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CRC - Karen version


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  • 1. bDrk>pXzSd.u&Xw>tX.vDRtD vDRb.xGJzdo.tcGJ;t,m oh.wz.United NationsConvention on the Rights of the Child
  • 2. bDrk>pXzSd.u&Xw>tX.vDRtDvDRb.xGJzd o.tcGJ;t,m oh.wz. United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child
  • 3. © Convention on the Rights of the Child (English), United Nations 1989 © Convention on the Rights of the Child (Karen), Black on White Publications 2006 © What is the Convention on the Rights of the Child? (English, Karen and drawings) Black on White Publications 2006 © Foreword (English and Karen) Jaap Doek ISBN: 974-685-079-2 Translation team: Christ Stone (Saw Ler Taw), Saw Henery Khu, Hsar Khi Lar, Saw George, Saw Andy Artist: Htoo Doh Cover picture: Karen child 1988, Christ Church, Bangkok, English-speaking Congregation archives Published by: Black on White Publications Room 3084, Siam Court 130 Sukhumvit 4 Bangkok 10110 Thailand Tel. (+66) 02 656 2926 Design: Jiratham Ngamsuk, Keen Publishing (Thailand) Co., Ltd Production: Keen Publishing (Thailand) Co., Ltd 22nd floor, Ocean Tower II 75/42 Sukhumvit 19 Bangkok 10110 Thailand Black on White Publications , is the publications division of Knowing Children. Save the Children Sweden, Southeast Asia and the Pacific Regional Office supported the production of this translation2
  • 4. w>uwdRvXngbDrk>pXzSd.u&Xw>tX.vDRtDvDRb.C;zdo.tcGJ;t,mvXtb.w>wl>vdmtDRvXbsD.d.w>td.zSd.zJ(1989)M.rh>0J.w>tX.vDRtDvDRvXtvXySJRuwX>wbh.vX[>ySR*h>0DcGJ;,mcJvXmoh.wz.tusgM.vDRIw>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.ftrh>ursX>tcGJ;t,m<xH%l>uD>oJ;tcGJ;t,m<rk>usdR0JRuGmtcGJ;t,m<ySR*h>0DcGJ;,mD;w>qJ;w>vRcGJ;,moh.wz.vXty.CkmzJtHRM.rh>0Jzdo.cJvXmoh.wz.t*D>vXw>vD>ud;ylRJ;D;ud;qXud;uwD>J;M.vDRIxHuD>yd.cJvXmC.C.vX[[h.vDRw>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.tHRvXtxHuD>oJp;w>bsXtwuGD.ylRM.vDRIt0Joh.tX.vDRph>uD;0JvXuymzsgxD.vHmymzsgqlzdo.w>cGJ;w>,murH w H R ttd . b.C;w>vJ R xD . vJ R xD v Xt0J o h . wz.rRuJ x D . vd . xD . 0J.M.vDRI vXw>bsXeD.*H>(42);w>ol.ql.o;*JRvXurR0J.fod;w>od.w>oDoh.wz.vXw>ub.rRydmxGJtDRvXw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRtylRub.w>oh.ngtDRvXzdo.D;ol.uho;yS>cJvXmM.vDRIzJ(2005)tylRunDzdo.ydmcGgzdw*RvXttd.vXySRb.uDb.cJJu0DRwzsX.tylRzJuFD.wJ.AuD>y,DRuD>qXChxD.0J.ySRwrSHRw*RvXtvJR[;td.oud;zd.CJX;vXt0Jtd.tvD>vXuCkM>tDRw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRwbh.vXtup>tusdmM.vD R I cD z sd z J M .tcgw>uG J ; usd ; uh R ql l u nD u sd m wtd . H ; b.tCd ( KnowingChildren)[HxD.zD.xD.0J.rlgvXuuGJ;usd;<upJusH;xk;xD.D;uyXqSX&J.usJRw>&RvDRvHmvXtzd;oJp;wbh.tHRvXtydmxGJxD.0J.zdo.w>cGJ;w>,mtvHmwbh.vXtb.w>uGJ;%SJyF;tDRfod;zdo.oh.wz.ue.yX>0JnDt*D>CkmD;w>*DRvXtb.w>uGJ;tDRvXunDtySRuGJ;w>*DRw*RM.vDRI ,pH;y-wXRb.ySRuGJ;usd;w>oh.wz.D;ySRuGJ;w>*DRvXw>uJxD.vd.xD.t0JtHRtzDc.D;pH;bsK;b.(Knowing Children)vXt[HxD.zD.xD.w>zH;w>rRvX dtugd.t0JtHRM.vDRIvDRqD.w>pH;bsK;b.zdo.ydmcGgvXtChxD.0J.fod;uz;b.0Jtup>.0JySR[;t,moh.wz.M.vDRI,rk>v>vXw>uGJ;usd;vXt*RH;od;tHRoh.wz.w,Hmb.utd.xD.0J.vXzdo.D;o;yS>oh.wz.vXtb.xGJD;u%l>qH;oh.wz.D;uvkml.qH;zdoh.wz.tusdmfod;;b.0Jw>*h>w>usdRoh.wz.tHRM.vDRI o&.d.pd=Jaap Doek ySRyXRvD>qh.eDR zdo.w>cGJ;w>,murHwHR uFHReH.b. 3
  • 5. Foreword The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, which was adopted by the General Assembly in 1989, is the most comprehensive of all international human rights legal instruments. The civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights it contains apply to all children, everywhere, all the time. Almost all governments in the world have now agreed to apply these rights within their domestic laws and to report regularly to the Committee on the Rights of the Child about progress in implementation. Under Article 42, governments are obliged to be active in making the principles and provisions of the Convention widely known by all children and adults. In 2005 a Karen boy in a refugee camp on the Thai/Myanmar Border requested a visitor to the orphanage in which he lives to find him a copy of the Convention in his own language. As no Karen translation then existed, Knowing Children took on the responsibility of translating, printing and overseeing the distribution of the official text, prefaced by a children-friendly explanation with pictures drawn by a Karen artist. I congratulate the translators and artist on the result, and thank Knowing Children for undertaking this important work. Particular thanks go to the boy who first requested to be able to read about his own human rights. I hope that many such translations will soon make this information available in the mother tongues of many more children and adults from minority and ethnic groups. Professor Jaap Doek Chair Committee on the Rights of the Child Geneva4
  • 6. w>tX.vRtvRb.C;;t,mp;w>M.r>w>rERv.I D D D d JG H h k Jw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRrh>0J.[>ySR*h>0DcGJ;,mtulmwcgvXtb.w>tX.vDRtDvDRzJ(1989)cDzsdxHuD>oh.wz.vXtrh>bDrk>pXzSd.u&Xtu&XzdM.vDRIoJp;w>bsXt0JtHRymzsgxD.0J.zdo.cJvXmtcGJ;t,mvXty.Ckm0J.D;zdo.ud;*RvXttd.vXuD>th%SX.wbh.*hRwbh.*hRtylRM.vDRIWhat is the Convention on the Rights of the Child?The Convention is part of the international human rights laws. It was agreedin1989 by countries that belong to the United Nations. This law describesthe rights of all children, including every child who lives in any Asian country. 5
  • 7. w>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.M.rh>w>rEkRvJ.I ySR[;w>cGJ;w>,mvXfod;vdmto;vXu td.rlb.vXw>rkmw>ck.D;w>bH.w>bXtylR<utd.vXySJR0J .D;tw>vd.b.oh.wz.ftrh>w>td.w>qd;<w>tD.w> tD<w>›oh.wz.cJvXmD;t0Joh.wz.uEkmvDR y.Ckm0J.vXw>rRw>qXwJmvXtb.xGJD;> td.rlM.vDRI What are rights? All human beings have the same rights, to live in peace and security, to have their needs for shelter, food and health met, and to be involved in decisions made about their lives.6
  • 8. zdo.pH;w> M.rh>rw*RvJ.Izdo.pH;w>M.rh>0J.ySR[;*RJ;vXtwySJRxD.H;(18)eH.oh.wz.M.vDRIzdo.ud;*RJ;td.D;w>cGJ;w>,mxJod;wkRod;vXutd.rl0J.D;ud.xD.xDxD.qlySRd.wkmcd.ySJRoh.wz.M.vDRIydmrk.ydmcGgzdwz.zdo.vXtw>bl.w>bgvDRqDvdmto;oh.wz.zdo.vXtw>qJ;w>vRvDRqDvdmto;oh.wz.zdo.vXtzSD.t,mD;zdo.vXtuJd.oh.wz.zdo.vXeD>cduh>*DRwvXwySJRoh.wz.Izd o .vXtb.uD . b.cJ o h . wz. , t0J o h . td . wyl R CD D ;trd>ty>rh>*hR, td.xJw*Rrh>*hRWho is a child?A child is a human being who has not yet reached his or her 18th birthday.All children have equal rights to live and to develop into adultsBoys and girlsChildren of different religionsChildren of different culturesPoor children and rich childrenChildren with disabilitiesChild refugees, whether they arewith their parents or alone. 7
  • 9. rlgtd.vXrw*RtpkylRvJ.I yd.yyS>oh.wz.ub.rRvDRwH>0J.fod;zdo.ud;*RJ;ud;M>b. w>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.vXw>uGJ;vDRCmzJw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRt ylRM.vDRIt0Joh.wz.nDEk>rRw>t0JtHRcDzsdqD.xGJ0J.rd>y>oh. wz.vXu[h.vDRw>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.tHRM.vDRIw>t0JtHRy.Ckm0J .D;w>urRvDRwH>fod;zdo.oh.wz.wtd.vDRz;b.D;trd>ty> rhwrh>tcDynDurh>ph>uD;w>u[h.vDRw>u[ku,mvDRqDvXzdo. vXtrd>ty>wtd.oh.wz.t*D>M.vDRI Who is responsible? Governments must make sure that all children receive the rights written in the Convention. They usually do this by supporting parents to provide the rights. This may include making sure children are not separated from their parents, or it may mean providing special care for children who have no parents.8
  • 10. vXw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRtylRw>uGJ;zsgxD.w>cGJ;w>,m rEkoh.wz.vJ.I What rights are described in the Convention? 9
  • 11. zdHzdo.ud;*RJ;-uX;td.D;trHRwzsX.D;w>uJb.xHzduD>zdM.vDRI All children should have a name and nationality.10
  • 12. zdo.oh.wz.ub.w>uG>vk>d.xD.tDRvX[H.CDvXtvXtySJRD;w>tJ.w>uGHcDzsdrd>y>oh.wz.M.vDRIrd>y>oh.wz.ub.u[ku,mzdo.D;wb.rRqgt0Joh.b.Iyd.oh.wz.ub.rRpXRrd>y>oh.wz.fod;t0Joh.u[h.vDRw>td.w>qd;D;w>u[ku,mvXt-uX;tb.vXtzdoh.wz.t*D>M.vDRIChildren should be brought up in loving homes, by their parents.Parents must take care of children, and not hurt them.Governments must help parents to provide a home and proper care fortheir children. 11
  • 13. zd H z d o .oh . wz.rh > td . vD R z;vd m to;D ; trd > ty> M. t0Joh.-uX;w>rRpXRtDRvXuCkxH.M>uhRtDRM.vDRI If children are separated from their parents they should be helped to find them again.12
  • 14. t0J o h . trd > ty>wz.u[k u ,mt0J o h . rh > woh b .M. yd . vXxHuD>;0JtylRub.rRvDRwH>0Jfod;zdo.oh.wz.M.w>uu[ku,mtDR*hR*hRb.b.M.vDRIyd.yyS>oh.wz.-uX;orHord;uG>>td.rkmqd;yXRxDbdM.vDRIIf their parents cannot care for them, the government of the country inwhich they live must make sure children are properly cared for.Governments should check regularly on their welfare. 13
  • 15. zdzo.oh.wz.-uX;vXw>u[h.vDRtDRw>›tw>uG>xJG H d vXty.Ckm0J.D;xHvXtuqSDD;w>uqSJuqSDI Children should be provided with health care, including clean water and sanitation –14
  • 16. CkmD;w>[h.uoH.X;oh.wz.<uoH.o&.oh.wz.<D;>uD;M.vDRIas well as clinics, doctors and medicine. 15
  • 17. zd o .oh . wz.w>-uX;[h . vD R t0J o h . w>ul . b.ul . oh M .vD R I w>t0JtHRy.Ckm0J.D;uFdvXt*hRoh.wz.<w>od.vdvXt*hR<w> od . w>oD v Xtwtd . D ; w>pk q l . cD . wu;< D ; w>upD . vXty. Ckm0J.D;t0Jo.tup>.0JtusdmD;tw>qJ;w>vRM.vDRI h Children should be provided with education. This includes good schools, good teaching, non violent discipline and information, including about their own language and culture.16
  • 18. zdHzdo.oh.wz.-uX;td.0J.D;w>qXuwD>obs›vXuvdmuGJt*D><urRvd t o;vXw>vd . cd . vd . uG J o h . wz.t*D > < D ; utd . D ; w>[l;w>*JRvXttd.D;w>qdurd.vXtk;uJxD.w>toDIChildren should have leisure to play, to practice sports and creative activities. 17
  • 19. zddo.oh.wz.w>ub.DoXtDRvXw>wrHR*hRwrHR*hRvXtuuJ xD.w>b.db.xH;vXt0Joh.wz.teD>cdD;tw>qdurd.qdur; oh.wz.M.vDRI zdo.oh.wz.w>ub.DoXtDRvXw>k;w>,RM.vDRI t0Joh.wz.wb.uJok;b.I t0Joh.wz.w>-uX;DoXtDRzJo;yS>*mvdmo;t cgM.vDRI t0Joh.wz.w>wb.rRql;rRqgtDRb.I Children must be protected from any harm to their bodies or minds. Children must be protected from war. They must not be soldiers. They should be protected when adults fight. They must not be tortured.18
  • 20. zdo.oh.wz.w>ub.DoXtDRvXw>zH;w>rRw>e;e;usHRusHRrhwrh>w>rRw>zJto;p>wvXH;tcgM.vDRIChildren must be protected from working too hard, or when they aretoo young. 19
  • 21. zdo.oh.wz.w>ub.DoXtDRvXw>oluoH.rlRbSD;oh.wz.M. vDRI Children must be protected from using drugs.20
  • 22. zdo.oh.wz.w>wb.qgtDRyORtDRb.IChildren must not be bought and sold (trafficked). 21
  • 23. zdo.oh.wz.rh>b.w>zD.M>tDRvXtrRur.oJp;w>bsXM.t0J;w>uG>xGJvDRqDvXty.Ckm0J.D;= w>;eH.I w>pH.nD.vXtwDt-w>D;td.D;w>xJod;wkRod;I ud;M>b.w>ul.b.ul.ohI w>qJ;usd;D;t0Joh.trd>ty>oh.wz.M.vDRI If children are caught breaking the law they must have special treatment including: respect for their age equal and fair justice access to education communication with their parents.22
  • 24.;tw>cJG;w>,mvXtu[>xH.oh . wz. zJ w >rRw>qXwJ m oh . wz.vXtrRb.d t 0J o h .;w>cGJ;w>,>xH.oh.wz.vXw>obs›tylRD;w>ub.uG>qdurd.M>tDRvXw>o!ll;oyS>tylRM.vDRIChildren have the right to give their opinions when decisions are made thataffect them.They have the right to express their opinions freely and be taken seriously. 23
  • 25.;tcJG;t,mvXuk;td.xD.u%l>oh.wz.fod;>xH.oh.wz.uoht*D>M.vDRI Children have the right to form groups so that their opinions can be heard.24
  • 26. vXt0Joh.trd>ty>tw>[H;pkeJ.usJtzDvm;w>obs›> bl.w>bgD;k;td.xD.t0Joh.wz.teD>up>.0Jw>qdurd.qdur;oh.wz.M.vDRIUnder parental guidance, children are free to chose their religion and formtheir own ideas. 25
  • 27. zdo.oh.wz.vXtb.w>rRb.db.xH;tDRvXteD>cdrhwrh>teD> o;w>;w>cGJ;w>,mvXtud;M>b.w>u[ku,m vDRqDfod;t0Joh.wz.u[JuhRb.vD>b.p;uguhRD;uqJ;td.rl qlngt*D>M.vDRI Children who have been hurt in body or mind have the right to special care, so that they can recover and get on with their lives.26
  • 28. w>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.tHRcJvXm -uX;vXzdo.cJvXmud;M>b.0J vXw>vD>wwD>*hRwwDR*hRud;qXud;uwD>J;M.vDRIw>vDRzsJ.vDR[ these rights should be enjoyed by all children, everywhere, all the time.There are no exceptions. 27
  • 29. w>tX.vDRtDvDRb.xGJzdo.tcGJ;t,moh.wz.b.w>wl>vdmtDRD;b.w>td;xD.tDRvXw>uqJ;vDR pkrk>usX>t*D>< w>rRw>tX.vDRtDvDRvXw>qJ;vDRpkrk>usX> D;w>wl>vdmtDRcDzsdbsD.d.w>>qXwJm44 /25 vXvged.0hbX.toD20< 1989 p;xD.uJxD.w>bsXzJvgpJ;yxhbX.2oD 1990eH. ftvDRyvdmvdmto;D;w>bsXeD.*H>(49)w>uwdRvXngxHuD>yd.wz.qlw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHR<qdurd.tDRvX=ftvDRyvdmvdmto;D;w>od.w>oDvXtb.w>bd;b.&RvDRtDRvXbDrk>pXzSd.u&Xtw>zH;w>rRD;tw>bsXtylR(Charter of the United Nations)w>ymyeD.wl>vdmySR[;*RJ ; vXttd . D ; tol ; toh . tvRuyD R vXttd . zsJ . Ck m M>0JD;w>ymyeD.wl>vdmySRud;*RJ;w>xJod;wkRod;tcGJ;t,m D;w>ymyeD.wl>vdmw>cGJ;w>,mvXw>wb.xk;vDRz;ySR[>0J.w>obs›<w>wDw>vdR<D;w>rkmw>ck.tcD.wCmvX[;vX vXu&Xtw>zH;w>rRD;w>bsXtylRbDrk>pXzSd.u&XySRb.rlb.gwz.ym*X>>emvX*H>cD.xH;ySR*h>0DtcG;t,moh.wz. D;>emvXySRw*Rtol; J htoh.tvRuyDRD;tvk>tyORM.vDRID;t0Joh.wz.qXwJm0J.vXurRd.xD.xDxD.ySR*h>0Dtw>vJRxD.vJRxD D;rR*hRxD.w>td.rltywD>vXw>obs›vXtd.M>tgM>H;tvD>I 29
  • 30. tX.vDRwl>vdmvX[>bd;b.oh.ngySR[>cGJ; w>,m(Universal Declaration of Human Rights)oh.wz.tylRD;xHuD>bDrk> tw>tX.vDRtDvDRb.C;ySR[;t,m(International Covenants on Human Rights)tylRbDrk>pXzSd.u&Xbd;b.&RvDR0J.D;tX.vDRtD vDR0J.vXySRud;*RJ;td.D;w>cGJ;w>,mfod;ud;M>b.w>cGJ;w>,m D;w>obs›vXtb.w>ymzsgxD.tDRvXw>bd;b.oh.ngoh.wz.M. tyl R vXtwtd . 0J .D ; w>yJ m z;eD R z;w>tqXf t rh > uvk m < zH;n.tvGJ><rk.cGg<usdm<w>bl.w>bg<xH%l>uD>oJ;tw>xH.D;w> xH . vXt*R< uvk m l . D ; yS R *h > 0D t ywD > < w>xl ; w>wD R < w>td . zsJ . D ; wD R ywD > vXt*RI oh . eD . xD . vX vX[D . cd . D b h . w>bd ; b. oh.ngySR[>cGJ;w>,m(Universal Declaration of Human Rights) oh.wz.tylRbDrk>pXzSd.u&Xbd;>td.rl td.D;w>cGJ;w>,mvXud;M>b.w>u[ku,mvDRqDD;w>qD.xGJ rRpXRvDRqDI em0J.usXRrkq+vX[H.zdCDzdrh>ySRwl.vXt&hd.uwX>vXySRw0X tylRD;trh>ySRwl.vXtuJ0JMqX.tcd.tCXRvXl.zdxXzdoh.wz. u*kRxD.yoDxD.D;*D>vDRqD.w>zdo.oh. wz.t*D>M.vDRIvXw>M.tCdw>-uX;[h.w>tH;xGJuG>xGJvXtvd. b.0J.D;w>qD.xGJrRpXRvXtvd.b.0Joh.wz.fod;t0Joh.wz. uoh[HM>rlgvXvXySJRySJRvXySRw0XtylRI tX.vDRwl>vdm0J.vX zdo.w*Rfod;to;w>oh.nge>yX>u*kRxD. yoDxD.vXvXySJRySJRt*D>t0Jub.d.xD.0J.vX[H.zdCDzdtusg< vXtvX0JySJR0J.D;w>ol.rHo;rkm<w>tJ.w>uGH<D;w>e>yX>vdmo; tylRI30
  • 31. qdurd.tDRvXzdo.w*R-uX;;fod;utd . rl v XteD > up>.0J v XyS R w0Xtyl R D ; b.w>vk > d . xD . tD RftvDRyvdmvdmto;D;bDrk>pXzSd.u&Xtw>zH;w>rRD;w>bsXtw>bd;b.&RvDRto[D.tod;D;vDRqD.w>ub.w>vk>d.xD.tDRvXw>rkmw>ck.<ol;oh.vRuyDR<w>0Ho;plR<w>obs›<w>xJod;wkRod;D;w>o;wzsX.CDIymol.ymo;vXw>vd.b.vXw>ub.[h.vDRw>u[ku,mvDRqDvXzdo.t*D>M.b.w>ymzsgxD.tDRvXuFHeH.b.w>bd;b.&RvDRb.C;zdo.tcGJ;t,moh.wz.(1924)(Geneva Declaration of the Rights of theChild)tylRD;vXw>bd;b.&RvDRzdo.oh.wz.tcGJ;t,mvXtb.w>ymyeD.tDRvXbDrk>pXzSd.u&XbsD.d.w>td.zSd.zJvged.0hbX.20<1959tylR<D;b.w>ymyeD.wl>vdmtDRvX[>bd;b.&RvDRySR[;t,mwz.(Universal Declaration of Human Rights)D;vX[>w>tX.vDRtDvDRvXursX>D;xH%l>uD>oJ;tcGJ;t,mwz.(International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights)vDRqD.w>vXw>bsX(23)D;(24)tylRD;vX[>w>tX.vDRtDvDRvXrk > usd R 0J R uG m < yS R *h > 0D D ; w>qJ ; w>vRw>cG J ; w>,moh . wz. tyl R(International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights)(vDRqD.w>vXw>bsXeD>8H>10tylR)D;vXw>u&Xu&>od.w>oDtylRD;xHuD>bDrk>tw>u&Xu&dvXtb.C;D;>td.rkmqd;yXRIymoll.ymo;vXftb.w>ymzsgxD.tDRvXw>bd;b.&>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.tylRpH;0J.?zdo.M.cDzsdw>*h>ftrh>eD>cdeD>o;tw>d.xD.xDxD.rhwwkRxD.xD.b;M.t0Joh.wz.vd.b.w>DoXD;w>u[ku,mvDRqDoh.wz.vXuy.Ckm0J.D;w>DoXvXoJp;*h>0DwcsK;ttd.zsJ.xD.D;td.zsJ.xD.0HRtvD>cH/ 31
  • 32. oh.eD.xD.vXw>bd;b.&RvDRb.C;ySR*h>0D;w>bsXoJp;w>od.w>oD D (Declaration on Social and Legal Principles)vXtb.xGJD;w>u[ku,mzd o.*h>0DCkmD;w>uG>qdurd.vDRqDb.C;w>uG>vk>zdzdo.vXuD>ylR D;w>uG>vk>zdzdo.vXuD>*R<bDrk>pXzSd.u&Xw>bsXcd.oh.vXw> yXqSXzdo.bhuFhoJp;w>bsX(The Beijing Rules)D;w>bd;b.&RvDRb. C;w>D o Xyd m rk . D ; zd o .wz.zJ * h > *D > tl t qXuwD > D ; zJ w >k ; w>,RtqXuwD > w>cJ v Xmoh . wz.tH R ymyeD . wl > vd m 0J .vX xHuD>ud;bh.J;vX[;zdo. vXttd.rl0J. vXw>uDw>cJd.d.rk>rk>tylRD;zdo.fod;tHRwz.vd.b.0Jw>ub. uG>qdurd.M>w>vXt*D>vDRqDI qdurd.Ckmw>tugd.vXvk>v>xloElloh.wz.D;ySRw*Rpkmpkmt w>qJ;w>vRtvk>tyORvXw>uDoXzdo.D;>d.xD. xD x D . vX w>rk m w>ck . tyl R t*D > D ; wl > vd m ymyeD . w>tugd . vX[>tw>rRoud;w>vXurR*> td . rl q d ; *J R tw>td . o;vXxH u D > ud ; bh . tyl R vD R qD .w> xHuD>vXtvJRxD.vJRxDtzXrk>oh.wz.tylRM.vDRI tX.vDR0J.ftzDvmtod;=32
  • 33. tqXd. 1w>bsXeD.*H> 1vXw>tX.vDRtDvRt0JtRtw>ynd.oh.wz.t*D> zdo.w*RpH;w>M. D Hrh>0JySRud;*RJ;vXto;>b.vXt0Joh.txHtuD>w>bsXtzDvmtb.w>ymyeD.tDRftrh>ySRvXtd.wkmcd.ySJRzJvXto;p>M>H;(18)eH.M.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 21IxHuD>yd.wz.ub.ymuJD;rRvDRwH>0J.ft0Joh.tpdurDRtd.0Jtod;<fod;zdo.ud;*RJ;utd.0J.D;w>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.vXw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRtylRM.vDRID;;w>uG>wvDRrhwrh>w>wymuJzdo.rh>*hR<zdo.rd>y>rhwrh>ySRuG>xGJzdo.vXtzd;oJp;oh.wz.tuvkm<zH;n.tvGJ><rk.cGg<tusdm<tw>bl.w>bg<txH % l > uD > oJ ; w>em D ; tw>xH . vXt*Roh . wz.< tuvk m l . <D;tySR*h>0DtywD><tw>xl;w>wDR<teD>cduh>*DRwvXwySJRtCd<w>td.zsJ.tCdD;w>td.o;t*Rwz.tCdM.b.I2IxHuD>yd.wz.-uX;[HM>t&hvXt-uX;tb.cJvXmfod;w>urRvDRwH>0J.zdo.wz.ub.w>DoXtDRfod;tokwb.w>uG>wvDRtD R vXusJ w bd * h R wbd * h R D ; w>pH . nD . tD R vXtwD R ywD > zD c d . <w>[l;w>*JRoh.wz.zDcd.<w>ymzsgxD.w>xH.rhwrh>zdo.rd>y>tw>pl>w>emtzDcd.<ySRuG>xGJzdo.vXtzd;oJp;rhwrh>[H.zdCDzdt*Roh.wz.tzDcd.M.vDRI 33
  • 34. w>bsXeD.*H> 3 1Iw>[l;w>*JRw>zH;w>rRcJvXmvXtb.xGJD;zdo.oh.wz.vXtb. w>[HM>rlgvXursX>w>u&Xu&drh>*hRrhwrh>w>u&Xu&dobs›vXt b.C;D;ySR*h>0Doh.wz.rh>8hR<uGD>bsD.rh>*hR<yXjy;tw>u&Xu&dw z.rhwrh>w>u&Xu&dvXtk;td.xD.oJp;w>bsXwz.rh>*hRub. qdurd.0J.w>t*hRuwX>vXzdo.t*D>M.vDRI 2IxHuD>yd.wz.[HM>rlgvXurRvDRwH>0J.w>u[ku,mfM.t od;wz.rh>w>>td.rkmqd;yXRt*D>M.vDRI t0Joh.ub.qdurd.M>Ckm0J.rd>y>>cGJ;w>,mD;trl tgoh.wz.CkmD;ySRvXtuG>xGJzdo.rhwrh>ySR*Roh.wz.vXtb. xGJD;zdo.oh.wz.tcGJ;t,mD;trltgM.vDRIvXurRw>t0JtHR t*D>t0Joh.ub.[H0J.w>k;td.xD.oJp;*h>0DoeX.D;w>yXw>qSX *h>0DoeX.vXt-uX;tb.oh.wz.M.vDRI 3IxHuD>yd.oh.wz.-uX;vXurRw>vDRwH>vDRqJ;fod;w>u&Xu&d oh.wz.<w>zH;w>rRD;w>vD>w>usJvXtb.xGJD;w>u[ku,mzd o.D;w>tH;xGJuG>xGJzdo.oh.wz.tywD>uwkRxD.xD.b;fyd. ymyeD.Cm0Jtod;M.vDRIvDRqD.w>w>oeX.ftrh>w>ylRzsJ;D; w>b.,d.b.bSD<w>›<ySRrRw>zdeD>*H>vXt-uX;tb. CkmD;w>yXqSX&J.usJRw> vXtrl;teD>oh.wz.M.vDRI w>bsXeD.*H> 4 xHuD>yd.wz.ub.[HrlgvXt-uX;tb.cJvXm vXw>bsXoJp; wuyRrh>*hR<w>yXw>jy;wuyRrh>*hRD;w>[HM>*h>0DvXt*Rfod;urR uJxD.vd.xD.w>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.vXtb.w>ymyeD.tDRvXw> tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRtylRM.vDRIrhrh>vXtb.C;D;rk>usdR0JRuGm< ySR*h>0D D;w>qJ;w>vRtcGJ;t,mwz.t*D>xHuD>yd.wz.ub.34
  • 35. [HrlgD;rR0J.t*hRuwX>ft*H>tbgtd.0Jtod; D;tvD>rh>td.oXysXRub.rR0J.vX[>tw>rRoud;w>twuGD.tylRM.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 5xHuD>yd.wz.ub.ymuJ0J.rd>y>oh.wz.trltg<tw>cGJ;w>,mD;tw>zH;w>rRwz.rhwrh>tvD>rhtd.wcDub.ymuJ0J.[H.zdCDzdt*Rwz.ft0Joh.wz.tvk>tv>td.0Jtod;D;ub.ymuJ0J.ySRuG>xGJzdo.vXtzd;oJp;oh.wz.rhwrh>ySRt*Roh.wz.vXtb.xG J D ; zd o . f o d ; t0J o h . wz.u[h . vD R w>[H ; pk e J . usJ v Xt-uX;tb.D ; zd o .tw>oh . ngtywD > f z d o .tcG J ; t,mvXw>oh.ngymyeD.tDRvXw>tX.vDRtDvDR0JtHRtylRM.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 61IxHuD>yd.oh.wz.wl>vdmymyeD.0J.vXzdo.ud;*RJ;td.D;w>cGJ;w>,mvXutd.rlb.0Jt*D>M.vDRI2IxHu>yd.wz.b.rRw>vDRwH>vDRqJ;fo;zdo.oh.wz.wohztoh D d Jutd.rlb.0Jt,HmuwX> D;vXuvJRxD.vJRxDt*hRuwX>t*D>M.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 71Izdo.M.w>ub.uGJ;eD.uGJ;CgtDRzJttd.zsJ.vDR0HRwbsDCD;ub. Dtd.D;w>cGJ;w>,mfod;utd.D;trHRwzsX.<w>cGJ;w>,mvXuuJxD.b.xHzduD>zd<D;wohzJtohutd.D;w>cGJ;w>,mvXuoh.ngb.trd>ty>D;w>ub.tH;xGJuG>xGJtDRvXtrd>ty>M.vDRI2IxHu>yd.oh.wz.ub.rRw>vDRwH>vDRqJ;vXw>k;uJx.vd.xD. D Dw>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.tHRftvDRyvdmvdmto;D;txHtuD>oJp;w>bsX.0JD;t0Joh.trltgvXttd.vX[>tw>bsXtzDvm 35
  • 36. vXtb.xGJD;w>*h>t0JtHRD;vDRqD.w>zJzdo.M.txHtuD>rhw td.b.M.vDRI w>bsXeD.*H> 8 1IxHuD>yd.oh.wz.ub.[HM>rlgfod;w>uymuJzdo.tcGJ;t,m vXt0Joh.wz.uuXRCmtup>.0Jt*h>tusdRftrh>w>uJxHzduD> zd<trHRto.<D;[H.zdCDzdtw>b.xGJvdmto;ftb.w>oh.ngym yeD.tDRvXoJp;w>bsX vXtylRzsJ;0J.D;w>rRwHmwmvXtwzd;D;oJ p;b.M.vDRI 2IzJzdo.w*RvXtrhb.w>xk;uGHm<trhb.w>rR[gr>uGHmteD>up> t*h>tusdRweDRrhwrh>teD>up>t*h>tusdRcJvXmtcgxHuD>yd.wz. ub.[h.w>rRpXRvXt-uX;tb.CkmD;w>rk>v>vXuk; uhRzdo.0JM.t*h>tusdRvXtcs›M.vDRI w>bsXeD.*H> 9 1IxHuD>yd.oh.wz.ub.rRvDRwH>0J.fod;w>wxk;vDRz;zdo.D; trd>ty>;b.M.vDRIrhwrh>b.vXw>xk; vDRz;t0JM.urh>0J.zJySRb.rlb.goh.wz.ub.vlRydmxJGoJp; tw>qXwJmvXtvDRyvdmvdmo;D;oJp;w>bsXD;w>zH;w>rRtusdR tuGmD;w>xk;vDRz;t0JM.urh>w>vd.b.rRtDRvXw>qdurd.M> w>vXzdo.t*D>t*hRuwX>M.vDRIw>qXwJmftHRoh.wz.w>uvd. b.rRtDRzJw>*h>ftrh>zdo.M.b.w>rRtXrRoDtDRvXtrd>ty> rhwrh>trd>ty>wue.CkmtDRrhwrh>zdo.w*RvXtrd>ty>td.vDRz; vdmto;D;w>ub.rRw> 2Iw>xD.bXxD.uGD>wuvkm*hRwuvkm*hRvXtydmxGJxD.w>bsXt0J tHRtqXzd(1)tylR ySRvXtb.xGJD;w>*h>t0JtHRud;zkJ;w>ub.[h.36
  • 37. tDRw>cGJ;w>,mvXuy.CkmvXw>xD.bXxD.uGD>tcgD;w>ub.[h.tDRw>cGJ;w>,>xH.M.vDRI3IxHuD>yd.oh.wz.ub.ymuJzdo.tcGJ;t,mzJzdo.w*Rb.w>xk;vDRz;uGHmtDRD;trd>rhwrh>ty>D;rhwrh>trd>ty>cH*RvXmfod;t0Ju[H;CmM>H;w>qJ;usd;<w>&hvdmrkmvdmD;trd>ty>cH*RvXmwbd,k>CDrhwrh>b.vXw>qJ;usd;t0JtHRuuJxD.w>tXw>oDvXzdo.t*D>b.M.vDRI4IzJw>xk;vDRz;ftHRoh.wz.rh>b.w>rRtDRvXyd.ftrh>0J.w>k;Cm<w>zXEkmvDRvXCdmylR<w>qSXzsd;xD.uGHmvXuD>ylR<w>qSXuguhRqltuD>.0Jrhwrh>zdo.trd>ty>w*R*RoHumD;rhwrh>zdo.teD>up> HG.0JoHuGHm(y.CkmD;w>oHw>yS>vXtuJxD.o;vXyd.tpkylR)tcgxH u D > yd . oh . wz.ub.[h . vD R rd > y>oh . wz.< zd o .< rh w rh > rh-uX;rh b .M.[H . zd C D z d v Xt*Rw*R*RvXw>*h > w>usd R vXtb.xGJD;ySRvXt[gr>w*Rrh>ttd.zJvJ.M.vDRIrhwrh>b.vXw>[h.vD R w>*h > w>>td.rkmqd;yXRb.M.xHuD>yd.oh.wz.ub.[h.vDRw>*h>w>usdRqlySRvXtb.xGJoh.wz.M.vDRIxHuD>yd.wz.ub.rRvDRwH>0J.qlngfod;w>ChxD.w>*h>w>usdRt0JM.tokwuJxD.w>ydmxGJxD.vXttXtoDvXySRvXtb.xGJD;w>*h>t0JtHRt*D>M.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 101IfxHuD>yd.wz.trltgtd.vXw>bsXeD.*H>(9)tqXzd(1)tylRtod;zdo.rhwrh>zdo.trd>ty>rhwD.xD.0J.vXuEkmvDRvXuD>tylRrhwrh>u[;xD.vXuD>tylRfod;uxH.vdmb.uguhRo;D;t[H.zdCDzdt*D>yd.ub.ok;usJRM>tDRvXtqdtcs›D;vXw>ymo;bsXbsXtzDcd.M.vDRIxHuD>yd.wz.ub.rRvDRwH>0J.qlngfod;w> 37
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  • 39. w>bsXeD.*H> 121IxHuD>yd.wz.ub.rRvDRwH>0J.fod;zdo.vXtohk;> xH . D ; tw>qd u rd . vXteD > up>.0J u td . D ; w>cG J ; w>,mvXuk;>xH.cJvXmb.C;w>*h>oh.wz.vXtrRb.db.xH;>xH.oh.wz.tHRw>ub.uG > qd u rd . M>tD R f t -uX;tb.D ; zd o .to;eH . D ; zd o .tw>oh.nge>yX>tywD>tod;M.vDRI2IvXw>ynd.t0JtHRt*D>zdo.M.vDRqD.w>w>ub.[h.tDRw>cGJ;w> ,mvXtuymzsgxD . tw>xH . zJ w >xD . bXuG D > tqXuwD >D ; yXjy;*h > 0D w rH R rH R vXtuuJ x D . w>b.d b .xH ; vXzd o .t*D >cD z sd u b.w>ymzsgxD . tD R vXzd o .teD > up>.0J r h > *h R rh w rh > cD z sdcX.p;w*R*Rrhwrh>w>u&Xu&drd>yS>vXt-uX;tb.wcgftb.bsD;b.gvdmto;D;xHuD>tw>bsXtod;M.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 131Izd o . D ; w>wJ w >uG J ; w>obs› c G J ; ,mM.vD R I w>cG J ; w>,mt0JtHRub.y.Ckm0J.D;w>obs›vXuCkM>w>upD.<ud;M>b.w>upD . <u&RvD R w>upD . D ; w>qd u rd . tuvk m uvk mvXtwtd . D ; w>ed ; w>bs;cD z sd w >uwd R rh > *h R < w>uG J ; rh w rh > w>pJusH;vHmrh>*hR<D;w>uGJ;w>*DRrh>*hR<rhwrh>cDzsdw>&RvDRw>upD.tusJwbd*hRwbd*>CkxXM.vDRI2Iw>olw>cGJ;w>,mftHRw>ub.rRCH;rRCD.tDRxJ.vXw>bsXtCdD;zJw>vd.b.vX=(u)w>,l;,D.ymuJtw>cGJ;w>,mD;ySR*Rtol;toh.tvRuyDRrhwrh> 39
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  • 48. 4IvX[>tw>rRoud;w>to;o[D.tylRxHuD>yd.wz. ub.qD.xGJ0J.w>vJvdmw>upD.vXt-uX;tb.vXtb.xGJD; w>›tw>DoXD;uoH.uoD*h>0DvXtb.xGJD;w>oh. wz.tHRD;w>ulpg,gbsgzdo.oh.wz.vXteD>cduh>*DRwvXwySJR vXeD>o;wuyRrh>*hRD;vXw>ulpg,gbsgtusdRtuGmvXtbsK;td. wuyRrh>*hRM.vDRI w>zH;oud;rRoud;rRoh.wz.tHRuy.Ckmph>uD;D;w>&RvDRw>upD.D; w>d ; M>b.w>upD . vXtb.xG J v d m to;D ; w>rR*h R xD . uh R w> td.rltusdRtuGmw>ul.b.ul.ohD;w>vk>tD.o;orlw>rRvdtw> zH;w>rRwz.<CkmD;w>ynd.fod;xHuD>yd.oh.wz.urR*hRxD.>ohw>>pkohcD.b.oh.wz.D;u>oh.nge>yX>vXtb.xGJD;w> *h>w>usdRoh.wz.tHRM.vDRI w>bsXeD.*H>24 1IxHuD>yd.oh.wz.wl>>cGJ;w>,mfod;u M>olb.0J.w>›tw>uG>xGJtywD>vXtxDuwX>vX td;M>b.0JohD;fod;ud;M>olb.0Jw>vD>w>usJvXw>ulpg,gbsg w>qgt*D>D;w>vD>w>usJvXw>rRb.vD>b.p;uguhRw>td.ql. td . cs› t *D > M.vD R I xH u D > yd . wz.ub.*k m usJ ; pX;oyS > uwX> fod;urRvDRwH>0J.vXzdo.ud;*RJ;utd.0J.D;w>cGJ;w>,mvX ud;M>b.ql.cs›tw>uG>xGJoh.wz.vXtb.xGJD;w>oh.wz.tHR M.vDRI 2IxHuD>yd.oh.wz.ub.qJ;rR0Jfod;w>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.tHRu uJxD.vd.xD.D;vDRqD.w>ub.[H*h>0DvXt-uX;tb.fod;=48
  • 49. (u)>oHw>yS>teD.*H>I(c)urRvDRwH>0J.fod;w>u[h.vDRuoH.uoDtw>rRpXRD;ql.cs›rRpXRtw>tH;xGJuG>xGJvXtvd.b.qlzdo.ud;*RJ;CkmD;w>uk;*kRxD.yoDxD.*H>cD.xH;ql.cs›tw>tH;xGJuG>xGJwz.I(*)w>uk;}wDqXw>ql;w>qgD;w>tD.vDRw-xK;vX*H>cD.xH;ql.cs›tw>tH;xGJuG>xGJtwuGD.tylRcDzdsw>olpJ;zDu[.yDngtw>ohw>b.vXttd.ymvHoh.wz.D;cDzsdw>[h.eDRvDRw>tD.w>tDvXttd.D;w>M>*H>M>bgvXtvXtySJRwz.<D;xHtDvXtuqSDD;w>ub.uG>>b.tXb.oDtw>b.,d.b.bSDD;tw>vDRysHRvDRzk;oh.wz.M.vDRI(C)urRvDRwH>0J.w>›tw>uG>xGvXrd>vXwcsK;td.zsJ. JxD.D;td.zsJ.xD.0HRtvD>cHoh.wz.t*D>I(i)urRvDRwH>;ySRud;ywD>vXySRw0XtylRvDRqD.w>rd>y>oh. dwz.D;zdo.oh.wz.ub.w>[h.k;oh.ngt0Joh.wz.ub.d;M>b.w>rRvdrRd;D;ub.w>qD.xGJt0Joh.wz.vXtupl;ug0J.w>oh.nge>yX>vXtb.C;D;>›D;w>tD.vXtM>*H>M>bgwz.t*h><w>[h.k;tD.rd>Ek>xHtbsK;tzSd.t*h><eD>w*Rtw>uqSJuqSDD;cd.CXRtw>uqSJuqSDt*h>D;w>DoXw>b.db.xH;vXt[JuJxD.o;owl>uvmoh.wz.t*h>I(p)urR*kRxD.yoDxD.w>›tw>DoX<w>[H;pkeJ.usJvXrd > y>wz.t*D > < D ; w>oh . nge>yX>vXtb.xG J D ; w>}wD [ k ; o;D;w>zH;w>rRvXtb.xGJD;w>*h>ftHRoh.wz.I 49
  • 50. 3IxHuD>yd.wz.ub.CkusJvXtwkRvDRwDRvDRD;tb.bsd;b. goh.wz.fw>ynd.vXurRvDRr>uGHmw>ulpg,gbsgtusdRtuGmf trh>rd>vky>v>vk>v>xloElvXtrRb.db.xH;>td.ql. td.cs›M.vDRI 4IxHu>yd.oh.wz.[HrgvXu[h.*H>[h.bgD;uqD.xG[.cd.bDr> D l J D k tw>zH;oud;rRoud;vXw>wdmymfod;ud;M.b.w>rRuJxD.vd. xD.w>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.vXtb.w>ymyeD.tDRvXw>bsXt0JtHR tylRvXvXySJRySJRM.vDRIvXw>0JtHRt*D>vDRqD.w>w>ub.uG>qd urd.M>xHuD>vXtvJRxD.vJRxDtzXrk>>vd.b.M.vDRI w>bsXeD.*H>25 xHuD>yd.wz.wl>vdmymyeD.0J.w>cGJ;w>,mvXzdo.w*RvXyd. ok ; usJ R ymvD R M>tvD > f w >ynd . oh . wz. vXtrh > w>tH ; xG J u G > xGJt*D><vXw>u[ku,mt*D><rhwrh>vXw>ulpg,gbsgt0JteD>cdeD> o;tw>›t*D><vXw>uorHord;uG>uguhRw>ulpg,g bsgvXzdo.t*D>D;w>td.o;cJvXmvXtb.xGJ0J.D;w>ok;usJRym vDRtDRt0JtHRM.vDRI w>bsXeD.*H>26 1IxHuD>yd.wz.ub.ymyeD.wl>vdm0J.vXfod;zdo.ud;*RJ;u b.bsK;b.zS d . 0J .vXyS R *h > 0D t w>tk . uD R o; D ; b.[H * h > 0D v X t-uX;tb.fod;urRuJxD.vd.xD.w>cGJ;w>,mt0JtHRoh.wz. vXvXySJRySJRftb.vdmto;D;t0Joh.txHtuD>w>bsXtod;M.vDRI 2Iw>b.bsK;b.zSd.oh.wz.M.zJt-uX;0Jb.0JtvD>w>ub.[h. vDRtDRD;w>ub.qdurd.M>zdo.D;ySRvXtrltgtd.vXub. uG>xGzo.oh.wz.tusd.pht*H>tbg<tw>td.o;<D;ub.qdurd. J d50
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  • 54. (*)w>rRd.xD.tgxD.w>ymuJzdo.trd>ty>oh.wz.<> qJ;w>vR<zdo.tusdmD;zdo.tvk>tyORfw>uymuJxHuD>wbh.;0JtylRtvkmtyORwz.<xHuD> xD . 0J .tyl R D ; f o d ; w>uymuJ w >qJ ; w>vRvXtvD R qD v d m t o;D;>qJ;w>vRI (C)w>uuwJmuwDRM>zdo.oh.wz.fod;uoh[HrlgvXySRw0X vXttd.D;w>obs› vXo;o[D.vXttd.D;w>oh.nge>yX><w>rkm w>ck.<w>ol.plRo;plR<rk.cGgtw>xJod;wkRod;<D;w>&hwHR&houd;vX ySR*Rtusg<w>&hwHR&houd;vXuvkml.oh.wz.tusg<w>&hwHR &houd;vXuvkmD;w>bl.w>bgu%l>oh.wz.tusgD;w>&hwHR&ho ud;vXySRoh.wz.vXt[JvDRpXRvXySRxlvHRzd.0JtusgI (i)w>rRd.xD.xDfod;w>uymuJcd.CXRMqX.I 2Iw>bsXt0JtHRrh>*hRrhwrh>w>bsXeD.*H>(28)rh>*hRw>wb.e>yX>ur. tDRfod;uuJxD.w>wHmwmvXySR*Rt*D>D;w>&Xu&doh.wz.vX uol.xD.D;uyXqSXw>ul.b.ul.ohtw>u&Xu&dwz.t*D>D;xD bdub.ymol.ymo;0J.vXw>bsXoh.wz.vXw>ymvDRCmtDRvX w>bsXt0JtHRtqXzd(1)tylRD;w>ul.b.ul.ohvXw>[h.vDRtDR vXw>ul.b.ul.ohw>u&Xu&dwz.tHRtywD>ub.wkRxD.xD. b;fxHuD>yd.ymyeD.Cm0Jtod;M.vDRI54
  • 55. w>bsXeD.*H> 30xHuD>oh.wz.vXttd.D;uvkml.zdrh>*hR<w>bl.w>bgu%l>qH;oh.wz.rh>*hR<rhwrh>u%l>qH;zdvXtuwdRusdmvDRqDoh.wz.rh>*hR<rhwrh>ySRvXt[JvDRpXRvXySRxlvHRzdoh.wz.rh>*hRrhtd.M.zdo.w*RvXtb.xJGD;u%l>zdoh.wz.tHRwl.*hRwl.*hRrhwrh>zdo.vXtrh>ySRxlvHRzdM.w>wb.*h>>cGJ;w>,;0J.vXySRw0XtylRD;ySRoh.wz.vXtrh>ySRwu%l>CDD;tDRD;td.D;w>cGJ;w>,mvXuymzsgxD.teD>up>.0Jtw>qJ;w>vR<D;ubl.ubgtw>bl.w>bg.0J rhwrh>uoltup>.0JtusdmM.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 311IxHuD>yd.wz.wl>>cGJ;w>,mfod;utd.bSH;td.ogD;utd.uok.uoD<>uGJD;urRw>rkmvRo;cktw>[l;w>*JRwz.ft-uX;tb.0J.D;;eH.D;fod;uEkmvDRrRoud;w>vXw>qJ;w>vRtw>[l;w>*JRD;w>*JRw>dw>wJmoh.wz.vXw>obs›tylRM.vDRI2IxHuD>yd.oh.wz.ub.ymuJD;xd.[l;xd.*>cGJ;w>,mfod;t0Joh.wz.uEkmrRoud;w>vXvXySJRySJRvXw>qJ;w>vRt w> [l ; w>*J R <G J v mw>oh w >>[l ; w>*J R <D ; u b.[h.vDR0Jw>cGJ;w>,moh.wz.vXt-uX;tb.D;txJod;wkRod;vXtb.xGJ0J.D;w>qJ;w>vR<GJvmtw>ohw>b.<w>ol.zSHo;nDD;w>td.uok.uoDtw>[l;w>*JRoh.wz.M.vDRI 55
  • 56. w>bsXeD.*H> 32 1IxHuD>yd.wz.wl>>cGJ;w>,mvXw>u DoXtDRvXw>*h>ftrh>w>oltD.zdo.vXeD>up>tw>b.bsK;t*D> D;w>uDoXtDRvXw>zH;w>rRwrHR*hRwrHR*hRvXuuJxD.w>b.,d. b.bSDD;uuJxD.w>>rRvdrRd;rhwrh>uuJxD. w> b.,d . b.bS D v Xzd o .tw>td . ql . td . cs› D ; uuJ x D . w> b.,>d.xD.xDxD.vXeD>cdeD>o;<w>pl>w>em< w>ouJmy0;<D;rhwrh>vXySR*h>0DwuyRM.vDRI 2IxHuD>yd.wz.ub.[HM>*h>0DvXw>k;td.xD.oJp;w>bsXtoeX.< w>yXw>jy;toeX.<ySR*h>0DD;w>ul.b.ul.ohtoeX.fod;urRuJ xD . vd . xD . w>bsXt0J t H R M.vD R I f o d ; w>t0J t H R uuJ x D . t*D > xH u D > yd . oh . wz.ub.ymol . ymo;w>vXtb.bsd ; b.g vd m to;D ; [D . cd . bD r k > tw>bsXvXt*Roh . wz.M.vD R I vDRqD.w>xHuD>yd.oh.wz.ub.= (u)ymyeD.o;eH.tpSRuwX>vXw>uwl>vdmzdo.vXw>rRylRI (c)ymyeD.w>od.w>oDvXt-uX;tb.vXtb.xGJD;w>rRte.&H. D;w>rRtw>td.o;I (*)ymyeD.w>[h.w>ur.vXt-uX;0Jb.0Jrhwrh>w>zD.CH;t*Roh. wz.fod;urRvDRwH>0J.vXw>uvlRydmxJGw>bsXt0JtHRwkRvDR wDRvDRt*D>M.vDRI56
  • 57. w>bsXeD.*H> 33xHuD>yd.wz.ub.[H*h>0DvXt-uX;tb.cJvXmCkmD;w>xk;xD.oJp;w>bsXtoeX.<w>yXw>jy;toeX.<ySR*h>0DD;w>ul.b.ul.ohtoeX.fod;uDoXzdo.vXw>oluoH.rlRbSD;D;w>oluoH.rlRbSD;oh.wz.vXwzd;D;oJp;D;w>olw>zdw>vHRt*kRt*Roh.wz.vXtuqDwvJrR[;*DRw>qdurd.uqdr;fw>xk;xD.tcDynDvX[D . cd . bD r k > tvH m CH ; Cmoh . wz.tyl R tod ; M.vD R I xH u D > yd .oh.wz.ub.[HM>oJp;w>bsX*h>0D<w>yXw>jy;*h>0D<ySR*h>0D<D;w>ul.b.ul.oh*h>0Doh.wz.fod;uDoXw>oltD.zdo.oh.wz.vXw>xk;xD.D;w>ul.vJRrRuRuoH.rlRbSD;oh.wz.vXwzd;D;w>bsXoJp;M.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 34xHuD>yd.wz.[HrlgvXuDoXzdo.fod;w>oltD.t0Joh.wz.vX rk . cG g tw>rk m zH ; rk m n.t*D > D ; w>rRy,G J z d o .vXrk . cG g w>rk mzH;rkmn.tuvkmuvkmt*D>M.vDRIvXw>ynd.oh.wz.tHRt*D>xHuD>yd.wz.ub.[H*h>0DvXt-uX;tb.vDRqD.w>vXxHuD>tywD><xHuD>cHbh.tywD>D;vXxHuD>tgbh.tywD>fod;uDoX=(u) w>uG J M >vG J M >zd o . rh w rh > w>rXql . M>zd o .f o d ; urRw>rk mzH;>[l;w>*JRwz.vXtwzd;D;oJp;I(c)w>olzdo.vXw>qgvDRtD.o;w>zH;w>rRvXeD>up>tw>b.bsK;t*D>rhwrh>w>oltD.zdo.vXw>rkmzH;>[l;w>*JRt*Rwz.vXwzd;D;oJp;I(*)w>olzdo.vXw>xk;xD.w>*DRrlrh>*hRw>yD;w>vDt*kR*Roh.wz.rh>*hRvXtb.C;D;w>rHCkmvdmo;I 57
  • 58. w>bsXeD.*H> 35 xHuD>yd.wz.ub.[H*h>0DvXt-uX;tb.cJvXmvXxHuD>tywD>< xHuD>cHbh.tywD>D;xHuD>tgbh.tywD>fod;uDoXzdo.oh.wz. vXw>zD.ql.tDRrh>*hR<w>qgtD.tDRrh>*hR<rhwrh>w>ul.vJRrRuRtDRvX w>ynd.wrHRrHRtzDcd.D;w>*h>t*RwrHR*hRwrHR*hRtzDcd.M.vDRI w>bsXeD.*H> 36 xHuD>yd.wz.ub.DoXzdo.vXw>oltD.zdo.vXusJt*Roh. wz.vXySRw*RteD>up>tw>b.bsK;t*D>wrHR*hRwrHR*hRvXt urRb.db.xH;>td.rkmqd;yXRt*D>M.vDRI w>bsXeD.*H> 37 xHuD>yd.wz.ub.rRvDRwH>0J.fod;= (u)zdo.w*R*hRw*R*hRw>wb.rRqgtDRb.ID;w>wb.rRtXrR oDtDRrhwrh>w>wb.ymtDRfwvDR*mD;ySRunDD;w>wb.[h.w> ur.vXttXtoDvXtvDR&X>vDRpX>M.b.Izdo.vXto; (18)qltzDvmwz.rh>rRur.w>od.w>oDM.w>rk>v>vXw>uys> u g uh R tD R rh > wtd . b.oXysXRw>wb.[h . tD R w>oH w >pH . nD . D;w>pH.nD.wpdRo;vXCdmylRM.b.I (c)zdo.w*R*hRw*hRw>wb.[HM.ql.uGHmtw>obs›vXtwzd;D; oJp;M.b.Iw>zD.zdo.<w>k;Cmzdo.<rhwrh>w>xXEkmzdo.vXCdm ylRub.zd;rHvdmo;D;oJp;w>bsXD;w>ub.oltDRftrh>usJvXtvD> cHuwX>wbdM.vDRID;ft-uX;tb.0Jtod;ub.rh>w>qXuwD>vX tzk.uwX>M.vDRI58
  • 59. (*)zdo.ud;*RJ;vXtb.w>[HM>uGHmtw>obs›wz.w>ub.ymtDRftrh>ySRunDw*Rtod;D;w>ub.ymtDRftrh>ySRunDw*RvXttd.D;tol;toh.tvRuyDRM.vDRID;w>ub.ymtDRusJvXtqd u rd . M>zd o .to;eH . D ; zd o .tw>vd . b.vXt-uX;D ;to;eH . M.vD R I vD R qD .w>zd o .vXtb.w>[H M > uG H m w>obs›wz.w>wb.k;CmtDRwylRCDD;ySRo;yS>oh.wz.xJ.vXw>rh>ymvXtrh>w>t*hRuwX>vXzdo.t*D>M.w>rR0J.ohvDRIzdo.vXtb.w>k;;w>cGJ;w>,mvXuqJ;usd;D;t[H . zd C D z d c D z sd w >uG J ; vH m uG J ; vJ > D ; w>u[J [ ;td . oud ; tD RvXw>td.o;vXtylRzsJ;D;w>b.,d.b.bSDM.vDRI(C)zdo.ud;*RJ;vXtb.w>[HM>uGHmtw>obs›;w>cGJ;w>,mvXud;M>b.w>rRpXRvXoJp;*h>0DD;w>rRpXRt*Rwz.vXt-uX;tb.vXtqdtcs›M.vDRID;;w>cGJ;w>,mvXuoHuG>0J.uGD>bsD.<ySRM>pdM>urDRoh.wz.vXtrRw>vXw>ubs›tylR<vXtohtb.D;vXtwtd.ClwcDwXRw>wz.vXrh>w>k;CmtDRM.rh>tzd;D;oJp;ph>uD;{gM.vDRID;w>ub.rRw>qXwJmvXtqdtcs›M.vDRIw>bsXeD.*> 38 H1IxHuD>yd.wz.tX.vDR0J.vXuymuJ0J.D;urRvDRwH>0J.fod;w>uymuJ[>ySR*h>0Db.xGJtw>vd.oJp;w>bsXwz.vXtb.xGJD;zdo. ftb.vdmto;D;t0Joh.txHtuD>zJw>k;w>,RtqXuwD>M.vDRI2IxHuD>yd.wz.ub.[HM>*h>0DvXtuJxD.vd.xD.ohfod;urRvDRwH>0J.ySRoh.wz.vXto;eH.wySJRxD.H;(15)eH.wz.teD>up>.0Jfod;wEkmvDRrRb.xJGto;D;w>k;w>,RM.vDRI 59
  • 60. 3IxHuD>yd.wz.ub.[;qSJ;0J.w>xXok;zdvXySRvXto;eH.wySJR xD.H;(15)eH.oh.wz.vXok;ylRM.vDRIzJw>xXok;vXySRvXto;eH.yJR S xD.vH(15)eH.b.q.wySJRxD.H;(18)eH.wz.tusgxHuD>yd.wz. ub.*kmusJ;pX;[h.w>cGJ;w>,mvXySRvXto;eH.tgoh.wz.M.vDRI 4Ifod;t0Joh.trltgtd.0J.vXub.DoXxHzduD>zdzJw>k;w> , R vX[D . cd . bD r k > yS R *h > 0D t w>vd . b.oJ p ;w>bsXtzD v mtod ; xHuD>yd.wz.ub.[H*h>0DvXtuJxD.vd.xD.ohfod;uDoXzd o.D;utH;xGJuG>xGJzdo.oh.wz.vXtb.e;b.zSD.vXw>k;w> ,RtCdM.vDRI w>bsXeD.*H> 39 xHuD>yd.wz.ub.[HM>*h>0DvXt-uX;tb.cJvXmfod;uxd.[l; xd.*JRxD.zdo.oh.wz.vXw>wue.CkmtDRvXusJwbdbdrh>*hR< tb.w>oltD.tDRvXySRw*RteD>up>tw>b.bsK;t*D>rh>*hR<t b.w>rRtXrRoDrRql;rRqgtDRrh>*hR<tb.w>rRtDRe;e;usHRusHRrh> *hR<D;w>[h.tDRw>ur.D;w>rRtDRvXtvDR&X>vDRpX>rh>*hR<rhwrh> zdo.wz.vXtwl>b.w>k;w>,Rto[D.rh>*hRfod;t0Joh.wz. tw>td.rlub.vD>b.p;uguhRD;fod;uoh[JuhRtd.rlqd;*JRuhR vXySRw0XtylRM.vDRIw>rRb.vD>b.p;uguhRD;w>[JuhRtd. rlqd;*JRuguhRfod;tHRoh.wz.ub.[;zJcd.CXRvX tqD.xGJ[h.*H>[>›<>ymuJvDR tup>to;.0J<D;zdo.tol;toh.tvRuyDRM.vDRI60
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  • 72. w>bsXeD.*H> 50 1IxHuD>yd.wzk*hRwzk*hRqSXEkmw>bSDb.rR*hRxD.uhRw>wrHRrHRoh0J D;qSXxD.qlbDrk>pXzSd.u&XteJ.&>ttd.fod;w>urReD.rR CgtDRt*D>M.vDRIvXw>t0JtHRtzDcd.eJ.&>ub.k; xHuD>yd.oh.wz.vXtb.C;D;w>bSDb.rR*hRxD.uhRw>*h>w> u sd R t0J t H R Ck m D ; w>Ch x D . t0J o h .>b. o;<rh > t0J oh . o;vD 0 J .xH u D > yd . oh . wz.tcD u &J ; vXw>ynd . f od;uqdrd.oud;D;u[h.w>z;vXw>[h.ul.t0JtHRtzDcd.M.vDRI w>[h.k;oh.ngw>*h>t0JtHR0HRtvD>cHtpSRuwX>vGH>vgtwD>ylR xHuD>yd.oXylwylrho;vD0J.cDu&J;t0JtHRM.eJ.&>ub. ok;usJR0J.vXbDrk>pXzSd.u&Xtw>rRpXRtzDcd.M.vDRIw>bSDb. wcgcgvXw>ymyeD.tDRvXxHuD>yd.oh.wz.vXtxD.cDu&J;D;vX t[h.w>z;vXcDu&J;t0JtHRttguwX>M.w>ub.qSXxD.tDRql bsD.d.w>td.zSd.fod;w>utX.vDRwl>vdmtDRt*D>M.vDRI 2Iw>bSDb.rR*hRxD.uhRwrHRrHRvXtb.w>ymyeD.tDRftvDRyvdm vdmto;D;w>bsXt0JtHRtqXzd(1)M.uuJxD.0J.w>bsXoJp;zJbD rk>pXzSd.u&XtbsD.d.w>td.zSd.D;xHuD>yd.oXylcHylwl>vdm0J.tcg M.vDRI 3IzJw>bSDb.uhRw>wrHRrHRzJtuJxD.w>bsXoJp;vHM.xHuD>yd. oh.wz.vXtwl>vdmw>bSDb.uhRt0JtHRub.[HrlgD;rhrh>xHuD> yd.t*Roh.wz.trltgtd.H;vXw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRtzDcd. D;w>bSDb.uhRw>wrHR*hRwrHR*hRvXt0Joh.wl>vdmym0JvXngM.vDRI72
  • 73. w>bsXeD.*H> 511IbDrk>pXzSd.u&XteJ.&>ub.d;M.b.0Jw>bsXoh.wz.vXw>wwl>vdmtDRH;vXxHuD>yd.wz.zJw>rRw>tX.vDRtDvDRvXw>qJ;vDRpkrk>usX>rhwrh>w>rRw>wl>vdmtcgD;ub.&RvDR0J.qlxHuD>ud;bh.J;M.vDRI2Iw>bsXoh.wz.vXw>wwl>vdmtX.vDRH;tDRwz.vXtxDgvdmto;D;w>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRw>ynd.D;tw>wdmymoh.wz.M.w>wb.[h.tDRtcGJ;b.I3Iw>bsXoh.wz.vXw>wwl>vdmH;tDRoh.wz.w>xk;uGHmtDRohwbsDv>v>zJw>[h.k;oh.ngbDrk>pXzSd.u&XteJ.&>D;eJ.&>ub.k;oh.ngxHuD>t*Rud;bh.J;M.vDRIw>[h.k;oh.ngt0JtHRw>ub.ym*X>ymusXRtDRzJrk>eHRweHRvXeJ.&>d;M>b.0JtcgM.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 52xHuD>yd.wzkyJRtXyJRoDw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRcDzsdw>uGJ;k;oh.ngbDrk>pXzSd.u&XteJ.&>oh0J.M.vDRIw>yJRtXyJRoDt0JtHRub.w>p;xD.ymyeD.tDRzJbDrk>pXzSd.u&XeJ.&>d;M>b.w>uGJ;k;oh.ng0HRweH.tvD>cHM.vDRIw>bsXeD.*H> 53bDrk>pXzSd.u&XteJ.&>tHRw>ymyeD.CkxXtDRvXw>ut;vDRymw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRM.vDRI 73
  • 74. w>bsXeD.*H> 54 vHmw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRtxlvHRvXtb.w>uGJ;tDRvXt.&;t usdm<w%l;tusdm<uDRvR0gtusdm<<&g%SgtusdmD;pyh. tusd m oh . wz.M. rh > tpJ > eD > ud ; bh . J ; D ; ub. w>t;vD R ym tD R D;bDrk>pXzSd.u&XteJ.&>M.vDRIrD>oDoh.wz.vXtb.w> [h.pd[h.urDRtDRvXvXySJRySJRvXt0Joh.txHuD>yd..0Joh.wz. M.rh>0JySRtk.o;oh.wz.D;rh>0JySRoh.wz.vXtqJ;vDRpkrk>usX>zJ vHmw>tX.vDRtDvDRt0JtHRtylRM.vDRI74
  • 75. Convention on the Rights of the ChildConvention on the Rights of the ChildAdopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession byGeneral Assembly resolution 44/25 of 20 November 1989Entry into force 2 September 1990, in accordance with article 49PreambleThe States Parties to the present Convention, Considering that, in accordance with the principles proclaimedin the Charter of the United Nations, recognition of the inherent dignityand of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the humanfamily is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world, Bearing in mind that the peoples of the United Nations have, inthe Charter, reaffirmed their faith in fundamental human rights and in thedignity and worth of the human person, and have determined to promotesocial progress and better standards of life in larger freedom, Recognizing that the United Nations has, in the UniversalDeclaration of Human Rights and in the International Covenants onHuman Rights, proclaimed and agreed that everyone is entitled to all therights and freedoms set forth therein, without distinction of any kind, suchas race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national orsocial origin, property, birth or other status, Recalling that, in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, theUnited Nations has proclaimed that childhood is entitled to special careand assistance, Convinced that the family, as the fundamental group of societyand the natural environment for the growth and well-being of all itsmembers and particularly children, should be afforded the necessaryprotection and assistance so that it can fully assume its responsibilitieswithin the community, Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmoniousdevelopment of his or her personality, should grow up in a familyenvironment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding, 75
  • 76. Considering that the child should be fully prepared to live an individual life in society, and brought up in the spirit of the ideals proclaimed in the Charter of the United Nations, and in particular in the spirit of peace, dignity, tolerance, freedom, equality and solidarity, Bearing in mind that the need to extend particular care to the child has been stated in the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child of 1924 and in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child adopted by the General Assembly on 20 November 1959 and recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (in particular in articles 23 and 24), in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (in particular in article 10) and in the statutes and relevant instruments of specialized agencies and international organizations concerned with the welfare of children, Bearing in mind that, as indicated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, “the child, by reason of his physical and mental immaturity, needs special safeguards and care, including appropriate legal protection, before as well as after birth” , Recalling the provisions of the Declaration on Social and Legal Principles relating to the Protection and Welfare of Children, with Special Reference to Foster Placement and Adoption Nationally and Internationally; the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice (The Beijing Rules); and the Declaration on the Protection of Women and Children in Emergency and Armed Conflict, Recognizing that, in all countries in the world, there are children living in exceptionally difficult conditions, and that such children need special consideration, Taking due account of the importance of the traditions and cultural values of each people for the protection and harmonious development of the child, Recognizing the importance of international co-operation for improving the living conditions of children in every country, in particular in the developing countries, Have agreed as follows:76
  • 77. PART IArticle 1 For the purposes of the present Convention, a child means everyhuman being below the age of eighteen years unless under the law appli-cable to the child, majority is attained earlier.Article 2 1. States Parties shall respect and ensure the rights set forth inthe present Convention to each child within their jurisdiction withoutdiscrimination of any kind, irrespective of the child’s or his or her parent’s orlegal guardian’s race,colour,sex,language,religion,political or other opinion,national, ethnic or social origin, property, disability, birth or other status. 2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure thatthe child is protected against all forms of discrimination or punishment onthe basis of the status, activities, expressed opinions, or beliefs of thechild’s parents, legal guardians, or family members.Article 3 1. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by publicor private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authoritiesor legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primaryconsideration. 2. States Parties undertake to ensure the child such protectionand care as is necessary for his or her well-being, taking into account therights and duties of his or her parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legally responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take allappropriate legislative and administrative measures. 3. States Parties shall ensure that the institutions, services andfacilities responsible for the care or protection of children shall conformwith the standards established by competent authorities, particularly inthe areas of safety, health, in the number and suitability of their staff, aswell as competent supervision.Article 4 States Parties shall undertake all appropriate legislative,administrative, and other measures for the implementation of the rightsrecognized in the present Convention. With regard to economic, social 77
  • 78. and cultural rights, States Parties shall undertake such measures to the maximum extent of their available resources and, where needed, within the framework of international co-operation. Article 5 States Parties shall respect the responsibilities, rights and duties of parents or, where applicable, the members of the extended family or community as provided for by local custom, legal guardians or other persons legally responsible for the child, to provide, in a manner consistent with the evolving capacities of the child, appropriate direction and guidance in the exercise by the child of the rights recognized in the present Convention. Article 6 1. States Parties recognize that every child has the inherent right to life. 2. States Parties shall ensure to the maximum extent possible the survival and development of the child. Article 7 1. The child shall be registered immediately after birth and shall have the right from birth to a name, the right to acquire a nationality and. as far as possible, the right to know and be cared for by his or her parents. 2. States Parties shall ensure the implementation of these rights in accordance with their national law and their obligations under the relevant international instruments in this field, in particular where the child would otherwise be stateless. Article 8 1. States Parties undertake to respect the right of the child to preserve his or her identity, including nationality, name and family relations as recognized by law without unlawful interference. 2.Where a child is illegally deprived of some or all of the elements of his or her identity, States Parties shall provide appropriate assistance and protection, with a view to re-establishing speedily his or her identity.78
  • 79. Article 9 1. States Parties shall ensure that a child shall not be separatedfrom his or her parents against their will, except when competent authoritiessubject to judicial review determine, in accordance with applicable lawand procedures, that such separation is necessary for the best interests ofthe child. Such determination may be necessary in a particular case suchas one involving abuse or neglect of the child by the parents, or one wherethe parents are living separately and a decision must be made as to thechild’s place of residence. 2. In any proceedings pursuant to paragraph 1 of the presentarticle, all interested parties shall be given an opportunity to participate inthe proceedings and make their views known. 3. States Parties shall respect the right of the child who is separatedfrom one or both parents to maintain personal relations and directcontact with both parents on a regular basis, except if it is contrary to thechild’s best interests. 4. Where such separation results from any action initiated by aState Party, such as the detention, imprisonment, exile, deportation ordeath (including death arising from any cause while the person is in thecustody of the State) of one or both parents or of the child, that State Partyshall, upon request, provide the parents, the child or, if appropriate, anothermember of the family with the essential information concerning thewhereabouts of the absent member(s) of the family unless the provisionof the information would be detrimental to the well-being of the child.States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a requestshall of itself entail no adverse consequences for the person(s) concerned.Article 10 1. In accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article9, paragraph 1, applications by a child or his or her parents to enter orleave a State Party for the purpose of family reunification shall be dealtwith by States Parties in a positive, humane and expeditious manner.States Parties shall further ensure that the submission of such a requestshall entail no adverse consequences for the applicants and for themembers of their family. 2. A child whose parents reside in different States shall have theright to maintain on a regular basis, save in exceptional circumstancespersonal relations and direct contacts with both parents.Towards that end 79
  • 80. and in accordance with the obligation of States Parties under article 9, paragraph 1, States Parties shall respect the right of the child and his or her parents to leave any country, including their own, and to enter their own country. The right to leave any country shall be subject only to such restrictions as are prescribed by law and which are necessary to protect the national security, public order (ordre public), public health or morals or the rights and freedoms of others and are consistent with the other rights recognized in the present Convention. Article 11 1. States Parties shall take measures to combat the illicit transfer and non-return of children abroad. 2. To this end, States Parties shall promote the conclusion of bilateral or multilateral agreements or accession to existing agreements. Article 12 1. States Parties shall assure to the child who is capable of forming his or her own views the right to express those views freely in all matters affecting the child, the views of the child being given due weight in accordance with the age and maturity of the child. 2. For this purpose, the child shall in particular be provided the opportunity to be heard in any judicial and administrative proceedings affecting the child, either directly, or through a representative or an appropriate body, in a manner consistent with the procedural rules of national law. Article 13 1. The child shall have the right to freedom of expression; this right shall include freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds, regardless of frontiers, either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the childs choice. 2. The exercise of this right may be subject to certain restrictions, but these shall only be such as are provided by law and are necessary: (a) For respect of the rights or reputations of others; or (b) For the protection of national security or of public order (ordre public), or of public health or morals.80
  • 81. Article 14 1. States Parties shall respect the right of the child to freedom ofthought, conscience and religion. 2. States Parties shall respect the rights and duties of the parentsand, when applicable, legal guardians, to provide direction to the child inthe exercise of his or her right in a manner consistent with the evolvingcapacities of the child. 3. Freedom to manifest ones religion or beliefs may be subjectonly to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary toprotect public safety, order, health or morals, or the fundamental rightsand freedoms of others.Article 15 1. States Parties recognize the rights of the child to freedom ofassociation and to freedom of peaceful assembly. 2. No restrictions may be placed on the exercise of these rightsother than those imposed in conformity with the law and which arenecessary in a democratic society in the interests of national security orpublic safety, public order (ordre public), the protection of public health ormorals or the protection of the rights and freedoms of others.Article 16 1. No child shall be subjected to arbitrary or unlawful interferencewith his or her privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to unlawfulattacks on his or her honour and reputation. 2.The child has the right to the protection of the law against suchinterference or attacks.Article 17 States Parties recognize the important function performed by themass media and shall ensure that the child has access to information andmaterial from a diversity of national and international sources, especiallythose aimed at the promotion of his or her social, spiritual and moralwell-being and physical and mental health.To this end, States Parties shall: (a) Encourage the mass media to disseminate information andmaterial of social and cultural benefit to the child and in accordance withthe spirit of article 29; 81
  • 82. (b) Encourage international co-operation in the production, exchange and dissemination of such information and material from a diversity of cultural, national and international sources; (c) Encourage the production and dissemination of children’s books; (d) Encourage the mass media to have particular regard to the linguistic needs of the child who belongs to a minority group or who is indigenous; e) Encourage the development of appropriate guidelines for the protection of the child from information and material injurious to his or her well-being, bearing in mind the provisions of articles 13 and 18. Article 18 1. States Parties shall use their best efforts to ensure recognition of the principle that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing and development of the child. Parents or, as the case may be, legal guardians, have the primary responsibility for the upbringing and development of the child.The best interests of the child will be their basic concern. 2. For the purpose of guaranteeing and promoting the rights set forth in the present Convention, States Parties shall render appropriate assistance to parents and legal guardians in the performance of their child-rearing responsibilities and shall ensure the development of institutions, facilities and services for the care of children. 3. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that children of working parents have the right to benefit from child-care services and facilities for which they are eligible. Article 19 1. States Parties shall take all appropriate legislative, administrative, social and educational measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse, while in the care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) or any other person who has the care of the child. 2.Such protective measures should,as appropriate,include effective procedures for the establishment of social programmes to provide necessary support for the child and for those who have the care of the child, as well as for other forms of prevention and for identification, reporting, referral,82
  • 83. investigation, treatment and follow-up of instances of child maltreatmentdescribed heretofore, and, as appropriate, for judicial involvement.Article 20 1. A child temporarily or permanently deprived of his or her familyenvironment, or in whose own best interests cannot be allowed to remainin that environment, shall be entitled to special protection and assistanceprovided by the State. 2. States Parties shall in accordance with their national lawsensure alternative care for such a child. 3. Such care could include, inter alia, foster placement, kafalah ofIslamic law, adoption or if necessary placement in suitable institutions forthe care of children. When considering solutions, due regard shall be paidto the desirability of continuity in a child’s upbringing and to the child’sethnic, religious, cultural and linguistic background.Article 21 States Parties that recognize and/or permit the system ofadoption shall ensure that the best interests of the child shall be theparamount consideration and they shall: (a) Ensure that the adoption of a child is authorized only bycompetent authorities who determine, in accordance with applicable lawand procedures and on the basis of all pertinent and reliable information,that the adoption is permissible in view of the child’s status concerningparents, relatives and legal guardians and that, if required, the personsconcerned have given their informed consent to the adoption on thebasis of such counselling as may be necessary; (b) Recognize that inter-country adoption may be considered asan alternative means of child’s care, if the child cannot be placed in a fosteror an adoptive family or cannot in any suitable manner be cared for in thechild’s country of origin; (c) Ensure that the child concerned by inter-country adoptionenjoys safeguards and standards equivalent to those existing in the caseof national adoption; (d) Take all appropriate measures to ensure that, in inter-countryadoption, the placement does not result in improper financial gain forthose involved in it; 83
  • 84. (e) Promote, where appropriate, the objectives of the present article by concluding bilateral or multilateral arrangements or agreements, and endeavour, within this framework, to ensure that the placement of the child in another country is carried out by competent authorities or organs. Article 22 1. States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure that a child who is seeking refugee status or who is considered a refugee in accordance with applicable international or domestic law and procedures shall, whether unaccompanied or accompanied by his or her parents or by any other person, receive appropriate protection and humanitarian assistance in the enjoyment of applicable rights set forth in the present Convention and in other international human rights or humanitarian instruments to which the said States are Parties. 2. For this purpose, States Parties shall provide, as they consider appropriate, co-operation in any efforts by the United Nations and other competent intergovernmental organizations or non-governmental organizations co-operating with the United Nations to protect and assist such a child and to trace the parents or other members of the family of any refugee child in order to obtain information necessary for reunification with his or her family. In cases where no parents or other members of the family can be found, the child shall be accorded the same protection as any other child permanently or temporarily deprived of his or her family environment for any reason, as set forth in the present Convention. Article 23 1. States Parties recognize that a mentally or physically disabled child should enjoy a full and decent life, in conditions which ensure dignity, promote self-reliance and facilitate the childs active participation in the community. 2. States Parties recognize the right of the disabled child to special care and shall encourage and ensure the extension, subject to available resources, to the eligible child and those responsible for his or her care, of assistance for which application is made and which is appropriate to the childs condition and to the circumstances of the parents or others caring for the child.84
  • 85. 3. Recognizing the special needs of a disabled child, assistanceextended in accordance with paragraph 2 of the present article shall beprovided free of charge, whenever possible, taking into account the financialresources of the parents or others caring for the child, and shall bedesigned to ensure that the disabled child has effective access to andreceives education, training, health care services, rehabilitation services,preparation for employment and recreation opportunities in a mannerconducive to the child’s achieving the fullest possible social integrationand individual development, including his or her cultural and spiritualdevelopment 4. States Parties shall promote, in the spirit of internationalcooperation, the exchange of appropriate information in the field ofpreventive health care and of medical, psychological and functionaltreatment of disabled children, including dissemination of and access toinformation concerning methods of rehabilitation, education andvocational services, with the aim of enabling States Parties to improvetheir capabilities and skills and to widen their experience in these areas. Inthis regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developingcountries.Article 24 1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to the enjoymentof the highest attainable standard of health and to facilities for thetreatment of illness and rehabilitation of health. States Parties shall striveto ensure that no child is deprived of his or her right of access to suchhealth care services. 2. States Parties shall pursue full implementation of this right and,in particular, shall take appropriate measures: (a) To diminish infant and child mortality; (b) To ensure the provision of necessary medical assistance andhealth care to all children with emphasis on the development of primaryhealth care; (c) To combat disease and malnutrition, including within theframework of primary health care, through, inter alia, the application ofreadily available technology and through the provision of adequatenutritious foods and clean drinking-water, taking into consideration thedangers and risks of environmental pollution; 85
  • 86. (d) To ensure appropriate pre-natal and post-natal health care for mothers; (e) To ensure that all segments of society, in particular parents and children, are informed, have access to education and are supported in the use of basic knowledge of child health and nutrition, the advantages of breastfeeding, hygiene and environmental sanitation and the prevention of accidents; (f ) To develop preventive health care, guidance for parents and family planning education and services. 3. States Parties shall take all effective and appropriate measures with a view to abolishing traditional practices prejudicial to the health of children. 4. States Parties undertake to promote and encourage international co-operation with a view to achieving progressively the full realization of the right recognized in the present article. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries. Article 25 States Parties recognize the right of a child who has been placed by the competent authorities for the purposes of care, protection or treatment of his or her physical or mental health, to a periodic review of the treatment provided to the child and all other circumstances relevant to his or her placement. Article 26 1. States Parties shall recognize for every child the right to benefit from social security, including social insurance, and shall take the necessary measures to achieve the full realization of this right in accordance with their national law. 2. The benefits should, where appropriate, be granted, taking into account the resources and the circumstances of the child and persons having responsibility for the maintenance of the child, as well as any other consideration relevant to an application for benefits made by or on behalf of the child.86
  • 87. Article 27 1. States Parties recognize the right of every child to a standard ofliving adequate for the child’s physical, mental, spiritual, moral and socialdevelopment. 2. The parent(s) or others responsible for the child have theprimary responsibility to secure, within their abilities and financialcapacities, the conditions of living necessary for the childs development. 3. States Parties, in accordance with national conditions andwithin their means, shall take appropriate measures to assist parents andothers responsible for the child to implement this right and shall in case ofneed provide material assistance and support programmes, particularlywith regard to nutrition, clothing and housing. 4. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to secure therecovery of maintenance for the child from the parents or other personshaving financial responsibility for the child, both within the State Partyand from abroad. In particular, where the person having financialresponsibility for the child lives in a State different from that of the child,States Parties shall promote the accession to international agreements orthe conclusion of such agreements, as well as the making of otherappropriate arrangements.Article 28 1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to education, andwith a view to achieving this right progressively and on the basis of equalopportunity, they shall, in particular: (a) Make primary education compulsory and available free to all; (b) Encourage the development of different forms of secondaryeducation, including general and vocational education, make themavailable and accessible to every child, and take appropriate measuressuch as the introduction of free education and offering financialassistance in case of need; (c) Make higher education accessible to all on the basis ofcapacity by every appropriate means; (d) Make educational and vocational information and guidanceavailable and accessible to all children; (e) Take measures to encourage regular attendance at schoolsand the reduction of drop-out rates. 87
  • 88. 2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that school discipline is administered in a manner consistent with the child’s human dignity and in conformity with the present Convention. 3. States Parties shall promote and encourage international cooperation in matters relating to education, in particular with a view to contributing to the elimination of ignorance and illiteracy throughout the world and facilitating access to scientific and technical knowledge and modern teaching methods. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries. Article 29 1. States Parties agree that the education of the child shall be directed to: (a) The development of the childs personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential; (b) The development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and for the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations; (c) The development of respect for the childs parents, his or her own cultural identity, language and values, for the national values of the country in which the child is living, the country from which he or she may originate, and for civilizations different from his or her own; (d) The preparation of the child for responsible life in a free society, in the spirit of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, and friendship among all peoples, ethnic, national and religious groups and persons of indigenous origin; (e) The development of respect for the natural environment. 2. No part of the present article or article 28 shall be construed so as to interfere with the liberty of individuals and bodies to establish and direct educational institutions, subject always to the observance of the principle set forth in paragraph 1 of the present article and to the requirements that the education given in such institutions shall conform to such minimum standards as may be laid down by the State. Article 30 In those States in which ethnic, religious or linguistic minorities or persons of indigenous origin exist, a child belonging to such a minority or who is indigenous shall not be denied the right, in community with other88
  • 89. members of his or her group, to enjoy his or her own culture, to professand practise his or her own religion, or to use his or her own language.Article 31 1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to rest and leisure,to engage in play and recreational activities appropriate to the age of thechild and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts. 2. States Parties shall respect and promote the right of the child toparticipate fully in cultural and artistic life and shall encourage theprovision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural, artistic,recreational and leisure activity.Article 32 1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protectedfrom economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely tobe hazardous or to interfere with the childs education, or to be harmful tothe child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development. 2. States Parties shall take legislative, administrative, social andeducational measures to ensure the implementation of the presentarticle. To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions of otherinternational instruments, States Parties shall in particular: (a) Provide for a minimum age or minimum ages for admissionto employment; (b) Provide for appropriate regulation of the hours andconditions of employment; (c) Provide for appropriate penalties or other sanctions toensure the effective enforcement of the present article.Article 33 States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, includinglegislative, administrative, social and educational measures, to protectchildren from the illicit use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substancesas defined in the relevant international treaties, and to prevent the use ofchildren in the illicit production and trafficking of such substances.Article 34 States Parties undertake to protect the child from all forms ofsexual exploitation and sexual abuse. For these purposes, States Parties 89
  • 90. shall in particular take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent: (a) The inducement or coercion of a child to engage in any unlawful sexual activity; (b) The exploitative use of children in prostitution or other unlawful sexual practices; (c) The exploitative use of children in pornographic performances and materials. Article 35 States Parties shall take all appropriate national, bilateral and multilateral measures to prevent the abduction of, the sale of or traffic in children for any purpose or in any form. Article 36 States Parties shall protect the child against all other forms of exploitation prejudicial to any aspects of the childs welfare. Article 37 States Parties shall ensure that: (a) No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Neither capital punishment nor life imprisonment without possibility of release shall be imposed for offences committed by persons below eighteen years of age; (b) No child shall be deprived of his or her liberty unlawfully or arbitrarily. The arrest, detention or imprisonment of a child shall be in conformity with the law and shall be used only as a measure of last resort and for the shortest appropriate period of time; (c) Every child deprived of liberty shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human person, and in a manner which takes into account the needs of persons of his or her age. In particular, every child deprived of liberty shall be separated from adults unless it is considered in the childs best interest not to do so and shall have the right to maintain contact with his or her family through correspondence and visits, save in exceptional circumstances; (d) Every child deprived of his or her liberty shall have the right to prompt access to legal and other appropriate assistance, as well as the right to challenge the legality of the deprivation of his or her liberty90
  • 91. before a court or other competent, independent and impartial authority,and to a prompt decision on any such action.Article 38 1. States Parties undertake to respect and to ensure respect forrules of international humanitarian law applicable to them in armedconflicts which are relevant to the child. 2. States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure thatpersons who have not attained the age of fifteen years do not take a directpart in hostilities. 3. States Parties shall refrain from recruiting any person who hasnot attained the age of fifteen years into their armed forces. In recruitingamong those persons who have attained the age of fifteen years but whohave not attained the age of eighteen years, States Parties shall endeavourto give priority to those who are oldest. 4. In accordance with their obligations under internationalhumanitarian law to protect the civilian population in armed conflicts,States Parties shall take all feasible measures to ensure protection andcare of children who are affected by an armed conflict.Article 39 States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to promotephysical and psychological recovery and social reintegration of a childvictim of: any form of neglect, exploitation, or abuse; torture or any otherform of cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment; or armedconflicts. Such recovery and reintegration shall take place in anenvironment which fosters the health, self-respect and dignity of the child.Article 40 1. States Parties recognize the right of every child alleged as,accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law to be treatedin a manner consistent with the promotion of the child’s sense of dignityand worth, which reinforces the childs respect for the human rights andfundamental freedoms of others and which takes into account the childsage and the desirability of promoting the childs reintegration and thechild’s assuming a constructive role in society. 2. To this end, and having regard to the relevant provisions ofinternational instruments, States Parties shall, in particular, ensure that: 91
  • 92. (a) No child shall be alleged as, be accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law by reason of acts or omissions that were not prohibited by national or international law at the time they were committed; (b) Every child alleged as or accused of having infringed the penal law has at least the following guarantees: (i) To be presumed innocent until proven guilty according to law; (ii) To be informed promptly and directly of the charges against him or her, and, if appropriate, through his or her parents or legal guardians, and to have legal or other appropriate assistance in the preparation and presentation of his or her defence; (iii) To have the matter determined without delay by a competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body in a fair hearing according to law, in the presence of legal or other appropriate assistance and, unless it is considered not to be in the best interest of the child, in particular, taking into account his or her age or situation, his or her parents or legal guardians; (iv) Not to be compelled to give testimony or to confess guilt; to examine or have examined adverse witnesses and to obtain the participation and examination of witnesses on his or her behalf under conditions of equality; (v) If considered to have infringed the penal law, to have this decision and any measures imposed in consequence thereof reviewed by a higher competent, independent and impartial authority or judicial body according to law; (vi) To have the free assistance of an interpreter if the child cannot understand or speak the language used; (vii) To have his or her privacy fully respected at all stages of the proceedings. 3. States Parties shall seek to promote the establishment of laws, procedures, authorities and institutions specifically applicable to children alleged as, accused of, or recognized as having infringed the penal law, and, in particular: (a) The establishment of a minimum age below which children shall be presumed not to have the capacity to infringe the penal law; (b) Whenever appropriate and desirable, measures for dealing with such children without resorting to judicial proceedings, providing that human rights and legal safeguards are fully respected.92
  • 93. 4. A variety of dispositions, such as care, guidance and supervisionorders; counselling; probation; foster care; education and vocational trainingprogrammes and other alternatives to institutional care shall be availableto ensure that children are dealt with in a manner appropriate to theirwell-being and proportionate both to their circumstances and theoffence.Article 41 Nothing in the present Convention shall affect any provisionswhich are more conducive to the realization of the rights of the child andwhich may be contained in: (a) The law of a State party; or (b) International law in force for that State. 93
  • 94. PART II Article 42 States Parties undertake to make the principles and provisions of the Convention widely known, by appropriate and active means, to adults and children alike. Article 43 1. For the purpose of examining the progress made by States Parties in achieving the realization of the obligations undertaken in the present Convention, there shall be established a Committee on the Rights of the Child, which shall carry out the functions hereinafter provided. 2.The Committee shall consist of ten experts of high moral standing and recognized competence in the field covered by this Convention. The members of the Committee shall be elected by States Parties from among their nationals and shall serve in their personal capacity, consideration being given to equitable geographical distribution, as well as to the principal legal systems. (amendment) 3. The members of the Committee shall be elected by secret ballot from a list of persons nominated by States Parties. Each State Party may nominate one person from among its own nationals. 4.The initial election to the Committee shall be held no later than six months after the date of the entry into force of the present Convention and thereafter every second year. At least four months before the date of each election, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall address a letter to States Parties inviting them to submit their nominations within two months. The Secretary-General shall subsequently prepare a list in alphabetical order of all persons thus nominated, indicating States Parties which have nominated them, and shall submit it to the States Parties to the present Convention. 5. The elections shall be held at meetings of States Parties convened by the Secretary-General at United Nations Headquarters. At those meetings, for which two thirds of States Parties shall constitute a quorum, the persons elected to the Committee shall be those who obtain the largest number of votes and an absolute majority of the votes of the representatives of States Parties present and voting.94
  • 95. 6. The members of the Committee shall be elected for a term offour years.They shall be eligible for re-election if renominated.The term offive of the members elected at the first election shall expire at the end oftwo years; immediately after the first election, the names of these fivemembers shall be chosen by lot by the Chairman of the meeting. 7. If a member of the Committee dies or resigns or declares thatfor any other cause he or she can no longer perform the duties of theCommittee, the State Party which nominated the member shall appointanother expert from among its nationals to serve for the remainder of theterm, subject to the approval of the Committee. 8. The Committee shall establish its own rules of procedure. 9. The Committee shall elect its officers for a period of two years. 10. The meetings of the Committee shall normally be held atUnited Nations Headquarters or at any other convenient place asdetermined by the Committee. The Committee shall normally meetannually. The duration of the meetings of the Committee shall bedetermined, and reviewed, if necessary, by a meeting of the States Partiesto the present Convention, subject to the approval of the General Assembly. 11. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall provide thenecessary staff and facilities for the effective performance of the functionsof the Committee under the present Convention. 12. With the approval of the General Assembly, the members ofthe Committee established under the present Convention shall receiveemoluments from United Nations resources on such terms and conditionsas the Assembly may decide.Article 44 1. States Parties undertake to submit to the Committee, throughthe Secretary-General of the United Nations, reports on the measures theyhave adopted which give effect to the rights recognized herein and on theprogress made on the enjoyment of those rights: (a) Within two years of the entry into force of the Conventionfor the State Party concerned; (b) Thereafter every five years. 2. Reports made under the present article shall indicate factorsand difficulties, if any, affecting the degree of fulfilment of the obligationsunder the present Convention. Reports shall also contain sufficient 95
  • 96. information to provide the Committee with a comprehensive understanding of the implementation of the Convention in the country concerned. 3. A State Party which has submitted a comprehensive initial report to the Committee need not, in its subsequent reports submitted in accordance with paragraph 1 (b) of the present article, repeat basic information previously provided. 4. The Committee may request from States Parties further information relevant to the implementation of the Convention. 5. The Committee shall submit to the General Assembly, through the Economic and Social Council, every two years, reports on its activities. 6. States Parties shall make their reports widely available to the public in their own countries. Article 45 In order to foster the effective implementation of the Convention and to encourage international co-operation in the field covered by the Convention: (a) The specialized agencies, the United Nations Children’s Fund, and other United Nations organs shall be entitled to be represented at the consideration of the implementation of such provisions of the present Convention as fall within the scope of their mandate. The Committee may invite the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children’s Fund and other competent bodies as it may consider appropriate to provide expert advice on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their respective mandates. The Committee may invite the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children’s Fund, and other United Nations organs to submit reports on the implementation of the Convention in areas falling within the scope of their activities; (b) The Committee shall transmit, as it may consider appropriate, to the specialized agencies, the United Nations Children’s Fund and other competent bodies, any reports from States Parties that contain a request, or indicate a need, for technical advice or assistance, along with the Committee’s observations and suggestions, if any, on these requests or indications; (c) The Committee may recommend to the General Assembly to request the Secretary-General to undertake on its behalf studies on specific issues relating to the rights of the child;96
  • 97. (d) The Committee may make suggestions and generalrecommendations based on information received pursuant to articles 44and 45 of the present Convention. Such suggestions and generalrecommendations shall be transmitted to any State Party concerned andreported to the General Assembly, together with comments, if any, fromStates Parties. 97
  • 98. PART III Article 46 The present Convention shall be open for signature by all States. Article 47 The present Convention is subject to ratification. Instruments of ratification shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Article 48 The present Convention shall remain open for accession by any State. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary- General of the United Nations. Article 49 1. The present Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession. 2. For each State ratifying or acceding to the Convention after the deposit of the twentieth instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification or accession. Article 50 1. Any State Party may propose an amendment and file it with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. The Secretary-General shall thereupon communicate the proposed amendment to States Parties, with a request that they indicate whether they favour a conference of States Parties for the purpose of considering and voting upon the proposals. In the event that, within four months from the date of such communication, at least one third of the States Parties favour such a conference, the Secretary-General shall convene the conference under the auspices of the United Nations. Any amendment adopted by a majority of States Parties present and voting at the conference shall be submitted to the General Assembly for approval. 2. An amendment adopted in accordance with paragraph 1 of the present article shall enter into force when it has been approved by the98
  • 99. General Assembly of the United Nations and accepted by a two-thirdsmajority of States Parties. 3. When an amendment enters into force, it shall be binding onthose States Parties which have accepted it, other States Parties still beingbound by the provisions of the present Convention and any earlieramendments which they have accepted.Article 51 1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall receive andcirculate to all States the text of reservations made by States at the time ofratification or accession. 2. A reservation incompatible with the object and purpose of thepresent Convention shall not be permitted. 3. Reservations may be withdrawn at any time by notification tothat effect addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, whoshall then inform all States. Such notification shall take effect on the dateon which it is received by the Secretary-GeneralArticle 52 A State Party may denounce the present Convention by writtennotification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Denunciationbecomes effective one year after the date of receipt of the notification bythe Secretary-General.Article 53 The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated as thedepositary of the present Convention.Article 54 The original of the present Convention, of which the Arabic,Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic,shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. IN WITNESS THEREOF the undersigned plenipotentiaries, beingduly authorized thereto by their respective governments, have signed thepresent Convention. 99
  • 100. w>uGJ;usdmxHbDrk>qXzdS.u&Xtw>tX.vDRtDvDRb.C;>cGJ;w>,mtHRrh>w>pH;qXuguhRqlunDzd.CJydmcGgzdw*Rtw>ChouGHmun;vXuM>b.vHmwbh.tHRvXteD>up>usdmMh . vD R IvH m wbh . tH R y.Ck m 0J D ;w>*D R td v Xzd o .t*D > vXtk;>cGJ;w>,mtd.zsgvXvHmw>tX.vDRtDvDRtylRvXtzdS.D;zk.udmzdD;y.Ckmph>ud;D;w>uwdRvXngvXb.w>uGJ;tDRvX (Pofessor Jaap Doek) vXtrh>0Jzdo.cGJ;,murHwHmtySRyXRvD>qh.eDRw*RMh.vDRIzdo.vXtoh.ngteD>up>tw>cGJ;w>,mD;trltgoh.wz.M.uoh.ngymd.ymuJ0JySR*Rtw>cGJ;w>,mD;uuJxD.b.ySRd.wkmcd.ySJRwz.vXtoh[HM>rlgw*RM.vDRIThis translation of the United Nations Convention on the Rights ofthe Child is a response to the request of an orphaned Karen boy fora copy in his own language. The book includes an illustratedchildren-friendly summary of the rights in the Convention, as well asthe full text in Karen and English, with a Foreword by Professor JaapDoek, the Chair of the Committee on the Rights of the Child.Children who know their rights and duties will learn to respect therights of others and become responsible adults.sible adults.