bDrk>pXzSd.u&Xw>tX.vDRtD   vDRb.xGJzdo.tcGJ;t,m      oh.wz.United NationsConvention on    the Rights   of the Child
bDrk>pXzSd.u&Xw>tX.vDRtDvDRb.xGJzd       o.tcGJ;t,m             oh.wz.        United Nations        Convention on         ...
© Convention on the Rights of the Child (English), United Nations 1989    © Convention on the Rights of the Child (Karen),...
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Foreword    The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which was    adopted by the General Assembly in 1989...
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vXw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRtylRw>uGJ;zsgxD.w>cGJ;w>,m               rEkoh.wz.vJ.I       What rights are described in the Convent...
zdHzdo.ud;*RJ;-uX;td.D;trHRwzsX.D;w>uJb.xHzduD>zdM.vDRI     All children should have a name and nationality.10
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CkmD;w>[h.uoH.X;oh.wz.<uoH.o&.oh.wz.<D;uoH.uoDoh.wz.ph>uD;M.vDRIas well as clinics, doctors and medicine.                 ...
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zdo.oh.wz.w>ub.DoXtDRvXw>oluoH.rlRbSD;oh.wz.M.     vDRI     Children must be protected from using drugs.20
zdo.oh.wz.w>wb.qgtDRyORtDRb.IChildren must not be bought and sold (trafficked).                                           ...
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oh.eD.xD.vXw>bd;b.&RvDRb.C;ySR*h>0D;w>bsXoJp;w>od.w>oD                                                       D     (Declar...
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Convention on the Rights of the ChildConvention on the Rights of the ChildAdopted and opened for signature, ratification a...
Considering that the child should be fully prepared to live an     individual life in society, and brought up in the spiri...
PART IArticle 1         For the purposes of the present Convention, a child means everyhuman being below the age of eighte...
and cultural rights, States Parties shall undertake such measures to the     maximum extent of their available resources a...
Article 9          1. States Parties shall ensure that a child shall not be separatedfrom his or her parents against their...
and in accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9,     paragraph 1, States Parties shall respect the...
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
Crc karen translation
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Crc karen translation

  1. 1. bDrk>pXzSd.u&Xw>tX.vDRtD vDRb.xGJzdo.tcGJ;t,m oh.wz.United NationsConvention on the Rights of the Child
  2. 2. bDrk>pXzSd.u&Xw>tX.vDRtDvDRb.xGJzd o.tcGJ;t,m oh.wz. United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child
  3. 3. © Convention on the Rights of the Child (English), United Nations 1989 © Convention on the Rights of the Child (Karen), Black on White Publications 2006 © What is the Convention on the Rights of the Child? (English, Karen and drawings) Black on White Publications 2006 © Foreword (English and Karen) Jaap Doek ISBN: 974-685-079-2 Translation team: Christ Stone (Saw Ler Taw), Saw Henery Khu, Hsar Khi Lar, Saw George, Saw Andy Artist: Htoo Doh Cover picture: Karen child 1988, Christ Church, Bangkok, English-speaking Congregation archives Published by: Black on White Publications Room 3084, Siam Court 130 Sukhumvit 4 Bangkok 10110 Thailand Tel. (+66) 02 656 2926 info@knowingchildren.org www.knowingchildren.org/blackonwhite/ Design: Jiratham Ngamsuk, Keen Publishing (Thailand) Co., Ltd Production: Keen Publishing (Thailand) Co., Ltd 22nd floor, Ocean Tower II 75/42 Sukhumvit 19 Bangkok 10110 Thailand Black on White Publications , is the publications division of Knowing Children. Save the Children Sweden, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Regional Office supported the production of this translation2
  4. 4. w>uwdRvXngbDrk>pXzSd.u&Xw>tX.vDRtDvDRb.C;zdo.tcGJ;t,mvXtb.w>wl>vdmtDRvXbsD.d.w>td.zSd.zJ(1989)M.rh>0J.w>tX.vDRtDvDRvXtvXySJRuwX>wbh.vX[D.cd.bDrk>ySR*h>0DcGJ;,mcJvXmoh.wz.tusgM.vDRIw>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.ftrh>ursX>tcGJ;t,m<xH%l>uD>oJ;tcGJ;t,m<rk>usdR0JRuGmtcGJ;t,m<ySR*h>0DcGJ;,mD;w>qJ;w>vRcGJ;,moh.wz.vXty.CkmzJtHRM.rh>0Jzdo.cJvXmoh.wz.t*D>vXw>vD>ud;ylRJ;D;ud;qXud;uwD>J;M.vDRIxHuD>yd.cJvXmC.C.vX[D.cd.csXtcJtHRtX.vDR0J.vXu[h.vDRw>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.tHRvXtxHuD>oJp;w>bsXtwuGD.ylRM.vDRIt0Joh.tX.vDRph>uD;0JvXuymzsgxD.vHmymzsgqlzdo.w>cGJ;w>,murH w H R ttd . b.C;w>vJ R xD . vJ R xD v Xt0J o h . wz.rRuJ x D . vd . xD . 0J.M.vDRI vXw>bsXeD.*H>(42)tzDvmyd.wz.trltgtd.0J.vXub.td.D;w>ol.ql.o;*JRvXurR0J.fod;w>od.w>oDoh.wz.vXw>ub.rRydmxGJtDRvXw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRtylRub.w>oh.ngtDRvXzdo.D;ol.uho;yS>cJvXmM.vDRIzJ(2005)tylRunDzdo.ydmcGgzdw*RvXttd.vXySRb.uDb.cJJu0DRwzsX.tylRzJuFD.wJ.AuD>y,DRuD>qXChxD.0J.ySRwrSHRw*RvXtvJR[;td.oud;zd.CJX;vXt0Jtd.tvD>vXuCkM>tDRw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRwbh.vXtup>tusdmM.vD R I cD z sd z J M .tcgw>uG J ; usd ; uh R ql l u nD u sd m wtd . H ; b.tCd ( KnowingChildren)[HxD.zD.xD.0J.rlgvXuuGJ;usd;<upJusH;xk;xD.D;uyXqSX&J.usJRw>&RvDRvHmvXtzd;oJp;wbh.tHRvXtydmxGJxD.0J.zdo.w>cGJ;w>,mtvHmwbh.vXtb.w>uGJ;%SJyF;tDRfod;zdo.oh.wz.ue.yX>0JnDt*D>CkmD;w>*DRvXtb.w>uGJ;tDRvXunDtySRuGJ;w>*DRw*RM.vDRI ,pH;y-wXRb.ySRuGJ;usd;w>oh.wz.D;ySRuGJ;w>*DRvXw>uJxD.vd.xD.t0JtHRtzDc.D;pH;bsK;b.(Knowing Children)vXt[HxD.zD.xD.w>zH;w>rRvX dtugd.t0JtHRM.vDRIvDRqD.w>pH;bsK;b.zdo.ydmcGgvXtChxD.0J.fod;uz;b.0Jtup>.0JySR[D.cd.zdtcGJ;t,moh.wz.M.vDRI,rk>v>vXw>uGJ;usd;vXt*RH;od;tHRoh.wz.w,Hmb.utd.xD.0J.vXzdo.D;o;yS>oh.wz.vXtb.xGJD;u%l>qH;oh.wz.D;uvkml.qH;zdoh.wz.tusdmfod;t0Joh.wz.uz;b.0Jw>*h>w>usdRoh.wz.tHRM.vDRI o&.d.pd=Jaap Doek ySRyXRvD>qh.eDR zdo.w>cGJ;w>,murHwHR uFHReH.b. 3
  5. 5. Foreword The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which was adopted by the General Assembly in 1989, is the most comprehensive of all international human rights legal instruments. The civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights it contains apply to all children, everywhere, all the time. Almost all governments in the world have now agreed to apply these rights within their domestic laws and to report regularly to the Committee on the Rights of the Child about progress in implementation. Under Article 42, governments are obliged to be active in making the principles and provisions of the Convention widely known by all children and adults. In 2005 a Karen boy in a refugee camp on the Thai/Myanmar Border requested a visitor to the orphanage in which he lives to find him a copy of the Convention in his own language. As no Karen translation then existed, Knowing Children took on the responsibility of translating, printing and overseeing the distribution of the official text, prefaced by a children-friendly explanation with pictures drawn by a Karen artist. I congratulate the translators and artist on the result, and thank Knowing Children for undertaking this important work. Particular thanks go to the boy who first requested to be able to read about his own human rights. I hope that many such translations will soon make this information available in the mother tongues of many more children and adults from minority and ethnic groups. Professor Jaap Doek Chair Committee on the Rights of the Child Geneva4
  6. 6. w>tX.vRtvRb.C;zo.tc;t,mp;w>M.r>w>rERv.I D D D d JG H h k Jw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRrh>0J.[D.cd.bDrk>ySR*h>0DcGJ;,mtulmwcgvXtb.w>tX.vDRtDvDRzJ(1989)cDzsdxHuD>oh.wz.vXtrh>bDrk>pXzSd.u&Xtu&XzdM.vDRIoJp;w>bsXt0JtHRymzsgxD.0J.zdo.cJvXmtcGJ;t,mvXty.Ckm0J.D;zdo.ud;*RvXttd.vXuD>th%SX.wbh.*hRwbh.*hRtylRM.vDRIWhat is the Convention on the Rights of the Child?The Convention is part of the international human rights laws. It was agreedin1989 by countries that belong to the United Nations. This law describesthe rights of all children, including every child who lives in any Asian country. 5
  7. 7. w>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.M.rh>w>rEkRvJ.I ySR[D.cd.zdcJvXmtd.D;w>cGJ;w>,mvXfod;vdmto;vXu td.rlb.vXw>rkmw>ck.D;w>bH.w>bXtylR<utd.vXySJR0J .D;tw>vd.b.oh.wz.ftrh>w>td.w>qd;<w>tD.w> tD<w>td.ql.td.cs›oh.wz.cJvXmD;t0Joh.wz.uEkmvDR y.Ckm0J.vXw>rRw>qXwJmvXtb.xGJD;t0Joh.tw> td.rlM.vDRI What are rights? All human beings have the same rights, to live in peace and security, to have their needs for shelter, food and health met, and to be involved in decisions made about their lives.6
  8. 8. zdo.pH;w> M.rh>rw*RvJ.Izdo.pH;w>M.rh>0J.ySR[D.cd.zdud;*RJ;vXtwySJRxD.H;(18)eH.oh.wz.M.vDRIzdo.ud;*RJ;td.D;w>cGJ;w>,mxJod;wkRod;vXutd.rl0J.D;ud.xD.xDxD.qlySRd.wkmcd.ySJRoh.wz.M.vDRIydmrk.ydmcGgzdwz.zdo.vXtw>bl.w>bgvDRqDvdmto;oh.wz.zdo.vXtw>qJ;w>vRvDRqDvdmto;oh.wz.zdo.vXtzSD.t,mD;zdo.vXtuJd.oh.wz.zdo.vXeD>cduh>*DRwvXwySJRoh.wz.Izd o .vXtb.uD . b.cJ o h . wz. , t0J o h . td . wyl R CD D ;trd>ty>rh>*hR, td.xJw*Rrh>*hRWho is a child?A child is a human being who has not yet reached his or her 18th birthday.All children have equal rights to live and to develop into adultsBoys and girlsChildren of different religionsChildren of different culturesPoor children and rich childrenChildren with disabilitiesChild refugees, whether they arewith their parents or alone. 7
  9. 9. rlgtd.vXrw*RtpkylRvJ.I yd.yyS>oh.wz.ub.rRvDRwH>0J.fod;zdo.ud;*RJ;ud;M>b. w>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.vXw>uGJ;vDRCmzJw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRt ylRM.vDRIt0Joh.wz.nDEk>rRw>t0JtHRcDzsdqD.xGJ0J.rd>y>oh. wz.vXu[h.vDRw>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.tHRM.vDRIw>t0JtHRy.Ckm0J .D;w>urRvDRwH>fod;zdo.oh.wz.wtd.vDRz;b.D;trd>ty> rhwrh>tcDynDurh>ph>uD;w>u[h.vDRw>u[ku,mvDRqDvXzdo. vXtrd>ty>wtd.oh.wz.t*D>M.vDRI Who is responsible? Governments must make sure that all children receive the rights written in the Convention. They usually do this by supporting parents to provide the rights. This may include making sure children are not separated from their parents, or it may mean providing special care for children who have no parents.8
  10. 10. vXw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRtylRw>uGJ;zsgxD.w>cGJ;w>,m rEkoh.wz.vJ.I What rights are described in the Convention? 9
  11. 11. zdHzdo.ud;*RJ;-uX;td.D;trHRwzsX.D;w>uJb.xHzduD>zdM.vDRI All children should have a name and nationality.10
  12. 12. zdo.oh.wz.ub.w>uG>vk>d.xD.tDRvX[H.CDvXtvXtySJRD;w>tJ.w>uGHcDzsdrd>y>oh.wz.M.vDRIrd>y>oh.wz.ub.u[ku,mzdo.D;wb.rRqgt0Joh.b.Iyd.oh.wz.ub.rRpXRrd>y>oh.wz.fod;t0Joh.u[h.vDRw>td.w>qd;D;w>u[ku,mvXt-uX;tb.vXtzdoh.wz.t*D>M.vDRIChildren should be brought up in loving homes, by their parents.Parents must take care of children, and not hurt them.Governments must help parents to provide a home and proper care fortheir children. 11
  13. 13. zd H z d o .oh . wz.rh > td . vD R z;vd m to;D ; trd > ty> M. t0Joh.-uX;w>rRpXRtDRvXuCkxH.M>uhRtDRM.vDRI If children are separated from their parents they should be helped to find them again.12
  14. 14. t0J o h . trd > ty>wz.u[k u ,mt0J o h . rh > woh b .M. yd . vXxHuD>vXt0Joh.wz.td.qd;0JtylRub.rRvDRwH>0Jfod;zdo.oh.wz.M.w>uu[ku,mtDR*hR*hRb.b.M.vDRIyd.yyS>oh.wz.-uX;orHord;uG>0J.t0Joh.wz.tw>td.rkmqd;yXRxDbdM.vDRIIf their parents cannot care for them, the government of the country inwhich they live must make sure children are properly cared for.Governments should check regularly on their welfare. 13
  15. 15. zdzo.oh.wz.-uX;vXw>u[h.vDRtDRw>td.ql.td.cs›tw>uG>xJG H d vXty.Ckm0J.D;xHvXtuqSDD;w>uqSJuqSDI Children should be provided with health care, including clean water and sanitation –14
  16. 16. CkmD;w>[h.uoH.X;oh.wz.<uoH.o&.oh.wz.<D;uoH.uoDoh.wz.ph>uD;M.vDRIas well as clinics, doctors and medicine. 15
  17. 17. zd o .oh . wz.w>-uX;[h . vD R t0J o h . w>ul . b.ul . oh M .vD R I w>t0JtHRy.Ckm0J.D;uFdvXt*hRoh.wz.<w>od.vdvXt*hR<w> od . w>oD v Xtwtd . D ; w>pk q l . cD . wu;< D ; w>upD . vXty. Ckm0J.D;t0Jo.tup>.0JtusdmD;tw>qJ;w>vRM.vDRI h Children should be provided with education. This includes good schools, good teaching, non violent discipline and information, including about their own language and culture.16
  18. 18. zdHzdo.oh.wz.-uX;td.0J.D;w>qXuwD>obs›vXuvdmuGJt*D><urRvd t o;vXw>vd . cd . vd . uG J o h . wz.t*D > < D ; utd . D ; w>[l;w>*JRvXttd.D;w>qdurd.vXtk;uJxD.w>toDIChildren should have leisure to play, to practice sports and creative activities. 17
  19. 19. zddo.oh.wz.w>ub.DoXtDRvXw>wrHR*hRwrHR*hRvXtuuJ xD.w>b.db.xH;vXt0Joh.wz.teD>cdD;tw>qdurd.qdur; oh.wz.M.vDRI zdo.oh.wz.w>ub.DoXtDRvXw>k;w>,RM.vDRI t0Joh.wz.wb.uJok;b.I t0Joh.wz.w>-uX;DoXtDRzJo;yS>oh.wz.th.vdm*mvdmo;t cgM.vDRI t0Joh.wz.w>wb.rRql;rRqgtDRb.I Children must be protected from any harm to their bodies or minds. Children must be protected from war. They must not be soldiers. They should be protected when adults fight. They must not be tortured.18
  20. 20. zdo.oh.wz.w>ub.DoXtDRvXw>zH;w>rRw>e;e;usHRusHRrhwrh>w>rRw>zJto;p>wvXH;tcgM.vDRIChildren must be protected from working too hard, or when they aretoo young. 19
  21. 21. zdo.oh.wz.w>ub.DoXtDRvXw>oluoH.rlRbSD;oh.wz.M. vDRI Children must be protected from using drugs.20
  22. 22. zdo.oh.wz.w>wb.qgtDRyORtDRb.IChildren must not be bought and sold (trafficked). 21
  23. 23. zdo.oh.wz.rh>b.w>zD.M>tDRvXtrRur.oJp;w>bsXM.t0J oh.wz.ub.td.D;w>uG>xGJvDRqDvXty.Ckm0J.D;= w>ymuJt0Joh.wz.to;eH.I w>pH.nD.vXtwDt-w>D;td.D;w>xJod;wkRod;I ud;M>b.w>ul.b.ul.ohI w>qJ;usd;D;t0Joh.trd>ty>oh.wz.M.vDRI If children are caught breaking the law they must have special treatment including: respect for their age equal and fair justice access to education communication with their parents.22
  24. 24. zdo.oh.wz.td.D;tw>cJG;w>,mvXtu[h.xD.t0Joh.tw>xH.oh . wz. zJ w >rRw>qXwJ m oh . wz.vXtrRb.d t 0J o h . wz.tcgM.vDRIt0Joh.wz.td.D;w>cGJ;w>,mvXuymzsgxD.t0Joh.tw>xH.oh.wz.vXw>obs›tylRD;w>ub.uG>qdurd.M>tDRvXw>o!ll;oyS>tylRM.vDRIChildren have the right to give their opinions when decisions are made thataffect them.They have the right to express their opinions freely and be taken seriously. 23
  25. 25. zdo.oh.wz.td.D;tcJG;t,mvXuk;td.xD.u%l>oh.wz.fod; t0Joh.wz.uymzsgxD.tw>xH.oh.wz.uoht*D>M.vDRI Children have the right to form groups so that their opinions can be heard.24
  26. 26. vXt0Joh.trd>ty>tw>[H;pkeJ.usJtzDvm zdo.oh.wz.td.D;w>obs›vXuCkxXt0Joh.tw> bl.w>bgD;k;td.xD.t0Joh.wz.teD>up>.0Jw>qdurd.qdur;oh.wz.M.vDRIUnder parental guidance, children are free to chose their religion and formtheir own ideas. 25
  27. 27. zdo.oh.wz.vXtb.w>rRb.db.xH;tDRvXteD>cdrhwrh>teD> o;w>qdurd.M.td.D;w>cGJ;w>,mvXtud;M>b.w>u[ku,m vDRqDfod;t0Joh.wz.u[JuhRb.vD>b.p;uguhRD;uqJ;td.rl qlngt*D>M.vDRI Children who have been hurt in body or mind have the right to special care, so that they can recover and get on with their lives.26
  28. 28. w>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.tHRcJvXm -uX;vXzdo.cJvXmud;M>b.0J vXw>vD>wwD>*hRwwDR*hRud;qXud;uwD>J;M.vDRIw>vDRzsJ.vDR[dwb.td.eDwrHRb.IAll these rights should be enjoyed by all children, everywhere, all the time.There are no exceptions. 27
  29. 29. w>tX.vDRtDvDRb.xGJzdo.tcGJ;t,moh.wz.b.w>wl>vdmtDRD;b.w>td;xD.tDRvXw>uqJ;vDR pkrk>usX>t*D>< w>rRw>tX.vDRtDvDRvXw>qJ;vDRpkrk>usX> D;w>wl>vdmtDRcDzsdbsD.d.w> td.zSd.tw>qXwJm44 /25 vXvged.0hbX.toD20< 1989 p;xD.uJxD.w>bsXzJvgpJ;yxhbX.2oD 1990eH. ftvDRyvdmvdmto;D;w>bsXeD.*H>(49)w>uwdRvXngxHuD>yd.wz.qlw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHR<qdurd.tDRvX=ftvDRyvdmvdmto;D;w>od.w>oDvXtb.w>bd;b.&RvDRtDRvXbDrk>pXzSd.u&Xtw>zH;w>rRD;tw>bsXtylR(Charter of the United Nations)w>ymyeD.wl>vdmySR[D.cd.zdtl.txXzdud;*RJ ; vXttd . D ; tol ; toh . tvRuyD R vXttd . zsJ . Ck m M>0JD;w>ymyeD.wl>vdmySRud;*RJ;w>xJod;wkRod;tcGJ;t,m D;w>ymyeD.wl>vdmw>cGJ;w>,mvXw>wb.xk;vDRz;ySR[D.cd.zdtl.zdxXzdM.rh>0J.w>obs›<w>wDw>vdR<D;w>rkmw>ck.tcD.wCmvX[D.cd.csXIymol.ymo;vX vXu&Xtw>zH;w>rRD;w>bsXtylRbDrk>pXzSd.u&XySRb.rlb.gwz.ym*X>ymusXRuguhRt0Joh.wz.tw>emvX*H>cD.xH;ySR*h>0DtcG;t,moh.wz. D;t0Jo.wz.tw>emvXySRw*Rtol; J htoh.tvRuyDRD;tvk>tyORM.vDRID;t0Joh.wz.qXwJm0J.vXurRd.xD.xDxD.ySR*h>0Dtw>vJRxD.vJRxD D;rR*hRxD.w>td.rltywD>vXw>obs›vXtd.M>tgM>H;tvD>I 29
  30. 30. tX.vDRwl>vdmvX[D.cd.Dbh.w>bd;b.oh.ngySR[D.cd.zdtw>cGJ; w>,m(Universal Declaration of Human Rights)oh.wz.tylRD;xHuD>bDrk> tw>tX.vDRtDvDRb.C;ySR[D.cd.zdtcGJ;t,m(International Covenants on Human Rights)tylRbDrk>pXzSd.u&Xbd;b.&RvDR0J.D;tX.vDRtD vDR0J.vXySRud;*RJ;td.D;w>cGJ;w>,mfod;ud;M>b.w>cGJ;w>,m D;w>obs›vXtb.w>ymzsgxD.tDRvXw>bd;b.oh.ngoh.wz.M. tyl R vXtwtd . 0J .D ; w>yJ m z;eD R z;w>tqXf t rh > uvk m < zH;n.tvGJ><rk.cGg<usdm<w>bl.w>bg<xH%l>uD>oJ;tw>xH.D;w> xH . vXt*R< uvk m l . D ; yS R *h > 0D t ywD > < w>xl ; w>wD R < w>td . zsJ . D ; wD R ywD > vXt*RI oh . eD . xD . vX vX[D . cd . D b h . w>bd ; b. oh.ngySR[D.cd.zdtw>cGJ;w>,m(Universal Declaration of Human Rights) oh.wz.tylRbDrk>pXzSd.u&Xbd;b.oh.ng0J.vXzdo.tw>td.rl td.D;w>cGJ;w>,mvXud;M>b.w>u[ku,mvDRqDD;w>qD.xGJ rRpXRvDRqDI em0J.usXRrkq+vX[H.zdCDzdrh>ySRwl.vXt&hd.uwX>vXySRw0X tylRD;trh>ySRwl.vXtuJ0JMqX.tcd.tCXRvXl.zdxXzdoh.wz. u*kRxD.yoDxD.D;ub.rkmb.ck.0J.t*D>vDRqD.w>zdo.oh. wz.t*D>M.vDRIvXw>M.tCdw>-uX;[h.w>tH;xGJuG>xGJvXtvd. b.0J.D;w>qD.xGJrRpXRvXtvd.b.0Joh.wz.fod;t0Joh.wz. uoh[HM>rlgvXvXySJRySJRvXySRw0XtylRI tX.vDRwl>vdm0J.vX zdo.w*Rfod;to;w>oh.nge>yX>u*kRxD. yoDxD.vXvXySJRySJRt*D>t0Jub.d.xD.0J.vX[H.zdCDzdtusg< vXtvX0JySJR0J.D;w>ol.rHo;rkm<w>tJ.w>uGH<D;w>e>yX>vdmo; tylRI30
  31. 31. qdurd.tDRvXzdo.w*R-uX;vXub.td.uwJmuwDRymto;fod;utd . rl v XteD > up>.0J v XyS R w0Xtyl R D ; b.w>vk > d . xD . tD RftvDRyvdmvdmto;D;bDrk>pXzSd.u&Xtw>zH;w>rRD;w>bsXtw>bd;b.&RvDRto[D.tod;D;vDRqD.w>ub.w>vk>d.xD.tDRvXw>rkmw>ck.<ol;oh.vRuyDR<w>0Ho;plR<w>obs›<w>xJod;wkRod;D;w>o;wzsX.CDIymol.ymo;vXw>vd.b.vXw>ub.[h.vDRw>u[ku,mvDRqDvXzdo.t*D>M.b.w>ymzsgxD.tDRvXuFHeH.b.w>bd;b.&RvDRb.C;zdo.tcGJ;t,moh.wz.(1924)(Geneva Declaration of the Rights of theChild)tylRD;vXw>bd;b.&RvDRzdo.oh.wz.tcGJ;t,mvXtb.w>ymyeD.tDRvXbDrk>pXzSd.u&XbsD.d.w>td.zSd.zJvged.0hbX.20<1959tylR<D;b.w>ymyeD.wl>vdmtDRvX[D.cd.Dbh.w>bd;b.&RvDRySR[D.cd.zdtcGJ;t,mwz.(Universal Declaration of Human Rights)D;vX[D.cd.bDrk>w>tX.vDRtDvDRvXursX>D;xH%l>uD>oJ;tcGJ;t,mwz.(International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights)vDRqD.w>vXw>bsX(23)D;(24)tylRD;vX[D.cd.bDrk>w>tX.vDRtDvDRvXrk > usd R 0J R uG m < yS R *h > 0D D ; w>qJ ; w>vRw>cG J ; w>,moh . wz. tyl R(International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights)(vDRqD.w>vXw>bsXeD>8H>10tylR)D;vXw>u&Xu&dvDRqDoh.wz.tw>od.w>oDtylRD;xHuD>bDrk>tw>u&Xu&dvXtb.C;D;zdo.tw>td.rkmqd;yXRIymoll.ymo;vXftb.w>ymzsgxD.tDRvXw>bd;b.&RvDRzdo.tw>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.tylRpH;0J.?zdo.M.cDzsdw>*h>ftrh>eD>cdeD>o;tw>d.xD.xDxD.rhwwkRxD.xD.b;M.t0Joh.wz.vd.b.w>DoXD;w>u[ku,mvDRqDoh.wz.vXuy.Ckm0J.D;w>DoXvXoJp;*h>0DwcsK;ttd.zsJ.xD.D;td.zsJ.xD.0HRtvD>cH/ 31
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  34. 34. w>bsXeD.*H> 3 1Iw>[l;w>*JRw>zH;w>rRcJvXmvXtb.xGJD;zdo.oh.wz.vXtb. w>[HM>rlgvXursX>w>u&Xu&drh>*hRrhwrh>w>u&Xu&dobs›vXt b.C;D;ySR*h>0Doh.wz.rh>8hR<uGD>bsD.rh>*hR<yXjy;tw>u&Xu&dw z.rhwrh>w>u&Xu&dvXtk;td.xD.oJp;w>bsXwz.rh>*hRub. qdurd.0J.w>t*hRuwX>vXzdo.t*D>M.vDRI 2IxHuD>yd.wz.[HM>rlgvXurRvDRwH>0J.w>u[ku,mfM.t od;wz.rh>w>vXtvd.b.vXzdo.tw>td.rkmqd;yXRt*D>M.vDRI t0Joh.ub.qdurd.M>Ckm0J.rd>y>oh.wz.tw>cGJ;w>,mD;trl tgoh.wz.CkmD;ySRvXtuG>xGJzdo.rhwrh>ySR*Roh.wz.vXtb. xGJD;zdo.oh.wz.tcGJ;t,mD;trltgM.vDRIvXurRw>t0JtHR t*D>t0Joh.ub.[H0J.w>k;td.xD.oJp;*h>0DoeX.D;w>yXw>qSX *h>0DoeX.vXt-uX;tb.oh.wz.M.vDRI 3IxHuD>yd.oh.wz.-uX;vXurRw>vDRwH>vDRqJ;fod;w>u&Xu&d oh.wz.<w>zH;w>rRD;w>vD>w>usJvXtb.xGJD;w>u[ku,mzd o.D;w>tH;xGJuG>xGJzdo.oh.wz.tywD>uwkRxD.xD.b;fyd. ymyeD.Cm0Jtod;M.vDRIvDRqD.w>w>oeX.ftrh>w>ylRzsJ;D; w>b.,d.b.bSD<w>td.ql.td.cs›<ySRrRw>zdeD>*H>vXt-uX;tb. CkmD;w>yXqSX&J.usJRw> vXtrl;teD>oh.wz.M.vDRI w>bsXeD.*H> 4 xHuD>yd.wz.ub.[HrlgvXt-uX;tb.cJvXm vXw>bsXoJp; wuyRrh>*hR<w>yXw>jy;wuyRrh>*hRD;w>[HM>*h>0DvXt*Rfod;urR uJxD.vd.xD.w>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.vXtb.w>ymyeD.tDRvXw> tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRtylRM.vDRIrhrh>vXtb.C;D;rk>usdR0JRuGm< ySR*h>0D D;w>qJ;w>vRtcGJ;t,mwz.t*D>xHuD>yd.wz.ub.34
  35. 35. [HrlgD;rR0J.t*hRuwX>ft*H>tbgtd.0Jtod; D;tvD>rh>td.oXysXRub.rR0J.vX[D.cd.bDrk>tw>rRoud;w>twuGD.tylRM.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 5xHuD>yd.wz.ub.ymuJ0J.rd>y>oh.wz.trltg<tw>cGJ;w>,mD;tw>zH;w>rRwz.rhwrh>tvD>rhtd.wcDub.ymuJ0J.[H.zdCDzdt*Rwz.ft0Joh.wz.tvk>tv>td.0Jtod;D;ub.ymuJ0J.ySRuG>xGJzdo.vXtzd;oJp;oh.wz.rhwrh>ySRt*Roh.wz.vXtb.xG J D ; zd o . f o d ; t0J o h . wz.u[h . vD R w>[H ; pk e J . usJ v Xt-uX;tb.D ; zd o .tw>oh . ngtywD > f z d o .tcG J ; t,mvXw>oh.ngymyeD.tDRvXw>tX.vDRtDvDR0JtHRtylRM.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 61IxHuD>yd.oh.wz.wl>vdmymyeD.0J.vXzdo.ud;*RJ;td.D;w>cGJ;w>,mvXutd.rlb.0Jt*D>M.vDRI2IxHu>yd.wz.b.rRw>vDRwH>vDRqJ;fo;zdo.oh.wz.wohztoh D d Jutd.rlb.0Jt,HmuwX> D;vXuvJRxD.vJRxDt*hRuwX>t*D>M.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 71Izdo.M.w>ub.uGJ;eD.uGJ;CgtDRzJttd.zsJ.vDR0HRwbsDCD;ub. Dtd.D;w>cGJ;w>,mfod;utd.D;trHRwzsX.<w>cGJ;w>,mvXuuJxD.b.xHzduD>zd<D;wohzJtohutd.D;w>cGJ;w>,mvXuoh.ngb.trd>ty>D;w>ub.tH;xGJuG>xGJtDRvXtrd>ty>M.vDRI2IxHu>yd.oh.wz.ub.rRw>vDRwH>vDRqJ;vXw>k;uJx.vd.xD. D Dw>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.tHRftvDRyvdmvdmto;D;txHtuD>oJp;w>bsX.0JD;t0Joh.trltgvXttd.vX[D.cd.bDrk>tw>bsXtzDvm 35
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  54. 54. (*)w>rRd.xD.tgxD.w>ymuJzdo.trd>ty>oh.wz.<zdo.tw> qJ;w>vR<zdo.tusdmD;zdo.tvk>tyORfw>uymuJxHuD>wbh. vXzdo.td.qd;0JtylRtvkmtyORwz.<xHuD>wbh.vXzdo.td.zsJ. xD . 0J .tyl R D ; f o d ; w>uymuJ w >qJ ; w>vRvXtvD R qD v d m t o;D;zdo.tw>qJ;w>vRI (C)w>uuwJmuwDRM>zdo.oh.wz.fod;uoh[HrlgvXySRw0X vXttd.D;w>obs› vXo;o[D.vXttd.D;w>oh.nge>yX><w>rkm w>ck.<w>ol.plRo;plR<rk.cGgtw>xJod;wkRod;<D;w>&hwHR&houd;vX ySR*Rtusg<w>&hwHR&houd;vXuvkml.oh.wz.tusg<w>&hwHR &houd;vXuvkmD;w>bl.w>bgu%l>oh.wz.tusgD;w>&hwHR&ho ud;vXySRoh.wz.vXt[JvDRpXRvXySRxlvHRzd.0JtusgI (i)w>rRd.xD.xDfod;w>uymuJcd.CXRMqX.I 2Iw>bsXt0JtHRrh>*hRrhwrh>w>bsXeD.*H>(28)rh>*hRw>wb.e>yX>ur. tDRfod;uuJxD.w>wHmwmvXySR*Rt*D>D;w>&Xu&doh.wz.vX uol.xD.D;uyXqSXw>ul.b.ul.ohtw>u&Xu&dwz.t*D>D;xD bdub.ymol.ymo;0J.vXw>bsXoh.wz.vXw>ymvDRCmtDRvX w>bsXt0JtHRtqXzd(1)tylRD;w>ul.b.ul.ohvXw>[h.vDRtDR vXw>ul.b.ul.ohw>u&Xu&dwz.tHRtywD>ub.wkRxD.xD. b;fxHuD>yd.ymyeD.Cm0Jtod;M.vDRI54
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  68. 68. w>bsXeD.*H> 44 1IxHuD>yd.wz.[HrlgvXuwD.xD.vHmymzsgvXtb.xGJD;w>zH; w>rRvXt0Joh.wz.rR0JvXtuJxD.w>bsK;w>zSd.vXw>cGJ;w>,m oh.wz.vXtb.w>ymyeD.tDRzJtHRD;w>vJRxD.vJRxDvXt0Joh. rRuJxD.vd.xD.0J.b.C;w>olw>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.tHRtzDcd. qlbDrk>pXzSd.u&XteJ.&GJ.cd.usX>M.vDRI (u)zJw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRuJxD.w>bsXvXxHuD>vXtwD.xD. vHmymzsgt0JtHRcHeH.twD>ylRI (c)w>M.0HRtvD>cHw>ub.qSXxD.,J>eH.wbsDM.vDRI 2IvHmymzsgoh.wz.vXw>uGJ;tDRvXw>bsXt0JtHRtzDvmM.rhtd. D;w>*h>D;w>uDw>cJoh.wz.vXtrRb.db.xH;w>rRvJRxD.vJR xDw>zH;w>rRrlgvXttd.vXw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRtzDvmM.u b.ymzsgxD.0J.M.vDRIw>ymzsgoh.wz.ub.y.Ckm0J.D;w>*h> w>usdRvXvXySJRySJRfod;u[h.vDRurHwHR0JtHRw>e>yX>bsJ;bsJ;bsD; bsD;vXw>rRuJxD.vd.xD.w>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRvXxHuD>yd.vX tuG;vHmymzsgt0JtHRM.vDRI J 3IxHuD>yd.wzkvXtwD.xD.wh>vHvHmymzsgtcD.xH;wbh.vXtvX tySJRqlurHwHRttd.M.zJtwD.xD.uguhRw>ymzsgvXcHwbh. vXtvD R yvd m vd m to;D ; w>bsXt0J t H R tqXzd ( 1) th ( c) tyl R wvd.vXuuGJ;zsgxD.uguhRw>*h>vXtymzsgxD.wh>0JvXvHmymzsg vXngwbh.tylRM.b.I68
  69. 69. 4IurHwHRt0JtHRub.ChtgxD.w>*h>w>usdRvXtb.xGJvdmto;D;w>rRuJxD.vd.xD.w>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRvXxHuD>yd.wz.ttd.M.vDRI5IurHwHRt0JtHRub.wD.xD.vHmymzsgb.C;t0Joh.tw>[l;w>*JRcHeH.wbsDqlbsD.d.w>td.zSd.cDzsdrk>usdR0JRuGmD;ySR*h>0DuD>u;(Economic and Social Council)M.vDRI6IxHuD>yd.oh.wz.ub.rR0J.fod;tySRxHzduD>zdoh.wz.ud;M>b.vHmymzsgvXt0Joh.ymzsgxD.0J.M.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 45fod;w>u[h.*H>[h.bgw>rRuJxD.vd.xD.w>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRwkRvDRwDRvDRt*D>D;w>qD.xGJrRpXRxHuD>bDrk>tw>rRoud;w>vXtb.w>zXEkmCmzJw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRt*D>=(u)cX.p;u&XvD R qD w z.f t rh > bD r k > pXzS d . u&Xzd o .tph y muD RD;bDrk>pXzSd.u&Xw>u&Xu&dthvXt*Rwz.ub.td.D;w>cGJ;w>,mvXuEkmvDRrRb.xGJto;zJw>qdurd.ul.xD.z;vDRfod;w>urRuJxD.vd.xD.w>*h>w>usdRvXttd.vXw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRtyl R f o d ; tvD R b.vXt0J o h . tw>zH ; w>rR tpd u rD R twuG D .yl R tod ; M.vD R IurH w H R t0J t H R uuG J r k m cX.p; u&XvD R qD w z.ftrh>bDrk>pXzSd.u&Xzdo.tphymuDRD;bDrk>pXzSd.u&Xtw>u&Xu&dthvXt*Roh.wz.ftb.w>ymyeD.tDRftrh>u&Xoh.wz.vXt-uX;tb.vXu[h.vDRw>[h.ul.[h.z;vXw>urRuJxD.vd.xD.w>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRftvDRb.vXt0Joh.tw>zH;w>rRtpdurD R twuG D . yl R tod ; M.vD R I urH w H R t0J t H R uuG J r k m cX.p;w>u&Xu&dvDRqDwz.ftrh>bDrk>pXzSd.u&Xzdo.tphymuDRD;bDrk>pX 69
  70. 70. zS d . u&Xw>u&Xu&d t h t *Rwz.f o d ; t0 J o h . u wD . xD . vH m ym zsgoh . wz.vXtb.C;D ; w>rRuJ x D . vd . xD . w>tX .vD R tD vDRt0JtHRftvDRb.vXt0Joh.tw>zH;w>rRtpdurDRtwuGD.ylR tod;M.vDRI (c)urHwHRt0JtHRfw>ym0J.vXt-uX;0Jb.0Jtod;ub.&RvDR vH m y m zsgoh . wz.vXxH u D > yd . oh . wz.wD . xD . 0J .vX ty.Ckm0J.D;w>ChxD.rhwrh>w>vd.b.wrHRrHRvXtb.xGJD;w> zH;w>rRtusdRtuGmrhwrh>w>rRpXRvXtvd.b.0JwrHRrHRCkmD; urHwHRtw>xH.D;tw>[h.ul.[h.z;wz.rhtd.0JwcgcgvXw> ChxD.tzDcd.rhwrh>w>ymzsgoh.wz.tHRtzDcd.M.vDRI (*)urHwHRt0JtHRu[h.ul.bDrk>pXzSd.u&XtbsD.d.w>td.zSd.fod; bDrk>pXzSd.u&XteJ.&GJ.cd.usX>u[HrlgvXurHwHRtvD>vXw>uCk oh.ngw>*h>w>usdRvXtvDRqDoh.wz.vXtb.xGJD;zdo.tw>cGJ; w>,moh.wz.M.vDRI (C)urHwHRt0JtHRu[h.vDRw>[h.ul.[h.z;oh.wz.D;tw>xH. tuvkmuvkmvXw>*h>w>usdRvXtd;M>b.0JtzDcd.ftvDRyvdm vdmto;D;w>bsXeD.*H>(44)D;(45)vXw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRtylR M.vDRIw>[h.ul.[h.z;D;w>xH.tuvkmuvkmoh.wz.tHRw>u b.qSXxD.tDRqlxHuD>yd.vXtb.xGJvdmo;D;w>*h>t0JtHRD; w>ub.ymzsgxD.0J.vXbsD.d.w>td.zSd.CkmD;w>ymzsgw>xH.rh td.b.zk;wrHRrHRvXxHuD>yd.oh.wz.wD.xD.0J.M.vDRI w>bsXeD.*H> 46 w>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRw>ub.td;xD.tDRvXxHuD>ud;bh.J;u qJ;vDRpkrk>usX>t*D>M.vDRI70
  71. 71. w>bsXeD.*H> 47vHmw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRw>ub.rRw>tX.vDRtDvDRvXw>qJ;vDRpkrk>usX>M.vDRIvHmw>tX.vDRtDvDRvXw>qJ;vDRpkrk>usX>t0JtHRw>ub.t;vDRtDRD;bDrk>pXzSd.u&XteJ.&GJ.cd.usX>M.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 48w>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRub.w>td;xD.ymto;vXxHuD>wbh.*hRwbh.*hRuwl>vdmtDRt*D>M.vDRIvHmw>uGJ;eD.uGJ;CgvXw>wl>vdmtDRM.w>ub.t;vDRtDRqlbDrk>pXzSd.u&XteJ.&GJ.cd.usX>ttd.M.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 491Iw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRuJxD.oJp;w>bsXzJw>t;vDRtDRD;bDrk>pXzSd.u&XeJ.&GJ.cd.usX>0HRzJtySJRxD.toDoXqHweHRD;zJxHuD>ySJRxD . tbh . cH q H v XtrRw>tX.vD R tD v D R vXw>qJ ; vD R pk r k > usX>rhwrh>trRw>tX.vDRwl>vdmM.vDRI2IxHuD>wbh.pkmpkmvXtrRw>tX.vDRtDvDRvXw>qJ;vDRpkrk>usX><rhwrh>trRw>tX.vDRwl>vdmt0JtHRzJtySJRxD.xHuD>tbh.cHqHvXtrRw>tX.vDRtDvDRvXw>qJ;vDRpkrk>usX><rhwrh>w>wl>vdmw>tX.vDRt0JtHRtqXuwD>M.w>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRuuJxD.0J.w>od.w>oDvXxHuD>t0JM.tylRzJtySJRxD.toDoXqHteHRM.vDRI 71
  72. 72. w>bsXeD.*H> 50 1IxHuD>yd.wzk*hRwzk*hRqSXEkmw>bSDb.rR*hRxD.uhRw>wrHRrHRoh0J D;qSXxD.qlbDrk>pXzSd.u&XteJ.&GJ.cd.usX>ttd.fod;w>urReD.rR CgtDRt*D>M.vDRIvXw>t0JtHRtzDcd.eJ.&GJ.cd.usX>ub.k;oh.ng xHuD>yd.oh.wz.vXtb.C;D;w>bSDb.rR*hRxD.uhRw>*h>w> u sd R t0J t H R Ck m D ; w>Ch x D . t0J o h . wz.tw>b. o;<rh > t0J oh . o;vD 0 J .xH u D > yd . oh . wz.tcD u &J ; vXw>ynd . f od;uqdrd.oud;D;u[h.w>z;vXw>[h.ul.t0JtHRtzDcd.M.vDRI w>[h.k;oh.ngw>*h>t0JtHR0HRtvD>cHtpSRuwX>vGH>vgtwD>ylR xHuD>yd.oXylwylrho;vD0J.cDu&J;t0JtHRM.eJ.&GJ.cd.usX>ub. ok;usJR0J.vXbDrk>pXzSd.u&Xtw>rRpXRtzDcd.M.vDRIw>bSDb. wcgcgvXw>ymyeD.tDRvXxHuD>yd.oh.wz.vXtxD.cDu&J;D;vX t[h.w>z;vXcDu&J;t0JtHRttguwX>M.w>ub.qSXxD.tDRql bsD.d.w>td.zSd.fod;w>utX.vDRwl>vdmtDRt*D>M.vDRI 2Iw>bSDb.rR*hRxD.uhRwrHRrHRvXtb.w>ymyeD.tDRftvDRyvdm vdmto;D;w>bsXt0JtHRtqXzd(1)M.uuJxD.0J.w>bsXoJp;zJbD rk>pXzSd.u&XtbsD.d.w>td.zSd.D;xHuD>yd.oXylcHylwl>vdm0J.tcg M.vDRI 3IzJw>bSDb.uhRw>wrHRrHRzJtuJxD.w>bsXoJp;vHM.xHuD>yd. oh.wz.vXtwl>vdmw>bSDb.uhRt0JtHRub.[HrlgD;rhrh>xHuD> yd.t*Roh.wz.trltgtd.H;vXw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRtzDcd. D;w>bSDb.uhRw>wrHR*hRwrHR*hRvXt0Joh.wl>vdmym0JvXngM.vDRI72
  73. 73. w>bsXeD.*H> 511IbDrk>pXzSd.u&XteJ.&GJ.cd.usX>ub.d;M.b.0Jw>bsXoh.wz.vXw>wwl>vdmtDRH;vXxHuD>yd.wz.zJw>rRw>tX.vDRtDvDRvXw>qJ;vDRpkrk>usX>rhwrh>w>rRw>wl>vdmtcgD;ub.&RvDR0J.qlxHuD>ud;bh.J;M.vDRI2Iw>bsXoh.wz.vXw>wwl>vdmtX.vDRH;tDRwz.vXtxDgvdmto;D;w>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRw>ynd.D;tw>wdmymoh.wz.M.w>wb.[h.tDRtcGJ;b.I3Iw>bsXoh.wz.vXw>wwl>vdmH;tDRoh.wz.w>xk;uGHmtDRohwbsDv>v>zJw>[h.k;oh.ngbDrk>pXzSd.u&XteJ.&GJ.cd.usX>D;eJ.&GJ.cd.usX>ub.k;oh.ngxHuD>t*Rud;bh.J;M.vDRIw>[h.k;oh.ngt0JtHRw>ub.ym*X>ymusXRtDRzJrk>eHRweHRvXeJ.&GJ.cd.usX>d;M>b.0JtcgM.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 52xHuD>yd.wzkyJRtXyJRoDw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRcDzsdw>uGJ;k;oh.ngbDrk>pXzSd.u&XteJ.&GJ.cd.usX>oh0J.M.vDRIw>yJRtXyJRoDt0JtHRub.w>p;xD.ymyeD.tDRzJbDrk>pXzSd.u&XeJ.&GJ.cd.usX>d;M>b.w>uGJ;k;oh.ng0HRweH.tvD>cHM.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 53bDrk>pXzSd.u&XteJ.&GJ.cd.usX>tHRw>ymyeD.CkxXtDRvXw>ut;vDRymw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRM.vDRI 73
  74. 74. w>bsXeD.*H> 54 vHmw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRtxlvHRvXtb.w>uGJ;tDRvXt.&;t usdm<w%l;tusdm<uDRvR0gtusdm<jz.ph.tusdm<&g%SgtusdmD;pyh. tusd m oh . wz.M. rh > tpJ > eD > ud ; bh . J ; D ; ub. w>t;vD R ym tD R D;bDrk>pXzSd.u&XteJ.&GJ.cd.usX>M.vDRIrD>oDoh.wz.vXtb.w> [h.pd[h.urDRtDRvXvXySJRySJRvXt0Joh.txHuD>yd..0Joh.wz. M.rh>0JySRtk.o;oh.wz.D;rh>0JySRoh.wz.vXtqJ;vDRpkrk>usX>zJ vHmw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRtylRM.vDRI74
  75. 75. Convention on the Rights of the ChildConvention on the Rights of the ChildAdopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession byGeneral Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989Entry into force 2 September 1990, in accordance with article 49PreambleThe States Parties to the present Convention, Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimedin the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignityand of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the humanfamily is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Bearing in mind that the peoples of the United Nations have, inthe Charter, reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights and in thedignity and worth of the human person, and have determined to promotesocial progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, Recognizing that the United Nations has, in the UniversalDeclaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants onHuman Rights, proclaimed and agreed that everyone is entitled to all therights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, suchas race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national orsocial origin, property, birth or other status, Recalling that, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, theUnited Nations has proclaimed that childhood is entitled to special careand assistance, Convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of societyand the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all itsmembers and particularly children, should be afforded the necessaryprotection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilitieswithin the community, Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmoniousdevelopment of his or her personality, should grow up in a familyenvironment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding, 75
  76. 76. Considering that the child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society, and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, and in particular in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity, Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10) and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children, Bearing in mind that, as indicated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, “the child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth” , Recalling the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally; the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules); and the Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict, Recognizing that, in all countries in the world, there are children living in exceptionally difficult conditions, and that such children need special consideration, Taking due account of the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the protection and harmonious development of the child, Recognizing the importance of international co-operation for improving the living conditions of children in every country, in particular in the developing countries, Have agreed as follows:76
  77. 77. PART IArticle 1 For the purposes of the present Convention, a child means everyhuman being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law appli-cable to the child, majority is attained earlier.Article 2 1. States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth inthe present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction withoutdiscrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child’s or his or her parent’s orlegal guardian’s race,colour,sex,language,religion,political or other opinion,national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status. 2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure thatthe child is protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment onthe basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of thechild’s parents, legal guardians, or family members.Article 3 1. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by publicor private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authoritiesor legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primaryconsideration. 2. States Parties undertake to ensure the child such protectionand care as is necessary for his or her well-being, taking into account therights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legally responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take allappropriate legislative and administrative measures. 3. States Parties shall ensure that the institutions, services andfacilities responsible for the care or protection of children shall conformwith the standards established by competent authorities, particularly inthe areas of safety, health, in the number and suitability of their staff, aswell as competent supervision.Article 4 States Parties shall undertake all appropriate legislative,administrative, and other measures for the implementation of the rightsrecognized in the present Convention. With regard to economic, social 77
  78. 78. and cultural rights, States Parties shall undertake such measures to the maximum extent of their available resources and, where needed, within the framework of international co-operation. Article 5 States Parties shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights recognized in the present Convention. Article 6 1. States Parties recognize that every child has the inherent right to life. 2. States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child. Article 7 1. The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and. as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents. 2. States Parties shall ensure the implementation of these rights in accordance with their national law and their obligations under the relevant international instruments in this field, in particular where the child would otherwise be stateless. Article 8 1. States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations as recognized by law without unlawful interference. 2.Where a child is illegally deprived of some or all of the elements of his or her identity, States Parties shall provide appropriate assistance and protection, with a view to re-establishing speedily his or her identity.78
  79. 79. Article 9 1. States Parties shall ensure that a child shall not be separatedfrom his or her parents against their will, except when competent authoritiessubject to judicial review determine, in accordance with applicable lawand procedures, that such separation is necessary for the best interests ofthe child. Such determination may be necessary in a particular case suchas one involving abuse or neglect of the child by the parents, or one wherethe parents are living separately and a decision must be made as to thechild’s place of residence. 2. In any proceedings pursuant to paragraph 1 of the presentarticle, all interested parties shall be given an opportunity to participate inthe proceedings and make their views known. 3. States Parties shall respect the right of the child who is separatedfrom one or both parents to maintain personal relations and directcontact with both parents on a regular basis, except if it is contrary to thechild’s best interests. 4. Where such separation results from any action initiated by aState Party, such as the detention, imprisonment, exile, deportation ordeath (including death arising from any cause while the person is in thecustody of the State) of one or both parents or of the child, that State Partyshall, upon request, provide the parents, the child or, if appropriate, anothermember of the family with the essential information concerning thewhereabouts of the absent member(s) of the family unless the provisionof the information would be detrimental to the well-being of the child.States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a requestshall of itself entail no adverse consequences for the person(s) concerned.Article 10 1. In accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article9, paragraph 1, applications by a child or his or her parents to enter orleave a State Party for the purpose of family reunification shall be dealtwith by States Parties in a positive, humane and expeditious manner.States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a requestshall entail no adverse consequences for the applicants and for themembers of their family. 2. A child whose parents reside in different States shall have theright to maintain on a regular basis, save in exceptional circumstancespersonal relations and direct contacts with both parents.Towards that end 79
  80. 80. and in accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, States Parties shall respect the right of the child and his or her parents to leave any country, including their own, and to enter their own country. The right to leave any country shall be subject only to such restrictions as are prescribed by law and which are necessary to protect the national security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Convention. Article 11 1. States Parties shall take measures to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad. 2. To this end, States Parties shall promote the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements or accession to existing agreements. Article 12 1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child. 2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law. Article 13 1. The child shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the childs choice. 2. The exercise of this right may be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary: (a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others; or (b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.80

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