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Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
Inclusive Education in European Countries
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Inclusive Education in European Countries

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by Verity Donnelly - Inclusive Education Conference, Moscow, September 2011

by Verity Donnelly - Inclusive Education Conference, Moscow, September 2011

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  • Overview of the input: 1. Some background on the The European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education 2. Reflections upon inclusive education in Agency member countries emerging from Agency work 3. Stress the importance of ensuring all voices are heard
  • 1996 - established as an initiative of the Danish Ministry of education following the end of the EU HELIOS programme 1999 - the original 15 member countries ‘took ownership’ of the Agency 2003 - the Agency obtained a legal basis at the European level that was approved by the European Parliament
  • UNESCO Policy Guidelines on Inclusive Education, 2009 Inclusive education is a process that involves the transformation of schools and other centres of learning to cater for all children – including boys and girls, students from ethnic and linguistic minorities, rural populations, those affected by HIV and AIDS, and those with disabilities and difficulties in learning and to provide learning opportunities for all youth and adults as well. Its aim is to eliminate exclusion that is a consequence of negative attitudes and a lack of response to diversity in race, economic status, social class, ethnicity, language, religion, gender, sexual orientation and ability. Education takes place in many contexts, both formal and non-formal, and within families and the wider community Inclusion as systemic change: Understood to concern a far wider range of pupils vulnerable to exclusion than those identified as having SEN Involves a curriculum for all that considers academic and social learning. Curriculum goals and implementation should reflect this dual focus Inclusion is a process and not a state. Educators will always need to move their work forward to enable the learning and participation of all pupils Will now move onto: Reflections upon inclusive education in European Agency member countries
  • Balance between commonality and differentiation Minnow (1990) When does treating people differently emphasise their differences and stigmatise or hinder them on that basis? And when does treating people the same become insensitive to their difference and likely to stigmatise or hinder them on that basis? (p20)
  • Critical issues for inclusion identified by Susan Peters 2004 Resources – McKinsey 2010 How the worlds most improved school systems keep getting better (building on 2007 How the worlds best performing school systems come out on top) looked at 20 systems world wide – reform elements replicable elsewhere as they move along development journey from poor to fair to good to great to excellent.– more at work than resources – despite higher spending many school systems have stagnated – similar spend results in widely varying performance. Universal design – access to buildings and curricula, social economic access and meaningful participation Training for diversity for all teachers – curriculum for broad goals, range of assessments – reflection. Mc Kinsey – as schools improve greater impact of prof development versus accountability interventions Policy and legislation accompanied by effective and specific mechanisms for monitoring – National policy of little value if not enacted in schools/classrooms Reform needs changes in beliefs, methods, resource allocation at all levels IE principles drive reform –not add on - diversity recognised and valued Individualised education a universal right not a special ed need all stakeholders actively involved Distinction between equal opportunity and equal treatment – not one size fits all but ind support aim toward equal success broadly measured (treatment acc to need) Mc Kinsey - progress on own indicators – benchmarking with comparable systems Placement on need for services not SEN or a non-specified but dominant idea of what is normal (Norwich) – decisions consider IE as continuum of services in general ed classroom – networks for support and teacher education reduce need for ID and referral Assessment –curriculum based – multiple forms – support learning – individual progress – academic and social, independent living for active participation. Local accountability? Excellence and equity go hand in hand Capacity – based on holistic approaches – early intervention – health well being work with families - services are not expenses but investments (Peters paper – quote from UN session on children 2002 Arrieta and Cheynut)
  • * Italy = based on 2008 data
  • * Italy = based on 2008 data
  • Within all countries' systems of provision, there are a number of key factors that could be examined systematically using indicators to give a descriptive picture of trends to towards inclusion. These issues can be related to:
  • An examination of the time series data does not highlight major trends, changes and movements in countries. Some minor changes are evident, but the reasons for these are unclear and it would be necessary to conduct an examination of changes in policy and legislation, resourcing and financing structures that act as levers for change in placement of pupils with special educational needs in different settings, in order to fully understand the factors directing changes within the data sets.   It can be argued that changes in laws and policies for special education and/or inclusion within countries are likely to be the most critical levers for change that – in the long-term – would be reflected in quantitative data relating to pupils with SEN. An examination of recent legislative changes in countries reveals a number of common issues and trends in legislation: A broadening concept of SEN / SNE – this is evident in terms of the ‘words’ or terms’ being used to identify key concepts: for example a move towards the term additional support needs and not SEN in UK (Scotland), as well as a clarification or widening definition of which groups should be considered under legislation that gives access to services (Greece and the Czech Republic respectively).   Improvements in the rights of pupils with SEN and their families – this relates to access to compulsory education (Greece); access to specialist support and services (Norway and Portugal); access to mainstream, inclusive education (Czech Republic; Iceland; Ireland; Portugal; Spain). The Greek legislation highlights the need to ‘secure equal opportunities’; the Portuguese legislation specifically takes a ‘rights based approach’, whilst the Spanish legislation reasserts the ‘normalisation principle’ in legislative changes.   Devolution of responsibilities – to local and/or regional level bodies and organisations who are charged with ensuring provision is available for all pupils as required (Iceland; Spain; UK (Scotland)).   Improving frameworks and structures of provision – all legislative changes and developments aim towards improvements in provision and services within the national system and context. However, in some countries recent changes in legislation will have widespread impact on the basic structures and frameworks for organising services. For example, in Greece, the department of Special Education will be re-organised; in Ireland, a National Council for Special Education has been established; in Portugal, as well as a re-reorganisation of all SNE services, special schools will be transformed into resource centres.   Promoting specific tools and approaches within provision – again, whilst developments are very much set in national contexts, it is possible to highlight a number of common features of SNE practice being promoted in legislative changes: the implementation of Individual Education Plans for pupils with SEN (Ireland; Portugal, UK (Scotland)); co-ordinated transition phase planning (Portugal; UK (Scotland)); bilingual educational opportunities for deaf pupils (Norway; Portugal).   The five areas of legislative movements in countries described above highlight important considerations for understanding the nature of changes that may be evident in the special needs education field across Europe in the short or longer term. These developments are related to improvements in services and provision, as well as developments and changes in societies’ thinking about disability, special needs and the rights of people with such needs. All of these factors are also highlighted in international studies and analyses as crucial aspects for improvement in educational opportunities for pupils with special educational needs.   These key factors illustrated in the legislative changes in countries are not however directly and immediately evident as changes in statistical data relating to placement of pupils with SEN. As can be seen from the information presented in above, such changes are not usually evident in the short to medium term.   The position of the Agency and its member countries is that sharing information on qualitative trends, developments and practice across countries leads to a deeper and broader understanding of the field of inclusion, which a consideration of quantitative data alone cannot give. Such a development in the understanding and thinking of decision makers in the field is – experience shows – what leads to further change and positive impacts upon legislation and policy that promotes educational and societal inclusion in countries.  
  • Identification of specific needs … towards assessment for learning Individualised learning for a few …. Towards personalised learning approaches for all
  • What moels of legislation? All policies consider and account for the needs of all learners from the beginning Policies should be: trans-sectoral underpinned by a philosophy of meeting all needs have long-term vision, but reflect local level needs Phases of policy development: short term: recognisable (separate) specific action plan/strategy medium term: part of general strategy plans long term: not mentioned, accepted as ‘a given’ Feedback from this and other Agency projects suggests countries want information on the above 1-Agency work on key principles policy Point 2 – Teacher ed project – looking at this issues currently – see web site Further Agency work is focusing on key principles of inclusive education – practice Recent project on early childhood intervention R Rieser Implementing Incl Ed – guide to implementing UNCRPD includes UN Special Rapporteurs suggestions on how to implement inclusive education (2007) Report to UN Human Rights Council on right to ed of people with disabilities covers most of these points suggested that legislation shjould be increasingly linked to ratification of UNCRPD – moving towards one education system, one area of Ministerial responsibility He stresses importance of teachers prof development and links this to a move from separate special schools to resource bases The importance of inclusive early years provision and empowering parents also outlined. –collaborative approaches Finally the need to monitor developments - enrolment and participation We need to through this collaboration consider how we measure what we value – it is a complex task – danger of over simplifying – or introducing measures which have a negative impact on practice – focus on presence, participation, wider achievement – qualitative as well as quantitative and find ways of ensuring that we know that the learners who are at risk of being marginalised, excluded are also engaged in learning/having their needs met. Will now move onto: Importance of ensuring all voices are heard
  • Thinking about inclusion touches the very core of our own values and beliefs - some of the key points underpinning the broad concept of inclusion are set out here Point 1 is from UNESCO Policy Guidelines on Inclusion in Education (2009) Point 2 – Smith and colleagues 2009 – Disability Studies in Education – Guidelines and ethical practice for educators – highlights that everyone need support at some time – many supports for people with disabilities are useful to everyone – need to see disability as part of diversity – another interesting way to be alive. Differences seen as ‘essential aspect of human development in all schools – and all policy making (Florian and Rouse 2009)Teaching and Teacher Education Point 3 - Heshius 2004 – From creative discontent toward epistemological freedom in special education: reflections on a 25 year journey. In D Gallagher, L Heshius, R Iano, t Skrtic Challengin orthodoxy in special education ; Dissenting voices pp169-230 Denver. diversity and ranking are singularly incompatible – diversity is flattened and disappears in the very act of being measured and ranked. Also relevant here is work of Susan hart – Learning without Limits (2006) replace fixed ideas of ability with the idea of transformabaility – can increase the learning capacity of all learners – also ethic of everybody Point 4 - Curriculum, assessment and pedagogy that reflect view of learning – understanding of learning process as not being hierarchical– test scores etc only part of the picture - move on from thinking traditionally associated with special education – focus on defecit – medical model of ‘fixing’ behavioural interventions - to thinking informed by constructivist approaches social justice and disability rights - curriculum relevant , meaningful to life, UDL – more flexible methods of assessment to reflect broad view of progress Is the primary task of education to develop a literate and numerate individual with economically relevant attributes as put forward in the educational policies of many governments across the globe? Or are the ‘core educational values’ shaped by a range of other social and human development outcomes of education that concentrate on the enhancement of human lives and freedoms.Jenny Corbett talsk about the culture of inclusion ‘holding up a way of treating other people not based on a competetive or hierarchical model’ p45 Supporting inclusive education : a connective pedagogy Think about what we would want for our family members – ask the learners/families Aspects to an inclusive approach: Diversity Not about any one group of students, categorisation is minimised, diversity is valued Learning and participation Removing barriers to learning and participation for all, participation in academic, social and cultural community of the neighbourhood school, every student’s right to learn Democracy All voices should be heard, collaboration essential on all levels Booth, Nes and Stromstad 2004 Developing Inclusive Teacher Education pull together definitions of inclusion by contributors to their book.. 1 - no labels - all learn in unique ways 2 Lunt and Norwich 1999 highlight several possibly conflicting rights e.g right to participate in ordinary school/classroom, right to acceptance and respect, right to individually relevant learning, right to engage in common learning opportunities, right to involvement and choice in education – Norwich goes on to outline dilemma in 3 areas – identification (dangers of labelling versus needs not met), curriculum – same learning opportunities (loss of relevance) versus lower status curriculum and location (general classroom (less resources) versus segregated provision away from peers>
  • The agreed conclusions of the discussions will be made available in all 21 Agency working languages and will be presented to the Ministries of Education in the participating countries, as well as to representatives from the EU institutions and International organisations.
  • Transcript

    • 1. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES Verity Donnelly European Agency for Development in Special Educational Needs
    • 2. The Agency
      • 15th year of operations
      • Main secretariat in Odense, Denmark and European Liaison office in Brussels, Belgium
      • The Agency is financed by:
      • The member countries ’ Ministries of Education
      • European Commission as one of the 6 organisations supported by the Jean Monnet, Lifelong Learning Programme
    • 3. The Agency network
      • National networks in 27 European countries:
      • Austria, Belgium (Flemish and French speaking communities), Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom (England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales)
      • 24 EU member states and 3 EFA countries
    • 4. Focus
      • The Agency’s focus is upon inclusive education within its widest interpretation – that is dealing with learner difference and diversity in all educational settings as a quality issue. The Agency’s work is essentially concerned with how the achievement of all learners - with a specific focus on the situation of those pupils identified as having special educational needs - can be improved in a meaningful way that enhances their life chances and opportunities for actively participating in society
    • 5. Activities
      • Collection, analysis and dissemination of information on priority themes
      • Participation and organisation of conferences, seminars and political events
      • Liaison with the European institutions and international organisations – UNESCO and its institutes (IBE, IITE), OECD Eurostat, Eurydice, Cedefop, World Bank
    • 6. Information Resources
      • The Agency offers various information resources, which can all be accessed via the website www.european-agency.org
        • Thematic Reports
        • Thematic Databases
        • Newsletters and Electronic Bulletin
      • Agency publications can be downloaded in up to 21 member languages
    • 7. Working parameters
      • Countries are at different starting points and have different ‘histories’ in terms of education generally and inclusion specifically:
        • T here is a need to account for that and see it as a strength
      • No-one has all the answers:
        • Many countries have clear examples of good practice, but all countries are still ‘moving ahead’
      • Learning from diversity is a principle for all Agency work:
        • As well as being an aim for inclusive education itself
    • 8. International Policy Context
      • At all times, the Agency works to guiding principles as outlined in:
      • Council Resolutions concerning inclusion of children and young people with disabilities into mainstream systems of education
      • UNESCO Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action in Special Needs Education (1994)
      • UN Convention on Rights of People with Disabilities (2006)
        • Article 24 in particular
    • 9. Dilemmas for inclusion as systemic change
      • Who … all learners, vulnerable learners, learners with SEN/disability?
      • Where ... special settings/mainstream school (under the same roof or engaged in a common learning endeavour)
      • When ... full/part time. Can you be a little bit ‘included’?
      • How ... focus on diagnosis/label or social/environmental barriers to learning and participation
    • 10. Critical issues?
      • Resources
      • Access and participation
      • Teacher professional development
      • Policy and legislation
      • Whole school reform
      • Identification and placement
      • Assessment, accountability, efficiency and effectiveness
      • Building capacity and sustainability
      • Peters, S. (2004) Inclusive Education: An EFA strategy for all
      • children. Paper for World Bank
    • 11. Movements towards inclusion
      • Developments
      • A wider range and more flexible provision
      • Developing funding models
      • The development of resource centres  
      •   Challenges
      • Academic achievements (output) versus SEN
      • Secondary education
      • Preparing all teachers for inclusive education
      • Over 2% of pupils are being educated in separate settings (schools and classes) across Europe
    • 12. Percentage of pupils in the compulsory school sector recognised as having SEN in 2010 (in all educational settings)     < 2.0% 2.01% - 4.0% 4.01% - 6.0% 6.01% - 10.0% > 10% Sweden Austria France Greece Luxembourg Poland Portugal Spain UK (England) UK (Wales) Italy * Belgium (Fr) Cyprus Denmark Germany Hungary Ireland Latvia Malta Netherlands Switzerland UK (N.I.) Belgium (Fl) Czech rep. Estonia Finland Norway Slovenia UK (Scotland) Iceland Lithuania
    • 13. Percentage of pupils with SEN in segregated settings   Up to 1.0% 1.01 %- 2.0% 2.01%- 4.0% 4.01% and above Cyprus Luxembourg Malta Portugal Spain Italy * Austria France Iceland Ireland Lithuania Norway Poland Slovenia Sweden UK (England) UK (N.I.) UK (Scotland) UK (Wales) Finland Greece Hungary Netherlands Belgium (Fl) Belgium (Fr) Czech Rep. Denmark Estonia Germany Latvia Switzerland
    • 14. Factors impacting upon inclusion
      • Coherence of services and possibilities within and across phases of educational provision: Early Childhood Intervention through to Higher Education
      • Horizontal factors that impact on all phases of educational provision:
        • Educational assessment systems
        • Teacher education and development
        • Financing systems
        • Provision for meeting a diversity of learners’ needs
    • 15. Changes in legislation acting as levers for change
      • I n creasing focus on the rights of pupils with SEN and their families – this relates to access to compulsory education; access to specialist support and services; access to mainstream, inclusive education
      • Devolution of responsibilities – to local and/or regional level bodies and organisations 
      • Improving frameworks and structures of provision – all legislative changes and developments aim towards improvements in provision and services within the national system and context
      • Promoting specific tools and approaches within provision – i.e. the implementation of Individual Education Plans for pupils with SEN
    • 16. A broadening of the concept of educational needs
      • A move away from labelling and categorisation of needs
      • A widening definition of which groups should be considered under legislation that gives access to services
      • Evident in terms of the ‘words’ or terms’ being used to identify key concepts: e.g. ‘additional support needs’ and not disability or SEN specific labels
      • Children with disability as a specific group with specific needs within the educational continuum of individual needs
    • 17. What do we still need to know?
      • What legislation and models of resourcing can support effective organisation of education and quality for all?
      • What makes an effective, inclusive teacher - skills, experience, attitudes?
      • What works for learners in education - organisation, pedagogy, curriculum and assessment?
      • How agencies can collaborate to provide holistic support - early intervention, family support, community involvement?
      • What are valued outcomes (academic and social) – long term quality of life, being active and contributing citizens?
    • 18. Underpinning beliefs
      • Education is a fundamental human right and a foundation for a more just society
      • Disability is socially constructed – everyone needs support
      • Sorting, ranking, categorising can obscure strengths and talents - labels should be replaced by useful information to support learning, increasing learning capacity of all
      • All learners are entitled to an interesting curriculum that is meaningful in context, with consistent pedagogy and assessment that supports learning
      • Quality of life is a key indicator – listen to learners, consider impact on life chances
    • 19. European Hearing in Portugal
      • European Hearing of Young People with Special Educational Needs organised by the Agency, within the framework of the Portuguese Presidency of the European Union and the European Year of Equal Opportunities
      • The event took place in Lisbon within the framework of the Portuguese Presidency of the European Union
      • The Lisbon Declaration ‘Young People’s Views on Inclusive Education’ is the main result of this event
    • 20. Lisbon Declaration 2007
      • http://www.european-agency.org/publications/flyers/lisbon-declaration-young-peoples-views-on-inclusive-education/lisbon-declaration-young-people2019s-views-on-inclusive-education
      • ‘ We have the right to the same opportunities as everyone else, but with the necessary support to meet our needs. No one’s needs should be ignored’
      • ‘ Teachers need to be motivated, to be well informed about and understand our needs. They need to be well trained, ask us what we need and to be well co-ordinated among themselves’
      • http://www.european-agency.org/publications/ereports/young-voices-meeting-diversity-in-education/young-voices-meeting-diversity-in-education
    • 21. ‘ Inclusive education is mutually beneficial to us and to the others’ We see a lot of benefits in inclusive education: we acquire more social skills; we live more experiences; we learn about how to manage in the real world; we need to have and interact with friends with and without special needs
    • 22. European Parliament Hearing 2011 In November 2011, there will be a further European hearing, this time for young people with and without disabilities, held in the European Parliament, Brussels It will involve 31 country delegations with 3 young people per delegation, aged between 14 to 18 years The country delegations will have the opportunity to express their own views and perspectives on inclusive education based upon their experiences, as well as highlight their needs and hopes for the future
    • 23. More information
      • www.european-agency.org
      • European Agency for Development in Special Needs Education
      • Østre Stationsvej 33
      • DK-5000 Odense C
      • Denmark
      • [email_address]
      • Dr. Amanda Watkins [email_address]

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