% 0 22% 7% 55% of guardians say that they had to hit their child at 1 least once during the past week. 8% of guardians hit 15% the child 3 and more times. • Over then ¾ (78%) of Roma guardians say 36% 2 that they had to hit their child during the past 28% week. Almost 1/3 (31%) say that they hit their child 3 and more times. 6% 3 14% General population 2% Roma from Roma 4+ settlements 17% StrategicPuls Group 45 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 46. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Need for physical punishing Please evaluate with a grade from 1 to 5 how necessary 77% physical punishing of children is, as a part of upbringing? Total 9% Elementary or less 64% Education 19% Base: Total target population of guardians Secondary 76% 8% 82% College or University 8% Completely unnecessary 56% Both employed 84% 4% Employment 2 21% Only father employed 75% 10% 73% Sum - Only mother employed 9% Sum - 77% Sum + Both unemployed 67% 17% 3 12% 66% Up to 100 eur 13% Income 101-200 eur 80% Sum + 9% 6% Over 200 eur 91% 5% 4 5% 66% North 11% Stratum 3% Center 85% Very necessary 6% 77% South 10% DK-Ref 2% Roma from Roma settlements 25% 32% 77% of guardians think that physical punishing is not necessary while raising children. 56% think that it is not necessary at all. 9% think that it is necessary. • Physical punishing is more frequently considered necessary by guardians with lower education, unemployed, those with lower income, members of multimember families, residents of the northern region, but also parents of children 3 to 6 years old. • Only ¼ of Roma guardians think that physical punishing is not necessary when raising children, while 1/3 think that it is necessary. Others don’t have an attitude. StrategicPuls Group 46 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 47. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Sources of information about upbringing of children In which ways do you get informed about raising children? Multiple answers ; Base: Total target population of guardians Guardians say that they get informed about child upbringing from 53% Family 37% their family (53%), friends (33%), doctors and midwives (20%), psychologists and pedagogues (5%). 33% Friends 21% • 28% say that they don’t get informed about upbringing of 20% children. Doctors, nurses 12% • Magazines are mentioned by 10%, books 6%, brochures 10% 3%, TV 3%, Internet 2%. Magazines 0% General population 6% • As for guardians of Roma children, 60% say that they Books Roma from Roma settlements don’t get informed about upbringing of children. 5% Psychologists, pedagogues 1% Books: Moja beba, Šta da očekujete dok…, Mala knjiga o velikim 3% roditeljima, Vaše dijete i Vi, Savršeno roditeljstvo, Korak po korak Brochures 1% Magazines: Moja beba, Moje dijete, Majka i dijete, Mama, Lepota i 3% zdravlje, Zdravlje i ljepota… TV 1% TV stations: RTCG i Pnik, programs: Morning program, Educational 2% Internet program, programs about children on RTS-u, Bubamara, Biljana za I don’t get informed about raising vas on Pinku, Binky Bill on IN, Replika, Ključ… 28% childrena 60% Informative websites : www.mojabeba.com, www.yumama.com, www.bebac.com . Those who mention brochures, say that they got them in the hospital, primary healthcare centers, maternity clinic … StrategicPuls Group 47 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 48. Early childhood development - CARE WITHIN FAMILY June 2009 Guardians’ interest in information about upbringing of children What is it about raising children that you would like to be more informed about? Multiple answers ; Base: Total target population of guardians Guardians would like to be provided more information about upbringing of children on the following topics: proper feeding and supplemental feeding, prevention and child diseases, periods of child development – mental and physical, learning and education, socialization, adoption of value system, child behavior and disobedience, setting limitations – flexible or strict attitude, relationship between children and parents, puberty, development of work habits, protection from negative influence of the surrounding… Typical statements: “How to raise it properly without too much punishing.” “How not to spoil the child, and also not be too strict.” “Selection of true values during upbringing and making a man out of a child.” “Proper nutrition, child’s health, how to raise the child properly.” “How to establish the best communication with the child.” “How to keep it on the right track during puberty.’ “How to isolate the child from negative influences (of other children).” “Developmental periods by years and what to pay attention to.” “How to raise the child to be a good person.” “How to protect children from viruses and colds.” StrategicPuls Group 48 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 49. HYGIENE StrategicPuls Group Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 50. Early childhood development - HYGIENE June 2009 Washing hands Washing hands - How frequently does your child (independently or with your help) perform the following activities? Base: Total target population of guardians General population 22% 87% 25% 0-6m 1% 5% Several times a day 38% 0% 14% General 69% Once a day 10% population 6m -1y 0% 14% Several times a week 7% Several times a day Child age 5% 93% Once a day Once a week 7% 1-2 y 0% Several times a week 0% 47% 0% Never Several times a 33% month 98% DK-Ref 10% 2% Roma from Once a month and 2-3 y 0% Roma 1% more rarely 0% 0% settlements 1% Never 98% 2% 1% 3-6 y 0% 4% 0% 0% The highest percentage of guardians – 87%, says that children wash their hands several times a day (independently or with their help). 5% say that they wash hands once a day and 5% say that they never wash hands and these are only children under 12 months. • Among Roma children, percentage of children who wash hands several times a day is significantly lower – only 47%. Another 33% wash hands once a day, 10% wash hands several times a week or more rarely. StrategicPuls Group 50 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 51. Early childhood development - HYGIENE June 2009 Brushing teeth Brushing teeth - How frequently does your child (independently or with your help) perform the following activities? Base: Total target population of guardians General population 38% 2% 32% 2% 0-6m Several times a day 0% 4% 75% General 1% population Once a day 3% 0% 14% 6m -1y 6% 0% Several times a week 62% 21% Several times a day Child age 22% Once a week 35% Once a day 1-2 y 4% Several times a week 5% 35% Several times a Never 29% month 43% 14% Once a month and 35% Roma from 2-3 y 5% Roma 9% more rarely 15% settlements 4% Never 54% 7% 39% 3-6 y 4% 30% 3% 38% of guardians say that children brush their teeth Frequency of teeth brushing rises with child’s age. 23% of several times a day (independently or with their help). children who are 6 to 12 months old brush teeth at least a 32% say that they brush teeth once a day and 21% never few times a week, while this percentage is 61% during the brush their teeth. second year of life. With 3 years, already 93% of children brush teeth at least once a day, in their guardians’ words. • Percentage of children who brush their teeth is somewhat lower among Roma children – 48% brush their teeth at least several times a week, while 30% of children under 6 years of age never brush their teeth. StrategicPuls Group 51 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 52. Early childhood development - HYGIENE June 2009 Bathing Bathing - How frequently does your child (independently or with your help) perform the following activities? Base: Total target population of guardians General population 16% 50% 16% Several times a day Total 50% General 26% 26% 6% population 6% Once a day 16% Up to 38% Several times a day 100 eur 37% 9% 1% Several times a week Once a day Income 19% 101-200 56% Once a week eur 19% 8% 4% Several times a week 17% 30% Several times a Over 200 70% Roma from month eur 9% Once a week 14% 0% Roma Never 31% 6% settlements 33% North 53% 11% 6% Stratum 1% 22% Center 52% 16% Children usually bathe once a day – this is the answer of ½ of 7% guardians. 16% bathe their children several times a day, 26% 18% 70% several times a week. South 11% 1% • In Roma families, 31% of children are bathed once a week. 52% of Roma guardians bathe children more Children are bathed somewhat less frequently by frequently than that, while 16% say that they bathe guardians who are unemployed, who have lower children more rarely than once a week, compared with income, residents of the northern region, those living 1% of such cases in general population. in households with several children. StrategicPuls Group 52 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 53. Early childhood development - HYGIENE June 2009 Changing underwear Changing underwear - How frequently does your child (independently or with your help) perform the following activities? Base: Total target population of guardians 80% 42% 3% 0-6m 1% 45% 8% Several times a day General 9% 82% population 1% 9% Once a day 6m -1y 2% 4% Several times a day Child age Several times a week 51% 41% Once a day 1-2 y 5% Several times a week Once a week 14% 0% Never 39% Several times a 35% Roma from month 52% 13% 2-3 y 10% Roma Once a month and 1% settlements 19% more rarely 9% 29% 58% 3-6 y 6% 13% 0% Guardians say that they change their children’s underwear several times a day – 42%, or once a day – 45%. Frequency is significantly higher among children under 12 months of age – even 80% of guardians of • Guardians from Roma settlements change their children younger than 12 months say that they children’s underwear somewhat more rarely – 14% say change underwear several times a day. In the fourth that they do it several times a day, and even 1/3 do it year, frequency is decreased and 58% of guardians once a week and more rarely, while this percentage is change their children’s underwear once a day. less than 1% in general population! StrategicPuls Group 53 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 54. INJURY PREVENTION StrategicPuls Group Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 55. Early childhood development - INJURY PREVENTION June 2009 Injury intervention – alterations in the house/apartment Have you made any alterations to make your home a safer environment for your child? Base: Total target population of guardians Total target population of guardians Population of guardians from Roma settlements Yes 18% Yes 36% No 64% No 82% 36% of guardians say that they have made some alterations to make their home a safer environment for their child. • This percentage is significantly lower in Roma population – only 18%. StrategicPuls Group 55 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 56. Early childhood development - INJURY PREVENTION June 2009 Injury prevention – alterations in the house/apartment What have you done to make your home a safer environment for your child? Multiple answers ; Base: Those who made any alterations to make their home a safer environment for their child (36% of target population) The most frequently mentioned alterations are: removing of small, fragile and sharp things (25%), removal of some parts of furniture (14% of guardians who made alterations), rearrangement of furniture, protection of wall sockets, placing a fence on stairs and balcony, protection of sharp edges and corners. There are also answers like: no smoking indoors, placing carpets on the floor, protection of doors and windows, closing down of some rooms and rearranging one room into child’s room. Typical statements: “We changed the door and put a locker on”. “We protected the wall sockets, we removed excessive furniture”. “There are no corners, balconies are secured, range is moved to the balcony”. “We removed sharp objects, we put a fence on the stairs”. “We removed souvenirs and put other breakable objects out of the child’s reach”. “We set up obstacles in front of cupboards, we covered wall sockets, we hid dangerous objects”. “We secured corners and sources of electricity, balconies and low windows”. “We secured sharp corners, wall sockets, range, stove and everything necessary”. “We have separate room for playing, with only toys and soft furniture”. “We locked the balcony door and rearranged furniture, we made free space bigger”. StrategicPuls Group 56 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 57. Early childhood development - INJURY PREVENTION June 2009 Injury prevention – Car ride What kind of safety precautions do you undertake when your child is in the car with you? Multiple answers ; Base: Total target population of guardians 53% 58% Child sits on the rear seat 17% North 24% We use a car seat for children 29% 8% Child sits on the rear 8% seat We lock doors and windows 22% We use a car seat for 54% children Stratum 35% 15% 19% We lock doors and We fasten the safety belt Center windows 16% 2% We fasten the safety We don’t drive the child in a car 8% belt 45% We don’t drive the We undertake no safety child in a car 4% 32% precautions South 22% 23% Other 4% 21% During car ride, the largest number of guardians say that the safety measure they undertake is putting a child at the back seat (more frequently older children), then using a baby car seat (29% - more frequently children up to 12 months of age), locking doors and windows (22%), fastening child’s seat belt (15%). • Baby car seat is used increasingly by educated parents, with higher household income, residents of the central region. • 12% of guardians from general population say that they don’t have a car or that they undertake no safety measures. This is the answer of 70% of guardians from Roma settlements. StrategicPuls Group 57 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 58. HEALTHCARE StrategicPuls Group Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 59. Early childhood development - HEALTHCARE June 2009 Healthcare of sick children Who usually takes care of your child What do you usually do when your child is sick? when he/she is sick? Base: Total target population of guardians Base: Total target population of guardians 91% 6% General population 74% 2% 1% 20% I take it to a healthcare center – I consult General population a pediatrician 2% 50% I use remedies that I buy in a pharmacy 2% Mother Both parents Roma from 16% Roma I talk to relatives or friends who also Grandparents settlements 19% have children 69% Father 14% I use domestic remedies Roma from 15% Roma settlements 8% On the question What do you usually do when your child is sick? are great 1% differences recorded between general population of Montenegro and population from Roma settlements. Namely, 91% of guardians from general population take the child to a healthcare center – consult a pediatrician, while When a child is sick, mother usually takes only ½ of Roma guardians do. care of it – in 74% of cases. Both parents take care of the child in 20% of cases. • While other answers appear very rarely in the general population of Grandparents appear in only 2 % of cases, guardians, guardians from Roma settlements say that they talk to somewhat more frequently among guardians relatives or friends who also have children when their child is sick from Roma settlements – 8% of cases. (19%), they use remedies they buy in a pharmacy (16%), they use domestic remedies (14%). StrategicPuls Group 59 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 60. CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES StrategicPuls Group Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 61. Early childhood development - CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES June 2009 Children with disabilities - awareness Do you have or are you taking care of a child with Do you know any family with a handicapped special needs, a child with disabilities? child? Base: Total target population of guardians Base: Those who don't have or are not taking care of a child with special needs (96% of target population) 4% General 30% population General 97% 65% population 5% Yes Yes No No 13% Roma from 24% DK-Ref Roma settlements Roma from 87% Roma 75% settlements 2% 4% of guardians in general population say that they have or are taking care of a child with special needs, with a disability. This percent is significantly higher in Roma population – even 13%. Almost 1/3 of other respondents know a family with a child with disability. StrategicPuls Group 61 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 62. Early childhood development - CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES June 2009 Children with disabilities – social distance Can you please tell me the reasons for your Would you object to a handicapped child attending the objection? same nursery as you child attends? Multiple answers; Base: Those who would not object to a handicapped Base: Those who don't have or are not taking care of a child with special child attending the same nursery as their child does (21% of target needs (96% of target population) population) That child should be paid more 66% attention to, so teachers would have 22% 38% less time for other children General population 47% Such children should attend special 78% nurseries 27% Yes 15% Perhaps my child would be scared No 9% 21% 13% General Perhaps my child would be Roma from population uncomfortable 6% Roma Roma from settlements 79% 4% Roma DK-Ref settlements 24% Even 22% of those who don’t have a child with disability object to a handicapped child attending the same nursery as their child does. • The most frequently mentioned reason for objecting is that guardians think that such children need special attention, so teachers would have less time for other children – this reason is mentioned by even 2/3 of guardians. Additionally, almost half of guardians say that such children should attend special nurseries. Smaller percentage of guardians says that their child might get scared (15%) or feel uncomfortable (13%). • There are no significant differences on this question between guardians from general population and guardians from Roma settlements. StrategicPuls Group 62 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 63. Early childhood development - CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES June 2009 Children with disabilities and special nurseries Do you think that handicapped children should Why they should attend special nurseries? attend special nurseries? Multiple answers; Base: Those who think that handicapped children should attend special nurseries (45% of target population) Base: Total target population of guardians The most frequently given spontaneous answer why these children should attend special nurseries is that these children need special care and attention (40%). Some guardians also say that these children would feel 45% much better and more pleasant there, that they would General population have similar children around them, that their progress 55% would be faster, that they would have adequate and better conditions there. Yes Typical statements: No „Since there are experts there who are trained for dealing with their problems.” 46% Roma from “They need special attention. Nursery has to be adapted to Roma their needs, not vice a versa. They are sick children after all.” settlements 54% “I think that other children would be neglected. The same teacher can’t pay attention to both of these children.” “I don’t think that they would fit in with other children. They can’t understand each other in that period of life.” When asked directly whether they think that children with disability should attend special nurseries, almost ½ or even “Not to get complexes. Perhaps they would feel neglected if 46% of guardians think they should. other children ignored tem.” • There are no greater differences among answers by “Because they behave in a special way that I don’t want to be the tested characteristics of guardians. transferred to my child. My child might imitate moves of such children.” StrategicPuls Group 63 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 64. Early childhood development - CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES June 2009 Prejudice about children with disabilities In case you child and a handicapped child attended the same nursery, do you think that .... No Yes A child with disabilities would have a negative influence on 68% 12% your child Your child would be scared 60% 15% Your child be uncomfortable 59% 14% Your child would be provided with less care 62% 15% As a grown-up, your child would be more tolerant towards 15% 59% handicapped people About 15% of guardians think that their children would feel uncomfortable with these children, that they would be scared, that they would get less attention, and even 12% think that a child with disability would have negative influence on their child. On the other hand, majority of guardians (59%) think that their child would become an adult more tolerant towards people with disabilities in case it attended the same nursery with such children! • Guardians with lower family income show higher degree of negative attitude towards children with disability, while guardians from the central region have less negative attitude. • There is no difference between guardians from general population and guardians from Roma settlements. StrategicPuls Group 64 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 65. PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION AND READINESS FOR SCHOOL StrategicPuls Group Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 66. Early childhood development - PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION AND READINESS FOR SCHOOL June 2009 Guarding children In your opinion, which solution is the best in terms of guarding your children? Base: Total target population of guardians Total target population if guardians Population of guardians from Roma settlements Attending a Attending a 53% 36% public nursery public nursery Grandparents Grandparents 25% 44% baby-sitting baby-sitting Attending a Attending a 13% 2% private nurser private nurser Having a baby- Having a baby- 2% 3% sitter sitter Other 5% Other 12% When guardians are asked about the way their child should spend preschool time, 53% think that it should be attending public nursery. 25% think that child should be guarded by grandparents, 13% that it should attend private nursery and 2% that it should be guarded by a nanny. • The largest percentage of Roma guardians think that it is best for the child to be guarded by grandparents – 44%! 36% that public nurseries are the best, 2% private nurseries and 3% nanny. StrategicPuls Group 66 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 67. Early childhood development - PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION AND READINESS FOR SCHOOL June 2009 Importance of attending nursery for child development Please rate with a grade from 1 to 5 how important it is for your child’s Total target population of guardians development to attend a nursery? Total 5% 78% Base: Total target population of guardians Both employed 3% Employment 80% Only father employed 4% 74% 3% Only mother employed 92% 2% Both unemployed 17% 5% 77% General Up to 100 eur 7% 16% 81% population Completely Income 78% 4% Sum - unimportant 101-200 eur 81% 24% Sum + 2 1% Over 200 eur 82% 54% 21% Gender Sum - Male 61% 22% 3% Female 80% 15% 3 North 8% 37% 76% Roma from Stratum Roma 19% Sum + 1% Center 88% settlements 44% South 7% 4 62% 22% Urban 2% 22% 79% Very important Type of settlem ent Other 8% 77% 78% of guardians think that it important for a child to attend a nursery, and over ½, i.e. 54% think that it is very important. • Nursery is considered somewhat more important by guardians of male children, mothers when they are the only ones employed in the family, guardians from households with higher income, female guardians, residents of central regions and urban areas. • Only 44% of guardians from Roma settlements think that it is important for a child to attend a nursery. Even 37% think that it is not important, relative to only 4% in general population. StrategicPuls Group 67 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 68. Early childhood development - PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION AND READINESS FOR SCHOOL June 2009 Reasons why it is necessary to attend nursery In your opinion, what are the main reasons why a child should attend a nursery? Multiple answers ; Base: Total target population of guardians Socializing with 83% peers A child learns how to share 41% with others A child learns As the main reasons why a child should 29% how to play attend a nursery, guardians mention socializing with peers (83%), learning to share with others (41%), learning how to play Child is on safe (29%), and they also say that a child is safe 26% place there (26%). Other 2% DK-Ref 1% StrategicPuls Group 68 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 69. Early childhood development - PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION AND READINESS FOR SCHOOL June 2009 Characteristics of a good nursery Please name three most important characteristics of a good nursery? Multiple answers ; Base: Total target population of guardians Good equipment (sufficient number of rooms, enough toys, illuminated and 63% warm spaces) When guardians are asked to name three most important characteristics of a good nursery, they Safety of children 59% mainly say: good equipment (sufficient number of rooms, enough toys, illuminated and warm spaces) – 63% of guardians and security of Quality food 46% children (59%). • 46% spontaneously mention quality food, 41% 41% good teachers. 40% mention quality Good teachers program for working with children. Flexible working hours and sufficient number of teachers appear to be somewhat less Quality program for work with children 40% important characteristics (spontaneously mentioned by less than 15% of guardians). Flexible working hours 15% • ¼ of guardians from Roma settlements can’t name any characteristics of a good nursery. Sufficient number of teachers 14% StrategicPuls Group 69 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 70. Early childhood development - PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION AND READINESS FOR SCHOOL June 2009 Characteristics of a good nursery teacher Which should be the characteristics of a good kindergarten or nursery teacher? Multiple answers ; Base: Total target population of guardians Responsible, 74% professional To like children 55% Patient 53% When asked about characteristics of a good kindergarten or nursery teacher, ¾ of guardians say that it should be responsible and professional. More than half of Gentle 31% respondents (55%) think that teacher should like the children and be patient (53%). 1/3 think that she/he should be gentle. Other 1% • 15% of guardians from Roma settlements can’t name characteristics of a good nursery teacher. StrategicPuls Group 70 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 71. INCLUSION OF RAE CHILDREN StrategicPuls Group Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 72. Early childhood development - INCLUSION OF RAE CHILDREN June 2009 Children’s rights – The right of children on free and quality education In your opinion, are all children equally entitled to free and quality education? Base: Total target population of guardians 93% 96% General North 6% population 3% 0% 88% Yes Center 66% 12% No Roma from Roma 14% settlements Yes No DK-Ref 20% 100% South 0% When guardians are asked whether they think that all children are equally entitled to free and quality education, 93% of them say yes. • Somewhat higher percentage of negative answers is recorded in the central region – even 12% say no. Since the question did not refer to whether it should be so, but it referred to the real situation, we assume that guardians gave negative answers because they were aware of certain forms of discrimination. • Among guardians from Roma settlements, only 66% give positive answer. 20% are not sure, but 14% give negative answer. StrategicPuls Group 72 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 73. Early childhood development - INCLUSION OF RAE CHILDREN June 2009 Social distance from RAE children Would you object to a RAE child attending the same nursery that your child attends? Base: Total target population of guardians 21% North 79% Yes 12% Stratum 10% Yes Center No No 90% 88% 4% South 96% Even 12% of guardians would be against Roma children attending the same nursery as their child does. • This answer is especially present in the northern region, where even 21% of guardians don’t want their children to attend the same nursery with Roma children! This distance is the least in the southern region – 4% of guardians give this answer. There are 10% of such guardians in the central region. StrategicPuls Group 73 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 74. Early childhood development - INCLUSION OF RAE CHILDREN June 2009 Reasons for social distance from RAE children Please tell me the reasons for your objection? Multiple answers; Base: Those who would object to a RAE child attending the same nursery as their child does (12% of target population) As the reason for this attitude, guardians primarily mention Because of hygiene 32% hygiene – 32%, the way Roma raise their children – 22%. There are also reasons like great cultural differences, unorganized life, bad habits, not being adapted, non-acceptance by other children Because of upbringing 22% and possibility of bad influence on their children. Disorderly life, habits, behavior 9% Typical statements: “Because of lack of hygiene among Roma. I think that they are too Differences, non-acceptance 7% dirty – only because of that. It is their characteristic to have lice”. “Roma people are still in the streets here and I don’t think that it would They need to be separated, to be with their own people 5% be hygienic.” „Their children are brought up in a different way, I don’t want them to Influence on other children 4% influence my child.” “Roma children don’t have basic upbringing and education. Ill behavior Conditions they live in 3% of these children would have very negative effect on our children.” “I don’t like my child hanging around with Roma children. They are DK-Ref 32% dirty and rude.” “Their life is reckless and disorderly. They have to be separated from us as long s they stay like this.” “Because of different customs and upbringing in general.” StrategicPuls Group 74 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 75. Early childhood development - INCLUSION OF RAE CHILDREN June 2009 Special nurseries for RAE children In your opinion, should RAE children attend special nurseries? Base: Total target population of guardians 21% 11% North General 79% population 90% 8% Stratum Yes Center No 92% Yes 6% No Roma from Roma settlements 2% 94% South 98% Accordingly, 11% of guardians think that Roma children should attend special nurseries. • This answer is more widespread in the northern region – 21%, and rarer in the southern – 2%. In the central region 8% of guardians think that Roma children should attend special nurseries. • Lesser distance is shown by guardians who are both employed (7%), as well as guardians with higher household income (3%). 6% of Roma guardians think that Roma children should attend special nurseries. StrategicPuls Group 75 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 76. Early childhood development - INCLUSION OF RAE CHILDREN June 2009 Reasons for approving special nurseries for RAE children Please tell me why you think that they should attend special nurseries? Multiple answers; Base: Those who think that RAE children should attend special nurseries (11% of target population) Because of upbringing 20% Because of hygiene 19% Differences, non-acceptance 15% They need to be separated, to be with their own people 14% Lagging behind in terms of education 8% Because of specialized teachers 8% They need special attention and care 7% Disorderly life, habits, behavior 7% Conditions they live in 3% Lagging behind in terms of development 3% Influence on other children 1% As reasons for attending special nurseries, guardians mention hygiene again, the way of upbringing and raising children in Roma settlements, too great cultural differences, too extensive lagging behind of these children in terms of education and development. Some guardians say that these children need special attention and specialized teachers, as well as that these children wouldn’t be accepted by other children. Roma guardians who think that Roma children should attend special nurseries say that they need special care, that their children significantly lag behind other children in terms of education and that their children are usually not accepted by other children. StrategicPuls Group 76 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 77. ADOPTION AND FOSTERING StrategicPuls Group Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 78. Early childhood development - ADOPTION AND FOSTERING June 2009 Assistance for guardians who have difficulties raising children In your opinion, who should help parents who are faced with problems related to raising their children? Base: Total target population of guardians 47% 48% North 39% General 38% 12% population 12% 50% Stratum Center 41% 5% 60% Roma from Roma 34% Center for social work 45% settlements Center for social work Family South 29% 4% Family 23% Pedagogues, Pedagogues, psychologists psychologists 48 % of guardians spontaneously say that Center for social work is the first who should help parents who are faced with problems related to raising their children. 38% say that it is the family. 12% mention pedagogues and psychologists in educational facilities. • Guardians who are both employed, who have higher household income and who live in the southern region stress influence of pedagogue and psychologist to a greater extent, and influence of family to a lower extent. • Roma guardians mention pedagogues and psychologists as the first choice in only 4% of cases. StrategicPuls Group 78 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 79. Early childhood development - ADOPTION AND FOSTERING June 2009 Mechanisms of assistance for preventing abandoning of children by parents Which mechanisms, what kind of help might prevent abandoning children by parents? Multiple answers ; Base: Total target population of guardians Financial help 53% Help of Centers for social work 48% Professional help (psychologist 33% Advising pregnant woman 17% As mechanisms and the kind of help which might prevent abandoning children by parents, guardians suggest primarily Other 1% financial support – 53% of guardians, then assistance of Center for social work – 48%, professional help of a DK-Ref 2% psychologist – 33%, advising pregnant women – 17%. StrategicPuls Group 79 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 80. Early childhood development - ADOPTION AND FOSTERING June 2009 Sustainer family Would you take a child to a sustainer family? Base: Total target population of guardians 43% General 36% When asked if they would take a child to a sustainer family, 43% population of guardians say that they would, while 36% say that they 21% wouldn’t. 21% of guardians are unsure. Yes No Not sure • Positive answers are provided more frequently by guardians from wealthier households, and guardians with 19% Roma from better education. Roma 65% settlements • 2/3 of Roma guardians would not be prepared to take a 16% child into a sustainer family. StrategicPuls Group 80 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 81. Early childhood development - ADOPTION AND FOSTERING June 2009 Sustainer family Why wouldn’t you (not sure) take a child to a sustainer family? Multiple answers ; Base: Those who wouldn’t (not sure) take a child to a sustainer family (57% of target population) I have children/ I am planning to have children, more childr 23% We have no conditions, possibilities 17% Because of financial situation 12% It's a great responsibility, risk, obligation 8% They don't want to, they don't have the need, interests 5% They wouldn't dare to, they are not ready, not capable 5% They have responsibilities/ a job/ they don't have time 4% Fear of inadequate fitting in a family 2% Lack of housing space 1% They would get too attached to the child 1% DK-Ref 25% As reasons for not taking a child in a sustainer family, guardians say that they already have children, or that they are planning more children (23% if guardians who wouldn’t take a child in a sustainer family), that they don’t have the conditions for it (17%), bad financial situation (12%). They also say that it is a great responsibility and obligation, that they don’t have the need for it, that they are not capable of it, that they have no time, lack of space. Some also fear that a new child might disturb functioning of family, as well as that they would get too attached to the child. The most common answer of Roma guardians is that they do not have possibilities (29%). StrategicPuls Group 81 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 82. Early childhood development - ADOPTION AND FOSTERING June 2009 Adoption of children Would you adopt a child? Base: Total target population of guardians 33% General 50% When asked whether they would adopt a child, 1/3 of population guardians say that they would, while 1/2 say that they 17% wouldn’t. 17% of guardians are not sure. • Again, positive answers are provided more frequently by guardians from wealthier households, 17% Roma from guardians with better education, younger, with one Roma 68% child, residents of the central region. settlements 15% • 2/3 of Roma guardians would not be ready to adopt Yes No DK-Ref a child. StrategicPuls Group 82 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 83. Early childhood development - ADOPTION AND FOSTERING June 2009 Adoption of children Why wouldn’t you (not sure) adopt a child to a sustainer family? Multiple answers; Base: Those who wouldn’t (not sure) adopt a child (67% of target population) I have children/ I am planning to have children, more children 55% They don't want to, they don't have the need, interests 9% We have no conditions, possibilities 7% Because of financial situation 6% It's a great responsibility, risk, obligation 5% Fear of inherited characteristics/ someone else's child 4% They wouldn't dare to, they are not ready, not capable 2% They have responsibilities/ a job/ they don't have time 1% Fear of inadequate fitting in a family 1% Perhaps difference might be felt, different relationship 1% If the child were abandoned, without anyone 1% As reasons for not adopting a child, guardians most frequently mention already having children or planning to have more children (55% of guardians who wouldn’t adopt a child). Answers are the same as answers to the question about taking a child to a sustainer family, but to a lower percentage. Some guardians also mentioned fear of inherited unknown characteristics of biological parents, as well as fear that different attitude towards children might be sensed. StrategicPuls Group 83 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 84. Early childhood development - ADOPTION AND FOSTERING June 2009 Homes for children without parental care in Montenegro - conditions In your opinion, are children institutionalized in homes for children without parental care in Montenegro brought up in good conditions? Base: Total target population of guardians 22% General 15% population When asked: In your opinion, are children 63% institutionalized in homes for children without parental care in Montenegro brought up in good conditions? the largest number of guardians, almost 2/3 , don’t 41% know the answer. 22% think that conditions are Roma from adequate, while 15% think that they are not. Roma 6% settlements • Negative answer is provided more frequently 53% Yes No Not sure by better educated and younger guardians. • Far bigger percentage of Roma guardians think that these conditions are good – even 41% provide positive answer, while only 6% provide negative answer. StrategicPuls Group 84 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 85. Early childhood development - ADOPTION AND FOSTERING June 2009 Homes for children without parental care in Montenegro – visits and donations Have you ever visited any of the 6 homes for Have you ever given a donation to any of the 6 homes for children without parental care in Montenegro? children without parental care in Montenegro? Base: Total target population of guardians Base: Total target population of guardians DK-Ref 1% Yes 22% DK-Ref 1% Yes No 16% 83% No 77% 83% of guardians admit that they have never visited More than ¾ or 77% of guardians have never given a any of the 6 homes for children without parental donation to any of the 6 homes for children without care in Montenegro. parental care in Montenegro. • Better educated guardians, employed, those • Better educated guardians, employed, those with with higher income, residents of the southern higher income, residents of the southern region say region and urban areas say that they have that they have given a donation to some of these visited some of these homes to a higher homes to a higher percentage than others do. percentage than others do. • 2% of Roma guardians say that they have given a • Only 1,5% of Roma guardians say that they donation. have visited some of these homes. StrategicPuls Group 85 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 86. FINAL QUESTIONS StrategicPuls Group Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 87. Early childhood development - FINAL QUESTIONS June 2009 Guardians’ biggest problems In your opinion, what is the main problem that parents in Montenegro are faced with in terms of upbringing of children (in the early phases of child development) Multiple answers ; Base: Total target population of guardians Guardians spontaneously mention the following as the Financial main problems that parents in Montenegro are faced 84% problems with in terms of upbringing of children (in the early phases of child development): Value problems: 43% • primarily financial problems – 84%, then how to teach a child true values • value problems: how to teach a child true values – 43% Children’s health 21% • children’s health – 21% • quality of education in nurseries – 11% Quality of • violence (in nurseries, between children...) – education in 11% 11%. preschools Roma guardians mention somewhat more frequently the problems related to violence in schools and Violence (in kindergardens, 11% nurseries, and somewhat more rarely problems among children...) related to values and children’s health. StrategicPuls Group 87 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 88. Early childhood development - FINAL QUESTIONS June 2009 What would guardians change if they could What would you change, if you could, regarding the way that you raise your child(ren)? Multiple answers ; Base: Total target population of guardians When asked What would you change, if you could, regarding the way that you raise your child(ren)?, ¾ of guardians say that they wouldn’t change anything. Other answers refer to improving of financial situation, more time they would spend with their children, more space for children, more attention paid to upbringing of children, change of environment for children, especially places where children play… Typical statements: “To have more free time to spend with my children than I do now”. “Better financial conditions, I would provide better housing conditions, better accommodation.” “I would change nutrition regime.” “To have more money to be able to afford everything for him.” “I would provide better living conditions, I would take them to travels, they would attend private nursery.” “To have been more consistent in punishing. Not to have spoilt him this much.” “I would like me and my husband to be employed and to be able to provide them better living conditions.” “Better conditions in schools, nurseries, in other institutions.” “More spaces with grass for playing.” StrategicPuls Group 88 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 89. DEMOGRAPHY StrategicPuls Group Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 90. Early childhood development - DEMOGRAPHY June 2009 Education of mother and father Mother's education: Father's education: Base: Population of mothers (98% of target population) Base: Population of fathers (93% of target population) Unfinished primary school 0% Unfinished primary school 0% Finished primary school 6% Finished primary school 3% Unfinished secondary school 3% Unfinished secondary school 1% Unfinished secondary school, but Unfinished secondary school, but 2% 2% has a trade has a trade Finished secondary school 67% Finished secondary school 68% Unfinished faculty 2% Unfinished faculty 2% Finished college 7% Finished college 9% Finished faculty 13% Finished faculty 15% StrategicPuls Group 90 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 91. Early childhood development - DEMOGRAPHY June 2009 Occupation of mother and father Mother's current occupation: Father's current occupation: Base: Population of mothers (98% of target population) Base: Population of fathers (93% of target population) Unskilled manual worker (blue Unskilled manual worker (blue 22% 7% collar) collar) 26% 21% Highly qualified intellectual Highly qualified intellectual 5% 5% (lawyer, doctor, teacher…) (lawyer, doctor, teacher…) 1% 5% Highly qualified intellectual who is Highly qualified intellectual who is 2% 2% self-employed (lawyer, doctor, self-employed (lawyer, doctor, 3% 10% Owns a bigger company, Owns a bigger company, 0% 1% stockholder stockholder 1% 2% Earns in some other way 5% Earns in some other way 16% 0% 0% Unemployed 54% Unemployed 12% 2% StrategicPuls Group 91 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 92. Early childhood development - DEMOGRAPHY June 2009 Child gender and age Child gender Child age Base: Total target population Base: Total target population 0-6m 10% 6m -1y 9% Female 1-2 y 48% Male 3-6 y 14% 52% 54% 2-3 y 13% StrategicPuls Group 92 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 93. Early childhood development - DEMOGRAPHY June 2009 Highest level of education of guardians Highest education of guardians Base: Total target population Guardians occupation Base: Total target population Elementary or Both less unemployed 4% 11% College or University Only mother 29% employed 8% Both employed 38% Secondary 67% Only father employed 43% StrategicPuls Group 93 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 94. Early childhood development - DEMOGRAPHY June 2009 Income per household member HH income per HH member Base: Total target population Refusal 15% Up to 100 eur 34% Over 200 eur 17% 101-200 eur 34% StrategicPuls Group 94 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 95. Early childhood development - DEMOGRAPHY June 2009 Gender and age of guardians Guardian gender Guardian age Base: Total target population Base: Total target population >35 16 - 25 18% 22% Male 9% Female 91% 31 - 35 26 - 30 26% 34% StrategicPuls Group 95 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 96. Early childhood development - DEMOGRAPHY June 2009 Household size Household size Base: Total target population 6+ 16% Up to 3 36% 5 19% 4 29% StrategicPuls Group 96 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 97. Early childhood development - DEMOGRAPHY June 2009 Region and type of settlement Stratum Settlement type Base: Total target population Base: Total target population South 23% North 31% Other 38% City 62% Center 46% StrategicPuls Group 97 Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania
  • 98. Thank you for your attention! StrategicPuls Group Serbia | Croatia | Slovenia | Bosnia and Herzegovina | Montenegro | Macedonia | Albania