Fostering and adoption in Montenegro

764 views
531 views

Published on

IPSOS / UNICEF Montenegro (2013)

Published in: Education, Self Improvement
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
764
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
174
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
5
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Fostering and adoption in Montenegro

  1. 1. Fostering and adoption in Montenegro 2013 The Home of Researchers© 2013 Ipsos. All rights reserved. Contains Ipsos' Confidential and Proprietary information and may not be disclosed or reproduced without the prior written consent of Ipsos.
  2. 2. Table of contents • Methodology • Sample • Awareness of forms of protecting children without parental care • Foster care and adoption in Montenegro • Attitudes toward foster care and adoption • Experience and interest in foster care and adoption • Communication channels 2
  3. 3. Methodology  Ad hoc face-to-face survey with interviewing performed at respondents’ home • Data collected on representative sample for population of Montenegro citizens aged 18 and more • Target population size is 474 655 • Sample size is 1016 (with 127 sampling points) • Sample type is stratified 3-staged probability sample with sampling stages :  Polling station territory – approximately size of 200 HH (PPS with probabilities proportional to size)  Households by random route technique starting from the given addresses (SRSWoR)  Households member with same probability (SRSWoR) – Kish scheme  Stratification is done according to  Type of settlement – urban/rural  Four geo-economical regions  Post stratification is performed regarding: gender, age, type of settlement, geo-economical region  Fieldwork control is done in 12% of totally interviewed in all strata proportionally to sample size, and logic and consistency control of collected data is performed in 100% of cases • Data collection is performed from 1st to 15th December 2012 • 95% confidence interval for incidence of 5% is +/- 1.2% • 95% confidence interval for incidence of 20% is +/- 2.2% • 95% confidence interval for incidence of 50% is +/- 2.8% 3
  4. 4. 48% 52% 23% 20% 18% 26% 14% 23% 58% 19% 28% 48% 24% 64% 36% Male Female 18-29 30-39 40-49 50-64 65+ Elementary school Secondary school Collegeor university North Center South Urban Other Gender Age Education Stratum Type of settlement Sample 4
  5. 5. Awareness of forms of protecting children without parental care 5
  6. 6. Providing support by the state for families/individual persons who are at risk of abandoning the child Yes 17% Don't know 5% No 78% 12% 10% 6% 4% 3% 3% 52%Center for social work State / state institutions Municipality Safe House Family / relatives/ close persons NGO Montenegrin Government Do you think that the state helps sufficiently family/individual person/mother who are at risk of abandoning the child due to various problems/circumstances? To whom such family / individual / mother can turn for help? Base: Total target population. Do you think that the state helps sufficiently family/individual person/mother who are at risk of abandoning the child due to various problems circumstances? Multiple responses; Base: Total target population. To whom such family / individual / mother can turn for help? Open ended 6
  7. 7. Providing support by the state for families/individual persons who are at risk of abandoning the child – the state helps sufficiently 17 16 17 16 11 18 16 24 25 15 12 18 12 17 21 18 17 14 14 22 Total Male Female 18-29 30-39 40-49 50-64 65+ Elementaryschool Secondaryschool CollegeorUniversity Lessthan100EUR 101-200EUR Morethan200EUR Refusetoanswer North Center South Urban Other % those who think that the state helps sufficiently Base: Total target population. Do you think that the state helps sufficiently family/individual person/mother who are at risk of abandoning the child due to various problems circumstances? 7
  8. 8. Providing support by the state for families/individual persons who are at risk of abandoning the child – the state helps sufficiently 17 20 15 14 29 11 11 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who think that the state helps sufficiently Base: Total target population. Do you think that the state helps sufficiently family/individual person/mother who are at risk of abandoning the child due to various problems circumstances? 8
  9. 9. The reasons for the separation of the child from the family 48% 47% 25% 20% 1% 1% 58% Poor financial situation and family's living conditions Family violence Negligence and reluctance of parents to raise their children Illness of parents Insufficient support of state and competent institutions Other Don't know Multiple responses; Base: Total target population. Why do you think that children are usually separated from family? 9
  10. 10. Mentioned forms of protection of children without adequate parental care by the state 68% 35% 27% 2% 1% 1% 69% Placing the child in social and child protection institutions (children's homes - large residential institutions) Adoption Foster care Guardianship Other None Don't know / Refuse Multiple responses; Base: Total target population. To start with, please try to recall all forms of protection and ways the state can use to provide for or protect children without parents and without proper parental care? 10
  11. 11. Knowledge about foster care Base: Total target population. All things considered, how informed do you consider yourself about foster care – what it involves, what the legal regulations and procedures are like..? 26% 45% 71% 25% 4% 3% 1% I don't know anything about foster care I know a little about foster care I KNOW LITTLE I know something about foster care I KNOW A LOT I know much about foster care I know very much about foster care 11
  12. 12. Knowledge about foster care Base: Total target population. All things considered, how informed do you consider yourself about foster care – what it involves, what the legal regulations and procedures are like..? 4 4 4 4 4 5 7 1 3 8 2 1 4 5 3 5 71 75 67 72 66 69 66 87 80 72 56 73 70 66 76 72 71 69 72 68 4 1 4 2 Total Male Female 18-29 30-39 40-49 50-64 65+ Elementaryschool Secondaryschool CollegeorUniversity Lessthan100EUR 101-200EUR Morethan200EUR Refusetoanswer North Center South Urban Other % I know a lot (4+5) % I know little (1+2) 12
  13. 13. Perception of foster care 20% 10% 8% 6% 5% 3% 2% 5% 24% 27%Caring for a child, helping a child Temporarily caring for a child, helping a child Temporary accommodation / care about the child in own home Accommodation/ care of the child in own home Child support (provision of food, clothing and shoes for the child / child education expenses) Receiving monthly compensation from the state for the care of the child Taking care of the child's education and health The same/ similar to adoption Other Don't know / Refuse Multiple responses; Base: Total target population. In your opinion, what is adoption? Open ended 13
  14. 14. Perception of foster care Base: Total target population. Now I will read to you some statements. Please tell me whether you think that they are right or not. 81 71 64 57 49 43 42 32 26 14 10 17 11 10 23 24 25 30 32 14 9 12 25 33 28 32 33 38 42 71 Foster care is temporary care of the child Foster parents have the responsibility to provide conditions for optimal development of the child and prepare him/her for independent life and work Foster parent can be both a relative or a stranger to a child Foster parent can be a total stranger to the child Biological parents of the child accommodated in foster family have the right and obligation to maintain personal relations with the child Foster care must provide permanency of relations with biological family Biological parents of the child accommodated in foster family have the right and obligation to make decisions important for the child together with foster parents Biological parents of the child accommodated in foster family have the right and obligation to support the child Biological parents of the child accommodated in foster family have the right and obligation to manage and dispose of child's property Foster parent must be the child's relative % Yes % Don't know / No answer % No 14
  15. 15. Knowledge about adoption Base: Total target population. All things considered, how informed do you consider yourself about adoption – what it involves, what the legal regulations and procedures are like..? 12% 44% 56% 39% 6% 5% 1% I don't know anything about adoption I know a little about adoption I KNOW LITTLE I know something about adoption I KNOW A LOT I know much about adoption I know very much about adoption 25
  16. 16. Knowledge about adoption 6 6 6 4 7 8 9 3 5 10 5 2 7 8 5 7 56 55 56 56 54 58 46 73 64 58 38 59 61 46 55 63 54 51 54 58 7 2 6 5 Total Male Female 18-29 30-39 40-49 50-64 65+ Elementaryschool Secondaryschool CollegeorUniversity Lessthan100EUR 101-200EUR Morethan200EUR Refusetoanswer North Center South Urban Other % I know a lot (4+5) % I know little (1+2) Base: Total target population. All things considered, how informed do you consider yourself about adoption – what it involves, what the legal regulations and procedures are like..? 26
  17. 17. Perception of adoption 19% 13% 10% 9% 6% 4% 3% 1% 1% 1% 12% 37%Accepting the child as own child/ as a family member Permanent / constant / full care, custody of a child without parental care Custody / protection/ care of children without parental care/ humanity Establishment of kinship relationship between the child and the adoptive parent Adoption / acceptance of children (other people's children, orphans…) Providing all conditions to the child (love, upbringing, education...) Adoption when married couples do not have biological children Legally regulated child care/ obligation towards the child Care of a child without receiving compensation from the state Temporary adoption / till adulthood / similar to foster care Other Don't know / Refuse Multiple responses; Base: Total target population. In your opinion, what is adoption? Open ended 27
  18. 18. Perception of adoption Base: Total target population. Now I will read to you some statements. Please tell me whether you think that they are right or not. 79 77 71 60 60 44 17 13 13 6 12 7 8 24 25 37 11 13 6 9 9 16 21 16 16 19 72 75 81 84 Adopted child takes adoptive parents’ last name It is possible to adopt a child who has parents, but parents who don’t provide adequate parental care With adoption kinship relationship is established between the child and adoptive parent, equal to blood relationship In case of full adoption, biological parents are stripped of their rights and responsibilities towards the child, unless adoptive parent is child’s stepfather or stepmother In case of full adoption, adoptive parents are registered as child’s parents in Birth Registry There are full and partial adoption Adoption means taking temporary care of the child Adoptive parent must be a total stranger to the child It is possible to adopt only a child without parents Adoptive parent must be a relative of the child % Yes % Don't know / No answer % No 28
  19. 19. Knowledge about foster care and adoption 45% 71% 25% 4% 3% 1% 44% 56% 39% 6% 5% 1% 26% 12% I don't know anything I know a little I KNOW LITTLE I know something I KNOW A LOT I know much I know very much Foster care AdoptionBase: Total target population. All things considered, how informed do you consider yourself about foster care – what it involves, what the legal regulations and procedures are like..? All things considered, how informed do you consider yourself about adoption – what it involves, what the legal regulations and procedures are like..? 39
  20. 20. Perception of foster care and adoption 66% 64% 64% 22% 21% 3% 78% 71% 21% 57% 77% 1% 73% 83% Accepting the child in own home (the child lives with other household members) Taking care of upbringing, education and health of the child Child support (provision of food, clothing and shoes to the child, bearing the costs of child's education) Receiving monthly monetary compensation from the state for the care of the child Management and disposal of the child's property Establishment of kinship relationship between foster / adoptive parents and the child Don't know Foster care Adoption Multiple responses; Base: Total target population. In your opinion, which of the following means foster care, that is, what are the obligations of foster parent towards the child? And which of the following means adoption, that is, what are the obligations of adoptive parent towards the child? 40
  21. 21. Differences between fostering and adoption 15% 10% 6% 5% 2% 2% 1% 1% 4% 5% 28% 43%Foster care is temporary/ adoption is permanent Adoption creates parental/ family relationship, child has all the legal rights Foster care includes compensation from the state/ there is none for adoption Adoption is more serious/ more responsible/ more complete raising of children Foster care is care/ provides material needs Foster care also encompasses children who have parents, and adoption does not Duration of the period Adoption is associated with love, wish, and foster care with financial profit Adoptive parent can manage and dispose of child's property Other No difference/ very similar Don't know / Refuse Multiple responses; Base: Total target population. In your opinion, what are the most distinctive differences between fostering and adoption as two forms of care for children without parents or without proper parental care? Open ended 43
  22. 22. Conditions that the family/person must meet to be accepted as foster parent/adoptive parent – Marital status Multiple responses; Base: Total target population. Which conditions must the family/person meet to be accepted as foster parent? Which conditions are acceptable? Which conditions must the family/person meet to be accepted as adoptive parent? Which conditions are acceptable? 12% 4% 32% 5% 8% 2% 19% 7% 57% 73% Married Single (not married, widowed, divorced) De facto marriage Not a condition for foster care/adoption Don't know / Refuse Foster care Adoption 45
  23. 23. Conditions that the family/person must meet to be accepted as foster parent/adoptive parent – age of foster parent/adoptive parent (from) Base: Total target population. Which conditions must the family/person meet to be accepted as foster parent? Which conditions are acceptable? Which conditions must the family/person meet to be accepted as adoptive parent? Which conditions are acceptable? 11% 8% 17% 2% 2% 45% 9% 11% 8% 20% 4% 1% 41% 9% 5% 5% 18 20 25 30 35 40 Not a condition for foster care/adoption Don't know / Refuse Foster care Adoption 48
  24. 24. Conditions that the family/person must meet to be accepted as foster parent/adoptive parent – age of foster parent/adoptive parent (to) Base: Total target population. Which conditions must the family/person meet to be accepted as foster parent? Which conditions are acceptable? Which conditions must the family/person meet to be accepted as adoptive parent? Which conditions are acceptable? 6% 3% 13% 3% 9% 3% 2% 47% 9% 8% 3% 16% 3% 10% 3% 2% 41% 11% 2% 1% 30 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Not a condition for foster care/adoption Don't know / Refuse Foster care Adoption 51
  25. 25. Conditions that the family/person must meet to be accepted as foster parent/adoptive parent – the age difference between the foster parent/adoptive parent and the child Base: Total target population. Which conditions must the family/person meet to be accepted as foster parent? Which conditions are acceptable? Which conditions must the family/person meet to be accepted as adoptive parent? Which conditions are acceptable? 4% 2% 17% 6% 4% 51% 13% 5% 3% 17% 7% 4% 46% 14% 2% 1% 10 15 18 20 25 30 Not a condition for foster care/adoption Don't know / Refuse Foster care Adoption 54
  26. 26. Conditions that the family/person must meet to be accepted as foster parent/adoptive parent – housing conditions (ownership) Multiple responses; Base: Total target population. Which conditions must the family/person meet to be accepted as foster parent? Which conditions are acceptable? Which conditions must the family/person meet to be accepted as adoptive parent? Which conditions are acceptable? 1% 35% 8% 1% 26% 9% 55% 65% Owner of flat / house Subtenant Not a condition for foster care/adoption Don't know / Refuse Foster care Adoption 57
  27. 27. Yes 78% Don't know 6% No 16% Base: Total target population. Which institution is in charge of adoption and foster care processes? Process of foster care and adoption Do you think that all children without parental care, regardless of their personal characteristics (gender, age, nationality, mental health, physical health…) can be adopted or placed in foster family? Which institution is in charge of adoption and foster care processes? 7% 1% 1% 4% 86% Social welfare center Municipality Primary health care center Some other institution Don't know Base: Total target population. Do you think that all children without parental care, regardless of their personal characteristics (gender, age, nationality, mental health, physical health…) can be adopted or placed in foster family? 60
  28. 28. Process of foster care and adoption 16 16 16 17 14 13 18 17 22 15 11 22 15 13 15 18 14 18 16 16 Total Male Female 18-29 30-39 40-49 50-64 65+ Elementaryschool Secondaryschool CollegeorUniversity Lessthan100EUR 101-200EUR Morethan200EUR Refusetoanswer North Center South Urban Other % those who don't agree Base: Total target population. Do you think that all children without parental care, regardless of their personal characteristics (gender, age, nationality, mental health, physical health…) can be adopted or placed in foster family? 61
  29. 29. Who would best take care of the child if parents can’t take care of the child? 12% 8% 3% 3% 74% The closest relatives (grandparents, aunts, uncles, etc) Family which is not a relative to the child , but which would adopt the child Some of the state- owned social welfare and child care institutions Family which is not a relative to the child, but which would be foster family Don't know Base: Total target population. If parents can not take care of the child (deceased or unable because of other reasons), who, in your opinion, would best take care of the child? 65
  30. 30. Yes 58% Don't know 5% No 37% Base: Total target population. Do you think that a child growing up in an institution stands equal chances for growth and development as a child growing up in a family? Placing children without parental care in institutions Do you think that placing a child without parental care in an institution is adequate form of protection? Do you think that a child growing up in an institution stands equal chances for growth and development as a child growing up in a family? Base: Total target population. Do you think that placing a child without parental care in an institution is adequate form of protection? Yes 37% Don't know 5% No 58% 66
  31. 31. Relationship between the attitude towards the adequacy of placing children without parental care in institutions and their opportunities for growth and development 67 Base: Total target population. Do you think that placing a child without parental care in an institution is adequate form of protection? Do you think that a child growing up in an institution stands equal chances for growth and development as a child growing up in a family? 57 10 8 39 88 50 4 2 42 Yes No Don't know Yes No Don't know Do you think that a child growing up in an institution stands equal chances for growth and development as a child growing up in a family? Do you think that placing a child without parental care in an institution is adequate form of protection? 67
  32. 32. Awareness of forms of protecting children without parental care  Majority of the citizens (78%) express attitude that the state doesn't help enough persons or families being in situation where likelihood of abandoning a child is increased. Higher than average percentage of the older citizens, aged 65+, those with lower education and the ones from rural areas of Montenegro think that the state provides adequate support to these persons. Additionally, the citizens who show low level of awareness about foster care share the opinion that the state provides sufficient help, in contrast to the citizens who are more aware of foster care, the higher percentage of whom think that the state doesn't do enough to make life easier to these families. Majority of the citizens (52%) state that Social Welfare Centre is an institution in which individuals or families under the risk of abandoning the child should turn for help.  The reasons why children are separated from family are poor financial situation and living conditions (58%), family violence (48%), as well as negligence and reluctance of parents to raise their children (47%).  The citizens think that the state can provide protection of children without appropriate parental care by placing the children in social welfare and child protection institutions (69%) and adoption (68%). Considerably lower percentage of the citizens mention other forms of protection such as foster care (35%) and guardianship (27%). In other words, foster care is not sufficiently familiar form of child protection for children without parental care, which means that additional efforts should be made to promote foster care.  To confirm the above statement is also the fact that citizens of Montenegro are not very familiar with foster care, which they admit; 45% of them state that they know a little about foster care, and another 26% claim to know nothing at all about foster care. One fourth of Montenegrin citizens claim to know something about foster care. Older citizens (65+ years) admit that they know little about foster care, in contrast to those with university education who claim the opposite. 68
  33. 33. Awareness of forms of protecting children without parental care  As much as one fifth of the citizens are not able to specify what foster care is. Majority of them understand foster care as care for the child (27%), that is, as temporary care of the child (20%).  Majority of Montenegrin citizens state that foster care is temporary care of the child (81%), that foster parents have responsibility to provide conditions for optimal development of the child and prepare him/her for independent life and work (71%). While 71% of the citizens claim that foster parent need not be the child's relative and 64% of the citizens think that foster parent can be both a relative or a stranger to a child, smaller percentage of the citizens agree that foster parent can be a total stranger to the child (57%).  It is obvious that smaller percentage of the citizens are familiar with rights and obligations of biological parents whose children are placed in foster family, that is, with the fact that biological parents of the child placed in foster family have the right and obligation to maintain personal relations with the child (49%), make decisions important for the child together with foster parents (42%), support the child (32%), and manage and dispose of child's property (26%). In compliance with this, 43% of the citizens know that foster care must provide permanency of relations with biological family. Higher percentage of the citizens who are less informed about details of foster care are older and with lower education, while higher percentage of those with university education and above average income are more informed about the details of foster care. 69
  34. 34. Awareness of forms of protecting children without parental care  When it comes to adoption, smaller percentage of citizens claim that they do not know anything about adoption (12%) in comparison to foster care (26%), while similar percentage of the citizens claim to know a little about adoption (44%). Nevertheless, the impression is that awareness about adoption is somewhat higher - namely, almost 40% of the citizens claim to know something about adoption. Once again, smaller percentage of the older citizens and those with lower education are aware about adoption facts.  Asked to state what the adoption is, citizens of Montenegro say that adoption means accepting the child as own family member (37%), as well as permanent and complete care of the child without parental care (19%). One out of ten citizens are not able to specify the meaning of adoption.  Majority of Montenegrin citizens are aware that adoptive parent need not be the child's relative (84%), that it is possible to adopt a child who has parents (81%), that adopted child takes adoptive parents’ last name (79%), that it is possible to adopt a child who has parents, but parents who don’t provide adequate parental care (77%), that adoptive parent need not be a total stranger to the child (75%), that adoption is not a temporary care about the child (72%), and in case of an adoption, kinship relationship is established between the child and adoptive parents, equal to blood relationship (71%). Somewhat lower percentage of the citizens (60%) are informed about the fact that, in case of full adoption, biological parents are stripped of their rights and responsibilities towards the child, as well as the fact that adoptive parents are registered as child’s parents in Birth Registry. Considerably lower percentage of the citizens (44%) are aware of the fact that adoption can be full or partial. Although smaller percentage of the citizens are informed only a little about the adoption details, still higher percentage of them are older and with lower education, and the opposite for highly educated citizens and those with above average income. 70
  35. 35. Awareness of forms of protecting children without parental care  Majority of the citizens of Montenegro think that foster care means accepting the child in own home (73%), taking care and upbringing of the child, education and child’s health condition (66%), child support (provision of food, clothing and shoes to the child, bearing the costs of child's education) (64%), and receiving monthly financial compensation from the state for the care of the child (64%). One fifth of the citizens wrongly claim that foster care means management and disposal of the child's property (22%), and establishment of blood relations between foster parents and the child (21%).  When it comes to adoption, majority of the citizens correctly claim that it means accepting the child in own home (83%), establishment of blood relations between adoptive parents and the child (77%), taking care of the child (78%), and child support (71%). Smaller percentage of the citizens (57%) are aware that adoptive parents can manage and dispose of child's property, while one fifth of the citizens (21%) wrongly claim that adoptive parents receive monthly monetary compensation from the state for the care of the child.  The highest percentage of the citizens (43%) notice the difference in duration between foster care and adoption, claiming that foster care is temporary and adoption is permanent. However, almost one third of the citizens (28%) are not able to specify the difference between foster care and adoption, among whom higher percentage are the citizens with primary school or less, below average income citizens, as well as the citizens from north of Montenegro. Lower percentage of them are the citizens with university education, above average income and citizens from south of Montenegro. 71
  36. 36. Awareness of forms of protecting children without parental care  Awareness of characteristics of foster care and adoption, their similarities and differences can further be improved. The data show that:  More than one half of the citizens (57%) think that prerequisite for becoming foster parents is marital status of parents, while as much as 73% of the citizens think that marital status is a prerequisite for adopting a child. One third of the citizens think that marital status is not a prerequisite for foster care, while one fifth of the citizens think the same about adoption.  When it comes to age, one fifths of the citizens correctly claim that adoptive parents must be at least 30 years old, while 16% of them correctly claim upper age limit for adoption (50 years of age).  One third of the citizens correctly claim that minimal difference in years between adoptive parent and child must be 18 years, and maximal difference can be 50 years.  About one third of the citizens claim that ownership of house or flat is not a prerequisite for foster care or adoption. 72
  37. 37. Awareness of forms of protecting children without parental care  More than three fourths of the citizens (78%) correctly claim that all children without parental care can be adopted or placed in foster family regardless of their personal characteristics. Great majority of the citizens (86%) correctly perceive Social Welfare Centre as an institution in charge of adoption and foster care processes.  Majority of the citizens of Montenegro (74%) agree that it is the best option if the closest relatives take care of the child if parents are unable to do that. One out of ten citizens thinks that the best care of the child would be provided by family which is not a relative to the child, but which would be adoptive family, while 3% of the citizens think that foster family is the most adequate to take care of the child.  Attitudes of the citizens about adequacy of placing the child without parental care in an institution are divided; while 58% of the citizens think that placing a child in an institution is adequate, 37% disagree. When it comes to growth and development of a child, attitudes of the citizens are divided, since 37% of them think that child growing up in an institution stands equal chances for growth and development as a child growing up in a family, while 58% of the citizens think child growing up in an institution stands smaller chances for growth and development than a child growing up in a family. 73
  38. 38. Foster care and adoption in Montenegro 74
  39. 39. Motives for foster care 63% 58% 42% 30% 19% 7% 1% 76%Love for children and wish to help the child Inability to have own children Desire for fulfillment in the parenting role Providing home and feeling of security to children who don't have it Financial compensation which is received from the state Need to find someone who will take care of them when they get old Redemption for the bad things they have done in the past Don’t know Multiple responses; Base: Total target population. In your opinion, what is the main motive for the people in Montenegro to be foster parents? 75
  40. 40. The benefits of foster care 52% 29% 24% 20% 19% 18% 1% 1% 66%Love of a child Feeling of fulfillment that care of others brings Financial assistance Someone who will care about them in times of trouble Respect of other people, improved reputation Friend for own biological children Brother or sister for own biological children Other Don't know / Refuse Multiple responses; Base: Total target population. In your opinion, what does a family get from taking up foster care of a child? 76
  41. 41. Problems encountered by foster families 38% 33% 33% 31% 29% 26% 1% 42%Difficult emotional bonding with the child Problems with biological parents of the child (inconsistency of the parents, irregular contacts, broken promises...) Financial problems (lack of money for raising and educating the child) Later separation from the child and uncertainty regarding duration of foster care Accepting the family rules by the child Child's distrust Quarrels with other children in the household Don't know / Refuse Multiple responses; Base: Total target population. What are the biggest problems that foster families are faced with? 77
  42. 42. Obstacles to foster care 36% 36% 28% 18% 18% 17% 11% 11% 10% 9% 77%Poor financial situation Insufficient support of society and state Lack of housing conditions Being uninformed Complicated and long-lasting procedures The way in which the environment looks at adopted children No need for adoption or foster care because they have biological children Problems in upbringing or behavior as a consequence of inherited traits or previous life Fear whether the child will fit in new environment Fear of inherited diseases Later separation from child and uncertain duration of foster care Multiple responses; Base: Total target population. In your opinion what are the three most important obstacles due to which bigger number of families in Montenegro are not involved in Foster care? External factors 78
  43. 43. Don’t know 6% The state is doing something, but not enough to stimulate foster care and adoption 56% The state is making great effort to stimulate foster care and adoption 4% The state is not doing anything to stimulate foster care and adoption 34% Base: Total target population. Observed in general, how would you evaluate efforts of the state aimed at stimulating foster care and adoption? The efforts of the state to stimulate foster care and adoption 79
  44. 44. The efforts of the state to stimulate foster care and adoption – the state is not doing anything to stimulate foster care and adoption 34 35 33 32 32 35 39 29 38 34 30 43 34 39 22 43 29 34 33 36 Total Male Female 18-29 30-39 40-49 50-64 65+ Elementaryschool Secondaryschool CollegeorUniversity Lessthan100EUR 101-200EUR Morethan200EUR Refusetoanswer North Center South Urban Other Base: Total target population. Observed in general, how would you evaluate efforts of the state aimed at stimulating foster care and adoption? 80
  45. 45. 34 33 34 35 33 37 33 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption The efforts of the state to stimulate foster care and adoption – the state is not doing anything to stimulate foster care and adoption Base: Total target population. Observed in general, how would you evaluate efforts of the state aimed at stimulating foster care and adoption? 81
  46. 46. 17% 10% 6% 6% 4% 3% 3% 2% 3% 3% 25% 30%Financial support More extensive informing/ education, raising awareness/ media campaign More extensive, adequate assistance/ engagement of the state/ all types of Increasing monthly compensation Benefits/ subsidies/ prizes Adequate living conditions/ housing Stimuli/ support/ involvement of all factors Simplification/ speeding up of procedures Material assistance (food, clothes, textbooks...) Other Nothing Don't know / Refuse Stimulation of the foster care and adoption by the state Multiple responses; Base: Total target population. Should the state stimulate or reward foster care and adoption of children in any other way? If yes, how? Open ended 82
  47. 47. The right of parents to have parental leave in case of foster care/adoption of small children/infants Base: Total target population. Should those who adopt infants or become their foster parents be enabled to have maternity leave or any other type of parental leave for child care? Don’t know 7%No, none of them 2% Yes, only adoptive parents 12% Yes, both foster and adoptive parents 76% Yes, only foster parents 3% 83
  48. 48. The right of parents to have parental leave in case of foster care/adoption of small children/infants 2 4 1 4 0 1 2 5 4 2 3 3 1 4 2 2 2 2 2 3 Total Male Female 18-29 30-39 40-49 50-64 65+ Elementaryschool Secondaryschool CollegeorUniversity Lessthan100EUR 101-200EUR Morethan200EUR Refusetoanswer North Center South Urban Other % those who don't agree Base: Total target population. Should those who adopt infants or become their foster parents be enabled to have maternity leave or any other type of parental leave for child care? 84
  49. 49. 2 3 2 2 4 2 1 Total Lowawarenessof fostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawarenessof adoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who don't agree The right of parents to have parental leave in case of foster care/adoption of small children/infants Base: Total target population. Should those who adopt infants or become their foster parents be enabled to have maternity leave or any other type of parental leave for child care? 85
  50. 50. Foster care and adoption in Montenegro  Love for children and wish to help them (76%), inability to have own biological children (63%), and the need for fulfilment in parenting (58%), as well as providing a home to children without parental care (42%) are most common motives that stimulate citizens of Montenegro to get engaged in foster care. In their opinion, major benefits of foster care are child’s love (66%), and feeling of fulfilment, which care of others brings (52%).  On the other hand, citizens are not unanimous regarding problems foster families are faced with. Most frequently singled out are difficult establishment of emotional bond with the child (42%), as well as problems with child’s biological parents (38%).  What prevents most citizens to get engaged in foster care is their poor financial situation (77%), lack of housing space (36%), but also insufficient support of society and state (36%). Accordingly, substantial percentage of citizens evaluate efforts of the state as insufficient (56%), and even one third of them think that the state is not doing anything to stimulate foster care and adoption. This opinion that state is not doing anything to stimulate foster care and adoption is more likely to be shared by citizens with income lower than average, as well as citizens of northern parts of Montenegro. Financial assistance is primarily mentioned as a type of stimulation (30%). However, even one fifth of citizens (25%) do not see how adoption and foster care in Montenegro could be encouraged.  More than three fourths of citizens (76%) agree that foster parents or adoptive parents of toddlers or infants should be enabled to have a leave for child care. 86
  51. 51. Attitudes towards foster care and adoption 87
  52. 52. To what extent are children in foster families able to get ...? Base: Total target population. In your opinion, to what extent are children in foster families able to get from their foster families... For each item, please use the scale from 1 to 5, where 1 means Not at all, and 5 means Yes, to a great extent. 86 85 82 81 78 76 12 12 15 14 17 17 1 3 3 3 3 4 Good upbringing Affection Love Education Family model of living Financial security % Able to get % Able and not able to get % Aren't able to get % Don't know 88
  53. 53. To what extent are children in foster families able to get ...? – Good upbringing 1 2 0 1 3 0 0 Total Lowawarenessof fostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawarenessof adoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who think that children aren't able to get Base: Total target population. I In your opinion, to what extent are children in foster families able to get from their foster families... For each item, please use the scale from 1 to 5, where 1 means Not at all, and 5 means Yes, to a great extent. 89
  54. 54. To what extent are children in foster families able to get ...? – Affection 3 6 0 1 8 1 0 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who think that children aren't able to get Base: Total target population. I In your opinion, to what extent are children in foster families able to get from their foster families... For each item, please use the scale from 1 to 5, where 1 means Not at all, and 5 means Yes, to a great extent. 90
  55. 55. To what extent are children in foster families able to get ...? – Love 3 5 0 3 7 2 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who think that children aren't able to get Base: Total target population. I In your opinion, to what extent are children in foster families able to get from their foster families... For each item, please use the scale from 1 to 5, where 1 means Not at all, and 5 means Yes, to a great extent. 91
  56. 56. To what extent are children in foster families able to get ...? – Education 3 4 1 3 6 1 2 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who think that children aren't able to get Base: Total target population. I In your opinion, to what extent are children in foster families able to get from their foster families... For each item, please use the scale from 1 to 5, where 1 means Not at all, and 5 means Yes, to a great extent. 92
  57. 57. To what extent are children in foster families able to get ...? – Family model of living 3 5 1 3 6 2 2 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who think that children aren't able to get Base: Total target population. I In your opinion, to what extent are children in foster families able to get from their foster families... For each item, please use the scale from 1 to 5, where 1 means Not at all, and 5 means Yes, to a great extent. 93
  58. 58. To what extent are children in foster families able to get ...? – Financial security 4 4 3 5 6 3 3 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who think that children aren't able to get Base: Total target population. I In your opinion, to what extent are children in foster families able to get from their foster families... For each item, please use the scale from 1 to 5, where 1 means Not at all, and 5 means Yes, to a great extent. 94
  59. 59. Attitudes toward foster care and adoption Base: Total target population. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Please use the scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means you don’t agree at all, and 4 means you completely agree. 88 87 87 86 85 85 72 5 5 3 2 3 5 2 7 8 10 12 11 10 25 Children placed in foster families or adopted children are same as all the other children, when in stimulating environment: bright, beautiful, curious, talented, successful, loved… Children placed in foster families or adopted children can have equally good friendly relationships as children growing up in their biological families Children placed in foster families or adopted children stand equal chances of succeeding professionally (finishing school, finding a job...) as children growing up in biological families do Although genes are important, it is still more important who and in what way is raising the child Even if children abandoned by their parents are severely traumatized and had a very tough childhood, care and stable foster family (or adoptive family) can help them grow into healthy and capable persons Foster care and adoption enable foster parent/ adoptive parent to realize or re-realize the role of a parent Children abandoned by biological parents are traumatized because of that and faced with problems throughout life % I agree % Don't know % I don't agree 95
  60. 60. Attitudes toward foster care and adoption Base: Total target population. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Please use the scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means you don’t agree at all, and 4 means you completely agree. 66 65 64 59 49 43 38 35 8 5 1 11 6 7 7 4 26 30 35 30 45 51 55 60 Raising an adopted child brings equal satisfaction as raising one’s own Bonding between adoptive parent and adopted child can be durable only if child is adopted very early (in the first couple of months) Not even the best foster family can fully replace biological family Ideal foster care results in return of child into his or her biological family Child placed in foster family can’t be loved same as one’s own child Adopted child can’t be loved same as one’s own child Adopted children or children placed in foster families usually have behavior problems Adopted children or children placed in foster families usually have learning problems and poorer school accomplishment % I agree % Don't know % I don't agree 96
  61. 61. Attitudes toward foster care and adoption - Children placed in foster families or adopted children are same as all the other children, when in stimulating environment: bright, beautiful, curious, talented, successful, loved… 50 37 57 59 40 51 58 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who agree Base: Total target population. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Please use the scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means you don’t agree at all, and 4 means you completely agree. 97
  62. 62. Attitudes toward foster care and adoption - Children placed in foster families or adopted children can have equally good friendly relationships as children growing up in their biological families Base: Total target population. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Please use the scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means you don’t agree at all, and 4 means you completely agree. 42 32 49 48 33 40 53 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who agree 98
  63. 63. Attitudes toward foster care and adoption - Children placed in foster families or adopted children stand equal chances of succeeding professionally (finishing school, finding a job...) as children growing up in biological families do Base: Total target population. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Please use the scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means you don’t agree at all, and 4 means you completely agree. 44 33 50 50 30 44 55 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who agree 99
  64. 64. Attitudes toward foster care and adoption - Although genes are important, it is still more important who and in what way is raising the child Base: Total target population. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Please use the scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means you don’t agree at all, and 4 means you completely agree. 42 34 44 49 31 47 47 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who agree 100
  65. 65. Attitudes toward foster care and adoption - Even if children abandoned by their parents are severely traumatized and had a very tough childhood, caring and stable foster family (or adoptive family) can help them grow into healthy and capable persons Base: Total target population. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Please use the scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means you don’t agree at all, and 4 means you completely agree. 41 34 45 47 31 48 45 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who agree 101
  66. 66. Attitudes toward foster care and adoption - Foster care and adoption enable foster parent/ adoptive parent to realize or re-realize the role of a parent Base: Total target population. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Please use the scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means you don’t agree at all, and 4 means you completely agree. 32 28 34 35 23 31 41 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who agree 102
  67. 67. Attitudes toward foster care and adoption - Children abandoned by biological parents are traumatized because of that and faced with problems throughout life Base: Total target population. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Please use the scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means you don’t agree at all, and 4 means you completely agree. 31 25 36 35 26 39 30 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who agree 103
  68. 68. Attitudes toward foster care and adoption - Raising an adopted child brings equal satisfaction as raising one’s own 23 16 24 29 17 23 27 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who agree Base: Total target population. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Please use the scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means you don’t agree at all, and 4 means you completely agree. 104
  69. 69. Attitudes toward foster care and adoption – Bonding between adoptive parent and adopted child can be durable only if child is adopted very early (in the first couple of months) 26 24 31 24 29 28 22 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who agree Base: Total target population. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Please use the scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means you don’t agree at all, and 4 means you completely agree. 105
  70. 70. Attitudes toward foster care and adoption - Not even the best foster family can fully replace biological family 29 21 34 33 25 28 33 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who agree Base: Total target population. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Please use the scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means you don’t agree at all, and 4 means you completely agree. 106
  71. 71. Attitudes toward foster care and adoption - Ideal foster care results in return of child into his or her biological family 25 18 25 33 22 23 29 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who agree Base: Total target population. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Please use the scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means you don’t agree at all, and 4 means you completely agree. 107
  72. 72. Attitudes toward foster care and adoption - Child placed in foster family can’t be loved same as one’s own child 15 15 16 15 17 13 16 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who agree Base: Total target population. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Please use the scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means you don’t agree at all, and 4 means you completely agree. 108
  73. 73. Attitudes toward foster care and adoption - Adopted child can’t be loved same as one’s own child 13 12 15 13 16 12 12 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who agree Base: Total target population. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Please use the scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means you don’t agree at all, and 4 means you completely agree. 109
  74. 74. Attitudes towards foster care and adoption - Adopted children or children placed in foster families usually have behavior problems 8 8 10 5 11 8 5 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who agree Base: Total target population. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Please use the scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means you don’t agree at all, and 4 means you completely agree. 110
  75. 75. Attitudes toward foster care and adoption - Adopted children or children placed in foster families usually have learning problems and poorer school accomplishment 7 9 6 7 9 5 9 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who agree Base: Total target population. To what extent do you agree with each of the following statements? Please use the scale from 1 to 4, where 1 means you don’t agree at all, and 4 means you completely agree. 111
  76. 76. Attitudes towards foster care and adoption  Most citizens of Montenegro agree that children in foster families can have good upbringing (86%), care (85%), love (82%), education (81%), family model of living (78%), as well as financial security (76%). Those who are not very familiar with foster care and adoption are more likely to disagree with this attitude.  In line with positive attitude towards the possibility that foster families provide children with love, care, education and everything that children usually get in their biological families, there are also other positive attitudes towards foster care and adoption. So, most citizens believe that children placed in foster families or adopted children are same as all the other children, when in stimulating environment (88%), that they can have equally good friendly relationships (87%) and that they stand equal chances of succeeding professionally (87%). Furthermore, most citizens believe that, although genes are important, it is still more important who and in what way is raising the child (86%), and that even if children abandoned by their parents are severely traumatized and had a very tough childhood, caring and stable foster family can help them grow into healthy and capable persons (85%). Besides, foster care and adoption enable fulfilment of the need for parenting (85%) and also raising an adopted child brings equal satisfaction as raising one’s own (66%). On the other hand, two thirds of citizens (65%) believe that bonding between adoptive parent and adopted child can be durable only if child is adopted very early (in the first couple of months), while considered ideal is foster care that ends with child’s return to his or her biological family (59%).  When it comes to the prevalence of negative attitudes regarding foster care and adoption, high percentage of citizens agree that children abandoned by biological parents are traumatized because of that and faced with problems throughout life (72%), and that not even the best foster family can fully replace biological family (64%). Accordingly, more than one third of citizens share the attitude that adopted children or children placed in foster families usually have behaviour problems (38%), or learning problems and poorer school accomplishment (35%). Furthermore, almost a half of citizens believe that a child placed in foster family (49%), or adopted child (43%) can’t be loved same as one’s own child. 112
  77. 77. Experience and interest in foster care and adoption 113
  78. 78. Helping children without parental care Base: Total target population. Have you ever been in a situation to help, directly or indirectly, a child without parental care (options: financially, with food/ clothes, conversation...)? 20 37 25 80 63 75 Financial, in money Food, clothes, hygiene products Conversation, support % Yes % No 114
  79. 79. Actual interest in foster care Base: Total target population. How interested would you be in being a foster parent to a child without parents or without adequate parental care at this moment? 65% 26% 91% 4% 4% 3% 1% 1% 1% Not interested at all Mainly not interested NOT INTERESTED Both yes and no INTERESTED Somewhat interested Very interested I am a foster parent/I used to be a foster parent Don’t know 115
  80. 80. Actual interest in foster care – interested Base: Total target population. How interested would you be in being a foster parent to a child without parents or without adequate parental care at this moment? 4 3 5 5 5 5 1 4 7 3 3 5 4 4 2 4 3 7 3 6 Total Male Female 18-29 30-39 40-49 50-64 65+ Elementaryschool Secondaryschool CollegeorUniversity Lessthan100EUR 101-200EUR Morethan200EUR Refusetoanswer North Center South Urban Other % those who are interested 116
  81. 81. 4 4 5 3 5 2 5 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who are interested Actual interest in foster care – interested Base: Total target population. How interested would you be in being a foster parent to a child without parents or without adequate parental care at this moment? 117
  82. 82. Interest in the foster care in the future 62% 28% 90% 6% 4% 3% 1% Not interested at all Mainly not interested NOT INTERESTED Both yes and no INTERESTED Somewhat interested Very interested Base: Those who are not currently interested in being a foster to a child without parents or parental care (96% of target population) At some moment in your life (near or distant future), how interested would you be in being a foster parent to a child without parents or without adequate parental care? 118
  83. 83. Interest in the foster care in the future – interested Base: Those who are not currently interested in being a foster to a child without parents or parental care (96% of target population) At some moment in your life (near or distant future), how interested would you be in being a foster parent to a child without parents or without adequate parental care? 4 3 4 7 5 3 1 2 4 2 6 2 3 4 5 2 4 4 4 2 Total Male Female 18-29 30-39 40-49 50-64 65+ Elementaryschool Secondaryschool CollegeorUniversity Lessthan100EUR 101-200EUR Morethan200EUR Refusetoanswer North Center South Urban Other % those who are interested 119
  84. 84. 4 1 6 4 3 3 4 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who are interested Interest in the foster care in the future – interested Base: Those who are not currently interested in being a foster to a child without parents or parental care (96% of target population) At some moment in your life (near or distant future), how interested would you be in being a foster parent to a child without parents or without adequate parental care? 120
  85. 85. Motives for foster care 21% 6% 3% 12% 65% A wish to help/ humanity Love towards children/ providing a home, warmth, happiness to child A wish to have children/ mutual satisfaction, love, care If they had financial/ housing conditions Don't know / Refuse Multiple responses; Base: Those who are interested in being a foster to a child without parents or parental care (14% of target population) What motivates you most to be a foster parent? Open ended 121
  86. 86. Acceptability of care of children without parental care with different characteristics Base: Those who are interested in being a foster to a child without parents or parental care (14% of target population) If you decided to be a foster parent, do you think you would be able to take care of...? Please use the scale from 1 to 5, where 1 means Not likely at all, and 5 means Very likely 63 61 55 53 47 35 32 24 21 20 18 18 26 27 27 34 25 29 35 34 29 21 16 19 20 26 32 35 50 49 45 47 53 33 22 16A child whose parents are unknown A child victim of violence, abuse and neglect A child who lived in institution A child of underage parents A child of foreign nationality A child whose parents are unable to take care of him because of imprisonment A child whose parents are drug or alcohol addicts Roma child A child with behavior disorder A child with disability (eye sight, hearing, speech, physical disability) A child with a chronic disease A child with intellectual disability % Likely % Both yes and no % Not likely % Don't know / Refuse 122
  87. 87. Different influences on the decision about foster care Base: Those who are interested in being a foster to a child without parents or parental care (14% of target population) If you decided to be a foster parent, to what extent would each of the following items influence your decision? 68 66 64 56 51 45 39 36 23 20 18 19 22 23 14 19 17 16 24 27 30 37 40 63 21 17 11Family support Child’s mental health Child’s physical health Support of Social Welfare Center Anamnesis of child’s biological parents Duration of the foster care establishing process Possibility of maternity leave and other forms of absence for child care in case of foster care of a toddler The amount of financial allowance Attitudes of the environment % Influence % Neither yes nor no % No influence % Don't know / Refuse 123
  88. 88. The main reasons why citizens wouldn’t be a foster parent to a child 15% 13% 8% 7% 4% 2% 2% 2% 2% 2% 1% 19% 37% Living conditions (financial, housing, unemployment...) I have my own children Age/ health condition No need/ they don't want to/ they are not thinking about that Too big of a responsibility/ I am not ready for that Too many other responsibilities/ lack of time I want to have my own, biological children Family situation (family responsibilities/ big family) I'm too young Fear of child's adaptation/ sick, problematic child Other Nothing/ no reason Don't know / Refuse Multiple responses; Base: Those who are not interested in being a foster to a child without parents or parental care (92% of target population) What are the main reasons why you would not take a child for foster care? Open ended 124
  89. 89. Actual interest in adoption Base: Total target population. How interested are you at the moment in adopting a child? 66% 28% 94% 3% 2% 1% 1% Not interested at all Mainly not interested NOT INTERESTED Both yes and no INTERESTED Somewhat interested Very interested 125
  90. 90. Actual interest in adoption - interested 2 2 2 1 3 4 1 1 1 2 3 2 3 2 1 1 2 3 1 3 Total Male Female 18-29 30-39 40-49 50-64 65+ Elementaryschool Secondaryschool CollegeorUniversity Lessthan100EUR 101-200EUR Morethan200EUR Refusetoanswer North Center South Urban Other % those who are interested Base: Total target population. How interested are you at the moment in adopting a child? 126
  91. 91. Actual interest in adoption - interested Base: Total target population. How interested are you at the moment in adopting a child? 2 3 2 2 3 1 2 Total Niska upoznatostsa hraniteljstvom Srednja upoznatostsa hraniteljstvom Visoka upoznatostsa hraniteljstvom Niska upoznatostsa usvojenjem Srednja upoznatostsa usvojenjem Visoka upoznatostsa usvojenjem % those who are interested 127
  92. 92. Motives for adoption 34% 6% 5% 6% 14% 41%A wish to help/ humanity Love towards children/ providing a home, warmth, happiness to child If I can't have my own children A wish to have children/ mutual satisfaction, love, care Other Don't know / Refuse Multiple responses; Base: Those who are interested in adopting a child (6% of target population) What motivates you most to adopt a child? Open ended 128
  93. 93. Acceptability of adoption of children without parental care with different characteristics Base: Those who are interested in adopting a child (6% of target population) If you decided to adopt a child, do you think you would be able to take care of...? 66 53 48 47 27 24 23 21 19 21 38 45 40 45 36 7 15 28 11 24 29 32 31 41 38 29 23A child whose parents are unknown A child who lived in institution A child whose parents are stripped of their parental right A child of foreign nationality A child with behavior problems A child with disability (eye sight, hearing, speech, physical disability) Roma child A child with a chronic disease A child with intellectual disability % Likely % Both yes and no % Not likely % Don't know / Refuse 129
  94. 94. Different influences on the decision about adoption Base: Those who are interested in adopting a child (6% of target population) If you decided to adopt a child, to what extent would each of the following items influence your decision? 75 65 64 59 58 55 30 20 28 17 25 4 15 13 13 24 17 3826 18 18Family support Child’s mental health Duration of the adoption process Child’s physical health Anamnesis of child’s biological parents Financial situation Attitudes of the environment % Influence % Neither yes nor no % No influence % Don't know / Refuse 130
  95. 95. The main reasons why citizens wouldn’t adopt a child 20% 13% 9% 6% 5% 4% 3% 2% 2% 1% 2% 17% 31% Living conditions (financial, housing, unemployment...) I have my own children Age/ health condition No need/ they don't want to/ they are not thinking about that Too big of a responsibility/ I am not ready for that I'm too young I want to have my own, biological children Too many other responsibilities/ lack of time Family situation (family responsibilities/ big family/ not married...) Fear of child's adaptation/ sick, problematic child Fear of the reaction of others/ lack of support Other Don't know / Refuse Multiple responses; Base: Those who are not interested in adopting a child (98% of target population) What are the main reasons why you wouldn’t adopt a child? Open ended 131
  96. 96. Actual interest in foster care and adoption 26% 91% 4% 4% 3% 1% 28% 94% 3% 2% 1% 1% 65% 66% Not interested at all Mainly not interested NOT INTERESTED Both yes and no INTERESTED Somewhat interested Very interested Foster care Adoption Base: Total target population. How interested would you be in being a foster parent to a child without parents or without adequate parental care at this moment? How interested are you at the moment in adopting a child? 132
  97. 97. Base: Total target population. Do you know anyone who adopted a child? Knowing someone who has adopted a child/has taken a child for foster care Do you have children? Do you know anyone who adopted a child? Base: Total target population. Do you have children? Yes 11% No 89% Yes 14% No 86% Yes 67% No 33% And do you know anyone who took a child for foster care? Base: Total target population. And do you know anyone who took a child for foster care? 133
  98. 98. 11 8 13 12 7 11 13 Total Lowawareness offostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare Highawareness offostercare Lowawareness ofadoption Moderate awarenessof adoption Highawareness ofadoption % those who know someone Knowing someone who has adopted a child – answer YES Base: Total target population. Do you know anyone who adopted a child? 135
  99. 99. Knowing someone who has taken a child into foster care – answer YES Base: Total target population. And do you know anyone who took a child into foster care? 14 12 14 15 12 Total Low awarenessof fostercare Moderate awarenessof fostercare High awarenessof fostercare Low awarenessof adoption Moderate awarenessof adoption High awarenessof adoption % those who know someone 137
  100. 100. Experience and interest in foster care and adoption  When it comes to helping children without parental care, most common type of support is provision of food (37%), clothes, hygiene products. One fourth of citizens helped children with disability by providing psychological support, talking to them, while one fifth of citizens claimed to had helped them financially.  Current interest of the citizens of Montenegro in foster care is at a very low level; 91% of citizens are not interested in foster care, 4% are indecisive, while only 4% are interested.  Wish to help (65%), as well as love for children (21%) are the main motives that stimulate the interested to be foster parents.  Highest percentage of the citizens who are interested in being foster parents find it acceptable to take care of a child of unknown parents (63%), as well as a child victim of violence, abuse and neglect (61%). About half of citizens are willing to take care of a child who lived in institution (55%), child of underage parents (53%), as well as a child with foreign citizenship (47%). Not as many citizens, about one third of them, would be willing to take care of a child whose parents are unable to take care of him because they are in prison (35%), or a child whose parents are drug or alcohol addicts (32%). Children that lowest percentage of citizens would be willing to take care of are children with intellectual or other developmental problems, a chronic disease, behaviour problems, as well as children of Roma nationality. Only one fifth of citizens say that they would be willing to take care of such children as well. 138
  101. 101. Experience and interest in foster care and adoption  Most relevant factors that influence making a decision about foster care refer to family support (68%), child’s mental and physical health (66% and 64%, respectively), support of Social Welfare Centre (56%), as well as medical history of child’s biological parents (51%). Additionally, characteristics of the foster care process also influence this decision, such as duration of the foster care establishing process (45%), possibility of taking a leave in case of becoming a foster parent of an infant (39%), as well as monthly allowance (36%). One fifth of citizens (23%) say that also attitude of their environment influences their decision.  Financial situation and poor living conditions are the main reasons for citizens’ unwillingness to be foster parents (37%). It is interesting that one fifth of them can’t specify what prevents them from becoming foster parents.  When talking about taking interest in adoption among the citizens of Montenegro, situation is the same as in case of interest in foster care - 94% of citizens are not interested in adopting a child.  Most common motives for adoption coincide with motives for foster care, and these are a wish to help (41%) and love for children (34%). 139
  102. 102. Experience and interest in foster care and adoption  Also considering adoption of children without parental care, citizens of Montenegro find most acceptable children of unknown parents (66%), who lived in a institution (53%), as well as children with foreign citizenship (47%); more than half of the citizens would adopt such children. On the other hand, a lot lower percentage of citizens would accept a child with behavioural, intellectual or other developmental problems, with a chronic diseases or a Roma child (about one fifth of them).  The decision about adoption is influenced most by family support (75%), child’s mental health (65%), but also duration of adoption process (64%); it is obvious that these factors are similar as in case of foster care. Additionally, more than half of citizens say that also child’s physical health is important for making this decision (59%), medical history of child’s biological parents (58%), as well as financial situation (55%). Attitude of the environment affects the decision of one third of citizens.  Most citizens would not adopt a child because of their unenviable financial situation (31%), same as in case of foster care. However, many citizens say that they are not willing to adopt a child because they have their own children (20%), while 17% of them don’t know why they would not adopt a child. 140
  103. 103. Communication channels 141
  104. 104. The existence of information about foster care and adoption Don’t know 6% Yes, we hear enough about it in the media 12% No, I rarely hear something about it in the media 82% 37% 24% 11% 10% 1% 5% 60% 23%Not available at all Mainly not available NOT AVAILABLE Neither available nor unavailable AVAILABLE Mainly available Fully available Don't know In your opinion, are foster care and adoption of children sufficiently covered by the media? To what extent is information about adoption and foster care available to citizens? Base: Total target population. To what extent would you say that the foster care and adoption of children are present in the media? Base: Total target population. To what extent is information about adoption and foster care available to citizens? 142
  105. 105. Sources of information about foster care and adoption 25% 19% 9% 5% 5% 2% 1% 1% 40%Social Welfare Center Internet TV Friends, acquaintances, family Magazines, journals, professional publications Newspapers Radio Other Dоn't know/Refusal Multiple answers; Base: Total target population In case you needed more information about this topic, where would you search for information? 143
  106. 106. Summary and conclusions  Majority of the citizens of Montenegro think that the state doesn't make enough efforts to prevent abandonment of children.  While adoption is relatively often perceived as a form of child protection of children without parental care, foster care is recognized as such considerably less frequently. It shouldn't be forgotten that equal percentage of the citizens who consider adoption as an adequate form of child protection also think that placing children without parental care in institutions is an adequate form of child protection. Therefore, more efforts should be placed in raising the public awareness about the advantages of child growth in foster and adoptive families.  Observed globally, self-assessed level of citizens' awareness about foster care is on an exceptionally low level. Nevertheless, majority of the citizens are aware of some facts regarding foster care, for example, the fact that foster care is a temporary care about the child, and that foster parents have the responsibility to provide conditions for optimal development of the child and prepare him/her for independent life and work. Lower percentage of the citizens know who the foster parents can be, and which right and obligations the biological parents of children placed in foster family have. Besides that, not a negligible percentage of the citizens think that foster care means establishing a relationship of kinship between child and foster parents, and that foster parents can manage and dispose of the child's property. All mentioned facts indicate that attention should be paid to promotion of foster care, and education of the citizens about this form of child protection for children without parental care.  On the other hand, citizens of Montenegro are much more informed about adoption. However, what majority of the citizens are not familiar with is the fact that adoption can be full or partial, and differences between these two types of adoption. Besides that, lower percentage of the citizens are aware of the possibility of managing and disposing of the child's property, while certain percentage of the citizens claim that adoptive parents receive monthly compensation from the state.  High percentage of the citizens are unable to specify the difference between foster care and adoption. The highest percentage of the citizens who are able to specify this difference most frequently mention temporary character of foster care. 144
  107. 107. Summary and conclusions  Observed in general, attitude towards foster care and adoption is mainly positive. The prevailing opinion is that foster and adoptive families can provide children with everything they get in their biological families. The strongest drivers that stimulate foster care and adoption are love for children and wish to help someone, as well as the need to fulfil the role of parenting. However, many citizens believe that ideal foster care process ends up with children returning to their biological families. On the other hand, significant percentage of citizens believe that foster family can never replace the biological one, or that adopted child or child placed in foster family can be loved equally as one’s own child, as well as that children abandoned by their parents stay traumatised for the rest of their lives and that they usually have problems with learning and behaviour in general. Accordingly, there are various doubts when it comes to problems foster families are faced with, and what citizens fear most is difficult establishing of emotional bond with a child, as well as problems with child’s biological parents. Therefore particular attention should be paid to education and destroying prejudice about foster care and relationship child-foster parent, and pointing to good aspects of foster care. On the other hand, as barriers for foster care and adoption, usually mentioned are poor financial situation, but also lack of support of the society and the state. So, there is obvious discrepancy between perceptions of problems that foster families are faced with and perceived factors that prevent citizens from being engaged in foster care; while the perceived problems are of interior nature, barriers come from the surrounding, and not from individuals. 145
  108. 108. Summary and conclusions  Interest in foster care and adoption is at a very low level, which additionally points to necessity of motivating the citizens of Montenegro through strong campaigns, but also the need to make procedures simpler and closer to citizens.  As for suitability of children of different characteristics, most citizens are not willing to take care of children whose parents are in prison or are drug or alcohol addicts, as well as children with intellectual or other developmental problems, chronic diseases, or children of Roma nationality. Besides family support, actually child’s mental and physical health is what determines the decision on foster care most. It should not be neglected that the very foster care process, as well as material monthly allowance, do influence this decision, so the process of establishing foster care needs to be simplified and adequate monthly allowance needs to be introduced. 146
  109. 109. Ipsos Strategic Marketing Gavrila Principa 8, Belgrade, Serbia Direct: +381 11 3284 075 http://www.ipsos.com Ipsos Strategic Puls Rimski trg 50, PC Kruševac Podgorica, Montenegro Tel. +382 20 411 610 www.ipsos.com The Home of Researchers

×