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Children and disasters - Building resilience through education


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UNICEF, December 2011

UNICEF, December 2011

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  • 1. Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 2. Children and disasters: Building resilience© The United Nations Children`s Fund (UNICEF) and The United NationsInternational Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction (UNISDR), December 2011 through education 3The findings, interpretations and conclusions expressed here are those of theauthors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UNICEF and UNISDR, or anyof the agencies involved in this report. These organizations cannot guarantee theaccuracy of the data included in this paper. The boundaries, colours, denominationsand other information shown or mentioned in this paper or any map reported do notimply on the part of those organizations any judgment of the legal status of anyterritory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 3. Preface Preface The present report is the outcome of ISDR Europe and Central Asia offices a collaborative initiative between the and UNICEF Central and Eastern Eu- United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) rope and Commonwealth of Independ- Regional Office for Central and Eastern ent States regional office have agreed Europe and Commonwealth of Independ- to join forces to support progress in this ent States (CEECIS), and the United Na- HFA priority area in the regions of South tions International Strategy for Disaster Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth Reduction (UNISDR) offices for Europe of Independent States. This report was and Central Asia. prepared in support of that initiative. The objectives are: The CEECIS region has a history of major disasters caused by natural hazards, in- to provide a brief overview of major cluding earthquakes, floods and extreme hazards and disaster risk in the temperatures. These frequently devas- CEECIS region; tating events affect all of the popula- to conduct a review of national tions of the countries involved, with se- disaster risk reduction structures vere social and economic consequences and key legislation; for the most vulnerable people, children, to conduct a review of current women and elderly. However, the impact disaster risk reduction activities of these natural hazards could be drasti- related to education undertaken by cally reduced if appropriate disaster risk national agencies and activities by reduction strategies at regional, national UNISDR and UNICEF1; and community level were put in place. to conduct a review of on-going UNICEF country programmes and The aim of this report is to further con- UNISDR activities to facilitate the tribute to the process of building resil- effective implementation of disaster ience of nations and communities in the risk reduction initiatives, strategies CEECIS region, providing an overview of and programmes. the national situation vis-à-vis disaster risk reduction strategies. This report builds on the Hyogo Frame- work for Action, which is promoted and Knowledge and education are recog- supported by UNISDR and UNICEF. It fo- nized as key components of disaster risk cuses on the importance of education in Preface management and were made a priority disaster prevention, as advanced in the area in the Hyogo Framework for Action 2006-2007 World Campaign on Disaster (HFA) 2005-2015: Building the Resilience Reduction under the slogan Disaster Risk of Nations and Communities to Disas- Reduction Begins at School. It provides ters. Goal 2 of the Millennium Develop- general information on national educa- ment Goals discusses the importance of tion and disaster risk reduction activities primary education in lowering poverty, and makes recommendations on how to while Priority 3 of the HFA focuses on support and build on local and national increasing resilience and building a cul- initiatives to reduce the risk of disasters ture of safety and resilience at all levels through education. The report is aimed at through the use of knowledge, innovation government representatives, United Na- and education. tions and other actors, and practitioners operating in the context of education, Within this framework, and as part of disaster risk and sustainable develop- the broader International Strategy for ment. Disaster Reduction (ISDR) partnership in disaster risk reduction (DRR), UN-4 5 1 Without being exhaustive or comprehensive, reference is also made to ongoing programmes related to education and DRR undertaken by UNCT.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 4. Executive Summary Executive Summary This report analyses disaster risk reduc- included elements of disaster risk reduc- tion in the context of education at coun- tion in the formal education system, while try level. It reviews existing documents, in others certain activities are undertak- including country-level reports and HFA en by national and international organiza- National Reports, to develop an under- tions. Nonetheless, despite some promis- standing of current national economic ing signs of the adoption of elements of environments, legislation, awareness, disaster risk reduction significant capac- capacity and institutional mechanisms ity gaps remain and several countries related to disaster risk reduction and dis- would undoubtedly benefit from further aster management. Various project doc- encouragement and support in this area. uments prepared at country, regional and global level were also reviewed, as were Integration of disaster risk reduction into documents prepared by United Nations education is a long-term process which agencies, and national and international aims to ensure that knowledge about organizations working in the area. Data hazards, risks and appropriate safety sources include the Centre for Research behaviour is deeply embedded within on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED) communities, with children as “agents of Emergency Events Database (EM-DAT). change”. To achieve this there is a need to promote knowledge of disaster man- Most countries in the region2 covered by agement and behavioural change with re- the report have undergone major politi- gard to disaster risks through both formal cal, social, economic and administrative and non-formal education, while at the change and this is reflected in the legisla- same time reinforcing partnerships and tive and institutional aspects of disaster encouraging cooperation on disaster risk risk management. In many countries leg- reduction policies and practices. islation is in the process of development and adoption and some structures are yet The report concludes with some propos- to be established. In some cases there is als on potential areas of cooperation and a shift from military to civil administration collaboration, exploring potential syner- in disaster management structures, while gies between stakeholders and building in many countries even though much new on results already achieved. After an disaster risk management legislation has overview of risk vulnerability, existing been passed the laws are yet to be fully legal and institutional structures and ac- Executive Summary implemented or enforced. Furthermore, tivities undertaken by national authori- many countries of the region lack com- ties, as well as a consideration of on-go- prehensive national disaster management ing UNICEF programmes and UNISDR’s plans or clear definitions of the roles and presence, a series of recommendations responsibilities of different departments. are presented on how successes in the Overall, there is a need to shift the focus field of education for disaster risk re- from response to disaster preparedness duction already achieved can be further and prevention. Incorporating disaster consolidated. risk reduction into educational activities at the policy and operational levels will encourage this shift. However, when consideration moves to the level of inclusion of disaster risk re- duction in education sectors a similarly diversified picture emerges. In some countries the government has already6 7 2 The reference ‘region’ for Central Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States refers to the geographical regional coverage used by UNICEF. In the context of UNISDR, it refers more to South Eastern Europe (SEE) and Central Asia.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 5. Acknowledgements Acknowledgements Children and Disasters: Building Resil- (Programme Officer, Disaster Reduction ience through education was commis- Programme in Central Asia) and Ms. Asel sioned jointly by the UNICEF Regional Omoeva (National Programme Officer, Office for CEECIS and UNISDR offices Kyrgyzstan); Focus Humanitarian As- for Europe and Central Asia. The report sistance: Mr. Malik Ajani, Jr. (Programme has benefited from the contributions of Officer, Tajikistan); Central Asian Insti- many individuals across the region and tute of Applied Geosciences: Dr. Bo- therefore appreciation goes to each and lot Moldobekov (Co-Director), Ms. Lira every one of them. Joldubaeva (Senior Scientific Adviser) and Ms. Aykanysh Omuralieva (Interpret- Acknowledgements go, first and fore- er, Kyrgyzstan); NGO Man and Element: most, to HFA Focal Points and National Ms. Svetlana Tuleyeva (Director, Kaza- Platform Coordinators3 who took time khstan); UNICEF Tajikistan: Mr. Salohid- to revise and provide information for the din Shamsiddinov (Programme Assistant, report, and to the National HFA Coordi- Child Protection, Tajikistan); Committee nators and the UNICEF office represent- of Emergency Situations and Civil De- atives in the region for their time and ex- fence of Tajikistan: Mr. Kholiknazarov pertise in reviewing the relevant chapters Sultonnazar and Mr. Jomiev Mahmadali; and providing invaluable information and Act Central Asia: Ms. Gulbarchin Suyu- inputs through the online consultations. nova (Representative, Kyrgyzstan); UNICEF Kyrgyzstan: Mr. Tim Schaffter The author would like to gratefully ac- (Representative); United Nations Resi- knowledge the organizers and par- dent Coordinator Unit: Ms. Aynura Alym- ticipants of both events attended - the bekova (United Nations Disaster Reduc- Community-Based Disaster Risk Man- tion Adviser, Kyrgyzstan). agement Workshop, based on the Hyogo Framework for Action, in Bishkek, Kyr- At the South-Eastern Europe Civil Mili- gyzstan; and the South Eastern Europe tary Emergency Planning Council’s An- Civil Military Emergency Planning Coun- nual Meeting and Working Groups Work- cil’s Annual Meeting and Working Groups shop on Civil-Military Emergency Planning Workshop on Civil-Military Emergency and Preparedness Development in the Planning and Preparedness Development SEE Region: in the SEE Region, in Sarajevo, Bosnia Acknowledgements and Herzegovina - for their flexibility to Ministry of Security of Bosnia and Herze- accommodate the last-minute registra- govina: Mr. Samir Agic (Assistant Minister tions and for their understanding and co- and Head of Civil Protection Sector) and operation during meetings and interviews Mr. Milivoje Popovic (Head of Depart- which were held well after regular ses- ment for International Cooperation and sions4. Coordination within the Civil Protection Sector); Ministry of Internal Affairs of The list of interlocutors includes: Montenegro: Mr. Zoran Begovic (Assist- ant Minister and Head of Emergency Sit- At the Community-Based Disaster Risk uations and Civil Protection Department); Management Workshop: National Protection and Rescue Direc- torate of Croatia: Ms. Arabela Vahtaric UNISDR Central Asia office: Ms. Goul- (Head of International Cooperation Divi- sara Pulatova (Senior Advisor) and Mr. sion); Ministry of Interior, General Direc- Abdurahim Muhidov (Project Coordinator, torate for Civil Emergency of Albania: HFA); Swiss Agency for Development Mr. Bujar Kapllani (Chief of Civil Protec- and Cooperation: Mr. Matthias Anderegg tion Coordination Sector) and Mr. Salih8 9 3 An HFA focal point is defined as the “person officially designated by the State as the primary contact for the implementation of the HFA” (UNISDR. Hyogo Framework for Action. Available at: http://www.eird. org/wikien/index.php/Hyogo_Framework_for_Action_(HFA). 4 Note -The list below includes titles and names as per the missions in 2009-2010.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 6. Acknowledgements Kelmendi (Director of Planning and Coor- for their significant contributions to the dination CE); Ministry of Defence, Admin- report, as well as to Ms. Lely Djuhari istration for Civil Protection and Disaster (UNICEF RO CEECIS) for her guidance Relief of Slovenia: Mr. Branko Dervodel and support in the design and layout of (Deputy Director General) and Ms. Na- the report. tasa Horvat (Senior Advisor for Interna- tional Relations); Prime Ministry, General A sincere appreciation is expressed to Directorate of Emergency Management Deputy Regional Director Ms. Kirsi Madi, of Turkey: Mr. Hasan Ipek (General Di- Ed­ cation Advisor Mr. Philippe Testot- u rector) and Mr. Mehmet Bayazit, Mr. Ferry, Emergency Chief Ms. Andrea Fatih Akman and Mr. Adil Ciftci (Assist- James and Communication Chief Mr. ant Prime Ministry Experts); Macedonian John Budd from UNICEF RO CEECIS Protection and Rescue Directorate: Mr. as well as Head of the UNISDR Region- Kosta Jovcevski (Director) and Ms. Dus- al Office for Europe Ms. Paola Albrito. ka Celeska (Chief of Staff); Macedonian Without their guidance and support, this Crisis Management Centre: Mr. Urim Ve- report may not have been possible. jseli (Head of Department for NATO and International Cooperation); Ministry of Financial contribution was also given by Emergencies and Affairs of Population Global Facility for Disaster Reduction Protection from Consequences of Cher- and Recovery. Last but not least, much nobyl Catastrophe of Ukraine: Mr. Igor appreciation goes to the Government of Kusliy (Deputy of Director); Ministry of the Netherlands for financial assistance State Policy for Disasters and Accidents through its global grant to UNICEF for of Bulgaria: Ms. Antoaneta Boycheva the Education in Emergencies and Post- (Head of International Cooperation, Crisis Transition programme, which sup- NATO and EU Department); and Ministry ported the preparation of the initial re- of Interior and Administrative Reform, port. General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations: Brigadier-General Liviu-Viorel Every reasonable effort has been made Nemes (General Inspector’s First Depu- to verify the accuracy of data and of all ty) and Mr. Vlad Petre (Expert Officer). the information presented in this report. The opinions expressed in this publication UNICEF and UNISDR wish to thank Mr. are those of the contributing authors and Sergej Anagnosti, who was the author of do not necessarily reflect the policies or the initial report that formed the basis for the views of UNICEF or UNISDR. this publication. We would also like to acknowledge the dedication and commitment of Mr. Asim Rehman (UNICEF RO CEECIS) and Ste- fanie Dannenmann-Di Palma (UNISDR Europe) in coordinating the design, re- view and finalization of the report. Special thanks go to Ms. Goulsara Pula- tova and Ms. Erin Tanner (UNICEF RO CEECIS), Mr. Ranjith George (UNISDR Europe Consultant), Mr. Demetrio Inno- centi (UNISDR Europe) and Mr. Abdu- rahim Muhidov (UNISDR Central Asia)10Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 7. Table of contents Table of contents Preface ...................................................................... 4 Executive Summary ............................................... 6 Acknowledgements ................................................. 8 Abbreviations ............................................................14 Background ............................................................ 18 Methodology .......................................................... 22 Data Issues and Terminology Used ..................... 25 Brief Country Profiles ...................................... 28 Albania ........................................................ 32 Armenia ...................................................... 38 Azerbaijan ................................................. 46 Belarus ....................................................... 54 Bosnia and Herzegovina ....................... 58 Bulgaria ...................................................... 65 Croatia ....................................................... 70 Georgia ...................................................... 78 Kazakhstan ............................................... 88 Kyrgyzstan ................................................ 98 Moldova ..................................................... 108 Montenegro ............................................. 112 Romania .................................................... 117 Russia ........................................................ 123 Serbia ......................................................... 128 Kosovo under Security Council Resolution 1244 ........................................134 Slovenia .................................................... 138 Tajikistan ................................................... 142 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia ............................................... 150 Turkey ...................................................... 157 Turkmenistan .......................................... 165 Table of contents Ukraine ...................................................... 172 Uzbekistan ............................................... 176 Conclusions and Recommendations .............................................. 183 End Notes ............................................................ 18812 13Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 8. Abbreviations Abbreviations ABSD Area-Based Social Development ADRC Asian Disaster Reduction Centre AFAD Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency AL-DRMAP Albania Disaster Risk Mitigation and Adaptation Project ARCS Armenian Red Cross Society ARNAP Armenian National Platform ARS Armenian Rescue Service AzRC Azerbaijan Red Crescent Society BiH Bosnia and Herzegovina CAC DRMI Central Asia and Caucasus Disaster Risk Management Initiative CADRI Capacity for Disaster Reduction Initiative CAIAG Central Asian Institute of Applied Geosciences CCA/UNDAF Common Country Assessment/UN Development Assistance Framework CEE Central and Eastern Europe CEP Civil-Emergency Planning CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CMEP SEE Civil Military Emergency Planning Council for South Eastern Europe CMT Centroid-Moment-Tensor CoE Council of Europe CoES Committee of Emergency Situations CORE Cooperation for Rehabilitation Programme CPAP Country Programme Action Plan CPESS Civil Protection and Emergency Situations Service CRED Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters DFID Department for International Development DIPECHO Disaster Preparedness ECHO DKKV German Committee for Disaster Reduction DMI State Meteorological Service DMT Disaster Management Team DPPI Disaster Preparedness and Prevention Initiative DRMP Disaster Risk Management Project DRR Disaster Risk Reduction DSI Directorate General of State Hydraulic Works Abbrevations EADRCC Euro-Atlantic Disaster Response Coordination Centre ECHO European Commission Humanitarian Aid department ECO Economic Cooperation Organization EFDRR European Forum for Disaster Risk Reduction EIEI Directorate General of Electrical Power Resources Survey and Development Administration EMD Emergency Management Department EM-DAT Global Database on Disasters EMERCOM Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters ENDP Education for Natural Disaster Preparedness ESSC Emergency Situation State Council EU European Union EU-MIC European Union Monitoring and Information Centre EUR-OPA European and Mediterranean Major Hazards Agreement FAO Food and Agriculture Organization (United Nations) FTI Fast Track Initiative FYR of Macedonia The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia14 15Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 9. Abbreviations Abbreviations GDP Gross Domestic Product TESIS Advanced Technologies and Systems for the Knowledge-based Information GEF SGP Global Environment Facility’s Small Grants Program Society GFDRR Global Facility for Disaster Risk Reduction UN United Nations GIES General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations UNCT United Nations Country Team GIS Geographic Information Systems UNDAC United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination GNI Gross National Income UNDAF United Nations Development Assistance Framework GSHAP Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Programme UNDP United Nation Development Programme HFA Hyogo Framework for Action UNEP United Nations Environmental Programme IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency UNESCO United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization IEMS Integrated Emergency Management System UNFPA United Nations Population Fund IFRC International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies UNHCR The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees IPAP Individual Partnership Action Plan UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund ISDR International Strategy for Disaster Reduction UNIFEM United Nations Development Fund for Women ITU Istanbul Technical University UNISDR United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction Secretariat MCS Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg scale UNRCCA United Nations Regional Centre for Preventive Diplomacy for Central Asia MDG Millenium Development Goal US United States MERY Ministry of Education, Research and Youth USAEC Unique System for Alarming and Emergency Coordination MES Ministry of Emergency Situations USAID United States Agency for International Development MEST Ministry of Education, Science and Technology UN-SPIDER United Nations Platform for Space-based Information for Disaster Manage- METU Middle East Technical University ment and Emergency Response MEY Ministry of Education and Youth WB World Bank MoE Ministry of Education WHO World Health Organization MoES Ministry of Emergency Situations and Civil Defence WMO World Meteorological Organization MoU Memorandum of Understanding NATO North-Atlantic Treaty Organization NBC Nuclear, Biological, Chemical NGO Non-Governmental Organization NP National Platform NPRD National Protection and Rescue Directorate NSC National Security Council OCHA Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (United Nations) OFDA Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance PMP Prevention, Mitigation, and Preparedness PPES Preparedness, Planning and Economic Security PPRD Programme on Prevention, Preparedness and Response to Natural and Man- made Disasters REACT Rapid Emergency Assessment and Coordination Team RCSK Red Crescent Society of Kyrgyzstan RCST Red Crescent Society of Turkmenistan RSES Prevention and Elimination of Emergency Situations SDC Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation SEECP South East European Cooperation Process SEEDRMAP South Eastern Europe Disaster Risk Management and Adaptation Program SEEDRMI South Eastern Europe Disaster Risk Management Initiative SEM Sector for Emergency Management SEESIM Southeastern Europe Simulation SPO State Planning Organization SSPR State System for Prevention of and Response to emergency situations TEMAD Turkey Emergency Management General Directorate16 17Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 10. Background Background The CEECIS region is highly diversified. Countries in the region are committed From a geo-political standpoint it con- to increasing knowledge and education nects the European Union (EU) - with towards risk reduction, as evidenced Romania and Bulgaria as the most recent by the increased number of high-level EU members - through the Caucasus and events in the region covering risk reduc- Central Asia to China; and from Turkey tion issues; increased activities on re- to Russia. In terms of socio-economic silience; the development of reports on indicators the diversity is pronounced. It achievements and challenges in moving ranges from Tajikistan, which has a GNI forward the subject (HFA reports); as per capita of US$600; through Russia, well as the adaptation of planned activi- which is a member of the Group of Eight ties and new legislation. Countries with a leading industrialized nations; to Croatia nominated HFA official and established and Slovenia, with GNI per capita of National Platform (national coordinating US$13,570 and US$24,010 respective- mechanisms towards risk reduction) are ly5. particularly engaged in this topic. There are a total of seven National Platforms6 However, despite their size and diversity in the CEECIS region, while several other many countries of the CEECIS region countries have informed UNISDR that share various common characteristics, they are in the process of developing including geophysical, social and political them. contexts. In terms of natural hazards, all countries of the region are vulnerable to One of the most important lessons to flooding and almost all are at risk from emerge from the series of devastating earthquakes, sometimes – such as the disasters worldwide over the past decade 1988 Spitak earthquake in Armenia which is that education and knowledge have the killed 25,000 people - of devastating power to save lives. In Let Our Children proportions. Teach Us!7 it was estimated that roughly 1 billion children aged 1-14 live in coun- In response to the rising number of dis- tries with high seismic risk, which puts asters and the increased commitment of several hundred million children at risk nations and communities to implement while they are attending schools. In the disaster risk reduction activities in the CEECIS region, where earthquake haz- context of the Hyogo Framework for ards are present in almost all countries,Background Action, UNISDR coordinates international the proportion of children at risk is very efforts in disaster risk reduction and pro- high. Furthermore, schools are equally vides guidance for the implementation of vulnerable to damage or destruction dur- the HFA, and also monitors its implemen- ing natural hazards such as strong winds, tation and reports regularly on progress; landslides and floods. advocates for greater investment in dis- aster risk reduction actions to protect Education and knowledge for disaster people’s lives and assets; campaigns to risk reduction appear as the third priority build global awareness of disaster risk in the HFA, fostering the “use of knowl- reduction benefits and empower people edge, innovation and education to build a to reduce community vulnerabilities to culture of safety and resilience at all lev- hazard impacts; and informs and con- els”, the overall target being to contribute nects people by providing services and to a drastic shift in mentalities and per- practical tools - such as the disaster risk ceptions as well as a behavioural change reduction community website Preven- towards a more proactive preventative tionWeb, publications on good practices, approach to disasters. Children, as “to- country profiles and policy advice. morrow’s leaders” and key “agents for 19 5 From World Bank key development data and statistics; all figures correct as of 2008. 6 The seven Countries with National Platforms in the CEECIS region are Armenia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kazakhstan, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Turkey and Russia. 7 Let Our Children Teach Us! A Review of the Role of Education and Knowledge in Disaster Risk Reduction, prepared by Ben Wisner on behalf of the ISDR system-Thematic Cluster/Platform on Knowledge and Education (Supported by: Action Aid, Council of Europe, UNISDR, DFID, UNESCO, and ProVention Consortium Secretariat). Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 11. Background Background change”, are recognized as the primary programmes and the amount of educa- occur, and also what to do before, during targets of these efforts. tional material on disaster risk reduction and after they strike. is substantial in the CEE and CIS region Through the 2006 - 2007 UNISDR World and many lessons learned can be drawn While it is clear that education has a piv- Campaign on Disaster Reduction the from each country’s experience in this otal role to play in relief, rehabilitation theme Disaster Risk Reduction Begins area. Experience in knowledge-sharing and reconstruction, the report finds that at School was developed to engage and is further embedded in the city campaign gaps remain in the focus on and support mobilize key stakeholders at the local, promoted by UNISDR: My City is Getting for education in disaster risk reduction, national, regional and international levels Ready. Many cities in the region have prevention and mitigation. It is therefore in promoting the integration of disaster embedded the campaign. Presently, 25 critical to embark on programmes and risk reduction as part of school curricu- cities form part of the campaign, includ- initiatives that would begin to address la and in facilitating the development of ing 18 cities from Serbia, two each from these shortcomings. disaster-resilient schools and retrofitting Armenia and Turkey and one each from of school buildings to withstand natural Tajikistan, Kosovo9 and Croatia.10 hazards. Since 1990, UNICEF has made ma- The 2011 Global Assessment Report jor contributions in helping countries to on Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR11) 8 achieve the goal of education for all. In points out that disasters affect children’s the CEECIS region, UNICEF works to- medium-term development when schools wards increasing children’s and adoles- are destroyed or damaged and house- cents’ access to education, improving hold assets and livelihood assets are lost. the quality of education, expanding ac- When children are forced out of school, cess to early-childhood education and this can cause infant malnutrition which promoting emergency preparedness in can further lead to poor educational the education sector. Advocacy for the achievement and greater propensity to right of all children to education in emer- disease. gencies is at the core of UNICEF’s work in education, as well as measures to re- Education for disaster risk reduction also store learning opportunities to children contributes to world efforts in achieving affected by emergencies such as disas- Target 2 of the Millennium Development ters caused by natural hazards or tech- Goals on Achieving Universal Primary nological accidents. Education, as well as the goals of the United Nations Decade of Education for Increasingly, UNICEF is supporting ini- Sustainable Development (2005 - 2014) tiatives to predict and prevent disasters led by the United Nations Educational, and be better prepared should they oc- Scientific and Cultural Organization cur. This new emphasis was spurred in (UNESCO), which aims at the develop- part by the devastation and loss of life ment of the concept of Education for caused by the Indian Ocean earthquake Natural Disaster Preparedness (ENDP) and tsunami in December 2004 as well and the overall integration of ENDP into as the potential disaster posed by avian sustainable development strategies. and pandemic influenza. UNICEF recog- nises the key role that education can play The state of development and advance- in reducing the risks posed by disasters ment in integrating disaster risk reduction and is helping to build capacities by pro- within school curricula of course varies viding education and training to help with according to the level of development, prediction, prevention and preparedness capacities and political commitment for emergencies. Through this training granted by governments to the issue of children are learning what disasters are, education. The number of activities and when and where they are most likely to20 21 8 9 Kosovo under UN SCR 1244/99. 10 To find out more on the campaign visit and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 12. Methodology Methodology The information contained in this report (SEEDRMI)11; Risk Assessment for Cen- is based on a variety of sources and is tral Asia and Caucasus: Desk Study Re- aimed at providing an overall picture of view, developed within the context of the education related to disaster risk reduc- Central Asia and Caucasus Disaster Risk tion issues in the region, and at sharing a Management Initiative (CAC DRMI); and few good practices which can be used to the Structure, Role and Mandate of Civil determine the main recommendations of Protection in Disaster Risk Reduction for future activities. Meetings were held and South Eastern Europe, developed within direct communication was established the context of the South Eastern Europe with key representatives of national and Disaster Risk Mitigation and Adaptation international organizations and authori- Programme (SEEDRMAP). ties active in disaster risk reduction and disaster management, and other United It should be noted that given the limited Nations agencies. Such first-hand infor- availability of information the activities mation was supplemented by a desk re- which are included should be considered view of existing studies by international as representative rather than compre- agencies, governments, governmental hensive. Due to the vast number of inter- and non-governmental organizations, and national organizations and regional ac- data from a wide spectrum of sources. tors, this report covers only the UNICEF and UNISDR engagement in the CEECIS Data on disasters due to natural haz- region. A more comprehensive study was ards was principally taken from EM-DAT, beyond the scope of this report. and complemented with data from other sources. Historic data on the number of Nevertheless, given the extent of the disaster events, including number of peo- range of material collated and the number ple killed and affected and economic of key representatives contacted, the losses incurred, was also assessed from report provides a solid assessment of 1980 to 2010, and information examined exposure to disaster risk at country and from global databases including the Dis- regional level, including an examination of aster Risk Index tool of the United Na- current legislation and institutional mech- tions Development Programme (UNDP), anisms towards disaster prevention and and World Bank statistics. Information preparedness, and a review of disaster was provided by key representatives of risk reduction activities undertaken in tar- Methodology national disaster management authori- geted countries and the role of education ties, and national and international organ- in this. izations active in disaster risk reduction. United Nations agencies were consulted. The report provides for each country brief presentations of its disaster risks In addition to those provided by UNICEF – hazards and vulnerabilities - and insti- and UNISDR, numerous other documents, tutional framework for disaster manage- including country programme documents ment. Disaster risk reduction activities re- and Asian Disaster Reduction Centre lated to education and those undertaken (ADRC) country reports, were exam- by national authorities and international ined. The following publications launched and national organizations have also by the World Bank and UNISDR were been portrayed and presented. consulted extensively: Risk Assessment for South Eastern Europe: Desk Study The presence and areas of engagement Review, developed within the context of other United Nations agencies and na- of the South Eastern Europe Disaster tional and international partners has been Risk Mitigation and Adaptation Initiative viewed to explore possible areas of col-22 23 11 In the CEE and CIS region, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan are FTI recipient countries.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 13. Methodology Data Issues and Terminology Used laboration, and to avoid the risk of dupli- cation and overlapping. The conclusions and recommendations are the result of a careful analysis of in- formation collected and interviews held with stakeholders, both governmental and non-governmental. Data Issues and Terminology Used24 25Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 14. Data Issues and Terminology Used Before progressing to the country over- for economic loss data, which is scanty views, certain data issues and terminol- in EM-DAT. ogy require clarification. The majority of countries in the CEECIS Disasters due to natural hazards are region were formed during the early time- and space-reference events. His- 1990s, some of them even more recent- toric data plays a crucial role for hazard ly. Retrospective country-specific data and vulnerability assessment and analyz- on the EM-DAT database does not ex- ing historic events and losses helps in un- tend beyond their inaugurations. derstanding the risks faced by a country or region. The vulnerability of a country The 2011 Global Assessment Report on to disasters is often measured in terms Disaster Risk Reduction (GAR11)13 high- of the total number of events, the number lights that at present, most countries do of people killed or affected, and the eco- not systematically account for the low nomic losses. But it should be noted that severity – high frequency losses and the the impact diffusion of an event often cost of recurrent disaster losses. extends far beyond the visible physical damage. Country-level reports and other docu- ments were also reviewed to gain an un- The report has used the standard termi- derstanding of hazards and their impact nology developed by UNISDR12. on targeted countries, but this data was used only as supplementary information The report uses data from a variety of due to standardization issues. sources: national governments, humani- tarian and disaster relief agencies, spe- cialist agencies, the media and insurance company reports. It also uses data pub- lished in the EM-DAT database for infor- mation on disasters due to natural haz- ards. However, it should be noted that in order for a disaster to be entered into the EM-DAT database at least one of the following criteria has to be fulfilled: 10 or more people reported killed; 100 people reported affected; declaration of a state of emergency; or call for international assistance. It should also be noted that disasters such as earthquakes often have long re- turn periods and data representing such events does not necessarily appear in the data window covered by EM-DAT. In such cases other sources of informa- tion have been used wherever possible to assess the impacts of such disasters. Supplementary sources have also been referred to in several country profiles26 27 12 13 and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 15. Brief Country28 Profiles 29Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 16. * The official name is Kosovo under UNSCR 1244.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 17. Brief Country Profiles: Albania Brief Country Profiles: Albania Hazards and disasters The occurrence of different disasters in overview the country over the period shows that Albania was most vulnerable to mete- Albania’s geographical position and the orological hazards. A flood in September nature of its topography mean that the 2002 affected nearly 17,000 families, in- country is frequently affected by intense undated 30,000 hectares of agricultural precipitation, making it most vulnerable to land, damaged 494 houses and caused floods. In terms of number of events, EM- reported damage of US$17.5 million. DAT shows (Table 1) that from 1980 to A more recent flood in 2010 affected 2010 floods accounted for 39 per cent 4,000 families. In terms of victims, the of disasters, with earthquakes account- 1989 - 1991 drought affected almost the ing for 17 per cent. The country is also entire nation. vulnerable to natural hazards including landslides, droughts, extreme tempera- During the last 30 years, EM-DAT re- tures, wildfires, wind storms, epidemics ports four earthquakes, killing one per- and avalanches. son and affecting 7,945 others. Accord- ing to a scenario analysis carried out in Table 1 Albania: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 -2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss of events (US$) Drought 1 4.34 0 3,200,000 0 Earthquake 4 17.39 1 7,945 0 Albania Epidemic 2 8.69 7 292 0 Extreme 3 13.04 71 7,235 0 temperature Flood 9 39.13 19 136,984 24,673,000 Mass Movement 1 4.34 57 26 0 (landslide) Wildfire 1 4.34 0 75 0 Wind Storm 2 8.69 8 525,000 0 Total 23 100 163 3,877,557 24,673,00032 33Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 18. Brief Country Profiles: Albania Brief Country Profiles: Albania 200315 estimating human casualties due on a network of local decision centres. countries has a special emphasis. European initiatives such as Civil Mili- to earthquakes, the mortality rate would The current efforts are focused on the tary Emergency Planning, the Disaster be highest in Durres for an earthquake inclusion of Albanian civil protection Improving response capacities at local Preparedness and Prevention Initiative with a 475-year return period16. From structures within a European perspective levels; strengthening planning, monitoring (DPPI), the Black Sea Agreement, and a structural point of view, it is estimated and represent a road map for achieving and operational structures at all levels; the European and Mediterranean Major that the highest percentage of building this. and building and enhancing institutional Hazards Agreement (EUR-OPA). collapses in such an earthquake would capacity at all levels remain the key chal- occur in Diber quark 17, followed by The first move towards the establish- lenges to developing an integrated, re- The main operational forces deployed Durres. Indeed, in 2009 an earthquake did ment of a more modern civil protection sponsive and effectively-coordinated to cope with major emergencies are the occur in Diber quark, in Peshkopi, in which system came with Law 8756, in March disaster management system in Albania. armed forces, coordinated by the Minis- several hundred families were forced to 2001. The law encompasses the plan- try of Defence; state and other police; leave their homes. From the expected ning, prevention and preparedness sys- However, plans were under way for the the fire-fighting and rescue service; the maximum flood potential for an event tem and defines first coordination among renamed Department of Civil Emergen- ambulance service; the Albanian Red with a 100-year return period, Gjirokas- the different actors in civil emergency cy to be based on a more functional and Cross and other national NGOs; public tra, Tirana, Elbasan and Shkoder quarks response operations. The law considers versatile scheme that should simplify the service enterprises and private compa- are in extreme flood-risk zones. both disasters caused by the impact of cumbersome command and control chain nies contracted at local or central level; natural hazards, including earthquakes, of the previous, rigid and centralised, sys- and specialized international teams. Landslides often occur as associated floods, landslides, avalanches, strong tem. An integrated system of communi- hazards of floods or earthquakes. During winds, forest fires and epidemics; and cation and early warning for civil emer- Other significant pieces of policy and the period 2003 - 2006, there were 45 disasters due to human causes, including gencies is planned to be introduced as a legislation in the realm of disaster risk reported cases of very significant land- transport accidents, urban fires, explo- unified 112 operational centre. Moreover, reduction include the Law on Civil Emer- slides, while the Global Fire Monitoring sions, dam collapses, Nuclear, Biological, the new civil protection structure is to gency Services, and the Policy on Civil Centre reports that between 1981 and Chemical (NBC) releases, riots and war. adopt a multi-level system, emphasizing Emergency Planning and Response. 2000 there were 667 fires affecting al- the role of local levels whose competen- most 21,500 hectares of land in Albania. The Department for Civil Emergencies, cies and responsibilities will be enhanced Planning and Response of the Ministry of and enlarged to include preventative ac- Extreme temperatures have also had se- Interior is responsible for disaster man- tivities and planning, under the responsi- How education is used vere impacts, as indicated by the large agement. It is comprised of permanent bility of prefects. to promote safety number of deaths compared to number and provisional structures on central, re- of events. Landslides and earthquakes gional and local levels. A network of five or six regional head- The Department of Civil Emergencies, are the next most severe hazardous quarters, each having authority over a Planning and Response, through its direc- events in the country. In December 2004 the Albanian Council set of three or four counties, is to be es- torates and other structures, is responsi- of Ministers adopted the National Civil tablished to create a system of reliable, ble for training and technical instruction The country’s vulnerability to disasters Emergency Plan, the development of capable and autonomous bodies able to of personnel within the civil protection is increased by internal migration, un- which was supported by UNDP and the manage and coordinate operations dur- structure. It has developed training cur- controlled land use and the construction Department for International Develop- ing “ordinary” emergencies. ricula for the capacity-building of civil boom. Limited disaster risk preparedness ment (DFID). The rationale of the plan emergency system personnel. Training and prevention and the still weak disaster was to stress the participation of civil so- The following institutions and structures activities are carried out yearly on the management structures are further ob- ciety within the civil protection structures are involved in disaster management in basis of national civil protection technical stacles to progress in this area. and define the strategy and the main tar- Albania: line ministries, quarks, munici- manuals or those adapted from interna- gets of the Department for Civil Emer- palities and communities; the Albanian tional literature produced on the subject. Disaster management gencies, Planning and Response - using EU good practice as a reference point Red Cross and other national NGOs; the Academy of Science and scientific To date, such training activities are not structure and legislation and after consideration of wider regional research institutes; citizens and com- yet formalized or structured according to developments in the Balkans. The plan munities; United Nations agencies, the a national standard, although the National The legislation covering disaster man- defines the roles and duties of all rel- North-Atlantic Treaty Organization/ Civil Emergency Plan is the reference agement in Albania reflects the proc- evant governmental institutions and civil Civil-Emergency Planning/Euro-Atlantic point for launching the next stage in the esses which are transforming the cen- organisations involved in civil protection Disaster Response Coordination Centre development of training: the National Civil tralized structures of the sector into an for all phases of emergency manage- (NATO/CEP/EADRCC) and other inter- Emergency Training Strategy. The Strat- essentially decentralized scheme based ment. Albania’s cooperation with other national organizations; and regional and egy is designed to make possible the in-34 35 15 Kapllani, B. (2006). Civil Emergency Services in Albania, South East Europe Disaster Preparedness, 21-23 March, 2006, Dubrovnik. 16 A return period is a way of expressing the probability of events that occur infrequently. An event such as the one described here, with a 475-year return period, is likely to occur once every 475 years. 17 Quark is a local word for region.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 19. Brief Country Profiles: Albania Brief Country Profiles: Albania stitutionalisation of disaster management Civil Emergency General Directorate; is in the form of a loan to the Albanian initiatives. the Hydrometeorological Institute; the UNISDR collaboration with Albania Government and US$6.16 million is a Seismological Institute of the Academy credit from the World Bank. The project, One of the priorities is the establishment of Sciences of Albania; and the NGO In the context of the implementation of which is being implemented from 2009 - of a National Training Centre for Civil Melteza, which is active in the Shkodra the HFA, Albania has nominated an offi- 2012, aims to strengthen institutional ca- Protection, which will provide local civil and Lezha regions and is largely involved cial HFA Focal Point: the Director of the pacities, reduce Albania’s vulnerability to protection managers with standardized with search and rescue operations and General Directorate for Civil Emergency. disasters caused by natural and techno- training courses, leading to a strengthen- first aid. Since its nomination, the collaboration logical hazards, and mitigate the human, ing of operational staff capacities. with UNISDR has seen Albania actively economic and financial losses caused by UNICEF collaboration with Albania in contributing to the disaster risk reduction disasters. The overall coordination of this The General Directorate of Civil Emer- agenda in the international and regional project was conducted in the framework education and disaster risk reduction gencies, Planning and Response has also context. Albania has joined SEEDRMAP, of the Ministry of Interior. prepared and disseminated three bro- which has been developed by the World The 2006 - 2010 country programme chures, covering earthquakes, floods Bank and UNISDR. The programme aims The Council of Europe (CoE) has a per- assisted Albania to meet its obligations and home safety, which are used to raise at reducing the vulnerability of SEE manent correspondent in Albania. under the Convention on the Rights of awareness at the community level. countries to disasters. In the context of the Child and the Convention on the this programme, Albania has contributed Elimination of All Forms of Discrimina- Each county and district comprises within to knowledge-sharing on disaster risk tion against Women. The programme their permanent staff a set of techni- reduction by providing information to a supports national priorities for education, cians (five or six for a county and one number of reviews undertaken in the re- health, protection and poverty reduction, for a district). Each prefecture has a Civil gion related to risk assessment data, hy- including the National Strategy for De- Emergency Officer who has been trained dromet issues, the role of civil protection velopment and Integration. The goals of by a directorate using a standard two- in disaster risk reduction, and disaster the National Strategy are to reduce pov- stage Albanian civil emergency training risk financing options. erty and income disparity; reduce infant manual. Each municipality and commune and maternal mortality and disease rates; has a designated officer with responsibil- Building on the international and regional increase attendance in compulsory edu- ity for civil emergency matters who will agenda, Albania has prepared its HFA re- cation and extend the average school- have also benefited from instruction in port highlighting challenges and areas of ing period; and improve both governance the standard training curriculum and, quite advancement on disaster risk reduction and basic services. possibly, through the frequent necessity issues. of observing early warning, standby and The previous country programme cen- response protocol. Furthermore, in the context of HFA im- tred on the promotion of child survival, plementation and SEEDRMAP develop- youth development and participation, ment, Albania has collaborated with UN- Selected national and and child protection, with a focus on the ISDR, DPPI and the Capacity for Disaster development of a legislative framework international partners and key social policies. Reduction Initiative (CADRI) to strength- en its national capacity development involved in disaster by joining and contributed to a number The fundamental aim of UNICEF has risk reduction been to create a “children first” mind- of workshops and information sessions dedicated to the topic of disaster resil- set in Albania – a core belief that the ience. The workshops/sessions were at- National organizations and question “will this be good for children?” tended by all SEE countries. international partners is routinely asked before any policy is adopted or action taken. Within the broad Since 2009, the Albania Disaster Risk In addition to organizations and bodies programme of children’s health and de- Mitigation and Adaptation Project (AL- already mentioned - notably the Albanian velopment, UNICEF has devoted special DRMAP), funded by the World Bank and Red Cross, which has signed cooperation efforts to ensure equal learning oppor- supported by UNISDR, has become ef- agreements with government structures tunities for all children and that school fective and fully operational. The project at both central and regional levels - na- discipline respects children’s rights, with is funded by the World Bank with a total tional partners involved in disaster risk special attention given to children from of US$9.16 million, US$3 million of which reduction include the Ministry of Interior, marginalized communities.36 37Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 20. Brief Country Profiles: Armenia Brief Country Profiles: Armenia Hazards and disasters at US$14.2 billion. The July 1997 Noyem- overview beryan city earthquake affected 15,000 people and caused an economic loss of Armenia is one of the most disaster- US$33.33 million. prone countries in the Southern Cauca- sus. The country is vulnerable to natural The drought hazard is significant in Ar- hazards including earthquakes, droughts, menia. Among recent events, the 2000 floods, landslides, avalanches, mudslides, drought severely affected 297,000 peo- strong winds, snow storms, frost and hail. ple, with reported damage of US$100 million. The flood hazard is also signifi- Earthquakes are the most dominant haz- cant. The single flood event of June 1997 ard in Armenia. As per Global Seismic affected 7,000 people and caused an Hazard Assessment Programme (GS- economic loss of US$8 million. HAP, 1998), Armenia lies in a region with moderate to high seismic hazard. The One third of Armenia is exposed to the analysis of disaster data (1980 - 2010) risk of landslides. During a recent five- shows that although there were fewer year period, landslides left more than earthquakes than floods, earthquakes 2,000 families homeless18. caused a disproportionately large amount of damage. The most devastating, the 1988 Spitak earthquake, had a magni- tude of 6.9 and killed 25,000 people, left 517,000 people homeless and prompted the evacuation of almost 200,000 oth- ers. Direct economic loss was estimated Table 2 Armenia: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 - Armenia 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. *The table does not include data for the 1988 Spitak earthquake Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss Drought 1 20 0 297,000 100,000,000 Earthquake * 1 20 0 15,000 33,333,000 Flood 3 60 5 7,144 8,120,000 Total 5 100 5 319,144 141,453,00038 39 18 Pusch C. (2004). Preventable Losses, Saving Lives and Property through Hazard Risk Assessment, A Comprehensive Risk Management Framework for Central Europe and Central Asia, Disaster Risk Management Working paper series 9, The World Bank.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 21. Brief Country Profiles: Armenia Brief Country Profiles: Armenia Disaster management ARS established the Centre for Crisis State of Martial Law in 2006); Law on lishment of the ARS theoretical training structure and legislation Management, which operates under the Department of Operations Management. Internal Troops (1997); and the Law on Local Self-governing (1996). centre was supervised by UNDP. The Centre is an emergency call centre In 2008, the Armenian Government es- and an emergency operations centre Other relevant legislation includes the How education is used tablished the Ministry of Emergency Situations (MoES) with a mandate that that services all calls related to accidents Law on Safe Utilization of Atomic En- to promote safety encompassed developing a programme and emergencies; organizes all notifica- ergy for Peaceful Purposes; Law on En- for risk assessment and emergency pre- tion and warnings to administrative bod- vironmental Education and Public Aware- One of the ways in which the Armenian paredness, carrying out emergency re- ies and the public; notifies international ness; Law on Task Force and Status of a Government has demonstrated a com- sponse and recovery, and coordinating entities of trans-border emergencies, as Rescuer; and Principals of Environmental mitment to disaster risk reduction as a government-wide policy on risk mitiga- per international agreements; collects Legislation. priority area has been through its forma- tion19. and provides information to public admin- tion of an adequate national legislative istrative bodies; and dispatches Centre However, these laws have diffused base for the creation and updating of The establishment of the MoES marks task forces to manage emergencies. government responsibility for disasters capacity-building measures for training what is suggested is a stage in the de- caused by natural hazards and the re- and education. velopment of a multi-sectoral platform Disaster risk reduction measures are be- sponse to emergencies among multiple for disaster risk reduction in Armenia ing carried out through the national budg- agencies. Some roles are clearly defined As part of the measures the ARS main- – the Armenian National Platform (AR- et according to relevant legislation; the and others are not, which has created tains a State Academy of Crisis Manage- NAP) - which was officially announced national budget includes a Reserve Fund some confusion and duplication of ef- ment, which is the only emergency man- on 2 December 2010.20 Among other to be used in case of emergency. forts21. agement school in the CIS region. The governmental organizations, it incorpo- Academy provides vocational education rates the key national actors in disaster The main directions in the pursuit of na- Although several organizations are im- and training, specialized rescue training, risk reduction: the National Survey for tional policy in the area of disaster risk plementing emergency management higher education courses for bachelor Seismic Protection; the Armenian Hydro- reduction are made through close co- measures in Armenia, so far the country and master degrees, and emergency meteorological Bureau; and the Armenian operation with international organiza- lacks a comprehensive disaster risk man- management education for teachers and Rescue Service (ARS). The Emergency tions, foreign states - including those of agement strategy – although one is cur- students. The ARS also manages a Pub- Response Commission was established in the South Caucasus and neighbouring rently under development - that includes lic Information Centre with a mandate to 2010. countries - and through the involvement prevention, response, recovery and ad- increase public awareness of emergency of national and local governance bodies, aptation measures. One of the main rec- preparedness through mass media infor- The ARS, which was established in 2005 NGOs and the population in developing ommendations to address the shortfalls mation campaigns and press conferenc- and is now the primary organization re- and implementing initiatives to minimize in risk reduction and emergency manage- es. sponsible for emergency management, disaster risk. ment proposed by several international replaces the State Emergency Manage- development partners to the Govern- Other examples of information dissemi- ment Administration, established in 1991 In the two decades since the 1988 earth- ment of Armenia is to develop a compre- nation include seminars and workshops under the Ministry of Territorial Admin- quake, the Armenian Government has hensive national plan of action, provid- held by the ARS to increase prepared- istration. The ARS is the governmental passed significant legislation to improve ing for the overall coordination of all the ness with regard to chemical, radiological entity which manages disaster risk re- risk reduction and emergency manage- partners involved in a disaster response and bacteriological hazards. duction multi-coordination and coopera- ment systems, including laws and meas- at national, regional and local level. tion for population protection systems in ures on risk reduction and emergency An initiative was jointly performed with emergencies. These systems incorporate management. The laws include: the Law In collaboration with UNDP, the Gov- and supported by the Asian Disaster Re- the national and local governance bodies on Armenian Rescue Service (2005); ernment is actively supporting disaster duction Centre aimed at promoting the and establish the channels of authority the Law on Rescue Forces and Status management activities. A Disaster Man- integration of earthquake disaster risk in disaster reduction. It maintains public of Rescuers (2004); Law on Civil De- agement Group meets periodically to re- reduction into school curricula. awareness, trains responders, plans for fence (2002); Water Code (2002); Law view the state of preparedness and to responses to disasters caused by natural on Seismic Protection (2002); Law on exchange information related to disaster The initiative was designed to empow- hazards, and coordinates emergency re- Fire Safety (2001); Law on Protection risk reduction. Together with the Swiss er students and teachers and help build sponse and recovery. of Population in Emergency Situations Agency for Development and Coopera- greater disaster awareness in communi- (1998); Law on Protection (1997, revised tion (SDC), UNDP has supported the dis- ties. To manage emergency responses, the in 2008); Martial Law (1997, revised into aster preparedness training of school the Law on the Legal Regime of the children in several districts. The estab-40 41 21 GFDRR, “Disaster Risk Reduction and Emergency Management in Armenia, Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery, ‘Armenia: Institutional Arrangements for Disaster Risk Management and Reduction’”, 2009. 19 The following description of the Armenian disaster management structure and legislation draws information from GFDRR, “Disaster Risk Reduction and Emergency Management in Armenia, Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery ‘Armenia: Institutional Arrangements for Disaster Risk Management and Reduction’”, 2009. 20 From “Armenia: National progress report on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action”, 2010. For more information, see http://www.pre- and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 22. Brief Country Profiles: Armenia Brief Country Profiles: Armenia Furthermore, tangible results have been of understanding on joint cooperation on both TV and radio. know how to react in the event of a dis- achieved through the National Pro- and coordination in disaster response, aster can make a difference in protecting gramme on Seismic Risk Reduction. The public awareness, disaster risk reduc- The ARCS also regularly organizes others. The project helped turn hundreds decision was made to extend the initiative tion and in other directions. The following evacuation simulations in schools in order of students, teachers and school princi- following its early successes in which 250 year, ARCS established its disaster pre- to help teachers and pupils develop the pals into seismic risk reduction trainers; students and teachers received training paredness and response structure. necessary skills to vacate buildings dur- school hazard mapping was conducted and knowledge. In the second phase the ing emergencies in an organized manner. and a damage and loss assessment was scope of the audience was extended to In parallel with building its disaster man- Since 1998, 169 such simulation evacua- completed. involve new schools and communities as agement capacity, the ARCS has con- tions in 169 schools have been conduct- well as increased awareness and prepar- centrated on educating communities. As ed, with the involvement of 95,350 pupils The Institute of Geological Sciences is edness of the positive impacts of earth- part of this a number of training sessions and 7,454 teachers. one of the country’s few functioning re- quake disaster risk reduction in schools. have been conducted across the coun- search institutions. The Institute engages Within the framework of the 2006 – try and a number of educational materi- Within the framework of the Disaster studies of natural hazards, including land- 2007 UNISDR World Disaster Reduction als have been printed and distributed to Management Programme, the ARCS slides, and seismic and volcanic activities, Campaign: Disaster Reduction Begins at the population. The main focus has been has implemented mini projects such as etc. It collaborates with the Institute of School, a single training project held over on school children, who are recognized the National Drawing Competition, the Geophysics in Georgia, with the Centre several months helped turn 375 school as one of the most vulnerable groups. Children’s Quiz and the Life-Skills and for Monitoring in Azerbaijan, and with in- students, teachers and school principals Around 500,000 copies of educational Young Rescuers Competition (in cooper- stitutions in Iran and in other countries. into qualified disaster risk reduction train- material on disasters caused by natural ation with the International Federation of ers. and technological hazards have been de- Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies One of the Institute’s priorities is the veloped and disseminated throughout the [IFRC], UNDP and SDC). training of new staff. To facilitate this it Armenia has officially appointed an HFA country, serving as a basis for different cooperates with the Georisk Company, Focal Point - the Ministry of Emergency awareness-raising events on disasters, The Government, in collaboration with which was established to support young Services - as a step in its implementation mainly at schools. The most successful the Swiss Agency for Development staff members. The expertise of the In- and pursuit of HFA objectives and stra- and best received among children was and Cooperation, has implemented the stitute is often used by the Ministry of tegic goals. In December 2010 a decree the series of Aghetik (Disaster) educa- project Ardzagank (Response), with the Emergency Situations in its activities and was issued in establishing a National Plat- tional books, developed by the State aim of strengthening the country’s de- in the development of project proposals. form Fund. The disaster risk reduction Academy of Crisis Management. Two centralized disaster response structure National Platform is a structure elabo- animations with the themes Aghetik and by intensifying the training of ARS fire- The Institute is a member of the National rated and administered by the Govern- Earthquakes and Aghetik in Routine Life fighters and volunteers of the ARCS and Security Council of Armenia. The Insti- ment of Armenia with the involvement of based on educational material were cre- other groups by spreading rescue know- tute is a partner of the Regional Seis- stakeholders. ated and broadcast, as well as other dis- how at the local level. As a follow-up, in mic Centre, which is located in Georgia. aster risk reduction-related programmes 2007 SDC initiated the pilot project Fire- Although the Centre is no longer able to Selected national and men in Communities, together with the ARS Information Centre. The objective maintain activities at the level it used to, both countries nevertheless maintain a international partners “Formulation of an effective of the project is to engage fire-fighters seismic testing ground on the border be- involved in disaster and functional disaster risk into the public awareness campaign and tween Armenia and Georgia. Plans for to promote them as “resource people” at the near future include the establishment risk reduction reduction system in Armenia local level. of a regional centre in Georgia to con- has an important role not only centrate on natural hazards and the risk National organizations and interna- for disaster risk management The Armenia National Survey for Seis- of trans-border disasters for the three tional partners but also for reducing poverty, mic Protection is another national stake- countries of the sub-region. The Institute social, economic and environ- holder active in disaster risk reduction. supports the creation of a unified com- The traditional partner of the MoES, As part of the World Disaster Reduction prehensive database on seismic activi- together with the State Academy of mental vulnerabilities and for Campaign 2006 - 2007 with the theme ties for the region. Crisis Management, Armenian National the sustainable development of Disaster Risk Reduction Begins at School, Survey for Seismic Protection and other the country”, and in collaboration with the Asian Disas- governmental entities, is the Armenian ter Reduction Centre, a seismic risk re- Minister of Emergency Situations of Armenia, duction project for schools was initiated, Red Cross Society (ARCS). In 1997, the Armen Yeritsyan. two organizations signed a memorandum recognising that school students who42 43Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 23. Brief Country Profiles: Armenia Brief Country Profiles: Armenia UNICEF collaboration with Armenia in The country programme outcomes on 2010 - served as a source of expertise evan, the capital of Armenia. A number education and disaster risk reduction health, nutrition, education and child and knowledge in the creation of the Ar- of meetings were held with the vari- protection will contribute mainly to the menia National Platform for disaster risk ous official representatives of the UNICEF has been working in Armenia strengthening of democratic govern- reduction. Mayor’s office. In 2011, Yerevan was since 1994, helping the Government to ance, access to and quality of social Other collaboration has included: awarded a Role Model City certificate. ensure that children grow healthy, edu- services, and disaster risk reduction and cated and protected from abuse and ne- the reduction of risks to the environment. In 2009, UNISDR - with the support of glect, trafficking and HIV/AIDS. the World Bank, World Meteorological Under the disaster preparedness (DIPE- Organization (WMO) and CAREC - com- In the education sector, among other ac- CHO) programme of the European Com- pleted the Central Asia and Caucasus Dis- tivities UNICEF is collaborating with the mission Humanitarian Aid and Civil Protec- aster Risk Management Initiative Risk As- Government to ensure that all children tion office (ECHO), UNICEF is conducting sessment for Central Asia and Caucasus in Armenia go to school prepared and disaster preparedness activities in the Desk Study Review,which covers Armenia. receive a quality primary education. Be- South Caucasus and Central Asia. In Ar- In preparation for the 3rd Ses- tween 2005 and 2007 UNICEF collabo- menia, the project has been implemented sion of the Global Platform for Dis- rated with UNDP on an education project in the Shirak, Gegharkhunik, Aragatcotn, aster Risk Reduction in 2011, Ar- involving the risks posed by mines. and Vayots Dzor regions, which are most menia completed and submitted the prone to natural and industrial hazards. HFA implementation progress report. The introduction of the life-skills project In consultation with the relevant authori- In 2010, UNISDR - with the support of from 2005 to 2009 is one of several ed- ties, particularly the Ministry of Educa- the World Bank - completed the Study ucation reform initiatives that have been tion, schools and pre-schools have been of Catastrophe Risk Financing Options: undertaken in Armenia since 1995. The selected based on threats and vulnera- Mitigating the Adverse Financial Ef- publication Me and the Surrounding World, bilities to disaster. The 28,650 proposed fects of Natural Hazards on the Tran- which is included in the primary-school beneficiaries include residents, teachers, scaucasian Economies, which will be curriculum, incorporates life-skills top- students, relevant provincial emergency published and disseminated in 2011. ics and methodology, including disaster and education department officials, local Also in 2010, UNISDR provided sup- preparedness. UNICEF also devised the authorities and national experts. port to the preparation of the Report on conceptual standards for child-friendly the Status of Seismic Observations and schools to ensure a safe and enabling Research in the Republic of Armenia. UNISDR collaboration with Armenia school environment for all children. In 2011, UNISDR provided consultative assistance to the Government of Ar- UNISDR began active collaboration with To promote adolescent health and devel- menia through the project Strengthened the Armenian Ministry of Emergency Sit- opment, among other activities UNICEF ISDR Partnerships for Accelerated Im- uations in 2008. Ever since the Ministry’s also promotes the introduction of life- plementation of the Hyogo Framework establishment, its leadership, along with skills-based education in the upper grades for Action, funded by ECHO. The project the Government, have strongly advo- of secondary schools, with a particular includes the activties in Armenia, along cated for strengthening the coordination focus on HIV/AIDS and healthy lifestyles. with the four other pilot countries around of disaster risk reduction actions at both The healthy lifestyles curriculum was de- the world (Nepal, Indonesia, Mozambique national and sub-national levels. Follow- veloped and piloted in the upper grades and Peru), to assess progress in the im- ing consultations, the UNISDR regional of 30 schools, with relevant trainings and plementation of the HFA at local level office in Central Asia and Caucasus pro- guidelines provided to teachers of those and the establishment of local coordination vided the Ministry with technical assist- schools. Among other subjects, life-skills mechanisms for disaster risk reduction. ance, publications and methodological education is integrated into the state cur- Following the recommendations of support, and organized workshops and riculum and includes a significant com- UNISDR for establishing multi-stake- meetings involving senior Ministry staff ponent on disaster preparedness and holder dialogue and coordination, the and experts in various fields. A series of reduction for school children. During in- Ministry of Emergency Situations as- high-level meetings, workshops and dis- teractive lessons children learn how to signed crisis managers as Focal Points cussions organized by UNISDR, both in behave in times of disasters caused by in each of the country’s 10 provinces. Armenia and in the region of Central Asia natural hazards, and practice skills that The UNISDR biannual campaign and Caucasus - and including participa- could be life saving. Mak-ing Cities Resilient included Yer- tion in thematic conferences in 2007 -44 45Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 24. Brief Country Profiles: Azerbaijan Brief Country Profiles: Azerbaijan Hazards and disasters cluding earthquakes, droughts, landslides, avalanches, debris flows and mud flows. overview As per GSHAP23, Azerbaijan lies in a Azerbaijan’s topography and water-re- region with moderate to very high seis- lated fluctuations in the Caspian Sea22 mic hazard. A magnitude 6.3 earthquake make it susceptible to heavy flooding. in the Baku region in November 2000 Analysis of the disaster data show that killed 31 people, affected 3,294 others floods have affected a large number of and incurred a reported economic loss of people and caused significant economic US$10 million. An earthquake in July 1998 losses in the past 20 years. The April reportedly killed one person, affected a 2003 flood in the Ismayilli-Gobustan re- large number of people and damaged gion alone affected 31,500 people and hundreds of houses. caused an economic loss of US$55 mil- lion. In June 1997, a flood in the Tovuz- In 2000, a severe drought caused an eco- Khanlar region affected 75,000 people nomic loss of US$100 million. Occurrenc- and caused an economic loss of US$25 es of landslides during heavy rains cause million. Floods in early May 2010 caused significant damage to human settlements, serious damage to infrastructure and industry, farms and roads24. However, services in Sabirabad and Shirvan dis- the only reported disaster event due to tricts. About 50,000 hectares were af- a landslide was in April 2000. A total of fected and 4,000 people fled as a re- 11 people were killed and economic loss sult of floods in the Kur-Aran lowlands. amounted to US$4 million. Furthermore, the floods posed a serious threat to the neighbouring 7 districts. EM-DAT shows (Table 3.) that during 1980 – 2010, floods accounted for the The country is also vulnerable to other major share of disaster events caused disasters caused by natural hazards, in- by natural hazards, followed by earth- quakes. Table 3 Azerbaijan: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 - 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. Azerbaijan Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss Drought 1 8.33 0 0 100,000,000 Earthquake 3 25 33 712,474 15,000,000 Flood 7 58.3 16 1,840,300 96,200,000 Mass Movement 1 8.33 11 0 (landslide) Total 12 100 60 2,552,774 211,200,00046 47 22 Pusch C. (2004). Preventable Losses, Saving Lives and Property through Hazard Risk Assessment, A Comprehensive Risk Management Framework for Central Europe and Central Asia, Disaster Risk Management Working paper series 9, The World Bank. 23 GSHAP (1998). Seismic Hazard Assessment for the Caucasus Test Area, by Serguei Balassanian et al. ( caucas.html). 24 Pusch C. (2004). Preventable Losses, Saving Lives and Property through Hazard Risk Assessment, A Comprehensive Risk Management Framework for Central Europe and Central Asia, Disaster Risk Management Working paper series 9, The World Bank.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 25. Brief Country Profiles: Azerbaijan Brief Country Profiles: Azerbaijan Disaster management although it is still in the process of form- Selected national and work despite the high cost of the stations structure and legislation ing its regional structures (one each for seven to eight districts). Ultimately, the international partners (about US$500,000 each). The Government of Azerbaijan made MES headquarters will employ 200 - 250 involved in disaster The NGO FOVGAL is among the most the decision to strengthen activities and people in various units. The MES remit in- risk reduction active and experienced in the field of environmental protection, disaster man- policies in the field of prevention and cludes a Caspian Sea emergency rescue service with a total of nine ships, seven agement and risk monitoring. The NGO response to disasters in 2003. Conse- National organizations and is headed by Dr. Habib Ojagov, who is quently, the State Commission on Emer- of which are operational. international partners also the director of the European Train- gency Situations was formed, comprised of representatives of ministries and the The MES is the authorized government ing and Information Centre in Baku, a agency in the field of disaster manage- The Azerbaijan Red Crescent Soci- Professor at the Azerbaijan University territorial administration. Its main function ety (AzRC) is one of the members of was response and rehabilitation following ment. It has an extensive legislative man- of Architecture and Construction, and date, including the power and authority the State Emergency Commission and a member of the Methodology Centre disasters. is primarily oriented toward emergency to supervise construction quality, retro- at the Ministry of Education. The NGO fitting of existing infrastructure and co- response coordination and improved re- has implemented a number of projects The Ministry of Emergency Situations source mobilization. Within that frame- (MES) of the Republic of Azerbaijan was operation with the Red Crescent Soci- with funding from the European Com- ety. The Ministry has recently signed an work, and together with other activities, mission, United Nations and other donors. established by Presidential decree in De- AzRC has built the capacity of local cember 2005. The decree determined agreement with the Russian Federation The NGO (which is actually an associa- in the area of training, supply of equip- branches by conducting trainings, semi- tion of several national NGOs) organizes the structure, functions and responsibili- nars and simulation exercises. At the ties of the new structure and ensured the ment and exchange of expertise. Similar annual conferences on various themes, cooperation already exists in relations same time, for the purposes of increasing such as the “Training of the rural popu- state budget funding of it. The MES has the preparedness at the community level, a very wide scope of responsibilities and with Turkey and other countries. lation in emergency situations”. In 2010 a booklet What to do before, during and it organized conferences on the “Year is the authorized state agency for pre- after an earthquake has been developed vention and response and preparedness In general, the Government of Azerbaijan of the Environment” and “The impact of has demonstrated a strong commitment and disseminated among the public. A film emergencies on the environment”. The for emergency situations. The Ministry on this topic has also been made. Fur- assumed a number of functions that had to disaster management and disaster risk NGO initiated, developed and introduced reduction. As testament to this the MES thermore, the decision has been reached a textbook on life safety for secondary- been fulfilled by other ministries. to develop and implement training mod- They are: receives significant financial and political school children. In November 2010 the support, which has allowed it to continue ules focused on disaster preparedness NGO planned to initiate a seismic safety to build up its staff and maintain and de- for school children in eight communities. assessment of the country’s schools. Dr. Civil defence – from the Ministry of Defence. velop its units and functions in a number Ojagov requested that UNISDR make an of geographic and technical areas. The Republican Seismic Centre of the input to the conference by sharing the Fire service – from the Ministry of Academy of Science of Azerbaijan con- Internal Affairs. experience of Central Asia (namely, Uz- Technical supervision of construction. How education is used centrates research and data collection in the areas of seismology, geophysics bekistan) and facilitating the participa- Seismic safety. to promote safety and geochemistry; it maintains seismic tion of leading Central Asia scientists and experts. The NGO has also published, in Water rescue (CasSpas). monitoring in this inland country and in the Rescue service. the English language, research on an “as- Currently, an expansive programme of Caspian Sea. The Centre maintains 21 Nuclear and technological safety. sessment of the situation in Azerbaijan”. school renovation and construction is telemetrics seismic stations (14 installed State reserve for emergency being carried out by the Heydar Aliev in 2003 and 7 in 2009) that provide re- situations. The NGO CENN - part of the larger Foundation, led by the wife of the cur- al-time information on seismic events CENN network in the South Caucasus – rent President. However, this relates only to the central data-bank at the Centre. Among other functions the MES ensures is headed by Professor Islam Mustafaev, to the structural improvement of school The sea-monitoring service is the only safety and rescue on sea oil platforms Country Coordinator. The NGO imple- buildings, and mostly in the capital city of one of its kind among all countries of the and oil processing facilities. To conduct ments small-scale research and projects Azerbaijan. There is a need to coordinate Caspian Sea. The service is especially this work the Ministry is reasonably well in the field of environmental protection. this activity to cover the whole country important to the oil exploration and ex- equipped, operating a number of special The CENN network has a similar office with a special focus on disaster risk re- traction industry, and in particular the oil vessels. Central government ensures it in Yerevan and a regional office in Tbi- duction in education. pipeline that runs along the seabed from has regular and sufficient funding. Four lisi, Georgia. CENN is one of the leading Kazakhstan to Azerbaijan. The country NGOs in Azerbaijan in the field of envi- regional centres are already operational, plans to expand the sea-monitoring net- ronmental protection and climate change.48 49Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 26. Brief Country Profiles: Azerbaijan Brief Country Profiles: Azerbaijan The United Nations Development As- emergency preparedness aspect of the from DG ECHO under its DIPECHO pro- tion, and specific activities, such as the sistance Framework (UNDAF) for 2011- country programme. gramme to implement a disaster risk re- school safety initiative. More detailed 2015 integrates disaster risk reduction as duction project in South Caucasus and meetings and discussions were held be- a cross-cutting issue; the official signing Within the previous country programme Central Asia. The programme involves tween UNISDR and the Ministry in 2010. of the document by the United Nations framework, a network of 25 schools implementing disaster mitigation and pre- The senior staff of the Ministry partici- and the Government was scheduled to practising a new way of teaching and paredness activities within the education pated in international and regional con- take place in early 2010. learning championed by UNICEF called sector in seven countries of the two sub- ferences and workshops organized and “active learning” were established. The regions, including Azerbaijan. initiated by UNISDR, such as the 4th and UNICEF collaboration with Azerbaijan programme involved the introduction 5th conferences of the Economic Coop- in education and disaster risk of modern techniques in classrooms, Under the DIPECHO programme, UNICEF eration Organization (ECO) in 2009 and such as the use of group work and stu- country offices and their government 2010 in Dushanbe and Astana; and in the reduction dent presentations to improve children’s counterparts, mainly from the national workshop Role of National Platforms in critical-thinking skills and their ability education and emergency departments, the Integration of Disaster Risk Reduc- UNICEF has been operating in Azerbai- to participate and express themselves. are implementing a range of disaster tion in University Programs, in Bishkek in jan since 1993 and as part of its work has The schools encompass child-centred, risk reduction interventions aimed at February 2011; and in other events. been helping in the Government’s root- competency-based teaching and learn- policy, institutional and operational as- and-branch reform of the education sec- ing with parental involvement in school pects. In particular, the programme aims Other collaboration has included: tor. governance. to strengthen the national capacities and systems for disaster safety, especially In 2009, UNISDR - with the support The organization’s country programme The mainstreaming of active learning into targeting the selected schools in each of the World Bank, WMO and CAREC for 2005 - 2009, which was extended the education reforms continued with country. - completed the Central Asia and Cau- until 2010, had as its goal “all rights for active learning integrated into the pre- casus Disaster Risk Management Initia- all children, with no child left out”. Among service and in-service teacher-training Eight regions of the country were chosen tive Risk Assessment for Central Asia other activities, it focused on emergency curricula in 2008. The programme sup- for the implementation of this project. In and Caucasus Desk Study Review, which preparedness, including mine-awareness ported the active learning policy, which consultation with the relevant authorities, covers the Republic of Azerbaijan. education for children, and advocacy for ensured that all schools in Azerbaijan are particularly the Ministry of Education, the ratification of the Ottawa Conven- “child-friendly” and meet certain minimum schools were selected based on threats In 2010, UNISDR - with the support of tion on the prohibition of the use, stock- standards for effectiveness, safety and and vulnerabilities to disaster. In identify- the World Bank - completed the review piling, production and transfer of anti- participation. ing and selecting beneficiaries, additional Study of Catastrophe Risk Financing personnel mines and on their destruction. consideration was given to population Options: Mitigating the Adverse Financial The programme has helped strengthen As a result of the avian influenza out- concentration and its exposure to po- Effects of Natural Hazards on the Tran- emergency preparedness and response break of 2006, which resulted in five hu- tential disasters (including earthquakes, scaucasian Economies, which includes by monitoring and updating scenarios and man deaths, UNICEF coordinated the ef- floods, landslides and industrial hazards Azerbaijan. The review will be published contingency plans, and building up nation- forts of the United Nations, donors and etc.). Though not exclusively, priority was and disseminated in 2011. al capacities for contingency planning. other partners to ensure that partners given to areas where UNICEF has on-go- Communities in the eight focus districts involved spoke with one voice to support ing projects and programmes to consoli- The MES is responsible for the super- have been able to prepare their own con- the Government in its efforts to contain date, and promote ownerships and sus- vision of construction quality and safety. tingency plans to better cope with poten- the outbreak. In 2007, UNICEF continued tainability. The Ministry actively promotes the in- tial risks. to steer the National Task Force. With- tegration of disaster risk reduction in in the overall division of responsibilities UNISDR collaboration with Azerbaijan school and university programmes, and The programme has also helped strength- established by the draft communication pays special attention to professional en the capacity of the Government, lo- strategy prepared by the Avian Influenza UNISDR covers Azerbaijan from its sub- training of its staff. cal authorities and communities to plan, Communications Group, UNICEF focused regional office for Central Asia and Cau- manage and implement integrated pro- on ensuring that children and young peo- casus, located in Almaty, Kazakhstan. At In February 2011, the MES was official- grammes, including the concerted effort ple, who have been shown by research to the meeting with the Ministry of Emer- ly appointed the HFA Focal Point by the to improve emergency preparedness be the most vulnerable to avian influenza gency Situations in December 2009, the Government. It intends to establish and capacities. As part of the Early Warning infection, had access to information on MES expressed readiness to collaborate announce a fully functional National Plat- Early Action project, introduced in 2009, how to protect themselves. in strengthening of the national coordina- form for disaster risk reduction in 2011. risk reduction plans have been developed tion mechanism, establishment of a Na- for education programming as part of the In spring 2010, UNICEF received a grant tional Platform for disaster risk reduc-50 51Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 27. Brief Country Profiles: Azerbaijan Brief Country Profiles: Azerbaijan Puppets teach children safety against disasters caused by natural hazards in Azerbaijan Enhancing the skills of children in dis- training and learning programmes for aster preparedness is the major aim of teachers and children on how to reduce UNICEF-supported puppet shows being risk at a school and community level. The performed in Azerbaijan in July. puppets shows use humour and examples of local hazards to teach all participants About 1,000 children, in addition to par- about correct behaviour before, during ents and community members, attended and after a hazard, for example to, ‘drop, puppet shows in Baku and Sheki in the cover and hold’ during an earthquake, the last week of July. importance of fire safety and even road traffic rules. Educating children on how to get better prepared for and respond to disasters “Children are important first because is part of the DIPECHO project, which they are the most vulnerable in a disas- is being implemented in Azerbaijan by ter, but also because they possess unique UNICEF, the Ministry of Emergency Situ- abilities to contribute to the creation of ations and the Ministry of Education with a culture of safety and prevention,” says the support of DIPECHO - which is an EU UNICEF Representative in Azerbaijan programme dedicated to disaster prepar- Mark Hereward. edness which funds projects in disaster- prone regions around the world. “Teaching about disaster risk reduc- tion needs to start with children, and to The project aims to improve disaster involve parents and other community preparedness and response in the coun- members as well. Disaster risks can be try and thus to reduce the impact of dis- reduced and the resilience of communi- asters caused by natural hazards on the ties can be achieved only through knowl- most vulnerable communities, especially edge and education,” he said. children and women living in disaster- prone areas. The Government of Azerbaijan has been actively engaged in strengthening nation- The landscape, climate and infrastruc- al capacities for disaster preparedness ture make Azerbaijan highly vulnerable and risk reduction. Efforts are under way to disasters such as earthquakes, sea- to ensure a systematic approach in iden- sonal floods and landslides, as well as to tifying and assessing the risks and mini- disasters caused by man-made hazards. mizing the socio-economic impact of dis- Every year floods and landslides cause asters on children through the application significant damage to agriculture in rural of more holistic and integrated strategies areas and infrastructure in urban areas, for education. as well as human casualties. To ensure sustainability, UNICEF is cur- rently promoting the inclusion of disaster risk reduction into formal school curricula. Under this project it has also developed52 53Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 28. Brief Country Profiles: Belarus Brief Country Profiles: Belarus The Republic of Belarus (Belarus) is lo- Hazards and disaster cated in the eastern part of Europe, bor- dering Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Russia overview and Ukraine. Belarus is vulnerable to natural hazards The territory of Belarus is 207,600 including floods, extreme temperatures, square kilometres, of which 23 per cent wind storms and epidemics. EM-DAT - populated by a quarter of the country’s shows (Table 4) that during the period population - was contaminated by the 1980 - 2010, floods accounted for the radioactive contamination that followed major share of disaster events, affected the explosion of the Chernobyl Nucle- the largest number of people (42,000) ar Power Plant reactor in neighbouring and caused an economic loss of US$104 Ukraine, in 1986. A total of 17 European million, the largest of any disaster. countries were affected by the radioac- tive fall-out. Taking into account that the The next most costly disaster events negative consequences of the explosion were wind storms which occurred on were much graver for such a small coun- June 1997, caused an economic loss of try as Belarus than for other affected US$33 million and affected a total of countries, the consequences were clas- over 21,000 people. Extreme tempera- sified as a “catastrophe” or a “national tures also caused a large economic loss environmental emergency”. The accident (over US$30 million), killed five people imposed a heavy burden on the nation- and affected a further 1,820. In terms of al budget through the cost of clean-up, number of people killed, epidemics were compensation and recovery. The cost the most dangerous disasters caused by of dealing with the consequences of the natural hazards, claiming the lives of 13 Chernobyl nuclear accident range from 6 people. per cent to 25 per cent of the Belarus annual budget. Table 4 Belarus: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 - 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. Belarus Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss Epidemic 2 22.22 13 887 0 Extreme 2 22.22 5 1,820 30,300,000 temperature Flood 3 33.33 2 42,000 104,380,000 Wind Storm 2 22.22 5 21,390 33,000,000 Total 9 100 60 66,097 167,680,00054 55Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 29. Brief Country Profiles: Belarus Brief Country Profiles: Belarus Disaster management for advanced training on “Prevention and rus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine. in this project: UNDP, UNICEF, United Na- eradication of emergency situations”; the Funded by the United Nations Trust Fund tions Population Fund (UNFPA), Ministry structure and legislation Institute of Retraining and Professional for Human Security, this initiative aims to of Emergencies of the Republic of Bela- Development; and a college under the translate the latest scientific information rus, MES Institute of Radiology, Interna- The Ministry for Emergency Situations Gomel Engineering Institute which pro- on the consequences of the accident tional Foundation for Rural Development, of the Republic of Belarus is the state vides general secondary education with into sound practical advice for residents Gomel Regional Clinical Oncology Cent- agency that exercises control and man- advanced teaching and specialist voca- of the affected territories. Improved ac- er, Sakharov’s International Ecological agement in the sphere of emergency tional training for students entering the cess to information will help people live University and local administrations. prevention, along with other duties re- MES system. safely and productively in the affected lated to disaster management and disas- territories and enable them to take action The overall goal of the UNICEF 2006 – ter risk reduction. It is the responsibility For the purposes of information and edu- to implement community-driven recovery 2010 country programme was to support of the MES to carry out national policy in cation the MES makes use of 795 train- initiatives that will tackle their priority national plans and priorities to increase the field of prevention and “eradication” ing and methodological centres, 1,000 needs and directly improve the level of children’s and young people’s opportuni- of natural and technological emergencies education centres of the Ministry itself, their human security. ties to enjoy their rights to survival, de- (including accidents and disasters caused and 2,500 clubs and young fire-fighters velopment, protection and participation. by natural or technological hazards). teams25. While reducing the impact of environmen- tal risks it is very important to promote With the support of UNICEF life-skills- The MES has the following structure: There are numerous acts of legislation life-skills education in Chernobyl-affect- based education was introduced into on prevention and management of emer- ed areas, raise awareness of the popu- the national school curriculum and fur- Ministry for Emergency Situations. gency situations in Belarus. They include lation about the significance of adopting ther reinforced through peer education Regional and Minsk city divisions. the: Protection of the Population and the life-skills and health-seeking behaviour, programmes. Youth participation in the City and regional departments. Territories in Natural and Man-made Dis- and provide information on living safely in promotion of healthy lifestyles through Fire and rescue units, divisions and asters Act; Fire Safety Act; Radiation conditions of low-dose radiation. As part such peer education programmes, and posts in cities, districts and other Safety for the Population Act; Industrial of this work UNICEF, within the frame- also through youth media initiatives, has entities. Safety and Dangerous Industrial Works work of the regional project covering proved to be effective in building commu- Educational and scientific institutions, Act; Rescue Services and Status of the Ukraine, Belarus and Russia, developed a nication channels. The obligatory school and organisations and other divisions. Rescuer Act; and others. special edition of Facts for Life (2007). programme Vital Safety Knowledge cov- The aim of this publication is to help over- ers issues of personal safety and life- It includes the following specialized de- come widespread stress, depression and saving skills of school children from the partments and units: Selected national and “victim’s syndrome” among people in the II to X grades and university students26. international partners affected regions and to assist mothers, Republican Special Team. children and young people to cope with UNDP has developed two disaster risk Air Search and Rescue Service. involved in disaster environmental, social and health risks. reduction-related projects: Strengthen- Republican Centre for Emergency risk reduction ing Partnerships and Resource Mobiliza- Management and Response. The UN Trust Fund for Human Security tion Mechanisms to Mitigate the Cherno- Republican Centre for Certification funded with US$1.6 million the joint Unit- byl Disaster Consequences (2001); and UNICEF collaboration with Belarus in ed- and Examination. ed Nations project Enhancing Human Se- the establishment of a Crisis Manage- Republican Logistic Centre. ucation and disaster risk reduction curity in the Chernobyl-Affected Areas ment Centre, which aims to develop the Republican Information and of Belarus (2010-2012). The overall goal country’s capacity to handle very large Propagation Centre. UNICEF is part of the interagency initia- of the project is to enhance human se- emergencies. UNDP assisted the Gov- Scientific and Research Institute on tives and regional cooperation that also curity in the Chernobyl-affected commu- ernment in improving the lives of people Fire Safety and Emergency Situations. includes institutional partners such as the nities of Slavgorod, Chechersk, Bragin, affected by the Chernobyl disaster by International Chernobyl Research and In- Stolin and Luninets districts. Residents supporting local efforts to improve eco- The MES also includes four educational formation Network, launched in 2009 by are being given the means to improve in- nomic and social conditions. entities: the Command and Engineering a joint effort of the International Atomic come security, minimize radiation expo- Institute for professional training in “Pre- Energy Agency (IAEA), UNDP and the sure and practice healthy lifestyles. The In 2003, UNDP helped to prepare and vention and eradication of emergency World Health Organization (WHO), which project focuses on specific communities signed the Declaration of Principles for situations” and “Safety of people, ob- is aimed at addressing the informa- to develop and test new approaches; Cooperation for Rehabilitation Pro- jects and territories in emergency situ- tion needs of the population living in the these can later be extended to cover gramme (CORE) and started a new sup- ations”; the Gomel Engineering Institute Chernobyl-affected territories of Bela- other Chernobyl-affected areas in Be- port project for the programme Cooper- larus. The following bodies are partners ation for Rehabilitation.56 57 25 For more information, see 26 For more information, see and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 30. Brief Country Profiles: Bosnia and Herzegovina Brief Country Profiles: Bosnia and Herzegovina Hazards and disaster ics and wind storms. Floods, wildfires and overview environmental pollution have a potential cross-border impact. Bosnia and Herzegovina lies in one of the most earthquake-prone areas of the EM-DAT hazard incidence shows (Table Balkan Peninsula, which is part of the 5) that during (1980-2010), floods ac- Mediterranean-Transasian seismic belt. counted for the major share of disasters, Although EM-DAT does not record any with eight events affecting over 328,740 large earthquakes, data shows that sev- people. This was followed by droughts, eral events have occurred in the area of which affected over 62,000 people, and Banja Luka. extreme temperatures, which killed three people and affected over 10,000 others. The country is also vulnerable to disas- ters including floods, landslides, droughts, extreme temperatures, wildfires, epidem- Table 5 Bosnia and Herzegovina summary data on disasters caused by natural haz- ards (1980 - 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss of events (US$) Bosnia and Drought 2 11.11 0 62,575 298,000,000 Epidemic 1 5.55 0 400 0 Extreme 3 16.65 3 10,000 0 Herzegovina temperature Flood 8 44.44 3 328,740 0 Mass Movement 1 5.55 6 403 0 (landslide) Wildfire 1 5.55 0 0 0 Wind Storm 2 11.11 4 1,090 0 Total 18 100 66 403,208 298,000,00058 59Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 31. Brief Country Profiles: Bosnia and Herzegovina Brief Country Profiles: Bosnia and Herzegovina The data shows that drought-related ter management and disaster risk reduc- Security of Bosnia and Herzegovina in of strategic documents specified in the hazards have also had a big impact on tion. It covers people and assets in cases matters including strategic planning, co- state law (Methodology of Risk Assess- the country, and the drought risk is high of disasters caused by natural hazards. ordination and international cooperation. ment, Risk Assessment, and Emergency in the north-east and south-west. The The Law on Protection and Rescue was The Federation of Bosnia and Herze- Response Plan); protection and rescue May 2003 drought affected large parts passed in May 2008. govina is highly decentralized, with 10 coordination, including better network- of Bosnia and Herzegovina and triggered cantonal governments. Brčko District is a ing with Ministry of Defence and other wildfires that caused damage amounting The law defines protection and rescue third administrative unit, which has been authorities; enhanced international coop- to US$250 million. of people and material goods in cases under international administration. In eration; and harmonization of protection of disasters caused by natural or other March 2009, the Constitution of Bosnia and rescue law with by-laws in Bosnia EM-DAT shows that during 2001 - 2005 hazards in Bosnia and Herzegovina; the and Herzegovina was amended to define and Herzegovina. four major flood events were record- execution of international obligations and Brčko District on the basis of the awards ed. The flood of April 2004 affected cooperation in the area of protection and of the Arbitral Tribunal and to ensure the The Ministry of Security coordinates and 275,000 people in the country. rescue; and the channels of authority and District effective access to the Bosnia manages planning and exchange of data coordination of activities of Bosnia and and Herzegovina Constitutional Court. and information, and reports on the risk The occurrence of landslides in the Herzegovina institutions and bodies, enti- reduction activities of entities and Brčko mountainous parts of Bosnia and Herze- ty administrations involved in civil protec- The country as a whole has 14 govern- District. govina is very frequent due to subsur- tion and the authorized civil protection ance units, 5 levels of administration and face water flow. Landslides in the Zenica body in Brčko District. The law prescribes more than 150 ministries and governmen- The entities and Brčko District, within the area in 2000 killed seven people, left the founding of the State Operation tal agencies. In terms of civil protection framework of their competences in the many families homeless and destroyed Communication Centre and establish- structures, the entities are both financial- area of protection and rescue, define, the Sarajevo-Pale road. The number of ment of a 112 emergency number. ly and jurisdictionally autonomous from plan, train, organize, finance and execute landslides increased considerably during the state. Each level has its own specific protection and rescue with the aim of re- the war and in its aftermath, due to both Other relevant laws include the Law on mandate, with the state focusing on civil ducing risks and removing or mitigating uncontrolled exploitation of forests and Transport of Dangerous Substances protection strategy while the entities fo- the harmful consequences of disasters minerals, which changed water and land in Bosnia and Herzegovina; the Law on cus on operational matters. caused by natural or other hazards. regimes, and to increased illegal and un- Environmental Protection, both of which planned construction. are at an advanced stage of prepara- tion; the Law on Ministries and other The current legislation is based on a set of laws defining the roles and compe- How education is used Soil settling due to underground exploi- Administrative Bodies in Bosnia and tences of all the administrative levels in- to promote safety tation of minerals also represents a haz- Herzegovina27,which transfers some volved in civil protection. ard. Salt mining in the Tuzla area has had civil protection competences from entity Current legislation on disaster manage- very harmful consequences, with over to state level and also defines the proce- At state level, the Sector for Civil Pro- ment provides the opportunity to develop 25 per cent of urban areas affected. dures for approval of military assistance tection of the Ministry of Security is the formal education programmes as part of Large landslides have also occurred in to civilian authorities in case of disas- central body with competences in, and re- school curricula, but due to the ongoing the Breza coal mine, the Koritnik open- ters; the Law on Defence of Bosnia and sponsibility for, international cooperation, educational reforms disaster risk reduc- cut mine, the Vares mine and steel plant, Herzegovina; the Law on Mine Clearance internal coordination, strategic planning tion has yet to be mainstreamed. Indeed, and the Smreka open-cut mine. in Bosnia and Herzegovina; and the Law of protection and rescue measures and the education system does not yet ad- on the Red Cross Association of Bosnia training programmes. Three departments dress the more basic notion of “protec- Hazards and disaster and Herzegovina. There are several oth- have been established within the Sector: tion and rescue”. er laws promulgated by the Bosnia and the Department for Strategic Planning overview Herzegovina State Parliament with po- of Protection and Rescue Measures; the Nevertheless, there are some sporadic tential bearing during emergencies28. Department for Structures and Training; activities undertaken at the local level – Legislation relating to civil protection is and the Department of International Co- such as visits to schools by fire-fighters, currently undergoing major transition to In terms of legislation, the two entities operation. or civil protection or Red Crescent staff a new framework of laws prepared with -the Republic of Srpska and the Federa- – but the approach is neither strategic nor the support of UNDP and NATO. Of par- tion of Bosnia and Herzegovina - exer- The Sector for Civil Protection objec- systematic. Other activities include train- ticular note is the Law on Protection and cise a degree of autonomy from the state tives for 2008 - 2009 were the estab- ing programmes targeting government Rescue, which details the responsibilities under which they have full independence lishment of an effective disaster man- officials at state and entity levels, some and authorities of the Sector for Civil when it comes to operational matters but agement and coordination body and of which have been developed within the Protection, including with regard to disas- are under the mandate of the Ministry of Operational 112 Centre; development framework of multilateral or bilateral in-60 61 27 Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina, n. 5/03 and 45/06. 28 Other laws and programmes include: The Law on the Protection of Forests (OGBH, n. 23/03); the Law on Veterinary Science in Bosnia and Herzegovina (OGBH, n. 34/02); The Law on Food (OGBH, n. 50/04); the Law on the Implementation of the Convention on Prevention of Development, Production, Ac- cumulation and use of Chemical Weapons and their Destruction (OGBH, n. 15/06); the Law on the Protection against Radiation and Nuclear Safety (OGBH, n. 88/07); the Bosnia and Herzegovina Strategy for Action against Terrorism (2006-2009); the Program of Protection against Chemical Weapons and Reaction in Case of Disaster and Incidents that include Chemicals (OGBH, n. 80/06); and the Law on Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 32. Brief Country Profiles: Bosnia and Herzegovina Brief Country Profiles: Bosnia and Herzegovina ternational cooperation. Cross Association of Bosnia and Herze- children and young people in their com- The current country programme, from govina29 defines the role and the com- munities, including in addressing the risk 2010 to 2014, includes support in setting In order to implement the Framework Law petences of the Red Cross in cases of of landmines. up coordination mechanisms and contin- on Protection and Rescue of People and disasters caused by natural hazards, epi- gency plans for emergency prepared- Property in the event of Natural or oth- demics or other emergencies. The Red ness and response. The 2010 - 2011 work er Disasters in Bosnia and Herzegovina Cross Association has authority over en- Following the implementation of the life- plans on education, health and protec- (Official Gazette of BH No. 50/08), the ergy supply, border control, transport of skills project in high schools, UNICEF now tion include as one of the activities the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herze- people and goods, as well as broadcast considers that a similar project focusing coordination of activities and increased govina formed the Inter-departmental of information. on child safety, risk behaviour and life capacity of stakeholders for emergency Working Group for the Development of hazards and implemented at primary- preparedness and response in the rele- Risk Assessment Regarding Natural and school level will yield better results. In ad- vant sectors. UNICEF collaboration with Bosnia and dition, UNICEF recognizes that there is a Other Disasters in Bosnia and Herzegovi- Herzegovina in education and disas- need to educate adults, including parents, na. It consists of representatives of state In 2008, UNICEF initiated training work- and entity ministries, the Public Safety ter risk reduction municipal officials and teachers, as well shops within the United Nations Country Department of Brčko District and experts as children and young people in appropri- Team on emergency preparedness and from various fields of governmental and As part of the implementation of educa- ate attitudes and skills. To achieve this, took the lead in facilitating discussions on non-governmental sectors and civil soci- tion reforms, cooperation between local schools and the media are recognized as cluster coordination. UNICEF is continu- ety. It is the first time that a risk assess- NGOs and ministries of education has re- having key importance in the creation of ing to promote inter-agency coordination ment process, led by the Protection and sulted in 27 per cent of primary schools an enabling environment for participation. for emergency preparedness and is Rescue Service of the Ministry of Secu- adopting and implementing the “child- promoting the development of strate- rity, has been carried out with a unified centred” teaching and learning approach. Key results are as follows: for municipal gies and plans, including on Inter-Agency methodology on the whole territory of With support from the European Com- governments, civil society and schools to Standing Committee cluster coordina- Bosnia and Herzegovina. This process, mission, a network of 30 local NGOs was enable an increased number of children tion. In collaboration with the UNICEF which involves various national institu- mobilized to develop common standards, and young people to participate mean- CEE/CIS Regional Office, UNICEF BiH tions, will lead to the preparation of the modules and methodologies for the pro- ingfully in their communities and in the conducted an emergency preparedness document Risk Assessment Regarding motion of child rights and peer-educa- monitoring of the State Plan of Action and response training workshop for all Natural and Other Disasters in Bosnia and tion, and ensure the participation of some for Children; for 450 primary schools to staff in July 2010. A coordination meeting Herzegovina. 15,000 children in community projects institutionalize child participation; for me- with emergency Focal Points from other and volunteer work. dia programmes to be developed with the United Nations agencies is also planned Selected national and involvement of children and broadcast media; and for communities in 154 areas in cooperation with the United Nations international partners The goal of the previous UNICEF 2005 – 2008 country programme, which was ex- highly affected by mines to be able to as- Resident Coordinator’s office. involved in disaster tended to 2009 to harmonize cycles with sess, develop and implement responses UNICEF is also planning to work more to risks posed by landmines. This includes risk reduction other agencies, was specifically aimed mine-risk and small arms and light weap- closely with national authorities to devel- at ensuring the inclusion of all children, op national capacities and facilitate co- young people and women in the provi- ons risk education. ordination on emergency preparedness National organizations and sion of basic education, health and child- and disaster risk reduction. international partners protection services. The programme The 2007 evaluation of the country had three major outcomes: for policy programme’s support to the Bosnia and Herzegovina Mine Action Centre found UNISDR collaboration with Bosnia and In the event of disasters, the Ministry of makers and community representatives increased institutional capacity. Support Herzegovina Security cooperates with the Red Cross to provide leadership in developing na- Association and other humanitarian or- tional policies that contribute to realizing to mine risk education will be phased out ganizations to manage protection and the rights of children, young people and over the next cycle, while the experience Bosnia and Herzegovina has officially rescue operations. In February 2008 a women; for service providers and care- gained in risk reduction methods will be appointed an HFA Focal Point as a step protocol was signed with the Red Cross givers to adopt behaviours that facilitate used to improve policy and services re- in its implementation and pursuit of HFA for cooperation over, and financing of, access to education, health and child lated to small arms and light weapons, objectives and strategic goals. During the the development of protection and res- protection services for the most vulner- promotion of child safety and reduction spring of 2007, and within the framework cue units under the responsibility of the able; and for policy makers and commu- of violence among children. of SEEDRMI, direct communication was Red Cross through its 20 canton-based nity representatives to encourage and established between Bosnia and Herze- and 125 local units. The Law on the Red facilitate the meaningful participation of govina national authorities and UNISDR.62 63 29 Official Gazette of Bosnia and Herzegovina, n. 49/04.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 33. Brief Country Profiles: Bosnia and Herzegovina Brief Country Profiles: Bulgaria As a follow-up, Bosnia and Herzegovina actively participated in the first session of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction, held in June 2007, and has informed UNISDR of its intentions to es- tablish an official National Platform in the near future. In August 2009, it hosted a national work- shop in collaboration with UNISDR, World Bank, CADRI, DPPI SEE and UNDP to promote national capacities to establish a National Platform. The workshop was also supported by the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery. The DPPI SEE has initiated and sup- ported a joint fire-fighting system in the South East Europe region. Through this joint fire-fighting unit, DPPI SEE has trained fire-fighters from Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bulgaria64 65Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 34. Brief Country Profiles: Bulgaria Brief Country Profiles: Bulgaria Hazards and disaster One of the most severe floods occurred Landslides are also common in Bulgaria was included as a separate chief direc- torate under the Ministry of Interior. overview between 25 May and 12 August 2005. It was the worst flooding in the past 70 because of its hilly and mountainous ter- rain. One major landslide occurred on 17 years, and the rivers Yantra, Kamchi- December 1965 in the Rila mountains, kill- The Law on Protection in Case of Dis- Bulgaria is vulnerable to a number of dis- ya, Roussensky Lom and their subsidi- ing 11 people. asters, adopted in 2006, established the asters caused by natural hazards, but ary streams burst their banks, affect- regulations covering the duty to preserve the country is most susceptible to floods. ing about 70 per cent of the territory of Damaging wind storms occur quite fre- life and health, and protect the environ- EM-DAT shows (Table 6) that during Bulgaria. Losses were enormous in the quently. On 24 December 2001, a wind ment and property in the event of a disas- 1980 - 2010 floods accounted for the affected areas. According to the Minis- storm affected Shumen, Dobrich, Stara ter. The Act stipulates the activities relat- major share of disaster events and by try of Agriculture, over 10,500 animals Zagora and Sofia, killing two people, ed to the coordination and management far the largest financial losses30. The drowned. Some 3,645 inhabited build- while in November and December 1998 of the rescue and emergency recovery country is also vulnerable to other disas- ings were declared unsuitable for habita- cold waves affected the Montana and efforts among the competent authorities. ters caused by natural hazards, including tion31, and residents had to be moved to Sofia regions, killing three people, injur- According to this act overall coordination droughts, extreme temperatures, land- temporary shelters, mostly in schools or ing 23 and affecting 300 others. Wild- and management for disaster protection slides, wildfires and wind storms. Further- with host families. A State of Emergency fires have also been reported in Bulgaria. is under the Ministry of Interior in line with more, Bulgaria has historic records of was declared in the affected areas and On 1 July 2000, a wildfire which struck the National Programme on Protection major earthquakes which, after consider- the Government established an Intersec- Haskovo, Yambol, Bourgas, Stara Za- in Case of Disasters and annual plans ing their return period, show that there is toral Coordination Committee at central gora and Plovdiv killed seven people, left adopted by the Council of Ministers. It is also a high probability of earthquake oc- level. Reported damage from the 2005 150 homeless and caused damage of implemented by the Ministry of Interior currence. flood was more than US$260 million32. US$17.6 million33. together with other ministries, adminis- trations, the National Association of the Municipalities in the Republic of Bulgaria Disaster management and the Bulgarian Red Cross. A national Table 6 Bulgaria: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 - 2010), structure and legislation system of early warning announces the including number of human casualties and economic impact. executive authorities during disasters. Following the devastating floods of 2005, the Bulgarian Government initiated The Chief Directorate Civil Protection Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss a detailed reform of the country’s pro- has a well-developed structure with a of events (US$) tection and rescue system34. As part of central administration, 28 regional direc- the reform the Disaster Protection Act torates, a National Situation Centre, Cen- was adopted, the State Agency for Civil tral Laboratory Complex and 15 struc- Drought 2 5.71 0 0 0 Protection was dissolved and a new min- tures to carry out rescue and emergency istry, the Ministry of State Policy for Dis- recovery activities in the event of disas- asters and Accidents (renamed the Min- ters. Earthquake 5 14.28 4 3,587 0 istry of Emergency Situations in 2008), was established. The MES35 undertook The Ministry of Interior maintains the all civil protection activities in the event emergency number 112. Information on Extreme 7 20.00 43 393 50,000 of disasters, coordinating the efforts of different natural hazards can be found temperature the executive administration and other on the specialised website of the Chief bodies of governance, as well as legal Directorate Civil Protection. Flood 13 37.14 52 13,560 458,000,000 entities, NGOs and citizens for disaster management. The aims, priorities and tasks of the pre- vention activities are set in the National Wildfire 4 11.42 10 176 20,054,000 The new Government elected in mid- Programme for Protection in Case of 2009 closed down the MES in order to Disasters. Planning of disaster preven- optimise the administration. Consequent- tion is carried out at municipal, regional Wind Storm 4 11.42 2 5,850 0 ly the Civil Protection unit, which was re- and national level. Preventive measures sponsible for implementing state policy in for disaster risk reduction include the Total 35 100 111 23,566 528,054,000 the area of protection of the population establishment and/or modernization of in the case of disasters and accidents, systems for monitoring, forecasting and66 67 30 It should be noted that there are no economic loss statistics for a number of disaster events, including earthquakes. 31 Information source: the Bulgarian National Association of Municipalities. 33 Ibid. 32 EM-DAT Emergency Disaster Database (2007) 34 From “The Structure, Role and Mandate of Civil Protection in Disaster Risk Reduction for South Eastern Europe - South Eastern Europe Disaster Risk Mitigation and Adaptation Programme”, UNISDR, 2009. 35 Authority for protection of the population in the event of accidents or disasters has subsequently been transferred to the Ministry of Interior. It has a well-developed structure with central administration, 28 regional directorates, a National Situation Centre, Central Laboratory Complex and 15 structures for rescue and emergency recovery in the event of disasters.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 35. Brief Country Profiles: Bulgaria Brief Country Profiles: Bulgaria early warning. ing these programmes and organize a agement with the aim of providing knowl- UNICEF collaboration with Bulgaria in edge on disaster management to schools minimum of two trainings and simulations education and disaster risk reduction and public services, and community edu- Other relevant legislation involving pro- every year. tection against disasters includes the cation to middle managers from national Crisis Management Act; the 112 Act; the Municipality mayors organize public dis- The UNICEF 2006 - 2009 country pro- and local disaster management Local Administration Act; the Waters Act; aster education on a voluntary basis. gramme focused on contributing to the authorities. the Defence and Armed Forces Act; the Government’s ongoing efforts to im- Ministry of Internal Affairs Act; the Pub- Materials for pre-school children, includ- prove the efficiency and use of budget lic Health Act; the State Administration ing a colouring book which teaches chil- allocations for children. One of the pro- Acts; other special laws; and related sec- dren about the dangers associated with gramme components was support for na- ondary legislation. disasters and how to behave during them, tional authorities in conducting a compre- have been produced. hensive review of public expenditure on health, education, social protection and How education is used Another methodology for civil protec- welfare. Another component contributed to promote safety tion education at schools was developed to strengthening the life-skills component through UNDP funding. The initiative in- within the existing school curricula and The Law on Protection in Case of Disas- cludes teaching material for each stage through non-formal education. ters ensures that trainings and exercises of schooling in Bulgaria: elementary, sec- are organized for central and territo- ondary and higher. In order to improve coordination and co- rial executive authorities, reaction forces operation in the field of emergency pre- and the public. As mentioned above, the EU emergency paredness, a meeting was organized in number 112 is already operational in Bul- 2010 between the Bulgarian Civil-Military There is a Centre for Professional Train- garia. Moreover, a special national free Co-operation unit, UNICEF, the Office of ing of Rescuers, which was licensed by emergency number (hotline) for children the United Nations High Commissioner the National Agency of Professional 116 112 has been launched recently with for Refugees (UNHCR), UNDP, Bulgarian Education and Training. Its educational the help of UNICEF. Red Cross, International Organization for and practice facilities are located in the Migration, and the Chief Directorate Civil town of Montana. All newly-appointed Protection. rescuers are trained there and after suc- Selected national and cessfully passing the course they acquire international partners UNISDR collaboration with Bulgaria the professional qualification Rescuer in Case of Disasters, Accidents and Catas- involved in disaster Bulgaria has officially appointed an HFA trophes. risk reduction Focal Point, the Ministry of Interior, as a step forward in its implementation and With regards to disaster prevention, the National organizations and interna- pursuit of HFA objectives and strate- reduction of natural hazards is included in tional partners gic goals. Furthermore, Bulgaria has in- the regular school curricula. According to formed UNISDR about the existence of the Law on Protection in Case of Disas- In addition to organizations and bodies an officially-designated National Plat- ters, the education system must include already mentioned, national partners in- form: the Ministry of Emergency Situa- regular tuition on disaster protection and volved in disaster risk reduction include tions. Bulgaria also actively participated first aid. the Central Laboratory for Seismic Me- in the Euro-Mediterranean Workshop on chanics and Earthquake Engineering; and Disaster Reduction at School, held in Oc- The Minister of Education, Youth and Sci- the European Centre for Risk Preven- tober 2007. ence, in coordination with the Minister of tion, in Sofia. Interior, approves education programmes Within the framework of regional coop- and teaching materials for kindergartens eration, and in collaboration with the Bul- and schools, and plans for preparedness garian national authority and the DPPI trainings for education managers and SEE, UNISDR organized in June 2008 a teachers. School and kindergarten au- seminar on Awareness/Education of Civil thorities are responsible for implement- Population and Schools on Disaster Man-68 69Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 36. Brief Country Profiles: Croatia Brief Country Profiles: Croatia Hazards and disaster The Ministry of Environmental Protec- overview tion, Physical Planning and Construction conducts inspections of adherence to Croatia’s diverse terrain, with flat plains, building codes and is authorized to im- rolling hills, densely-wooded mountains pose fines and stop construction if these and rocky coastlines, is vulnerable to a codes are not followed. number of natural hazards. Floods, earth- quakes, extreme temperatures, wildfires Croatia is highly vulnerable to floods. In and wind storms are all present, although September 2001, a flood affected 1,200 EM-DAT shows (Table 7) that during people. 1980 - 2010 floods accounted for the major share of disaster events, followed In terms of economic loss, wildfires are by wildfires. Four separate periods of ex- also a significant hazard. The wildfires of treme temperatures caused the greatest August 2000 affected the Split, Metko- number of deaths of any hazard, killing vic and Slano (Omis) regions, and caused 833 people. losses of US$17.75 million; from 18 to 23 July 2003, wildfires affected the Du- Analysis of the economic losses shows brovnik region, incurring losses of US$20 that the country is highly vulnerable to million. droughts and drought-related hazards. Floods and earthquakes have affected a relatively larger number of people, but economic losses have not been reported in the EM-DAT database. Droughts and extreme temperatures caused the high- est economic losses, with the drought of February 2003 severely affecting the county of Vukovar-Srijem, causing re- ported damage of around US$330 mil- lion. Croatia Croatia has long historic records of major earthquakes which show that, after con- sidering their return periods, there is a high probability of earthquake occurrence. Among eight historical earthquakes of In- tensity IX or X (Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg scale [MCS]) in the fifteenth, sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the strongest and most important was the great Du- brovnik earthquake of 1667. The largest recent seismic event, the Ston-Slano earthquakes of 1996, com- pletely destroyed three villages and caused heavy damage in a number of southern Dalmatian cities. It was the largest seismic series in the greater Du- brovnik area since the 1667 earthquake.70 71Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 37. Brief Country Profiles: Croatia Brief Country Profiles: Croatia Table 7 Croatia: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 - lowing five sectors: the Sector for the Children in Protection and Rescue, which 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. 112 System; the Civil Protection Sector; has been recommended for implemen- Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss the Fire-fighting Sector; the Fire-fighting tation in kindergartens and elementary of events (US$) Protection and Rescue School; and the schools by the Agency for Education and Personnel, Legal and Finance Sector. Development and the Ministry for Sci- ence, Education and Sport. The Directorate’s regional offices, name- Drought 1 5.55 0 0 330,000,000 ly the County Protection and Rescue Of- This programme has been developed for fices, each includes a county 112 centre primary-school children of the I and II Earthquake 1 5.55 0 2,000 0 and a Prevention, Planning and Supervi- grades (involving around 95,000 children sion Department linked to the Civil Pro- in 871 schools) and for pre-school chil- tection Sector and the Fire-fighting Sec- dren (from a total of 623 kindergartens). Extreme 4 22.2 833 200 240,000,000 tor at local level. The programme has both theoretical and temperature practical components. The Sector for the 112 System is respon- Flood 6 33.3 0 3,160 0 sible for the information flow to all the Children are also informed about floods actors involved in protection and rescue and earthquakes, on what causes them regarding all possible threats and their and the dangers they pose, as well as on Wildfire 5 27.75 13 26 37,750,000 consequences. The service, which also proper modes of behaviour during and benefits from the information of govern- after their occurrence. The training in- ment institutions addressing issues linked cludes an evacuation exercise involving Wind Storm 1 5.55 2 0 0 to natural and technological hazards, the whole class from the school or kin- such as that provided by the Meteorolog- dergarten. Relevant educational material ical and Hydrological Institute of Croatia, has been developed as well as part of the Total 18 100 848 5,386 607,750,000 keeps logs on the unfolding emergency programme. For the last two years NPRD events. Warnings are communicated to representatives have been visiting el- the public by means of sirens. ementary schools and providing trainings Disaster management erational objectives for organizing civil protection, including the areas of inter- The Government of Croatia adopted a for school principals and scholars. They have also given informative lectures to structure and legislation vention, and the methodology and con- national rescue and protection plan in the I and II grade pupils, thus providing tent of plans relating to protection and 2010. The plan includes the duties and extra-curriculum disaster risk reduction With the establishment of the Croatian rescue. responsibilities of all governmental bod- education for children. Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction ies, institutions and the private sector in on 9 November 2009, the country took The Protection and Rescue Act36 es- cases of disaster. In addition, taking into account that the a significant step in making disaster risk tablished the NPRD, which is an inde- elementary- and secondary-school cur- reduction both a national and local pri- pendent, professional and administrative ricula is currently under revision/de- ority with a strong institutional basis for organization that prepares, plans and How education is used velopment, the NPRD has partnered application. The Platform, which is a per- manages operational forces and coor- to promote safety the Ministry of Science, Education and manent forum in the form of an annual dinates the operation of all participants Sport to mainstream disaster risk reduc- conference, was set up at the proposal in the protection and rescue system. The Knowledge of hazards and risks is in- tion into school curricula, i.e. within cer- of the country’s HFA Focal Point, the Na- NPRD started functioning on 1 January cluded in the school curricula, although tain subjects such as geography, history, tional Protection and Rescue Directorate 2005 and is the central-level body with not yet at a sufficient level. Previous ini- chemistry, biology and physics, etc. Fur- (NPRD). primary responsibility for the coordina- tiatives to include disaster risk reduction thermore, the Government of Croatia tion of forces. in school curricula have often failed due has adopted, among others, a recom- Legislation covering disaster manage- to the children being “overloaded” with mendation in which the Ministry for Sci- ment is largely covered by the Protection Under the present system, the NPRD in- school material, making it difficult to in- ence, Education and Sport is mandated and Rescue Act, which came into force cludes regional offices located in each troduce new topics into existing curricula. to mainstream disaster risk reduction into in 2005. The act largely superseded a of the 20 counties and the city district the national education curriculum by es- number of separate laws and regulations of Zagreb, along with its central body. In response, the NPRD has developed a tablishing a Curriculum Revision Work- that established the basic goals and op- The organization is divided into the fol- National Action Programme to Educate ing Group, composed of representatives72 73 36 Other pieces of legislation which established the National Protection and Rescue Directorate are the Law on Organization and Jurisdiction of the Gov- ernment Administration, and the Decree on the Internal Organization of the National Protection and Rescue Directorate.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 38. Brief Country Profiles: Croatia Brief Country Profiles: Croatia from the Ministry for Science, Education Uusimaa 2008. Since 2005, Croatia has signing the project web page. The project Selected national and and Sport, the NPRD, the Meteorological and Hydrological Service, the Republic actively participated in the NATO Crisis Management Exercises. So far three ex- activities were officially started in Brus- sels in January 2010. international partners Seismological Survey, other respective ercises have been organized (CMX OS, involved in disaster line ministries, the Croatian Red Cross, expert organizations and individuals. The 08, 09). On the NATO HQ level, simula- tion exercises Green Cloud 2006 and Many national exercises have also been organized. Biskupija 2010 was conducted risk reduction recommendation was made at the Na- Amber Fog 2008 have been organized in April 2010 to demonstrate the possi- tional Policy Dialogue on Disaster Risk with active Croatian participation. bilities of regular protection and rescue National organizations and interna- Reduction, which was organized by UNDP forces providing assistance and rescue tional partners Croatia, the NPRD and the Meteorologi- Recently, Croatia has been actively par- services to populations in danger, and cal and Hydrological Service of Croatia ticipating in the field exercises of the protecting the environment in case of a Key national partners involved in dis- in June 2010 in Zagreb, Croatia, within EU Civil Protection Mechanism, includ- major disaster caused by a man-made aster risk reduction include the NPRD, the EU-funded Regional Programme on ing Huromex 2008, Danubius 2009 and hazard. In January 2010, the NPRD ex- the Meteorological and Hydrological Disaster Risk Reduction in CEE. TEREX 2010. The field exercises have perts developed and analyzed the evac- Service, the Republic Seismological Sur- an objective to strengthen EU responses uation exercise Procesor 2010 in two vey, Croatian Waters, Croatian Forests Topics such as fire protection, civil pro- to major disasters inside and outside the secondary schools in Bjelovar, with the and the Croatian Red Cross. tection and crisis management may be EU. participation of 400 students, teachers studied as university majors, although so and administrative personnel. The exer- Croatia established a National Plat- far only the University of Applied Sci- On the regional level, under the Civil cise objective was to validate evacuation form in 2009 for disaster risk reduction ences Velika Gorica is tackling disaster Military Emergency Planning Council for and rescue plans for both schools. as a permanent forum for the exchange management as part of a crisis manage- South Eastern Europe (CMEP SEE), nu- of opinions and presentation of views, ment study programme. merous tabletop exercises have been On 31 May 2011, the Lovre pl. Matačić proposals and achievements regarding organized with active participation from elementary school in Zagreb hosted a disaster risk reduction in all areas of hu- The Meteorological and Hydrological Croatia. Under the South Eastern Europe ceremony to award the best art and lit- man activity. The goal of the Platform Service of Croatia is also providing edu- Defense Ministerial Initiative, South East- erary works by Croatian elementary- is to provide guidance in integrating dis- cation and public outreach programmes ern Europe Simulation (SEESIM) regional school children on the subject Disasters aster risk reduction in state policies and targeted at increasing awareness of exercises have been organized (SEESIM and Emergency Response. The ceremo- raising awareness of the safety culture, hydro-meteorological hazards. They in- 02, 04, 06, 08 and 10). Croatia actively ny was organized by the National Pro- primarily through education clude trainings targeted at disaster risk participated in these exercises, which tection and Rescue Directorate and the reduction managers and authorities and had as a main objective the strengthen- host school. The invitation for submission The second annual Croatian Platform operational emergency response man- ing of civil-military cooperation in disas- of art and literary works of elementary Conference, held in October 2010 at agers; educational modules and train- ter response. school pupils in Croatia was launched in the Croatian Military Academy in Za- ing programmes targeted at the general December 2010 by the National Protec- greb, gathered representatives from the public; trainings for the news media; and Furthermore, numerous exercises have tion and Rescue Directorate, as part of following: central state administration collaboration with schools and universi- been organized with neighbouring coun- a children’s education programme aimed bodies, the Croatian Academy of Sci- ties to develop educational programmes tries to demonstrate and test joint pre- at raising children’s awareness regarding ences and Arts, companies and public and curricula which include knowledge of paredness for cross-border accidents. disaster risks to ensure safe conduct and corporations, NGOs dealing with protec- hydro-meteorological hazards. develop a security culture. Pupils could tion against disasters and protection of The Croatian National Protection and compete in one of two age categories, the environment, and representatives Croatia intensively uses simulation ex- Rescue Directorate is a partner of the for grades 1-4 and grades 5-8, produc- from religious communities. Among the ercises to validate preparedness activi- EU-funded Safe Quake project “Im- ing works of art or literature. The topics main topics discussed at the conference ties and disaster response operations. In provement of the population’s post-dis- were related to disasters caused by nat- were: management in emergency situa- the NATO framework, exercises Taming aster behaviour living in urban areas with ural or man-made hazards occurring in tions, the role of science in reducing dis- the Dragon - Dalmatia 2002 and Idassa high seismic risk”. Following the approval either Croatia or elsewhere in the world aster risk; climate change; raising aware- 2007 have been organized in Croatia of the Safe Quake project in September and the emergency services’ response ness on hazards and the development of with many lessons learned for member 2009, Croatia established the national to these events. a safety culture (including education, the countries. Croatia has also participated project team and started preparing the role of the media and promotional ac- in the NATO protection and rescue exer- first project actions. They included draft- tivities); early warning and capacity de- cises Bogordosk 2002, Ferghana 2003, ing the population surveys questionnaire, velopment for response to emergency Dacia 2003, Joint Assistance 2005 and selecting the survey companies and de- situations and disasters; and international74 75Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 39. Brief Country Profiles: Croatia Brief Country Profiles: Croatia cooperation in disaster risk reduction. At geted resources allocated for disadvan- UNISDR collaboration with Croatia pacity-building. The workshop was also the end of the second Croatian Platform taged children. supported by the Global Facility for Dis- Conference, the UN Assistant Secre- Croatia has officially appointed an HFA aster Reduction and Recovery within the tary General for Disaster Risk Reduction, The major achievement during this pe- Focal Point, the National Protection and framework of SEEDRMAP. Margareta Wahlström, expressed her riod was the transformation of UNICEF’s Rescue Directorate, as a step in its imple- satisfaction with the organization and presence in Croatia from a regular mentation and pursuit of HFA objectives quality of the Croatian Platform, while UNICEF field office into a self-funded and strategic goals. Furthermore, Croatia stressing the importance and necessity entity. informed UNISDR of the establishment of education and prevention in order to of its National Platform for disaster risk minimize the consequences of disasters The 2007 – 2011 country programme reduction in November 2009. caused by natural hazards. is consistent with the UNDP programme cycle and with the national development Within the framework of regional co- UNICEF collaboration with Croatia in plan. Although Croatia has not completed operation, and in collaboration with the education and disaster risk reduction a Common Country Assessment/UNDAF Croatian national authority, the United (CCA/UNDAF), the intended programme Kingdom’s Bournemouth University and UNICEF is currently in its 2007 – 2011 strategy and anticipated results have the DPPI SEE, UNISDR held the following country programme, which has the over- been coordinated with relevant United two events in 2008: a specialized training all strategic intent of improving the pro- Nations agencies, including the World which aimed to provide middle managers motion, protection and fulfilment of child Bank. In the education sector, continua- and practitioners with a familiarization rights through tackling the interrelated tion of work on violence in schools and of the planning process and exchange issues of disparities, social exclusion support to the development of alterna- of best practices in drawing emergency and violence against children. In Croatia, tives to residential institutions for vulner- response plans; and a regional disaster the UNICEF field office has been trans- able children is to be assured. management course for senior disas- formed into a self-funded entity and, as ter management experts to train in and such, programme goals are specific and UNICEF will continue to work under the practice disaster response with an aim of there are no direct activities addressing overall coordination of the Ministry of strengthening cooperation among all par- disaster risk reduction. Foreign Affairs and European Integra- ticipants in protection and rescue activi- tions. Key partners from the Government ties. During the previous period, the Croatian include the Ministry of Health and Social Government endorsed the new National Welfare; the Ministry of Science, Educa- Croatia developed its National Platform Plan of Action for Child Rights and Inter- tion and Sports; the Ministry of Family, in close collaboration with UNISDR. As ests 2006 – 2012. It represents a com- Veteran’s Affairs and Intergenerational part of the National Platform activities, prehensive set of measures to improve Solidarity; the Institute for Schooling; the Croatia organizes an annual national child rights fulfilment and protection, with Ombudsman for Children; the Office for meeting on disaster risk reduction to cre- special reference to the issues raised in Human Rights; and the State Bureau for ate awareness of disaster risk reduc- the concluding observations of the Com- Statistics. From civil society, the main tion issues. In the context of exchanges mittee on the Rights of the Child World partners will be professional associa- and knowledge on disaster risk reduc- Fit for Children outcome document and tions and parents’ associations, as well tion, Croatia is the co-chair of the Euro- other international and national commit- as NGOs directly dealing with violence pean Forum for Disaster Risk Reduction ments to children. against children. (EFDRR)37. Although it was recognised that Croatia The particular strength of the UNICEF In February 2011 the city of Bjelovar is moving in the right direction, there is presence in Croatia is its strong partner- joined the UNISDR campaign Making Cit- still room for improvement. There is a ship with the private sector and mass me- ies Resilient: My City is Getting Ready! need for better parenting care, reduc- dia, which will continue as a major driving tion of institutionalization and violence, force for change. Moreover, Croatia in collaboration with more rigorous and systematic child rights UNISDR, the World Bank, CADRI and monitoring, as well as targeted measures DPPI CEE organized in September 2009 to make public services socially efficient the first CEE regional workshop on Na- and backed up by appropriate and tar- tional Platforms’ establishment and ca-76 77 37 The European Forum for Disaster Risk Reduction serves as a forum for exchanges at the regional level.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 40. Brief Country Profiles: Georgia Brief Country Profiles: Georgia Hazards and Analysis of disaster data shows that disasters overview Georgia is severely affected by earth- quakes. An earthquake in the Tbilisi re- gion on 25 April 2002 killed 7 people, af- Georgia lies in a region with moderate fected over 19,000 others and caused to very high seismic hazard38. Earth- an economic loss of US$350 million. This quakes have affected large numbers of was followed by a magnitude 6.5 earth- people and caused significant economic quake on 15 June 1991 in the Dzhava- loss over the past 20 years; the most Tskhinvali region, which killed 8 people devastating were the earthquakes of and affected 3,740 others. 1991 and 2002. Georgia is also vulner- able to natural hazards including floods, Floods are also very frequent in Geor- droughts, mud flows, debris flows, land- gia. The February 1987 flood in the Tbilisi slides, avalanches, hail and wind storms. region alone killed 110 people, affected In the mountainous areas, floods, mud 36,000 others and caused an econom- flows, landslides and avalanches are fre- ic loss of US$546 million. In 1997, the quent, often triggered by strong rainfall floods in the Tbilisi-Gori-Kvemo-Kartli accompanied by rapid snow melt. Large region killed 7 people, affected 500 oth- floods devastate the lowland plains. In ers and incurred a reported economic many areas soil and vegetation are de- loss of US$29.5 million. The only report- graded due to overuse and, together with ed drought was in the Kakheti-Kvemo- deforestation, this increases the erosion Kartli region in 2000, which affected hazard. EM-DAT shows (Table 8) that almost 700,000 people and caused an during (1980 - 2010), floods accounted economic loss of US$200 million. for the major share of disaster events, followed by earthquakes. Table 8 Georgia: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 -2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss Drought 1 7.14 0 696,000 200,000,000 Earthquake 4 28.57 15 30,212 350,000,000 Flood 8 57.14 9 3,990 33,856,000 Wind Storm 1 7.14 0 900 0 Total 14 100 24 761,102 583,856,00078 79 38 GSHAP (1998). Seismic Hazard Assessment for the Caucasus Test Area, by Serguei Balassanian et al. ( caucas.html).Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 41. Brief Country Profiles: Georgia Brief Country Profiles: Georgia Disaster management sources for the “elimination” of disaster These are supplemented by a number disasters common to their surrounding structure and legislation consequences are allocated. Money for of normative acts. They include: Decree No. 66 on “Counter-measures to the de- environments. assessment, recovery and response is The organisational structure for Disas- allocated in the State Budget and in the velopment of disastrous natural geologi- Civil Defense and Safety is a newly-in- ter Risk Management in Georgia is com- budgets of administrative regions. cal processes and protection of under- troduced subject and is taught in the IV, plicated. The main forum for develop- ground hydrosphere and lands” (1997); XIII and XII grades for one semester. For ing policies and providing broad-based The Government, despite the lack of Decree No. 779 on the “Promotion of the IV grade the main direction is to learn advice to the Head of State is the Na- funds, expertise and human resources, implementation of the UN programme on how to behave in an unknown environ- tional Security Council (NSC) of Georgia undertakes efforts to improve the coun- management of emergency situations” ment; in the XIII grade it is to prepare for with the mandate to coordinate efforts try’s preparedness to disasters. Despite (1998); Decree No. 542 on the “Adoption and respond to disasters; and in the XII and activities of relevant ministries and the absence of a strategic document to of the risk assessment document for the grade pupils learn about the evacuation government institutions in the sphere of regulate and harmonize the work in this period 2007 - 2009” (2007), which paid rules in case of an emergency and provi- crisis management, preparation and re- field, a number of regulations and deci- special attention to such natural haz- sion of first aid. sponse in relation to any emergency that sions have been developed in the last ards as earthquakes, floods, landslides, may occur. At present, the NSC has been few years. avalanches and forest fires as well as to Within the framework of the project Sup- tasked to develop the so-called “Threat technological and epidemiological risks in porting Disaster Risk Reduction amongst Assessment” for Georgia in cooperation The major document providing guidelines Georgia. Vulnerable Communities and Institutions with scientists and respective academic on mitigation and avoidance of the im- in Southern Caucasus, implemented joint- ly by the Ministry of Education and Sci- institutions. pacts of emergencies at all levels is the Law on Protection of the Population and How education is ence of Georgia, the Emergency Man- The state structure directly authorized Territories in Cases of Emergency, which used to promote safety agement Department of the Ministry of and responsible for management of was adopted in 2007. Within its frame- Internal Affairs and UNICEF, a specially- emergency situations arising from dis- work, the National Natural and Tech- established Technical Expert Group has asters caused by natural or technologi- nogeneous Emergency Response Plan Components of disaster risk reduction initiated a review of the national cur- cal hazards is the Emergency Manage- (hereinafter, National Response Plan), are taught at all three levels of the edu- riculum with an aim to integrate disas- ment Department (EMD) of the Ministry as a cross- and multi-sectoral document, cation process (primary, basic and sec- ter risk reduction into the Head of Class of Internal Affairs of Georgia. The main has been developed. The Governmental ondary) in a coordinated way, taking into Programme for grades V to IX. The pro- functions of the EMD are defined in the Commission for Management of Cas- account the age-related qualities and ca- gramme is currently being developed by Law on Protecting the Population and es of Emergency is a deliberative body pabilities of students. the National Curriculum and Assessment Territory from Natural and Technological which coordinates a common system of Centre of the Ministry of Education and Emergency Situations. The EMD has its prevention of emergencies and the miti- Within the framework of the natural sci- Science, whereby a total of 12 hours of headquarters in Tbilisi and in its territorial gation or avoidance of their impacts. Its ence curriculum, students are taught to disaster risk reduction will be introduced structures in the regions (provinces), cit- working body is the Emergency Manage- identify safe and hazardous environ- per grade (V - IX) in schools countrywide ies and districts. The territorial structures ment Department of the Ministry of In- ments and rules of behaviour in cases of from the next academic year. A special at all levels are part of the relevant exec- ternal Affairs. The Ministry of Education emergency. training programme and methodological utive authorities. One of the key compe- and Science is one of the signatories of guide for teachers (heads of classes) tencies of the EMD is the establishment the National Response Plan. Within the framework of the social sci- are being developed introducing interac- of an Expert-Consultative council for the ence curriculum, the study of geography tive methodologies of teaching disaster aversion of emergency situations caused Activities in Georgia in the field of disas- assists students in acknowledging the risk reduction. The programme will en- by natural or technological hazards, dis- ter management are guided by the fol- linkage between the necessity to protect able teachers to apply interactive meth- aster mitigation and recovery. lowing legislation and regulatory acts: the environment and its significance for odologies in teaching disaster prepar- sustainable development of society. The edness and risk reduction in schools. As Resources are allocated through the 2007 Law on Protecting the Popu- main emphasis is laid on the knowledge part of this process, school principals and budgets of central and autonomous re- la- tion and Territory from Natural and students should possess about natural administrations will also receive train- publics and through the administration Technological Emergency Situations. and man-made hazards, and their causes ing on disaster risk reduction and on the for funding emergency response forces. 2008 National Response Plan for Nat- and effects, and on developing the right importance of school disaster prepared- The central budget, as well as the budg- ural and Man-Made Emergency Situations. attitude towards the environment. In ad- ness activities. ets of autonomous republics, has a Re- Law on the State of Emergency. dition, within the framework of an elec- serve Fund from which the dedicated re- tive course on geographic research stu- Simultaneously, the Technical Expert dents are able to conduct research on Group - lead by the national expert on80 81Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 42. Brief Country Profiles: Georgia Brief Country Profiles: Georgia disaster risk reduction in education - is whole disaster management cycle, start- with UNDP in the leading role. Three children’s rights, and contributes to the developing an action plan on incorporat- ing with preparedness, prevention, miti- projects have been developed and im- achievement of the Millennium Develop- ing disaster risk reduction under different gation, response and recovery. Efforts plemented: the National Disaster Man- ment Goals and the ongoing national so- subject areas for the next curricula revi- are scattered in this sector regardless of agement Capacity Building Project cial reform process in the area of child sion and other educational policies. a unanimous understanding of an urgent (GEO/99/012); Pilot Rehabilitation Ac- care, health and education. The develop- need for better coordination which will tivities for the Tbilisi Earthquake; and ment of the country programme docu- The staff scientists of the National En- not only help avoid economic losses but Drought Relief. ment for 2011 – 2015 was recently ap- vironmental Agency are associated pro- will also save lives. proved by the Executive Committee. It fessors in institutes of Georgia and are A United Nations Disaster Assessment focuses on integrated and inclusive sys- adopting disaster-related curricula into The National Environmental Agency is and Coordination (UNDAC) team vis- tems for children and social policy as well existing study programmes. They are es- involved in the implementation of the fol- ited Georgia in June 2005. The mission as on child rights monitoring and com- pecially reviewing international practice lowing areas of scientific research and found that Georgia’s institutional disaster munication. The country programme will in disaster risk management, and early- studies in Georgia: global climate change, management capacities were limited in be a key component of the broad United warning systems and their importance. risk management of natural (geological, terms of disaster prevention, mitigation, Nations partnership described in the UN- hydro-meteorological, hydro-dynamical) preparedness and response. The system DAF, which among its three priority areas Selected national and and anthropogenic hazards, and integrat- lacked the human, financial and mate- includes reduced disaster losses in lives ed coastal zone management. rial resources as well as an overarching international partners crisis management legislation to respond and in the social, economic and environ- mental assets of communities and the involved in disaster risk The Institute of Geophysics, togeth- effectively to disasters. UNDAC recom- country through a preventive and proac- reduction er with the Ministry of Environmental Protection, compiled a natural disas- mended creating a permanent political and policy-making body and a permanent tive approach to risk management. National organizations and ter database for 12 disasters (including operational entity within the existing insti- Furthermore, in April 2010 UNICEF start- international partners earthquakes, landslides, debris flows, av- tutional framework for disaster manage- ed to implement the sub-regional project alanches, floods, and several hydro-me- ment. Supporting Disaster Risk Reduction The main forum for developing poli- teorological events). This needs further amongst Vulnerable Communities and cies and providing broad-based advice replenishment, along with Geographic The UNCT Contingency Planning Fo- Institutions in Southern Caucasus. The to the head of state is the National Se- Information System (GIS)-based haz- cal Points Group produced a revised project’s main goal is to support strate- curity Council of Georgia, which has the ard maps of Georgia for each of the 12 UNCT Contingency Plan in September gies that enable communities and institu- mandate to coordinate the efforts and disasters types and preliminary maps of 2009. The revised Contingency Plan is tions to better prepare for, mitigate and activities of relevant ministries and gov- seismic hazard risk. outlining immediate response tasks for respond to disasters and build a safer ernment institutions in the sphere of cri- the UNCT based on a multi-hazard risk and more protective environment for sis management, as well as preparation In 2009 - 2010, with the financial sup- analysis, thus replacing previous draft children. The project aims to facilitate and response in relation to any emergen- port of SDC, UNDP hired a disaster risk United Nations plans for the country mainstreaming of disaster risk reduction cy that may occur. At present, the NSC reduction officer whose main task was based on different separate risk analysis in the ongoing review of the national cur- has been tasked to develop the so-called to promote national coordination in dis- and response scenarios. However, due to riculum. The key partner in the project im- “Threat Assessment” for Georgia in co- aster risk reduction and establish a Na- continued outbreaks of viral influenzas, plementation is the Ministry of Education operation with scientists and respective tional Platform on disaster risk reduction. and the specific public and animal health and Science. The project will reach more academic institutions. One of the achievements of this endeav- issues in preparedness and response, the than 31,000 children in the six targeted our was the formation of the so-called UNCT Pandemic Influenza Plan (2006) regions of Georgia. There are various agencies and in- “Think Tank”, which brought together the remains in force as a stand-alone plan. stitutions which participate at different lead experts of academic and research Among others, key interventions include: stages of a disaster management cycle, institutions with knowledge and interest in UNICEF collaboration with Georgia in such as the Ministry of Environmental disaster risk reduction. education and disaster risk reduction Advocacy and awareness-raising Protection and Natural Resources (in- around the Hyogo Framework for Ac- cluding the National Environmental Pro- The Georgian Government, United Na- UNICEF has worked in Georgia since tion. tection Agency), the Institute of Geo- tions, various international organizations 1993. The UNICEF 2006 - 2010 country Strengthening of the existing disas- physics, other scientific and academic and donor countries have decided to programme focused on early childhood ter risk management policies and plans institutions, local governance bodies and combine their efforts to build sustainable care and development, and child protec- through disaster risk reduction and edu- individual experts, etc. Moreover, there is national disaster management capacities, tion, advocacy and social monitoring for cation-specific inputs. no agency in the country involved in the Advocacy and support for the inte-82 83Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 43. Brief Country Profiles: Georgia Brief Country Profiles: Georgia gration of disaster risk reduction in edu- lished disaster risk reduction think-tank tions of examples of other countries, as cation, including the national school cur- for Georgia (an informal consultancy well as the active participation of official riculum. group gathering representatives of gov- representatives of Georgia in interna- Equipping children and parents with ernment, international organizations and tional and regional conferences, influ- relevant knowledge, skills and tech- civil society). At present the activities enced the decision of the NSC to form niques to strengthen their capacities to are focused on updating and reviewing the State Commission for Management protect themselves from the impacts of the existing National Emergency Re- of Emergency Situations, in 2010. This future disasters. sponse Plan as well as formulation of an structure is in its essence the national Supporting school-based disaster intended Disaster Risk Reduction Plan mechanism for coordination in disaster prepar edness through the introduction for Georgia. risk reduction – the National Platform. of school preparedness plans, emergen- cy school committees, emergency bri- UNISDR collaboration with Georgia In 2009, UNISDR - with the support of the gades and non-structural mitigation, etc. World Bank, WMO and CAREC - com- Providing relevant information, guid- Georgia has officially appointed an HFA pleted the Central Asia and Caucasus ance and tools to teachers, school staff Focal Point in its implementation and Disaster Risk Management Initiative Risk and disaster management officials to un- pursuit of HFA objectives and strategic Assessment for Central Asia and Cauca- dertake disaster preparedness and risk goals. UNDAF utilizes the recommenda- sus Desk Study Review, which includes reduction measures. tions of the HFA to inform and guide dis- Georgia. Collection and dissemination of good aster risk reduction in Georgia through a practices and success stories related to strong partnership among United Nations In 2010, UNISDR - with the support of disaster risk reduction in education. agencies, with civil society and with oth- the World Bank - completed the Study of er stakeholders. The key outcomes and Catastrophe Risk Financing Options: Miti- UNICEF is part of the Disaster Manage- planned activities closely follow the HFA. gating the Adverse Financial Effects of ment Team (DMT) in Georgia, which was Natural Hazards on the Transcaucasian under the leadership of the United Nations UNISDR made its first official contact Economies, which will be published and Resident Representative until the end of with the relevant structures of the Gov- disseminated in 2011. 2006. In 2007, the DMT was replaced by ernment of Georgia in April 2010. This a United Nations Contingency Planning and the consecutive missions included In 2011, the Government of Georgia in- Focal Points Group. The UNDP Disaster meetings with the National Security tends to establish the system of local- Risk Reduction Advisor coordinates this Council, the HFA Focal Point, the Ministry level HFA Focal Points, and to implement group and its interaction with the United of Interior Emergency Management De- the first assessment of the implementa- Nations Country Team (UNCT). On be- partment, local and international NGOs, tion of the HFA at local level. Special at- half of the UNCT, the Contingency Plan- and with the United Nations agencies tention is on risk assessment in the areas ning Focal Points Group manages the providing assistance in this field. In the of priority economic development of the practical planning process by ensuring briefing with the National Security Coun- country. Georgia held the national-level that agency and cluster plans are in line cil, UNISDR stressed the importance of assessment of HFA implementation in with the overall planning framework. It is national coordination, and shared recom- 2009-2010. responsible for the periodic updating and mendations on its structure, composi- testing of the contingency plan as well as tion and mode of operation. A workshop capacity-building and information-shar- under the title National Coordination in ing with international and national stake- Disaster Risk Reduction in Georgia, co- holders. organized by UNISDR and UNDP in July 2010, gathered a significant number and UNICEF is actively involved in activities variety of stakeholders in disaster risk related to strengthening the disaster risk reduction, and served the discussion reduction capacities of Georgia within arena between governmental and non- the framework of the UNCT Focal Points governmental entities. Group for Contingency Planning, lead by the UNDP Disaster Risk Reduction Advi- sor, as well as within the UNDP-estab- The meetings, workshops and presenta-84 85Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 44. Brief Country Profiles: Georgia Brief Country Profiles: Georgia The new schooling year will see disaster risk reduction incorporated in all Georgian schools The children sat patiently at their desks, “We haven’t had a snow avalanche yet,” listening intently. Then, at the sound of said Maia Burduli, a member of the School the megaphone from the corridor outside Disaster Management Board. “But there their classroom, they stood in a line and are often days during the winter when we started moving towards the door. have to close the school for fear of an avalanche, and classes are disrupted.” “Don’t run,” the teacher kept extolling them, as they filed excitedly out of the Maia was talking to us outside the newly- room. In the corridor they joined other completed school building, nestling below classes, also making their way outside the steep sides of the Aragvi River Valley. the building under the guidance of pupil The gradient means this area is prone to marshals wearing bright orange vests avalanches during winter, and mudslides plus teachers and staff from the Emer- in summer. As the rain began to fall, small gency Management Department of the rivulets of muddy water instantly formed Ministry of Internal Affairs. on the steep dirt track at the front of the building, and staff told us when the rain Clearly enjoying the break in normal was stronger, the road was impassable. classes that this evacuation exercise was It was easy to see how landslides could providing, there was no mistaking the ob- occur here. vious value of such drills in the event of a real disaster. The village of Mleta, nearly Tornike Gagadze, aged 15, knows only a two-hour drive north of the Georgian too well. He was asleep in bed one Sat- capital Tbilisi in the foothills of the South- urday morning when a massive landslide ern Caucasus Mountains, is prone to a blocked the river, quickly inundating his variety of potential disasters. house and his neighbours’. It is all part of the school’s efforts in dis- “Of course it was terrifying,” said Tornike, aster risk reduction. Since June 2010, standing in front of the ruins of his home, UNICEF, in collaboration with Georgia’s the surge of silt and rubble deposited by Ministry of Education and Science, the the flood, half submerging the structure. National Curriculum and Assessment “I opened the door and saw the water Centre, the Emergency Management De- level rising so quickly. I had never experi- partment of the Ministry of Internal Af- enced anything like it before.” fairs and Caucasus Environmental NGO Network, has been implementing a disas- He, his father Vazha Gagadze and his ter risk reduction project among vulner- grandmother barely had time to escape able communities, funded by ECHO. with their lives and the few valuables they could grab, losing most of their furniture As a result of this advocacy, as of Sep- and possessions. Back at the school, tember this year disaster risk reduction Tornike relived the event, depicting the will be fully incorporated in the national scene on the chalk board. Beside him, curriculum.86 87Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 45. Brief Country Profiles: Georgia Brief Country Profiles: Kazakhstan classmate Natia Burduli was drawing a for disaster risk reduction in education.” picture of a bigger flood in 2007 which ruined farms, and nearly destroyed their As the children of Mleta school, and oth- village church. The rest of the class were ers throughout Georgia, learn about the in a group, playing a board game which different types of disaster that could taught them about the different types of befall them, the hope is that they never disaster and ways of dealing with them. have to put their new-found knowledge to the test. But in this disaster-prone part An important element of this programme of the South Caucasus region, they had has been the incorporation of disaster better be prepared, just in case. risk reduction education into the national school curriculum. Learning materials for school children and teachers, along with educational games and child-friendly posters, have been developed. Head teachers from selected pilot schools have been trained, and Disaster Man- agement Boards have been established, as at this school in Mleta. Global climate change is likely to exacerbate extreme weather conditions, making the likelihood of disasters arising from natural hazards more frequent and more intense. While Board members looked on, col- leagues from the Emergency Manage- ment Department staged a demonstra- tion for the school’s pupils and staff on the array of emergency equipment available to them. The children’s obvious eagerness to learn was proof that their Kazakhstan involvement is the best way of ensuring safety messages are conveyed to their families and the wider community. “The project has been excellent in a sense that it’s got societies and com- munities to look at disaster risk reduction through the eyes of those that they hold most precious, which is children,” said Benjamin Perks, UNICEF Deputy Repre- sentative in Georgia. Natia Jokhadze, Director of the Nation- al Curriculum and Assessment Center, was in full agreement. “We have had the feedback from the teachers and the stu- dents,” she said. “The children are very motivated and are spreading information to their families, which is very important88 89Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 46. Brief Country Profiles: Kazakhstan Brief Country Profiles: Kazakhstan Hazards and disasters US$36.5 million. The more recent March Table 9 Kazakhstan: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 - overview 2005 flood in the Shiyeli-Syr Dariya re- 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. gion affected 25,000 people and caused The sheer diversity of the natural and ge- an economic loss of US$7.6 million. A Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss ological conditions of Kazakhstan means devastating flood in 2008 claimed one of events (US$) that almost its entire territory is subject to life and caused damage estimated at most of the known natural hazards; wind US$130 million. The flood of 2010 in Al- storms, landslides and mudslides, floods, maty Oblast killed 45 people; the three Earthquake 1 6.25 3 36,626 0 epidemics, extreme temperatures, earth- villages of Kyzalagash, Yegency and quakes and wildfires are all present. Koltaban were completely lost to water. Epidemic 3 18.75 7 873 0 Kazakhstan lies in a region with low to Landslides also pose a significant hazard. very high seismic hazard39. The Tien- The March 2004 landslide in Talgar dis- Shan and Altai mountains lie in a very high trict reportedly killed 48 people. Extreme 2 12.5 3 600,012 0 seismic hazard region which is home to 6 temperature million people (more than one third of the Kazakhstan has suffered from various total population) and more than 40 per epidemic hazards. In December 1998, 7 Flood 7 43.75 55 103,368 210,270,000 cent of the nation’s industrial capacity. people were killed and 593 made ill by Historically, Kazakhstan has experienced bacterial infection, while from 1999 - Mass Movement 1 6.25 48 0 0 highly-damaging earthquakes, which ex- 2000, 280 people were infected by ty- (landslide) perts suggest tend to occur every 80 to phus. 100 years. The last highly-damaging pe- Wildfire 1 6.25 0 8,000 0 riod of seismic activities was 1885 - 1911, when several large earthquakes struck at Vernenskoye (1887), Chilik (1889) and Wind Storm 1 6.25 112 0 3,000,000 Keminskoye (1911). During these earth- quakes, the city of Almaty was almost flattened. Total 16 100 228 731,102 213,270,000 The more recent magnitude 5.4 earth- quake in Zhambyl province in May 2003 killed 3 people and affected over 43,000 others, bringing devastation to housing Disaster management with responsibility for response activities and social infrastructure40. structure and legislation during large emergencies and disasters. The MES is responsible for the general EM-DAT shows (Table 9) that during management of the state system regard- The protection of Kazakhstan’s national ing disaster prevention and mitigation. It 1980 - 2010, floods accounted for the interests against the negative conse- major share of natural disaster events, coordinates prevention measures, con- quences of disasters is under the special trols industrial technical safety, supervis- followed by epidemics and extreme tem- control of the country’s President and is peratures. In the plains, spring floods fed es the national fire service and serves as one of the key priorities of state policy the coordinating body for civil defence in by rain and snowmelt occur and moun- and its long-term development strategy tainous regions suffer mud flows trig- Kazakhstan. until 2030. The long-term direction for gered by rainfall or breaches of glacial national disaster management is provided lakes, although the largest mud flows The Comprehensive Kazakhstan Natural by the Presidential Decree “On measures Disaster Preparedness Plan (formulated are those triggered by earthquakes41. aimed to prevent disasters in the territory Flood events include the June 1993 flood with the assistance of UNDP) serves of the Republic42”. as a guide for central and local govern- in the Embinskyi-Kzylkoginskyi region, which killed 10 people, affected 30,000 ment in implementing disaster reduction The Ministry for Emergency Situations is measures. Furthermore, the MES devel- others and caused an economic loss of the principal organization at central level oped - and the Government approved in90 91 39 GSHAP (19942 Decree No. 451, dated 19 March 2004. 39 GSHAP (1998). Seismic Hazard Assessment for the Caucasus Test Area, by Serguei Balassanian et al. ( caucas.html). 40 ADRC, Comprehensive Kazakhstan Natural Disaster Preparedness Plan, 41 Pusch C. (2004). Preventable Losses, Saving Lives and Property through Hazard Risk Assessment, A Comprehensive Risk Management Framework for Central Europe and Central Asia, Disaster Risk Management Working paper series 9, The World Bank.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 47. Brief Country Profiles: Kazakhstan Brief Country Profiles: Kazakhstan 2005 - the “Concept of prevention and Selected national and gian NORSAR Centre. The Centre will bal Environment Facility’s Small Grants mitigation of natural and technological work on the basis of the National Data Program (GEF SGP). Expected outputs, disasters and improvement of the state international partners Centre, which is part of the international among others, are to build safe behav- management system in this field”, which involved in disaster risk monitoring system. Initially, the Centre iour skills in case of emergency situa- determines the long-term directions of the civil protection system and updates reduction was planned as a regional one yet, tak- ing into account the great interest shown tions among children of the V to XIII and IX to X grades, and develop training mod- the civil defence system to meet the in- National organizations and interna- by several European countries, a deci- ules, exercise books and methodological creased present-day requirements. sion was taken to expand its capacities sources for teachers. tional partners to include training in the English language Other legislation in the realm of disaster as well. UNICEF collaboration with Kaza- risk reduction includes presidential de- In 2003 – 2005 the NGO Man and El- khstan in education and disaster risk crees on measures aimed to prevent dis- ement participated in the development Kazakhstan’s efforts led to the estab- reduction asters in the Republic’s territory. and implementation of the international lishment of the Central Asian Coordina- project Central Asia Seismic Safety Ini- tion Center on Disaster Response and How education is used tiative. As part of the project, guidelines were developed for hospitals and school Risk Reduction, in Almaty. The three-par- ty agreement on the establishment of the In 2009, UNICEF actively implemented a project on supporting disaster risk reduc- to promote safety principals and a non-structural mitiga- centre was signed in the autumn of 2010. tion among vulnerable communities in Ka- tion brochure was produced. During the zakhstan, under DIPECHO V. The project Education on the subject of safe be- project implementation, 414 trainings The Ministry of Emergency Situations, target groups were local managers from haviour during emergencies is provided and workshops were held involving over in coordination with UNDP, is implement- education and emergency sectors, and in schools through the subjects “military 12,200 participants, while 22,550 stu- ing the project Local Risk Management in teachers and children from the 500 se- training” and “basics of life safety”, and dents from 21 schools attended trainings. Earthquake Zones of Kazakhstan, which lected schools. The project had the fol- through activities such as specific cam- Books entitled Basics of Seismology and aims to strengthen the capacities of local lowing outcomes: paigns and civil defence days. The civil Seismic Safety, Earthquakes: protection communities to participate in early warn- defence programme assumes cognitive and safety measures and Almaty City ing and preparedness for earthquakes; Over 70 national and local managers activities and the formation of “psycho- Seismic History were produced. to equip them with the knowledge and from the education and emergency sec- logical preparedness and strength of skills required for the effective mitiga- tors were trained on the HFA and disas- will”. The basics of life safety course Man and Element also took part in the tion of the effects of disasters caused ter risk reduction in education. are intended to develop among pupils a Local Risk Management in Earthquake by natural hazards; to raise the level of conscious attitude to issues of personal Zones of Kazakhstan project. One of the awareness of the local population, deci- Recommendations were developed safety and the safety of others in emer- project goals was the provision of train- sion-makers and public; and to promote and submitted to both ministries (Educa- gency situations. ing for local populations to give them the access to information for civil society on tion and Science) on how to improve the knowledge and skills necessary for ef- disaster response and decision-making. education component within the existing To further develop the risk reduction ficient mitigation of the “consequences One of the project objectives is to in- system of prevention and “liquidation” of message among young people a profes- of acts of God”. Presentations on non- crease the potential of the local popula- emergency situations. sional development school is preparing structural mitigation were developed tion - in particular on disaster response teacher-practitioners at institutions for along with presentations for the three - by means of training and education, and Booklets for school children and meth- supplementary education to work with levels of schooling: elementary, second- the development of movies, cartoons odological guidelines for teachers (cov- children on safe behaviour in emergency ary and high school. Children were pre- and computer games for children. ering the following hazards: earthquakes, situations throughout their training. The sented with the topics “How to behave flooding, landslides and mud flows, and school provides teachers with additional during an earthquake?” and “What can For the implementation of this project fires) were developed and printed. knowledge of new forms and technolo- be done during an earthquake?” cooperation has been established with gies in their work with children and on the the following organizations: the Red Over 2,500 teachers and over 50,000 formation of practical abilities. The Regional Central Asian Training Crescent Society of Kazakhstan, Minis- school children were trained on disaster Centre in support of the Comprehensive try of Health (UNICEF Project Health and risk reduction in education. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization Life Skills Programme), UNICEF, United was opened on 21 June 2010 in Almaty, Nations Development Fund for Women In 2010, UNICEF received a grant from Kazakhstan, under the Institute of Geo- (UNIFEM), UNISDR, United Nations Of- DG ECHO under its DIPECHO pro- physical Research of Kazakhstan and fice for the Coordination of Humanitar- gramme to implement a disaster risk re- with the financial support of the Norwe- ian Affairs (OCHA), ADRC, and the Glo- duction project in South Caucasus and92 93Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 48. Brief Country Profiles: Kazakhstan Brief Country Profiles: Kazakhstan Central Asia. The programme involves quality of life of children, with special on Disaster Management of the Econom- implementing disaster mitigation and pre- attention paid to vulnerable groups and ic Cooperation Organization, in Astana. paredness activities within the education to the reduction in regional and gender- The country regularly completes assess- sector in seven countries of the two sub- based disparities. The overarching priori- ments of the implementation of the HFA regions, including Kazakhstan. ties are to support national policies and and submits biennial reports to the online budgets for inclusive and rights-based HFA Monitor. The city of Almaty, being Under the DIPECHO programme, UNICEF social services that promote greater in- the regional hub of Central Asia for many country offices and their government vestments in human capital and systems areas, hosts a number of research and counterparts, mainly from the national strengthening. This will contribute to analytic centres related to disaster man- education and emergency departments, translating economic growth into visible agement, along with a number of regional are implementing a range of disaster risk improvement in the well-being of both missions and offices of the United Na- reduction interventions aimed at policy, girls and boys. The effectiveness of edu- tions and international and donor organi- institutional and operational aspects. cation with a focus on fostering life-skills zations. The programme, in particular, aims to of children and their families to withstand strengthen the national capacities and risks and hazards continues to be central The MES has hosted a number of study systems for disaster safety, especially to UNICEF in Kazakhstan. tours and workshops with the participa- targeting the selected schools in each tion of colleagues from neighbouring country. As a regional disaster risk re- UNICEF has cooperated with UNISDR to states, sharing its experiences and ap- duction initiative, the project has been jointly conduct sensitization of national proaches in disaster management. In designed in such a way that there is co- and local partners on the HFA and disas- 2007, the country hosted the ADRC con- herence in terms of the objectives and ter risk reduction in education. This was ference, in Astana. results pursued across the seven coun- done at the regional, national and sub- tries, while taking into account the indi- national levels. With the south of Kazakhstan charac- vidual country specificities. terised by high seismic activity, which UNISDR collaboration with Kaza- threatens the large urban and industrial The project activities will improve dis- khstan centres of the country, special attention aster risk reduction skills of teachers in and regular financial support are allotted schools and pre-schools, parents and to seismic safety. other family members of children from Kazakhstan has officially appointed an target groups. Peers of these children HFA Focal Point, the Ministry of Emer- Disaster management policy includes will also have opportunities to increase gency Situations, as a step in its imple- all stakeholders and interested parties. their resilience and coping skills through mentation and pursuit of HFA objectives They include local NGOs, the National peer-to-peer education in disaster risk and strategic goals. Furthermore, Kaza- Red Crescent Society, United Nations reduction in out-of-school settings, such khstan informed UNISDR about the es- agencies, communities and local authori- as summer camps and youth clubs. Gov- tablishment of a National Platform on ties. The technical assistance of UNICEF ernment officials at national and local disaster risk reduction in January 2008, and UNDP in Kazakhstan are crucial in levels exposed to information and ad- with the MES serving as its Secretariat supporting the implementation by the vocacy activities will strengthen their and official Focal Point. Government of its strategies and plans. commitment to disaster risk reduction mainstreaming in the education system. In 2009, UNISDR - with the support of the Media and other community members will World Bank, WMO and CAREC - com- indirectly benefit from the disaster risk pleted the Central Asia and Caucasus reduction activities, the former by pro- Disaster Risk Management Initiative Risk ducing and the latter by “consuming” in- Assessment for Central Asia and Cauca- formation about the project. sus Desk Study Review, which includes a comprehensive analysis of hazards, vul- In 2010 UNICEF entered a new pro- nerabilities and capacities in Kazakhstan. gramme cycle. The 2010 - 2015 country programme aims to support the Gov- In 2010, the Government of Kazakhstan ernment of Kazakhstan in improving the hosted the 5th International Conference94 95Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 49. Brief Country Profiles: Kazakhstan Brief Country Profiles: Kazakhstan Engaging children in Kaza- it’s important for the children to learn.” teachers have been trained through the cascade system and a successful pilot khstan to actively participate Take a short drive to the edge of the programme has been carried out in the city and the mountain ranges Ms. Kase- Almaty and South Kazakhstan regions. in disaster risk reduction nova described are clearly visible, tower- ing upwards from the plains that make up Individual schools and teachers have also It was clear from the eager responses of much of this vast country. Snow-capped, shown their own initiative in helping im- the five- and six-year-old children in this even in the height of summer, they give plement more effective disaster risk re- class at Kindergarten No. 53 in Almaty, a sense of the extremes of geography duction in education. Kazakhstan, that this lesson in disaster and climate for which Kazakhstan is re- risk reduction was one of the most pop- nowned. At School No. 148 in Almaty, children ular of the week. As the teacher asked themselves provide photos and written questions about the different kinds of Winter poses a particular risk for the contributions to give a unique first-hand disasters being shown on the projector vulnerable here, children especially. The student’s perspective to their school’s screen at the front of the class, hands need for children to be prepared for this progress report on disaster risk reduction shot up from eager students wanting to localized risk is reflected in the materi- training. The school’s Deputy Head, Ka- show their knowledge of emergency sit- als they use in their disaster risk reduc- zybek Akhmedjanov, was happy to show uations and what they should do in them. tion lessons. The Republican Institute re- off their work: albums full of photos de- With the loud blare of a siren, they then sponsible for producing training materials picting the many drills and lessons they had their chance to prove their knowl- for teachers, known by the local acronym had undertaken. Hearing the children’s edge. RIPKSO, has been developing colourful own experiences made a big difference. and attractive booklets covering topics “It’s the best form of documentation,” he Instantly, the children all hid beneath their such as extreme cold and first aid. said. desks and covered their heads as they would if they were caught in an earth- “We are a huge country and we can have Now quiet for the summer recess, the quake. Then, when given the signal that critically low temperatures,” explained long echoing corridors of the school the initial quake had passed, they filed RIPKSO Centre Deputy Director, Lubov were largely deserted, but in one class- outside quickly and calmly, for a roll-call Dorozhkina. “So we have added a special room a vacation session for students in the playground from their teacher. module on this, specifically for children.” was under way. Among the various ac- tivities they were engaged in, they were “We have to get under the desks as quick Ms. Dorozhkina, along with Government keen to demonstrate their new found as we can,” explained Sergei Novgoro- and NGO partners, was present at a disaster risk reduction skills. On the word dov as soon as the drill was over and meeting specially convened by UNICEF in of command from their teacher, they the class had returned inside. His friend the Kazakh capital, Astana, to review the all crouched on the floor, covering their Sophia Akzhygitova knew what else they work done on implementing disaster risk noses and mouths with their hands as had to do. “We have to hold on to the reduction education into the school cur- they made their way out of the room as table with one hand and cover our head riculum and to agree on what still needs though it was on fire. The best evidence with the other arm. And stay away from to be achieved. What was clear to eve- of how well children have absorbed the windows.” ryone was the need for a comprehen- disaster risk reduction messages is in the sive disaster risk reduction programme, drills they practice. In the Almaty region of Kazakhstan, with particularly with concerns that global cli- its potential for disasters, a pilot pro- mate change may lead to an increase in Hanaa Singer, UNICEF Representative in gramme has proved the effectiveness of extreme weather events in Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan, summed up the sense of ac- integrating lessons in disaster risk reduc- complishment. “I think it’s a fantastic pro- tion into the mainstream curriculum. With the support of UNICEF and ECHO, gramme, honestly. I saw the simulation. I an impressive level of collaboration has saw the response of the children there, “Here in southern Kazakhstan, we are been achieved since the 2009 signing and I know we don’t only have to depend prone to earthquakes,” explained Kin- of an MOU with the Ministry of Emer- on the Government and the community, dergarten Head, Lucia Kasenova. “And in gency Situations and Ministry of Educa- but we really can depend on the children spring and autumn, there’s a danger from tion. Overcoming an initial lack of disas- also.” landslides from the mountains nearby, so ter risk reduction materials, thousands of96 97Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 50. Brief Country Profiles: Kyrgyzstan Brief Country Profiles: Kyrgyzstan Hazards and disasters Kyrgyzstan is also at high risk from the hazard posed by industrial and nuclear overview dumps left over from the Soviet era. The atomic industry in the former USSR Disasters caused by natural hazards have was developed in the 1940s and 1950s been frequent and varied occurrences in and during this period the first uranium Kyrgyzstan. The country is vulnerable to and rare-earth ore mining was launched a wide range of disasters, including earth- in Central Asia. Many tailing dumps were quakes, floods, landslides, mud flows, av- built directly on the flood plains of rivers alanches, wind storms, extreme temper- or on landslide zones, which means that atures and epidemics. Overgrazing and the contents of these dumps could po- deforestation of steep mountain slopes tentially end in rivers, causing a region- have increased the occurrence of mud wide disaster. flows, landslides and avalanches, which occasionally have swallowed entire vil- lages. EM-DAT shows (Table 10) that during 1980-2010, landslides accounted for the major share of disaster events, followed by floods and earthquakes. Kyrgyzstan lies in a region with high to very high seismic hazard43. Between 1992 and 2007, earthquakes affected the greatest number of people (over 150,000) and caused the largest eco- nomic losses (US$163 million). An earth- quake of magnitude 7.3 struck the Dsha- lal-Abad region on 19 August 1992 killing 54 people, affecting a further 86,800 and incurring a reported economic loss of US$130 million. It was the second major earthquake to hit Kyrgyzstan that year. Kyrgyzstan Landslide hazards are also significant. Approximately 5,000 potential landslide sites have been identified, out of which 3,500 are in the southern part of country. In an average year, landslides kill dozens of people and damage or destroy 700 houses44. Mud flows and floods also cause sig- nificant damage. Floods are initiated by heavy rains, snowmelt and breaches of natural dams. There are more than 8,500 glaciers in Kyrgyzstan encompassing an area of 8,000 square kilometres. Some 200 out of more than 1,000 high moun- tain lakes are identified as dangerous.98 99 43 GSHAP (1998). Seismic Hazard Assessment for the Caucasus Test Area, by Serguei Balassanian et al. ( caucas.html). 44 Pusch C. (2004). Preventable Losses, Saving Lives and Property through Hazard Risk Assessment, A Comprehensive Risk Management Framework for Central Europe and Central Asia, Disaster Risk Management Working paper series 9, The World Bank. 45 Ibid.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 51. Brief Country Profiles: Kyrgyzstan Brief Country Profiles: Kyrgyzstan Table 10 Kyrgyzstan: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 working out measures for the prevention of the natural environment, including the - 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. of emergencies, the protection of people forecasting and prevention of emergen- and national property, and for increasing cy situations. Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss the stability of “economic objects” in the of events (US$) event of a disaster. The MES, along with international gov- ernmental and non-governmental or- The MES also has major responsibilities ganizations, conducts seminars in pilot Earthquake 6 26.08 132 153,086 163,000,000 over the personnel and equipment of oth- regions of the republic to educate local er government services in emergencies. communities at risk of emergency situa- The Ministry has specialized civil protec- tions. Epidemic 3 13.04 22 935 0 tion units, which consist of public agen- cies and institutions (militia, fire brigade With the assistance of the Asian Disaster and medical services, etc.), which are en- Reduction Centre, the MES developed Extreme 1 4.34 11 0 0 listed to accomplish special tasks during and published in 2006 a set of education- temperature emergencies. At the oblast (regional) and al and training materials for employees of local levels, the MES operates through its local governments and the general popu- Flood 3 13.04 4 10,623 5,260,000 local units and local state administrations. lation. The materials are distributed to all the local governments of Kyrgyzstan. Mass Movement 8 34.78 249 68,161 37,500,000 The Centre for Emergency Management The Ministry also conducts continual (landslide) and Coordination at the MES collects, education for the employees of central analyses, processes and disseminates and local government administrations in a data related to disaster management, special division of the MES, and periodi- Drought 1 4.34 0 2,000,000 thereby serving as a tool for the commu- cally publishes information booklets and nication of disaster information and the brochures regarding hazards. Wind Storm 1 4.34 4 9,075 0 preparation of disaster forecasts that are used in government decision-making. Furthermore, in 2007 the MES developed The strengthening of readiness to emer- an advanced training plan which targets Total 23 100 422 2,241,880 205,760,000 gency situations and effective response preparedness training at five separate in Kyrgyzstan are implemented by re- levels: “objective, local, territorial, re- forming the governmental administration gional and republican”, with the purpose system in emergency situations and cre- of providing an education programme Disaster management municipal structures and local govern- ating new rescue divisions. suitable for all sections of society about the risks associated with the country’s structure and legislation ments to build up the resilience of the Legislation in the realm of disaster risk various hazards and how to mitigate their population to disasters and increase the reduction includes the Country Strategy consequences. Such MES trainings are The Government of the Kyrgyz Repub- level of awareness and information in the and National Action Plan of Kyrgyzstan implemented according to the requests lic has set the integration of disaster risk area of disaster risk reduction. Elements on the Implementation of the Hyogo Dec- of interested structures and organiza- reduction into national legislation, strate- of disaster reduction are being intro- laration for 2005 – 2015, the Law on Civil tions. gies and programmes as a strategic goal. duced into the formal education system Protection and the National Emergency It aims to embrace all sectors of society and at community level. Management and Response Plan. However, although certain mechanisms in the programmes and strategies, includ- are being put into place to develop a cul- ing central and local government struc- Central to this process is the Ministry of How education is used ture of safety in Kyrgyzstan, more needs tures, the rapidly-developing private sec- Emergency Situations (MES), which has tor and communities. the principal responsibility for developing to promote safety to be done to bring this message to chil- dren. To make further gains in this area, it a unified state policy for the prevention will be necessary to introduce into school To achieve this aim, the executive branch and mitigation of, and response to, disas- Since 2006 specialists have been edu- cated at the Department of Protection curricula specific trainings on life safety. is working to ensure implementation of ters caused by natural hazards, as well as On this basis, children will learn the nec- the strategic documents across society. for coordinating the activities between in Emergency Situations as part of the Government’s policy of establishing le- essary skills and behaviour appropriate to This includes the interaction of research other ministries. The MES is an independ- dealing with emergency situations. Some institutions, civil society organizations, ent institutional structure responsible for gal responsibilities for the management actions are being taken together by the100 101Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 52. Brief Country Profiles: Kyrgyzstan Brief Country Profiles: Kyrgyzstan Ministry of Emergency Situations and the In addition to organizations and bod- disaster teams (Shoola, in Kyrgyzstan, ganizations working in the sphere of dis- Ministry of Education and Science on in- ies already mentioned, national partners information on which has been included aster risk reduction and related issues. troducing the methodology on life safety involved in disaster risk reduction include in the ISDR publication Building Disaster into schools, starting from September Act Central Asia, which is an NGO con- Resilient Communities46); and the mobili- SDC, in cooperation with CAIAG, has 2011. But although the respective decree sortium for Central Asia that works with zation of all key stakeholders – including been developing a memorandum of un- of the Ministry of Education and Science around 50 partners and implementing communities, governments and partners derstanding with the Ministry of Educa- was signed, more work should be done programmes in Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan - in all disaster risk reduction activities. tion to introduce earthquake awareness on finalizing the methodology, develop- and Kazakhstan. The consortium, which into the education curriculum. Lectures ing the learning materials for students, opened in 2002 and has a regional head Future activities are aimed at linking dis- on environmental awareness have been and printing and dissemination. office in Tajikistan, has as its goal the aster risk reduction with livelihood ap- held in high schools and “safety of life” preparation of communities to face haz- proaches (for disaster resilient assets has been presented as a subject at uni- Selected national and ards and vulnerabilities in order to ensure and resources); working with the govern- versities in Kyrgyzstan. safe life and sustainable livelihoods by ing structures; advocacy and capacity- international partners minimizing the impact of disasters caused building; and research on climate change A Joint Project Document between involved in disaster risk by natural and technological hazards. Act adaptation. the Government of the Kyrgyz Republic reduction Central Asia’s objectives are to increase the awareness of the community and The Central Asian Institute of Applied and the United Nations, the Swiss Agen- cy of Development and Cooperation, and other key stakeholders of the threats Geosciences (CAIAG) was founded the Red Crescent Society of Kyrgyzstan National organizations and interna- and vulnerabilities they face; to enhance in 2002 on the basis of a Cooperation (RCSK) was signed on 28 November tional partners the capacities of communities and key Agreement between the Government of 2007. The purpose of the joint project, stakeholders in identifying and analyz- Kyrgyzstan and the organization Geo- which was signed between UNDP Kyr- As a first step in the establishment of ing threats, vulnerabilities and disasters; ForschungsZentrum Potsdam, of Ger- gyzstan as an administrative coordinator a national coordinating body - including to initiate and sustain community-based many. CAIAG is engaged in scientific, re- and the Inter-Ministerial Commission, was international and national NGOs, govern- participatory disaster mitigation and pre- search and education activities through to improve the country’s response coor- mental organizations and international paredness pilot programmes (based on its five departments: dination capacity to disasters caused by agencies involved in disaster risk reduc- a livelihood framework for disaster risk natural and technological hazards. tion - an Inter-Ministerial Commission to reduction); and to document, advocate Geodynamics and Geohazards. “prevent and liquidate emergency situ- and disseminate lessons learned in the Climate, Water and Geo-ecology. Among other activities, a Disaster Re- ations” was established in March 2006. development of disaster risk reduction in Land use and resource preservation. sponse Coordination Unit, seven sector This Commission was re-established as the region. Technical infrastructure and groups and two mobile operational bod- the Inter-Ministerial Commission on Civil information. ies for the rapid needs assessment of the Protection on 3 January 2011, to follow Since it started operations, the consor- Education, Training and Scientific affected population – REACTs + were the recent 2009 changes in Kyrgyz leg- tium has achieved the following: the inte- Cooperation. established taking into account exist- islation on disaster risk management. The gration of development programmes and ing structures and capacities developed Commission is comprised of governmen- disaster risk reduction activities (based CAIAG has a regional mandate and is under the framework of other projects tal agencies and is chaired by the Prime on the self-help group work of the lo- an active participant in, and often the which were either already implemented Minister, with the Minister of Emergency cal NGOs Shoola and Mehr-Shavkat, in initiator of, regional and international or were under implementation, such as Situations as Deputy Chair. It so hap- Kyrgyzstan); a memorandum of under- programmes and initiatives aimed at dis- the World Bank Disaster Hazard Mitiga- pened that the Ministry of Education of standing between disaster risk reduction aster risk reduction and climate change tion Project 2004 + 2010. As part of this Kyrgyzstan had not been included as a partners in Tajikistan; close coopera- adaptation in line with the five priorities project, a Crisis Management Centre, member of the Inter-Ministerial Commis- tion with the Rapid Emergency Assess- of the HFA. It works with a wide range of based at the MES, has been established sion. This can be explained by poor un- ment and Coordination Team (REACT) partners in Central Asia and other coun- and fully equipped, and additional sta- derstanding of the role that both educa- and the NGO Youth Group on Protec- tries of the world. In 2005, a permanent- tionary and mobile disaster management tion and knowledge can have in disaster tion of Environment, in Tajikistan; a re- ly-tracking GPS reference station was centres should be established throughout risk reduction. The situation has changed source centre disseminating disaster risk installed at CAIAG which is part of the the country. since, and in 2011 – thanks to the ef- reduction-related information (the NGO global tracking network. forts of both UNISDR and UNICEF - the Youth Group on Protection of Environ- Ministry of Education is becoming a per- ment, in Tajikistan); professional training CAIAG aspires to expand its cooperation manent member of the Inter-Ministerial for rescue teams (the NGO Zumrad, in with scientific and research institutions Commission. Tajikistan); the establishment of schools as well as national and international or-102 103 46 (ISDR) Building Disaster Resilient Communities, Good Practices and Lessons Learned: A Publication of the “Global Network of NGOs” for Disaster Risk Reduction, Geneva, June 2007.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 53. Brief Country Profiles: Kyrgyzstan Brief Country Profiles: Kyrgyzstan counterparts, mainly from the national emphasis on disaster risk reduction in its discipline in their programmes. In 2010, UNICEF collaboration with Kyrgyzstan education and emergency departments, work and change of legislation in the dis- the country hosted the regional confer- are implementing a range of disaster aster risk reduction field). ence The Role of National Platforms in in education and disaster risk risk reduction interventions aimed at the Integration of Disaster Risk Reduc- reduction policy, institutional and operational as- In 2008 and 2009, the country hosted tion in University Programs, at which Kyr- pects. In particular, the programme aims and actively supported the so-called Fer- gyzstan shared its extensive experience In relation to education, it is expected to strengthen the national capacities and ghana Valley Initiative on trans-border in this field. The commitment of the coun- that all primary- and secondary-level chil- systems for disaster safety, especially cooperation and coordination for disas- try to disaster risk reduction and to the dren in the selected schools of four prov- targeting the selected schools in each ter risk reduction and management, with establishment of a National Platform for inces will gain an education that is based country. the participation of countries that share disaster risk reduction was stated at the on a reformed curricula and child-centred the Ferghana Valley and the basin of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduc- teaching/learning methodology. In Kyrgyzstan, the project focuses on river Syr-Darya. tion, in Geneva in 2011. pre-school institutions identified jointly by It should be noted that UNICEF has not UNICEF, the Ministry of Emergency Situ- In 2008, Kyrgyzstan joined the initiative focused extensively on disaster risk re- ations and Ministry of Education. on establishment of the Central Asia Co- duction issues in Kyrgyzstan, although ordination Center for Disaster Response its 2010 - 2011 rolling work plan included and Risk Reduction, in Almaty, and in UNISDR collaboration with promoting resilience and safe behaviour 2010 signed an inter-government memo- among children through mainstreaming Kyrgyzstan randum on its establishment. disaster risk reduction into formal and non-formal education. Furthermore, as UNISDR focused its activities in the Kyr- In 2009, UNISDR - with the support of the part of the United Nations Country Team, gyz Republic on strengthening the nation- World Bank, WMO and CAREC - com- UNICEF took part in the rapid assessment al coordination of disaster risk reduction pleted the Central Asia and Caucasus following the 2006 earthquake. and on improving regional trans-border Disaster Risk Management Initiative Risk coordination. A number of workshops Assessment for Central Asia and Cauca- Although UNICEF has not cooperated and conferences, as well as high-level sus Desk Study Review, which includes a directly with other United Nations agen- meetings with the Government of Kyr- thorough analysis of hazards, vulnerabili- cies on the subject of disaster risk reduc- gyzstan, have been organized since ties, capacities and needs of the Kyrgyz tion, the organization nevertheless plays 2007 to promote disaster risk reduction Republic in disaster management. an active part in REACT. As well as the and advocate for improved coordination cluster/sector on water, sanitation and at all levels. The country effectively collaborates hygiene, UNICEF – together with Save with a number of United Nations agen- the Children - leads the education cluster. Kyrgyzstan, as a country with multiple cies and international organizations in Also, UNICEF is a member of the protec- natural and technological hazards, pays the field of disaster preparedness and tion cluster/sector, leading the child pro- special attention to preparedness and response. An HFA Focal Point was as- tection sub-cluster/sector when needed. mitigation of losses. The country es- signed in 2008 and representatives of tablished Crisis Management Centres in Kyrgyzstan actively participate in region- In 2010, for the first time Kyrgyzstan Bishkek (the capital city) and in Osh, with al and international events and activities, joined the DIPECHO project implemented direct satellite communication that is cru- such as the annual ECO conferences in in the region of Central Asia and South cial in coordination of disaster manage- disaster management. Regular assess- Caucasus. The programme involves im- ment actions. ments of HFA implementations are con- plementing disaster mitigation and pre- ducted, and the reports are submitted to paredness activities within the education The Government promotes coordination the online HFA Monitor. sector in seven countries of the two sub- and involvement of multiple stakehold- regions: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, ers in disaster risk reduction through the The Government of Kyrgyzstan intends Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and work of the Inter-Agency Commission for to establish a National Platform for dis- Uzbekistan. Civil Protection (the former Commission aster risk reduction in 2011, with the in- for Response and Liquidation of Conse- volvement of various stakeholders. A Under the DIPECHO programme, UNICEF quences of Emergency Situations has number of universities have included country offices and their government been re-named, reflecting the increased disaster risk reduction as the mandatory104 105Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 54. Brief Country Profiles: Kyrgyzstan Brief Country Profiles: Kyrgyzstan Equipping children in reduction at the local ‘Schoola’ kinder- tion are particularly relevant for Aijan Kyrgyzstan to deal with garten was particular poignant for the teacher, Nurgul Karaeva. Just a week Abdykarimova, aged five. Her walk home from school takes her across a dry riv- disasters caused by natural earlier, her two teenage nephews were er bed that becomes a torrent in heavy hazards killed in a flood in the nearby mountains. rains. Around the Omurbaev household, as with “Children between three and five really “When we see the flood,” she explained the homes of their neighbours in the vil- absorb this information and even tell their confidently, “we have to run for home lage of Chengen in southern Kyrgyzstan, parents what to do,” she said. “If those and be with our parents, because the the sights and sounds of the continuing two boys who died had known what to do, flood is bad and it can take you away.” clear-up were everywhere. maybe they would have survived.” It is planned that the same training for Less than two weeks after a massive This is a community living with the daily three to seven year olds will be extend- mudslide ripped through here claiming dangers posed by powerful rains and ed to all pre-schools in Kyrgyzystan, so scores of homes, the memory of it was winds. Global climate change can poten- those most vulnerable in disasters will still intensely painful for 10-year-old Rus-tially influence the severity and frequen- learn how to behave in emergencies. lan Omurbaev and his three brothers and cy of such weather events. It is also a sisters. region that is frequented by earthquakes, “The most vulnerable during a disaster, the most recent of which, a powerful are the young people and elderly,” said “The flood took everything: my toys, my tremor in late July, measured more than Islam Misiraliev, Head of Batken District books,” said Ruslan, his voice trembling. 7 on the Richter scale and left hundreds Emergency Situations Department. With “And it still gives me bad dreams.” of people homeless. Across the border in the right training, though, those same neighbouring Uzbekistan, 13 people died. children can become an asset in times of He described in detail how the normally need. dry river bed in front of their house be- Lessons in disaster risk reduction imple- came a raging torrent of mud and water mented by UNICEF in conjunction with Back at the village of Ruslan Omurbaev, following torrential rains, and how it sud- Government and NGO partners are de- everyone was busy with the continuing denly surged over its banks, inundating signed to build a culture of safety which clean up. As they toiled in the heat, drag- their homes. becomes sustainable. The programme is ging bucket-loads of mud out of their supported by DIPECHO under the Euro- homes, their temporary tented shelters “I was away at the time,” said Zhumash pean Commission Humanitarian Aid and stood next to piles of electrical applianc- Omurbaev, his grandfather. He went on Civil Protection Department. es, clothes and books, drying out in the to explain how the terrified grandchil- sunshine. dren, and their great grandmother, had “This is something very new for us,” ex- to be rescued from the windows at the plained Abdilaziz Zaitov, Head of the In a neighbouring house, 16-year-old Bo- back of the house as the flood was surg- District Education Department. “Before lot Aziretkulov and his grandmother man- ing through the front. children would run out panicking during an aged to escape from their home and help emergency. But now they know exactly others get out, thanks largely to what Bo- Luckily, no-one in the village died in the what to do.” lot had seen on television. “I knew we had flood, but its speed and ferocity was a to get to higher ground because that’s frightening reminder of how prone this Children at the kindergarten in Jany Bak what the TV emergency announcements part of Kyrgyzstan is to disasters. Driv- had just finished an evacuation drill, over- tell you.” ing through the deep ravines and gorges seen by their teacher, Nurgul Karaeva. of the mostly arid Batken region of the Now they were outside in the school yard, In doing so, he managed to lead not only country’s south west corner, it is easy to practicing how to respond to storm-force his grandmother to safety, but also some see how sudden rains can produce flash winds that are generated by the extreme of his neighbour’s children. He is part of floods. climate. a generation growing up facing greater potential dangers in their homelands and In the neighbouring district in the village In the kindergarten of the neighbouring being equipped with the skills needed to of Jany Bak, the lesson in disaster risk village, the lessons in disaster risk reduc- deal with them.106 107Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 55. Brief Country Profiles: Moldova Brief Country Profiles: Moldova Hazards and disasters nificant seismic events during the period 1980 - 2010 covered in the data summa- overview ry in Table 11. Moldova was most vulnerable to flooding Moldova is also prone to droughts, with during the period covered by EM-DAT events in 2000 and 2007 each lasting for 1980 - 2010, with seven separate events an entire growing season of up to nine killing a total of 61 people, affecting a fur- months. The 2000 drought was severe ther 51,957 and causing economic losses and crippled Moldovan agriculture in the of over US$360 million. The next most spring and summer of that year, affect- damaging disasters were wind storms, ing about 2.6 million people. UNDP re- with two events causing damage esti- ports that the proportion of overall agri- mated at US$362.6 million and affect- cultural losses in the affected areas was ing over 5.1 million people. OCHA reports between 70 per cent and 90 per cent. that the windstorm and frost of Novem- ber 2000 caused damage estimated at Historic earthquake records report a US$20.8 million. severe earthquake of magnitude 7.3 in Chisinau in 1940. Moldova is in close The country is also vulnerable to natural proximity to the Vrancea seismic zone in hazards including droughts, epidemics, Romania. The United States Geological extreme temperatures, landslides and Survey reports a recent earthquake of frosts. Additionally, historical records magnitude 2.9 in the Ukraine-Romania- show that the country is vulnerable to Moldova border region, on 15 February earthquakes, although there were no sig- 2005. Table 11 Moldova: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 - 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss of events (US$) Moldova Drought 2 15.38 2 210,394 406,000,000 Epidemic 1 7.69 0 1,647 0 Extreme 1 7.69 13 0 0 temperature Flood 7 53.84 61 51,957 24,673,000 Wind Storm 2 15.38 3 2,625,580 31,600,000 Total 13 100 79 2,889,578 462,273,000108 109Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 56. Brief Country Profiles: Moldova Brief Country Profiles: Moldova Disaster management of Fire Fighters, and in June 2005 the with the Government of Moldova to re- new policies and strategies. combined Department for Emergency duce the risks of an epidemic through A disaster risk reduction strategy for structure and legislation Situations was transferred to the juris- education and training during a project on Moldova was produced jointly by UNICEF diction of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. avian influenza prevention and response. and UNDP. There is a multitude of Moldovan govern- The UNICEF communications section mental agencies responsible for hazard The Law on Defence against Fires de- managed the public information and com- Recent history, including the preparation management and disaster risk reduction. fines the legal, economic and social munication component of the project, the of a contingency plan against avian influ- The agencies responsible for disaster framework to ensure fire safety and fire benefits of which included an improve- enza, demonstrated that the Moldovan risk reduction are coordinated through protection in Moldova, and regulates re- ment in risk communication during cri- institutional and operational framework the Republic Commission for Emergency lations in the field of combating fires. sis situations among high-level officials, would benefit from capacity-building in Situations, chaired by the Prime Minister, health specialists and health managers. order for it to more efficiently tackle the with participation at ministerial level from Key forthcoming activities include the The project included the establishment challenges it faces. In response to these appropriate bodies. harmonization of the legal framework of a public hotline number and a commu- challenges, three United Nations agen- with the EU; creation of a Disaster Op- nication strategy developed to support cies – UNICEF, UNDP and UNFPA – in The key governmental body for pre- erations Centre, in order to assist the the avian influenza response activities of cooperation with the national partners vention, monitoring, early warning and CPESS with coordination of all other the Ministry of Health. developed a joint project with the goal response coordination in the case of a government organizations in times of to support local counterparts in ensur- disaster is the Civil Protection and Emer- disaster; implementation of a GIS system The previous UNICEF 2002 - 2007 ing that human well-being is assured in gency Situations Service (CPESS) of in civil emergency management; and fur- country programme focused on mater- whatever emergency situations develop. the Ministry of Internal Affairs, which ther implementation of the Government nal and child health; child protection; and An assessment and project development prior to 5 April 200747 was referred to of Moldova and NATO Partnership for young people’s health, development and was made under the joint programme as the Department for Emergency Situa- Peace Individual Partnership Action Plan participation. Due to the understanding Reinforcing the Capacity of the Repub- tions. The main tasks of the Service are (IPAP). that quality of education in Moldova is a lic of Moldova in Emergency Prepared- as follows: protection of the population bigger problem than education coverage, ness and Emergency Response, to which and property through prevention and re- The CPESS has been created within the the Government has decided to under- UNICEF Moldova was the leading agency sponse; civil emergency planning; search overall framework of ongoing IPAP se- take significant efforts rehabilitating the in 2007. However, there have been no and rescue operations; issuing of warn- curity sector reform. school infrastructure, attracting teaching activities carried out or planned in the ings and information; maintenance and staff (particularly in rural areas), and ap- area of disaster risk reduction focused use of protective means; risk and capac- ity assessment; education and training; Selected national and plying new teaching methods, similar to ones used elsewhere in Europe. UNICEF on education. preparedness; and mitigation of disaster international partners supported the Ministry of Education and UNISDR collaboration with Moldova consequences and rehabilitation. involved in disaster Youth (MEY) in running a basic education baseline study, aimed at assessing the Moldova has officially appointed an HFA Civil emergency management in Moldova risk reduction situation in the system from the perspec- Focal Point, the State Hydro-meteoro- is regulated by the following two acts: the tive of child-friendly schools, with spe- logical Service, as a step in its implemen- Law on Civil Protection and the Law on National organizations and interna- cific emphasis on access and quality of tation and pursuit of HFA objectives and Defence against Fires. tional partners education, parents’ and community par- strategic goals. During the spring of 2007, ticipation, and families’ role in children’s and within the framework of SEEDRMI, The Law on Civil Protection defines In addition to organizations and bodies education. direct communication was established the basic principles for the organization already mentioned, national partners in- between Moldovan national authorities of civil defence at all levels, and estab- volved in disaster risk reduction include With UNICEF assistance, an interdisci- and UNISDR. lishes its tasks and the legal framework the State Hydro-meteorological Service; plinary working group approved at the that public authorities, institutions, private and the Institute for Geophysics and Ge- level of Prime Minister has developed the On 24 September 2007 in Zagreb, a enterprises, organizations and citizens ology, of the Moldova Academy of Sci- national concept on inclusive education. government representative of Moldova have to operate within. When the law ences. New partnerships with UNESCO, UNDP, signed a memorandum of understanding was introduced, the Department of Civil the World Bank, the MEY, the Ministry of on the institutional framework of DPPI Protection and Emergency Situations, as UNICEF collaboration with Moldova in Finance, civil society and the Institute of SEE. it was then known, was under the Ministry education and disaster risk reduction Educational Sciences will help strengthen of Defence. But in 1997 the Department the capacity of a newly-established pol- Other international partners include the was expanded to include the Department UNICEF established a viable partnership icy unit in the MEY so that the quality of European Centre for Mitigation of Natu- implementation will match the quality of ral Risks.110 111 47 Civil Protection and Emergency Situations Service was established according to Law No 93 (5 April 2007) ‘On Civil Protection and Emergency Situa- tions Service’.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 57. Brief Country Profiles: Montenegro Brief Country Profiles: Montenegro Hazards and disasters an expected maximum seismic intensity of magnitude 8 or larger. This affects overview some 60 per cent of the national popula- tion. The country is placed in the middle of Montenegro became independent only in an active seismic belt which is frequently 2006 and there is a lack of retrospec- affected by catastrophic earthquakes. A tive country-specific risk-related data devastating earthquake on 15 April 1979 available in the EM-DAT database. Brief along the coast and wider area of Lake additional information available solely for Skadar killed 136 people and caused Montenegro from various sources is also damage amounting to US$4 billion. presented here. Other natural hazards include flash Montenegro is vulnerable to disasters floods, landslides and rock falls, which caused by natural hazards including often follow heavy rain and can have a earthquakes, floods, landslides and for- critical impact. The country’s complex est fires. topography makes such events frequent and potentially very damaging for set- The best and most fertile land in Mon- tlements and public infrastructure, espe- tenegro is regularly flooded. The Pazicko cially the 7,000 km road network, much polje is vulnerable to flooding of the River of which is located in mountainous areas. Zeta. Events were reported in 1980 and 2001 in this area. Furthermore, the val- Forest fires are even more frequent and ley of the River Lim, at the estuary of the widespread, especially in the rural coast- River Moraca, and the Zeta plain are also line areas and in the central region. Of- susceptible to floods. Flooding occurs ir- ten fires are started through agricultural regularly in other areas as well. practices. In common with other countries along the Balkan coastline, Montenegro is prone to very high seismic risk. According to data reported by the National Strategy for Emergency Situations, almost 40 per Montenegro cent of Montenegrin territory is at risk of Table 12 Montenegro: Summary data for Montenegro on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 - 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact as available from EM-DAT. Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss of events (US$) Flood 4 100 0 7,886 0 Total 4 100 0 7,886 0112 113Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 58. Brief Country Profiles: Montenegro Brief Country Profiles: Montenegro Disaster management The Sector for Emergency Situations How education is used Selected national and structure and legislation and Civil Security consists of the follow- ing departments and units: the Depart- to promote safety international partners ment for Civil Protection, which identifies There is official recognition that disas- involved in disaster risk Montenegro has developed a broad framework under the Ministry of Interior and evaluates risks at national and local level; the Department for Risk Assess- ter risk reduction and recovery concepts reduction and Public Administration for handling ment, which is responsible for the man- and practices are not adequately treated emergency situations and civil security in the present education programmes, National organizations and interna- agement of the national database of risks through the establishment of the Sec- as reported by the National Strategy for which remain outdated48. However, this tional partners tor for Emergency Situations and Civil Emergency Situations; the Department situation should change now with the es- Security. The Sector was established as for Prevention and Inspection, which has tablishment of an institution that is com- In addition to organizations and bod- a unique body to implement mechanisms jurisdiction over the activities defined by petent to manage emergency situations ies already mentioned, national partners for civil protection in Montenegro un- the Law on Protection and Rescue and and enhance the modernisation of school involved in disaster risk reduction include der the terms of regulations introduced other regulations related to this area; programmes in a systematic manner. In- the Montenegro Seismological Observa- by the Government in December 2004 the Department for Operational Affairs, deed, the Sector for Emergency Situa- tory, and the Hydro-meteorological Insti- which made the Ministry of Interior and which is in charge of the coordination of tions and Civil Security is developing the tute of Montenegro. Public Administration responsible for risk all organizations, companies, and state subject of disaster risk reduction, which In 2010, in cooperation with the United management, preparedness and search or local authority institutions in emergen- will be proposed to be included in the Nations system, Montenegro conducted and rescue in cases of earthquakes, fires cies; the Department for Strategic Poli- education curriculum for grades VI – IX a national needs assessment on disaster and other natural or technological inci- cies and Legal Affairs, which defines the (age 13 - 16). risk reduction that was discussed dur- dents. guidelines for strategies and programmes, ing a three-day national policy dialogue and proposes draft laws relevant to the Almost 32 years after the devastating where over 30 institutions were present- The plan was a move to institutionalize organization and the functioning of civil earthquake which destroyed the whole ed. The priority list of some 20 actions disaster management and consisted of protection and monitors their realization; coast of Montenegro and following the was agreed with a goal of strengthen- three components: an assessment of ba- the 112 Centre, which uses the European recent catastrophic earthquake that hit ing the disaster risk reduction system sic risks, which resulted in the National emergency number 112 and is a hub for Japan, an EU-funded awareness cam- in Montenegro. The three-day working Strategy for Emergency Situations; the all types of emergency; and the Helicop- paign on earthquakes under the slogan meeting for the establishment of a Na- establishment of a service capable of ter Unit, which is responsible for search “Need to know to be Ready to React” tional Platform on disaster risk reduction responding to disasters, but focused on and rescue operations over the whole of is being launched through a wide media in Montenegro is a follow up to the na- prevention; and the development and Montenegro. campaign. The first step was the or- tional policy dialogue. adoption of the Law on Protection and ganisation of a major press conference Rescue, with an aim to regulate the legal Ever since its formal establishment, the which targeted the whole population, in- UNICEF collaboration with Montene- framework. Sector for Emergency Situations and volving television, radio and newspapers, gro in education and disaster risk re- Civil Security has established active co- and included news items, interviews, pro- motional articles on dailies and radio and duction The National Strategy for Emergency operation and collaboration at regional Situations can be considered as a foun- and bilateral level; the most dynamic is TV spots. But the main aim of the aware- Previous UNICEF cooperation with Mon- dation document for the structure of civil cooperation with the Danish Emergency ness project is to educate 5,000 school tenegro was planned to be covered protection in Montenegro. It analyses all Management Agency in the area of in- children between 10 and 11 years of age under the organization’s 2005 - 2009 the risks affecting the territory of Mon- stitutional capacity-building and disaster to be better prepared and ready to react country programme for Serbia and Mon- tenegro and provides a survey on the ca- preparedness. in case of an earthquake. The -40,000 tenegro. However, the independence of pacity of the Montenegrin structures to awareness project, which is part of the Montenegro in 2006 resulted in the de- cope with them. The survey highlights the EU-funded Programme on Prevention, velopment of a new country programme operational capabilities of Montenegro Preparedness and Response to Natural for 2007 to 2009. The new programme with reference to the major risks on its and Man-made Disasters (PPRD South), had the overall goal of ensuring that chil- territory, emphasizing the importance of is targeting the 5,000 school children in dren, particularly those who live in pov- constant monitoring of the hazards and 62 primary schools, who will learn how erty and are socially excluded, enjoy and the need for an integrated approach to to protect themselves and their families exercise their rights. The country pro- disaster risk reduction. by knowing how to master the necessary gramme comprised three components: skills. partnership and social policy reform for children; system and institution building;114 115 48 From Montenegro: National progress report on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action, June 2009. For more information, see http:// and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 59. Brief Country Profiles: Montenegro Brief Country Profiles: Romania and community mobilization. UNISDR collaboration with Montenegro The new country programme (2010- 2011) comprises two mutually-reinforc- Montenegro has officially appointed an ing components: child protection and HFA Focal Point, the Ministry of Interior social inclusion; and child rights, policies and Public Administration, as a step in its and planning. These reflect the unique implementation and pursuit of HFA ob- contribution the programme can make jectives and strategic goals. During the in the following areas: supporting gov- summer of 2007, and within the frame- ernment and institutions to complete the work of SEEDRMI, direct communication child-care system reform agenda and im- was established between Montenegrin plement the legal framework for children national authorities and UNISDR. at the central and local levels; investing in the inclusion and protection of the most vulnerable and marginalized groups; strengthening capacities in planning, child rights monitoring and budgeting; creating a framework for a sustainable legacy for child rights; and facilitating a child rights perspective in the application of Copen- hagen Criteria for accession to the Euro- pean Union. Communication for development will be a key strategy for sustainability across the programme. As Montenegro is an earth- quake-prone country, the programme will continue to make preparedness a priority strategy. An example of cooperation in the field Romania of disaster risk reduction was the sup- port given to the Ministry of Health during the influenza A (H1N1) “swine flu” out- break in 2009 when UNICEF produced communication material for a prevention campaign49. Other cooperation included the development of United Nations inter- agency contingency plans, also in 2009, on a joint response and preparedness plan in case of a major earthquake, and another on the human influenza pandem- ic. In addition, a joint training on emer- gency preparedness and contingency planning was held in the same year for resident United Nations agencies.116 117 49 Following a substantial reduction in the number of cases from January 2010 the Ministry of Health had not yet started to produce this material by the time this publication went to print and it was an open question whether or not it would be used by the end of the influenza season.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 60. Brief Country Profiles: Romania Brief Country Profiles: Romania Hazards and disasters But in terms of number of deaths and to- Disaster management exceptional act which allows the applica- tal economic losses, earthquakes are the tion of a series of political, economic and overview most dangerous disaster events. Roma- structure and legislation public order measures covering the na- nia lies in the Mediterranean seismic re- tional territory. Romania is especially vulnerable to gion, part of the south European alpine The Romanian national policy addressing floods and earthquakes, occasionally of belt. The country is affected by earth- disaster prevention and management is A national report regarding disaster man- catastrophic proportions. The country’s quakes of varying magnitudes and return expressed through the work of different agement was developed in 2001. The geologic structure and climate promote periods. In the twentieth century two vio- administrative authorities, public institu- document assessed the impact, inten- landslides, which often occur as associ- lent earthquakes struck Romania causing tions and specialist bodies with responsi- sity and evolution of the main types of ated hazards of earthquakes and floods. tremendous human and material losses. bilities, and various legislative documents. hazards affecting Romania, and identi- EM-DAT shows (Table 13) that during The country’s technical and institutional fied the country’s vulnerabilities. It ex- 1980 – 2010, floods accounted for al- Other seismic zones, such as those situ- capacity for disaster management and amined the human, material and financial most 39 per cent of all disaster events, ated in Banat, in the north-west of Ro- preparedness are in place and it is quick- resources available for hazard manage- killing a total of 1,694 people, affecting a mania, and in the Făgăras mountains, ly developing an appreciation of how to ment and assessed which buildings and further over 1.6 million and causing eco- typically are affected by earthquakes of address disaster risk reduction issues50. which infrastructure facilities were most nomic losses of almost US$3.5 billion. smaller magnitudes. vulnerable. The national authority responsible for multi-sectoral coordination is the Nation- The report also analysed the govern- al Committee for Emergency Situations, mental and non-governmental struc- which operates through the General In- tures involved in disaster management Table 13 Romania: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 - spectorate for Emergency Situations and international cooperation in disaster 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. (GIES). The Ministry of Interior and Ad- situations, as well as the capacities and ministrative Reform, coordinated by the challenges in disaster prevention, prepar- Prime Minister, manages the National edness and management both at national Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss Committee for Emergency Situations. It and regional level. Any gaps or impera- of events (US$) is the National Committee’s job to co- tive needs were identified. ordinate the human, material and finan- cial resources to prevent and manage Legislation covering disaster risk reduc- Drought 2 2.70 0 0 500,000,000 emergency situations. The system is an tion includes the Government Ordinance integrated framework within which all on Strengthening Existing Buildings51, the support tasks for prevention and which came into effect in 1994 and led to Earthquake 3 4.05 2,630 6,550 management of emergencies are shared a set of duties regarding seismic resist- among national ministries, central bodies ance applying to the Ministry of Trans- and NGOs. port, Constructions and Tourism, along Epidemic 3 4.05 0 5,271 0 with the owners of public or private build- The General Inspectorate for Emergen- ings52. cy Situations was founded in 2004 by Extreme 17 22.97 430 2,720 0 merging the Civil Protection Command The Romanian Government developed a temperature and the General Inspectorate of Military coordination mechanism with the assist- Fire Corps. The GIES includes a specific ance of UNDP for environmental rehabili- Flood 39 52.70 1,694 1,600,000 3,036,819,000 department dealing with prevention, a na- tation and the creation of a generic mod- tional operations centre and other struc- el that could be applied to a number of tures needed to manage emergency geographical areas and types of disaster. Slide 1 1.35 0 330 0 situations. On a national level the GIES, The projects were in response to the nu- through the national operational centre, merous emergencies in Romania which Wind Storm 9 12.16 50 8,456 0 serves as the Standing Technical Secre- had an impact on the environment, includ- tariat of the National Committee. ing the damage caused by polluting indus- tries that were not compliant with existing Total 74 100 4,804 1,623,327 3,536,618,000 In the event of a disaster, the declaration environmental norms. The projects were of an emergency situation represents an the Environmental Emergency Rehabili-118 119 50 From “The Structure, Role and Mandate of Civil Protection in Disaster Risk Reduction for South Eastern Europe - South Eastern Europe Disaster Risk Mitigation and Adaptation Programme”, UNISDR, 2009. 51 Government Ordinance no. 20/ 1994. 52 The relevant laws regarding the national policy for disaster management include: G.O. no. 2288/09.12.2004, regarding the repartition of main tasks in the event of emergency situations for ministries, central public authorities and NGOs; G.O. no.1489/09.09.2004, regarding principles underlying the organiza- tion, functioning and task management of the professional emergency services; G.O. 1491/28.09.2004, regarding regulations covering the organization, functioning, task management and endowment of operative committees and emergency situation centres; G.O. no. 88/2001, concerning the organization and functioning of emergency situation public services, approved by Law no. 363/2002; Law no. 307/12.07.2006, concerning protection against fire; Civil Protection Law no. 481/08.11.2004; G.O. no. 1490/09.09.2004, regarding regulations on the organization and functioning of the General Inspectorate for Emergency Situations; G.O. no. 1492/2004, regarding regulations on the organization, functioning and attributes of professional emergency services.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 61. Brief Country Profiles: Romania Brief Country Profiles: Romania tation Coordination Project, developed tects and other construction workers, family plans for disasters and emergency of the parenting education system. Spe- in 1999, and the Emergency Prepared- and environmental and agricultural work- kits. cial interventions were planned for the ness for Hazardous Waste Spills in the ers. establishment of the Early Education and International Inland Waterways of North- Selected national and Development system in Romania, includ- West Romania, developed in 2002. There is detailed attention to risk reduc- ing the development of early learning and tion through preparedness, confirming international partners development standards for children aged In 2000, the Stability Pact for South the commitment to, and relevance of, involved in disaster risk 0 - 7, in close partnership with the Min- Eastern Europe launched the DPPI to contribute to the development of a co- civil protection in Romania. In all, a total of six specialist universities and seven reduction istry of Education, Research and Youth (MERY), the National Authority for Child hesive regional strategy for disaster pre- research institutes in the country contrib- Rights Protection and the Ministry of National organizations and interna- paredness and prevention for its eleven ute to the elaboration of studies, stand- Public Health. MERY is developing a cur- members. Romania is one of the mem- ards and guides in the field of disaster tional partners riculum for early education (for children bers risk reduction53. This includes the evalu- aged 0 - 6) based on the early learning ation of any special hazards on Roma- The national report regarding disaster and development standards. Three an- The Romanian Government has estab- nian territory and the identification of the management, developed in 2001, includ- nual work plans were implemented under lished a rehabilitation programme for most efficient response procedures. ed assessments regarding the country’s this component, and strategic partner- buildings that are particularly vulnerable level of vulnerability to flooding. This ships were set up with government or in- to earthquake risk. The Government Of particular note is the research and involved the participation of a number ter-governmental bodies including MERY, pays subsidies to the owners of the build- development programme TESIS (Ad- of specialist institutes, including the European Union, World Bank, Council of ings to partially cover the expenses as- vanced Technologies and Systems for Geographical Institute of the Romanian Europe and Council of Europe Develop- sociated with rehabilitation, such as the the Knowledge-based Information Soci- Academy, the National Institute for Build- ment Bank, Romanian Parliament, Work- need for professional experts, project ety), financed by the Ministry of Educa- ing Research and the National Institute ing Group on Early Education, and NGOs cost and long-term interest cost on the tion, Research and Innovation. It includes for Earth Physics. The institutions estab- including Step-by-Step Centre for Edu- mortgage loans. The owners are legally a project to develop a system for pub- lished vulnerability levels, taking into ac- cation and Professional Development, required to take measures to reduce the lic awareness and education concerning count the frequency of floods, existing Holt Romania, and Our Children. seismic risk of their buildings. disasters as part of an objective to de- hydrological networks and topography, velop new technologies, platforms and as well as social, economic, cultural and One activity that was not originally services for “e-Government”. environmental factors. planned for 2006 was UNICEF’s emer- How education is used gency flood relief. It consisted of an to promote safety This project has been developed by ex- The GIES has cooperated with UNICEF initial assessment of the flood situation perts in software for education, eco- by requesting the joint education kit for followed by donations of tents, medi- Special attention is paid to the use of nomics and environment at the National emergencies. The kit was made available cal equipment and medicines, and to training programmes in schools to en- Institute for Research and Development for translation. the psycho-social assistance centre to courage an awareness of risk and risk in Informatics, in cooperation with spe- support the population affected. It also reduction concepts. Analytical training cialists from the General Inspectorate UNICEF collaboration with Romania included school supplies for all school programmes and special materials have for Emergency Situations and the Geog- in education and disaster risk children in the flooded villages of Dolj been developed by commissions on eve- raphy Institute. reduction County. UNICEF was also continuing sup- ry type of disaster faced by Romania in port, in partnership with Habitat for Hu- a bid to develop a culture of safety. As Let’s Prepare with Herman: Learning To- The UNICEF 2005 – 2009 country pro- manity, for 110 families in distress due to part of the programmes, theoretical and gether about Natural Disasters is a book- gramme supported the Government the April 2006 floods. UNICEF assisted practical activities regarding behaviour in let intended to teach children aged 8 to through an important period bridging mainly through support to local affiliates case of disasters are organized. Activi- 12 about the most common disasters between pre-accession and accession and development of partnerships with ties include scholarly competitions to en- occurring in Romania. It was developed to the EU and aiming to consolidate key other organizations to build, renovate, courage students to participate. by Confederatia Caritas Romania. The reforms and build capacities in health, and repair homes, apartments and hous- booklet includes information on rules to education and child protection. In terms ing units as simple, decent and affordable Universities and other colleges organ- be applied in the case of disasters, and of education reforms, the programme places to live for these families. UNICEF ize training courses in the field of disas- ways to prepare oneself. The second included the completion of the reform also assisted with the renovation of one ter mitigation for members of the public part of the booklet contains an analysis of inclusive/special needs education, school affected by the floods. services including fire-fighters, police of- of the risks that the children face in the development of policies for Roma chil- ficers and medics, as well as for archi- community, together with information on dren, and support for the development120 121 53 The universities and institutes include the: Technical University of Civil Engineering, of Bucharest; Technical University, of Timisoara; Technical University ‘Gh. Asachi’, of Iasi; Town-Planning and Architecture University ‘Ion Mincu’, of Bucharest; University ‘Babes Bolyai’, of Cluj-Napoca; Polytechnic University, of Bucharest; and the specialist research and development institutes: Geographical Institute of the Romanian Academy; National Institute for Building Re- search – INCERC, of Bucharest; National Centre for Seismic Risk Reduction – CNRRS; National Research and Development for Earth Physics Institute, of Bucharest; Studies and Designing Institute for Land Improvement – ISPIF, of Bucharest; Regional Centre for Prevention and Industrial Accidents Manage- ment, of Cluj-Napoca; and the Environment Research and Engineering Institute.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 62. Brief Country Profiles: Romania Brief Country Profiles: Russia A joint Government of Romania – floods, landslides and earthquakes; im- UNICEF Mid-Term Review for the 2005 proving the safety of selected water- - 2009 country programme was carried retention dams; and improving, on a pilot out to assist in adjusting the programme basis, the management and safety of for the 2008 - 2009 period and in con- tailings dams and waste-dump facilities. tributing to the programme vision for the 2010 - 2012 period as part of the long- Within the framework of above-men- term transitional process of ensuring a tioned World Bank project, educational sustainable partnership model between material for children related to disaster Romania and UNICEF. risk reduction was produced, although mostly focused on preparedness for re- As part of its future work plan, UNICEF sponse. This material was developed as is continuing with efforts, among other part of a planned public awareness cam- activities, for leveraging resources and paign and was complementary to the ac- guidance on early childhood develop- tivities undertaken to introduce disaster ment. This involves the development of risk reduction as a subject in the elemen- convergent policy frameworks for early tary school curriculum. childhood development, and for capaci- ty-building of national systems to devel- While at present, disaster risk reduction op, implement, and monitor convergent, is considered to be an optional subject in evidence-based policies on early child- years one to four, the expectations are hood development in all sectors and line that disaster risk reduction will become ministries. a regular subject for these year groups. Relations between Romania and UNICEF UNISDR collaboration with Romania are entering a new phase. The coming three-year period will see a consolida- Romania has officially appointed an HFA tion of efforts to ensure sustainability Focal Point, the General Inspectorate of reforms under way in child protection, for Emergency Situations, as a step in its health and education. It will also lead to implementation and pursuit of HFA ob- the evolution of UNICEF’s engagement in jectives and strategic goals. During the the country. Russia spring of 2007, and within the framework of SEEDRMI, direct communication was As part of World Bank activities in Roma- established between Romanian national nia, the Hazard Risk Mitigation & Emer- authorities and UNISDR. Romania also gency Preparedness Project was devel- actively participated at the Euro-Medi- oped and approved in 2004. The overall terranean Workshop on Disaster Reduc- objective of the project was to assist the tion at School, held in October 2007. Government in reducing the country’s en- vironmental, social and economic vulner- ability to disasters caused by natural haz- ards, and catastrophic mining accidents involving the spillage of pollutants, by strengthening the institutional and tech- nical capacity for disaster management and emergency response. The project aimed to achieve this through the follow- ing measures: upgrading communication and information systems; implementing specific risk reduction investments for122 123Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 63. Brief Country Profiles: Russia Brief Country Profiles: Russia Hazards and disasters Russian territory. Other natural hazards EM-DAT shows (Table 14) that during tive response of rescue operations; and overview include floods, earth flows, permafrost over much of Siberia, volcanic activity in 1980 - 2010, floods accounted for the major share of disaster events, followed other measures to eliminate the immedi- ate threats to people’s lives and enhance By virtue of its tremendous area and di- the Kuril Islands, and volcanic activity and by wind storms and wildfires. The 46 post-event recovery. versity of natural conditions, the territory earthquakes on the Kamchatka peninsu- flood events killed 566 people, affected of Russia is subject to the destructive la. There is also ongoing destruction of a further over US$2.1 million and caused RSES management is realized through impacts of various geophysical, geologi- sea shores and the banks of reservoirs an economic loss of over US$2.4 billion. the Government of the Russian Fed- cal and hydro-meteorological processes, and rivers. The threats associated with Earthquakes killed the largest number of eration via the Ministry of Emergencies, forest fires and communicable diseases. these natural hazards are significant and people (2,006), affecting a further over which is responsible for the control and Natural hazards of particular concern the impact they are having on the social 47,610 others and caused an economic coordination of the activities of federal include forest fires and other wildfires, and economic development of Russia loss of over US$131 million. Nineteen bodies in the field of protection of the which occur on almost 45 per cent of are increasing. disasters caused by extreme tempera- population and territories. tures killed 57,680 people, affected over 750,000 others and caused an economic A Government Commission for the Pre- loss of over US$1 billion. Meanwhile, 21 vention and Elimination of Emergency Table 14 Russia: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 - wildfires killed 137 people, affected over Situations and Ensuring Fire Safety has 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. 100,000 others and caused an economic been established. Included in the Com- loss of over US$2.1 billion. mission are heads of ministries and de- partments, or those deputy heads of Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss of events (US$) Disaster management ministries and departments who realize control and supervision over the follow- structure and legislation ing: the safety of potentially hazardous “economic objects”, dangerous natural Drought 4 2.85 0 1,000,000 1,400,000 The foundation of the national structure hazards or potentially hazardous objects for the coordination and execution of within their jurisdiction, or the forces or work in the field of disaster risk reduc- means of prevention and avoidance of Earthquake 11 7.85 2,066 60,190 551,520,000 tion is the Single State System for the emergency situations. Prevention and Elimination of Emergen- Epidemic 10 7.14 33 158,246 0 cy Situations (RSES), which was estab- Legislation relevant to disaster risk re- lished in 1992. The RSES is tasked with duction includes: the Law of the Russian integrating management bodies, forces Federation On Safety; Presidential De- Extreme 19 13.57 57,680 757,604 1,400,100,000 and the resources of federal bodies - cree on the Single State System for the temperature and those local administrations and or- Prevention and Elimination of Emergen- ganizations authorised to solve problems cy Situations; Federal Law on Protect- Flood 46 32.85 566 2,160,954 2,433,555,000 in the field of protection of the popula- ing the Population and Territories from tion and territories from emergency sit- Emergency Situations; Federal Laws on uations – to ensure their readiness by Emergency-Rescue Services and Status Insect 1 0.714 0 0 0 developing and realising (economic and of Rescue Personnel, and on the Safety Infestation legal) standards in this field. This includes of the Population from Radiation; Fed- a number of non-structural responses to eral Law on Communications; General Mass Movement 9 6.42 474 2,558 2,600,000 risk reduction including the development Principles of Organizing Local Self-Man- and realization of scientific/engineering agement; and the Code of Administrative programmes and population training. Law Infringements of the Russian Fed- Wildfire 21 15.0 137 109,599 2,183,336,000 eration The basic targets of the system are: pre- venting accidents and disasters caused Wind Storm 19 13.57 211 21,274 296,050,000 by natural hazards; reducing the losses and damage from emergency situations; Total 140 100 61,167 4,270,425 6,891,961,000 eliminating the adverse consequences of emergency situations through the effec-124 125Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 64. Brief Country Profiles: Russia Brief Country Profiles: Russia How education is used gers, dangerous items, animals or poison- on and Liquidation of Emergency Situa- cation. In the North Caucasus the pro- to promote safety ous plants. The course is designed to en- courage a culture of safety among young tions”, and “Foundations of Risk Analysis and Management in Natural and Anthro- gramme will evolve, conditions permitting, from humanitarian aid to recovery and children and includes basic environmental pogenic Spheres”. rehabilitation with a focus on vulnerable Students of all ages, from primary, children and women. Key components through secondary to higher professional awareness and knowledge about health. will include education, including peace levels, receive education on prevention With a view to improving the popularity of Selected national and and tolerance education; child protection, of emergency situations through spe- cific study courses. The courses, which the life protection science course, among international partners including mine action and assistance to are approved by the Ministry of Educa- other reasons, the Ministry of Education involved in disaster mine survivors; and focusing on integrat- ed youth-oriented services and support. adopted a proposal from the Tula Com- tion, are part of the programme Founda- bined Study - Methodological Centre on risk reduction tions of Life Protection Science intro- In addition, UNICEF peace and tolerance duced in 1991 which replaced an earlier Civil Defence and Emergency Situations, Radiation and Environmental Security UNICEF collaboration with Russia in education efforts will seek to involve military training programme that did not education and disaster risk reduction young people, NGOs, educational institu- contain the required scope of knowledge to establish two experimental projects in the province of Tula, in Eastern Rus- tions, media and local governments from for young people in emergency situa- The UNICEF 2006 – 2010 country pro- North Ossetia-Alania, Kabardino-Balkar- tions. The new programme is taught in all sia, to encourage safe behaviour and environmental awareness. The School gramme supported national priorities ia, Ingushetia, Dagestan and Chechnya. general state schools from the I to the XI described in the National Plan of Action. grades. It encompasses both theoretical of Security project was established with the Children and Youth Association, while They were the: protection of children’s Other specific activities related to edu- education and practical training on the health, optimal early childhood develop- cation and disaster risk reduction in- measures necessary for personal safety the Island of Security project was estab- lished with the Children and Youth Town- ment and promotion of healthy lifestyles; cluded cooperation in 2009 between the during emergencies, including basic first provision of quality education; improve- UNICEF education section and the Minis- aid and child health, along with military ship. The basic target was to promote a culture of environmental awareness and ment of children’s living standards; and try of Education of Ingushetia to develop training. enhancement of the social welfare sys- a Life Skills Education Manual for school safe behaviour during emergency situa- tions. tem’s efficiency for the protection of children. Beginning in 1994, life protection sci- vulnerable children. State educational ence was also introduced into the cur- expenditure per child has almost halved ricula of non-state general schools. The To ensure the efficient functioning and UNISDR collaboration with Russia further enhancement of the system of since 1990. Pre-school enrolment and main goal of the course is to teach stu- availability have fallen to an average rate dents the knowledge and skills they need public education on protection in emer- Russia has officially appointed an HFA gency situations, close attention is paid of 58 per cent, and the attendance gap Focal Point, the Emergencies and Elimi- to protect the lives and health of people between urban and rural areas is 28 per in emergency situations, render help to to the development and provision of nation of Consequences of Natural Dis- study materials and the rehabilitation of cent. Completion rates for the basic cy- asters (EMERCOM). Furthermore, Rus- themselves and others, and take preven- cle are declining as are opportunities for tive measures to eliminate emergencies. study centres and test facilities. sia has designated EMERCOM as the vocational education and educational ac- National Platform. As per the updated The courses are felt to shape a consider- cess for poor children living in rural areas. ate and responsible attitude to the issue On the basis of the Tula Combined Study version of the report on Implementing the Centre a faculty was established to train The system of teaching basic life-skills, Hyogo Framework for Action in Europe, of personal safety and the safety of oth- including such important thematic com- ers. They include the identification and teachers of general education at pri- EMERCOM has been active in HFA Pri- mary, secondary and higher vocational ponents as HIV/AIDS, substance abuse ority 3: “Use knowledge, innovation and proper assessment of natural hazards prevention and reproductive and sexual and education on how to avoid the risks levels the subject “life protection”. Mean- education to build a culture of safety and while, a whole complex of programmes health issues, is still to be fully tailored to resilience at all levels”. associated with them. new circumstances. The Government’s for the training and education of all sec- tions of society were prepared and life recently-initiated education system re- An educational programme also exists form provides further opportunities for for pre-school children. Foundations of protection textbooks published for pupils from the I to the XI grades. Moreover a integrating needed life-skills education Life Safety for Pre-school Children is run into the formal curriculum. at kindergartens and targets the teaching series of educational aids were prepared of appropriate behaviour in a number of for students of higher education, with ti- tles including “Life Security: Security in Furthermore, UNICEF will support the potentially hazardous scenarios, including Ministry of Education in conceptualizing dangerous situations on the street or on Emergency Situations”, “Life Security: Economic Mechanisms of Risk Manage- and testing a social model for giving disa- public transport; and contact with stran- bled children access to mainstream edu- ment in Emergency Situations”, “Warning126 127Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 65. Brief Country Profiles: Serbia Brief Country Profiles: Serbia Hazards and disasters lives, caused much suffering and caused overview losses amounting to millions of euros. Human activity has accelerated soil ero- The Republic of Serbia became inde- sion, increasing the risk of landslides. pendent as the legal successor of the Most floods are along the river courses State Union of Serbia and Montenegro of the Sava, Drina, Velika Morava, Juzna only in 2006 and there is a lack of ret- Morava and Zapadna Morava; the Au- rospective country-specific, risk-related tonomous Province of Vojvodina has the data available in the EM-DAT database. highest flooding risk of all regions. UNDP Available data for Serbia is presented in estimates that over 320,000 people are Table 15, although some additional infor- exposed to the risk of flooding. mation from secondary sources is also presented in this section. Seismic activity in Serbia is strong and frequent, with over 50 per cent of the Serbia is vulnerable to a number of disas- country vulnerable to earthquakes of ters caused by natural hazards, including magnitude 7 and around 20 per cent vul- floods, earthquakes, extreme tempera- nerable to events of magnitude 8. Se- tures, wildfires, epidemics, landslides and vere earthquakes struck in 1979, 1980 wind storms. and 1998, the latter event causing an economic loss of more than US$400 mil- The valleys of larger watercourses, in lion54. which the largest settlements and the best farmland, infrastructure and industry In terms of other significant hazards, al- are located, are highly prone to floods. though wildfires are frequent and wide- In 2010, Serbia faced numerous disas- spread in Serbia during the summer sea- ters, including major floods, an earth- son the threats they pose are not great. quake in Kraljevo, landslides, heatwaves In the period covered there was just one and windstorms, which claimed human wildfire, which affected 12 people. Serbia Table 15 Serbia: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980- 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss of events (US$) Earthquake 1 7.14 2 27,030 132,260,000 Extreme 4 28.57 5 500 0 temperature Flood 9 64.28 2 20,480 0 Total 14 100 9 48,010 132,260,000128 129 54 Pusch C. (2004). Preventable Losses, Saving Lives and Property through Hazard Risk Assessment, A Comprehensive Risk Management Framework for Central Europe and Central Asia, Disaster Risk Management Working paper series 9, The World Bank.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 66. Brief Country Profiles: Serbia Brief Country Profiles: Serbia Disaster management from the Ministry of Environment (from ministries before its adoption by the Ser- regulation, the Minister of Interior is the bian National Assembly), National Risk Commander of the National Headquar- structure and legislation the Department for Chemical Accidents). The SEM is obligated to further develop Assessment, and National Emergency ters, the Head of the SEM is the Head of the capacities of the four departments – Plan (both should be adopted by the Ser- the National Headquarters, while mem- Following a series of political transfor- Department for Prevention, Department bian Government). bers are comprised of ministers and/or mations over the last 20 years Serbia for Fire and Rescue Units, Department state secretaries of other relevant min- is now in the process of building a con- for Risk Management and Department Emergency plans have been developed istries, and representatives of other gov- structive framework towards disaster for Civil Protection - as well as those by most local levels of self-government ernmental organizations and scientific risk management. Key to the process was of the National Training Centre for edu- and need only be revised before adop- and research institutions. Since the Na- the reorganization of the Protection and cation and training of professional and tion. These plans have been developed tional Headquarters is the standing body Rescue Sector of the Ministry of Interior, volunteer fire and rescue units; special- with the assistance and in cooperation that meets regularly, it was recognized which deals with disaster and emergency ised units; executive management of the with the United States Agency for Inter- that, with the enlargement of its com- management55. Sector; and other participants in civil pro- national Development (USAID) Prepar- petencies, it could serve as the National tection. edness, Planning and Economic Security Platform for disaster risk reduction. Until 2009, disaster management and (PPES) programme. The PPES has been disaster risk reduction in Serbia was con- The most important step of the SEM to- active for the past few years in educa- Furthermore, there is an on-going project ducted by two main structures: the Civil ward the establishment of an integrated tion and training of local self-government for the implementation of a single Euro- Protection Section of the Ministry of emergency management system was the levels. One of the main activities was the pean emergency call number 112. The re- Defence and the Protection and Rescue setting up of a legal framework in this certification of towns and municipalities sulting 112 service will create a system Sector of the Ministry of Information. area. On 29 December 2009, the Ser- for the development of emergency plans. that includes a database and services The lack of synergy of previous years bian National Assembly adopted the new In 2010, 18 certified municipalities joined such as data analysis, surveillance, early had a series of negative consequences. Law on Emergency Situations and the the United Nations global campaign Mak- warning, informing and alerting. Not only did it lead to a partial dissipation new Law on Fire Protection. It is expect- ing Cities Resilient: My City is Getting of the budget allocated by the state for ed that the new Law on Explosives will be Ready!. Other legislation in the realm of disas- disaster risk reduction and disaster man- adopted in 2011. ter risk reduction includes the Law on agement, but it also led to a lack of clarity The Law on Emergency Situations in- Defence, the Law on Water, the Law on over the identification of responsibilities In accordance with the Law on Emergen- cludes the recommendations of the re- Protection Against Ion Radiation, the De- in emergency events. cy Situations, the SEM coordinates the spective United Nations offices dealing cision on Setting the Coordination Team activities of all state institutions involved with disaster risk reduction and disas- for Major Chemical Accidents, and the Nevertheless, many of the capacity gaps in emergency and disaster management. ter management (including UNISDR and Law on Protection at Work. that existed in the previous system are This law defines the following: activities, UNDP). A number of laws, regulating the being addressed following the introduc- tion of new legislation designed to more declarations and management in emer- gency situations; the system of protec- field of disaster and emergency man- agement in the countries of the EU, were How education is used clearly define roles and responsibilities during emergency events. tion and rescue of citizens, materials and studied with the aim implementing the to promote safety cultural goods from natural and man- best practices of other EU countries in made disasters; the rights and obligations this field. There is official recognition that to date During 2009, crucial changes were made of citizens, state agencies, autonomous there is inadequate use of knowledge, in- to the disaster management system in provinces, local self-governments, com- Since the Law on Emergency Situations novation and education to build a culture Serbia. In this year, the Government ac- panies and other legal persons and en- was adopted as an umbrella law in the of safety and resilience in Serbia56. This knowledged the importance of establish- trepreneurs; and inspection and supervi- field of emergency and disaster manage- situation has been compounded by the ing an integrated emergency and disaster sion, international cooperation and other ment, a number of bylaw acts, which reg- lack of satisfactory coordination among management system and, reorganized issues relevant to the organisation and ulate rights and obligations of all stake- participants in disaster management. the Protection and Rescue Sector into functioning of the protection and rescue holders, have been adopted, and others the Sector for Emergency Management. system. are currently being prepared, comment- To address the situation, it is recognised ed on and amended. that it is important to define school cur- The SEM integrated the Protection and There is an obligation under the law to ricula on disaster risk reduction and re- Rescue Sector of the Ministry of Interior, draft and adopt the following strategic The Regulation on the Establishment of covery concepts for all levels of the the Department for Emergency Situa- documents: National Disaster Risk Re- the National Headquarters for Emer- education system and implement them tions (Civil Protection) of the Ministry duction Strategy (which has been draft- gency Management was adopted in De- as soon as possible. There is also a need of Defence and a number of employees ed and submitted for comments to other cember 2010. In accordance with this to develop research methods and tools.130 131 55 Much of the information in this section comes from Serbia: National progress report on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action, June 56 Information in this section is from Serbia: National progress report on the implementation of the Hyogo Framework for Action, June 2009. See http:// 2009. See and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 67. Brief Country Profiles: Serbia Brief Country Profiles: Serbia The SEM has initiated negotiations with schools programme. skills to practice healthy lifestyles; and to Furthermore, 18 cities in Serbia have the Ministry of Education on defining the increase prevention and successful re- joined the 2010-2015 World Disaster Re- most efficient ways for inclusion of dis- In 2007 and 2008 “information, educa- sponses in cases of child abuse, neglect duction Campaign Making Cities Resilient, aster risk reduction in school curricula. tion, communication” material was joint- and exploitation. which addresses issues of local govern- ly prepared for lower-grade primary ance and urban risk. However, there are individual examples schools with the Ministry of Health; Min- Within the framework of an earlier of the use of knowledge to develop a istry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water UNICEF country programme a compre- culture of safety. For instance, although Management Veterinary Directorate; hensive analysis of primary education there is no national strategy for public WHO; UNDP; and Food and Agriculture was conducted which was used by the awareness there are nevertheless single Organization (FAO) in Serbian and Roma Ministry of Education as a background (thematic) instructions on how the pub- languages to prevent avian influenza. for education reform. This included the lic should behave and respond in case of “active learning” methodology, which emergency situations. The SEM regularly In 2009, during the 2005 – 2010 coun- was brought to 20,000 teachers and holds the Month of Education campaign try programme, UNICEF actively partici- used in approximately 60 per cent of pri- in primary schools. As part of the cam- pated in the Ministry of Education emer- mary schools. Achievements at the local paign fire-fighters visit schools to give gency response team for prevention of level surpassed planned educational out- lectures and organize practical exercises the spread of influenza A (H1N1) “swine comes. But although progress in increas- with school children on fire safety. flu”. It also included Guidelines for De- ing participation of young people was velopment of a Communication Plan for strongly evident at the community level, it In the area of education, new laws which application programme interface that the fell short of its national-level aspirations. have been adopted and promote social Ministry of Health and Ministry of Agri- inclusion and equity - including the Basic culture, Forestry and Water Management According to the Law on Local Self Law on Education - also define as key adopted, and participation in the UNCT Governance, the administrative self- principles child-centred education, school information team for external and media governance units are responsible for safety and protection of children from crisis communication. protection of local populations from dis- violence, as well as school community asters caused by natural hazards and cooperation and partnership with parents The overall goal of the UNICEF 2005 – programmes for the alleviation of their and local communities. The Ministry of 2010 country programme was to ensure consequences. Within the Local Plans of Education is working on capacity-devel- that children, in particular those who live Action for Children that UNICEF is sup- opment of teachers and school admin- in poverty and exclusion, enjoy and exer- porting in 22 municipalities the inclusion istrators to implement these new provi- cise their rights. The country programme of programmes for risk reduction and sions. was designed to build capacities, cre- protection of children in emergencies is ate commitment and basic conditions, also foreseen. Selected national and and support government and civil soci- international partners ety in their efforts to progress towards this overall goal. The key results that the UNISDR collaboration with Serbia involved in disaster risk country programme aimed to achieve Serbia has officially appointed an HFA reduction were: an increased percentage of ex- Focal Point, the Ministry of Interior, as a cluded girls to complete gender- and step in its implementation and pursuit of culture-sensitive basic education at the HFA objectives and strategic goals. Dur- UNICEF collaboration with Serbia in “right” age and gain appropriate knowl- ing the summer of 2007, and within the education and disaster risk reduction edge and skills; an increased number of framework of SEEDRMI, direct commu- at-risk and institutionalized children to be nication was established between Ser- UNICEF is cluster leader in education provided with family-like forms of care; bian national authorities and UNISDR. As and is working closely with the Ministry the under-five mortality rate to be re- a follow-up, Serbia actively participated of Education, national education institu- duced by 50 per cent among excluded in the two sessions of the Global Plat- tions and relevant experts to develop a vulnerable groups and by one third at the form for Disaster Risk Reduction, held in programme for raising awareness and national level; more than 90 per cent of 2007 and 2009, and has informed UN- building capacities for inclusion of dis- young people to have access to knowl- ISDR of its intentions to establish an of- aster risk reduction in the child-friendly edge and services necessary to develop ficial National Platform in the near future.132 133Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 68. Brief Country Profiles: Kosovo Brief Country Profiles: Kosovo Hazards and disasters ingly exposed to disasters caused by overview technological hazards, such as industrial incidents and events involving critical in- Kosovo (as defined by the United Na- frastructure and information technology. tions Security Council Resolution 1244) The situation is exacerbated by Kosovo’s declared independence only in 2008 and vulnerability to such disasters, given the there is a lack of retrospective country- significant levels of poverty, construc- specific risk-related data available in the tion boom and other factors associated EM-DAT database. Consequently, the with a country in transition. combined data for Serbia and Montene- gro is presented in Table 16, below. The territory of Kosovo is considered to be seismically active. The most recent Kosovo is exposed to a range of disas- earthquake was a magnitude 5.7 (Cen- ters caused by natural hazards, including troid-Moment-Tensor [CMT]) event on earthquakes, floods, landslides, heavy 24 April 2002, which struck the munici- snowfall, burst dams, wild/forest fires, pality of Gjilan. The earthquake caused droughts, epidemics and strong winds. significant structural damage to a number In addition, Kosovo is becoming increas- of buildings, destroying some of them. Table 16 Kosovo: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980- 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact (as per Serbia and Montenegro as data for Kosovo is not available). Kosovo Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss of events (US$) Earthquake 1 6.25 1 100 0 Epidemic 2 12.50 0 869 0 under Security Council Extreme 2 12.50 6 70 0 temperature Flood 9 56.25 14 125,398 0 Resolution 1244 Wildfire 1 6.25 0 12 0 Wind Storm 1 6.25 0 0 0 Total 16 100 21 126,449 0134 135Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 69. Brief Country Profiles: Kosovo Brief Country Profiles: Kosovo One person was killed, and many people ture and mechanisms for national-level incorporated within the draft National UNICEF collaboration with Kosovo in had to be evacuated from their houses in policy for incident management. Curriculum Framework for pre-school, education and disaster risk reduction the affected villages. Historically, the ter- primary and secondary education. In ad- ritory of Kosovo has also been affected The Unique System for Alarming and dition, the Health Promoting Schools UNICEF, within its regular programming, several times by destructive earthquakes Emergency Coordination (USAEC) is Strategy 2009-2018 has been endorsed maintains its emergency preparedness that have occurred in neighbouring coun- also in place. This system ensures warn- by the ministries of Education, Health, and response plan in collaboration with tries. ing and efficient and timely information Youth and Environment. This strategy local partners and United Nations agen- regarding disasters caused by natural represents the basic framework through cies. Disaster management and other hazards. The USAEC provides information of all emergency services which the education, health, environment and youth sectors, as well as the private structure and legislation (including the Kosovo Security Forces, sector and all other stakeholders will im- Kosovo Police, hospital and pre-hospital plement the special programme in order The floods of 2005, fires of 2007 and emergency centres and municipal serv- to increase work quality, and the quality an incident involving disulfide oil in 2008 ices, municipal fire brigades, and hospital of teaching and teachers in a “healthy highlighted the need to focus on improv- emergency centres in municipalities), as school environment”. ing emergency management, incident well as humanitarian local and interna- response capabilities, and coordination tional associations, agencies and special- processes in Kosovo. In 2006, the Kos- ized associations in the field of emergen- Selected national and ovo Assembly adopted the Law for Pro- cies. The USAEC has the identification international partners tection against Natural and other Disas- number 112, and is unique for the whole ters (Nr.2006/02/L-68). One of the main territory of Kosovo. involved in disaster risk objectives of this law is the prevention reduction and reduction of disasters as well as to “inhibit and reduce” the consequences, How education is used including the number of victims. The re- to promote safety National organizations and interna- sponsibilities and competencies in re- tional partners sponse to disasters caused by natural It is evident that disaster risk reduction and other hazards are divided between concepts are not included in education In support of the above-mentioned in- the central and municipal levels. programmes. While there is a need for stitutions, the Kosovo Red Cross is help- greater efforts to mainstream disaster ing people in need in response to disas- risk reduction in the school curriculum, ters caused by natural hazards such as In May 2010, the Government developed earthquakes, floods and landslides. As the Integrated Emergency Management there are several educational activities part of the Preparedness and Response System (IEMS). The IEMS is a frame- being implemented at the project level in Programme, Kosovo Red Cross supports work that provides a systematic, proac- different municipalities. activities and trainings on risk assess- tive approach to guide departments and ment and emergency response in case agencies at all levels of government, The Kosovo Red Cross, for instance, of disasters. non-governmental organizations, and the supports activities in cooperation with private sector to work seamlessly to pre- IFRC with regard to risk assessment and As part of the Regional Programme vent, protect, respond, recover and miti- training of volunteers on preparedness on Disaster Risk Reduction in South East gate the effects of incidents, regardless and emergency response. Europe, UNDP is supporting Kosovo in- of cause, size, location or complexity, in stitutions - namely the Department for Other activities include those of UNICEF, Emergencies in the Ministry of Internal order to reduce the loss of life and prop- Affairs - to develop policies. This project erty and harm to the environment. The which has supported the Ministry of Edu- culminated with the National Policy Dia- IEMS should work hand-in-hand with the cation, Science and Technology (MEST) logue in September 2010, which provided National Response Plan, which is under to develop the curriculum on life-skills- an opportunity for stakeholders to offer development and is expected to be final- based education and its implementation. comments, recommendations and agree ized and approved by the end of 2010. Some 500 teachers have been trained on the next steps. In addition, UNDP has The IEMS provides the template for the and are delivering such education to XIII supported projects with the Institute of management of incidents, while the Na- grade students across Kosovo. Recent- Seismology and the Situation Centre, un- tional Response Plan provides the struc- ly, life-skills-based education has been der the Office of the Prime Minister136 137Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 70. Brief Country Profiles: Slovenia Brief Country Profiles: Slovenia Hazards and disasters Other hazards include floods, which are overview a threat to more than 300,000 hectares of land, or approximately 15 per cent of Data shows that Slovenia is less vulner- the total territory. The regions prone to able to natural hazards than its South flooding are home to more than 600,000 Eastern European neighbours57. How- people, about 30 per cent of the total ever, although EM-DAT hazard data for population. Landslides threaten approxi- the country is available from only 1995 mately 7,000 square km, or about one onwards it is known that the country lies third of the country’s territory. Approxi- in an active seismic zone and in the past mately 1,400 landslides have been re- there have been several destructive corded. earthquakes with epicentres either with- in, or near, its territorial borders. Over Forest fires are the most frequent disas- 650,000 citizens, or 33 per cent of the ter hazard in Slovenia, affecting mainly country’s population, live in areas at risk the Notranjska karstic region. of earthquakes of magnitudes VIII and IX on the MCS scale, and each year Slov- In terms of economic loss, wind storms enia experiences 10 weak-to-moderate were the most destructive with two shocks. EM-DAT reports that between events between 1998 and 2007 cost- 1994 and 2006 there were two earth- ing US$392 million and killing six people. quakes, killing one person and affecting Drought-related hazards were the sec- a further 1,306. ond most destructive, causing an eco- nomic loss of US$80 million over the same period. Table 17 Slovenia: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980-2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. Slovenia Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss of events (US$) Earthquake 2 33.33 1 1,305 10,000,000 Extreme 1 16.66 289 148 80,000,000 temperature Flood 1 16.66 0 0 5,000,000 Wind Storm 2 33.33 6 1,050 392,000,000 Total 6 100 296 2,503 487,000,000138 139 57 South Eastern Europe Disaster Risk Mitigation and Adaptation Initiative – Risk Assessment for South Eastern Europe, UNISDR, 2008.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 71. Brief Country Profiles: Slovenia Brief Country Profiles: Slovenia Disaster management offices covering designated areas of The most important laws governing the are opportunities to promote disaster structure and legislation Slovenia. It is charged with the following tasks: system of protection against disasters caused by natural or technological haz- management activities among local pop- ulations. The purpose of the events are ards are the: also to bring together responsible na- The system of protection against dis- Elaboration of proposals for research tional institutions, professional and volun- asters caused by natural or technologi- and development projects relating to Protection against Natural and other tary members of rescue services, private cal hazards is based on the obligation of protection against disasters. Disasters Act. companies, NGOs and other experts in the state and municipalities to prevent Elaboration of proposals of the na- the field of protection, rescue and disas- and eliminate dangers and to implement Fire Protection Act. tional programme and plan of protec- Fire Service Act. ter relief to present their activities and/ prompt measures in the event of an tion against disasters. or products to the wider public. As part emergency. It is also based on the obli- Providing for the organization and Slovenian Red Cross Act. of the events, a national emergency re- gations of commercial companies, insti- operation of the monitoring, notifica- Recovery from the Consequences sponse exercise, conferences and other tutions and other organizations which, tion and warning system. of Natural Disasters Act. educational activities are organized for within the scope of their activities, are Elaboration of threat assessments different sections of the population, such responsible for implementing emergency Protection against Drowning Act. and other technical documents for as children, adults and experts, etc. measures relating to the protection and the planning of protection, rescue and rescue of people and property, and of relief, and directing and coordinating Each year different prevention and pre- individuals for the protection of them- measures for the prevention and miti- How education is used paredness activities are organized in Oc- selves and their properties. gation of the consequences of disas- to promote safety tober, which is designated Fire Safety ters. Month. Moreover, every 1 March (Civil The Resolution on the National Security Monitoring hazards, and issuing early Protection Day) on both national and lo- Strategy of the Republic of Slovenia58, Protection against Natural and other Dis- warnings and advice on appropriate asters is a non-obligatory subject that cal levels, individuals and organizations adopted in 2001, is the basis for five- actions to deal with them. are rewarded for their efforts in pro- year National Programmes of Protection was introduced in the regular elementary Elaboration of national emergency school curricula in the autumn of 2010. tection, rescue and relief activities. Cel- against Natural and Other Disasters (cur- response plans in co-operation with ebrations provide opportunities to raise rently 2008 – 2013). The programmes, The subject provides knowledge on how ministries and governmental services. to identify and mitigate threats, in par- awareness about civil protection activi- which are orientated towards prevention, Organization, equipping and training ties through the media. have the aim of reducing the number of ticular those involving the environment. of national civil protection units and Additionally, each year kindergartens and accidents and preventing or mitigating their consequences. Annual priorities are services and other protection, rescue and relief forces, and facilitating the elementary schools organize educational Selected national and activities with fire-fighting units that in- defined for each year and are in accord- ance with the five-year plans. work of the commander of the Civil clude evacuation drills. international partners Protection Headquarters and the na- involved in disaster risk tional and regional damage assess- On the basis of the above, the Doctrine ment committees. The Administration operates under the supposition that disaster risk education reduction on Protection, Rescue and Relief was Monitoring and co-ordinating the or- adopted. It comprises the common prin- should be offered to a child as early as ganization of civil protection and possible and, in this context, is engaged UNICEF collaboration with Slovenia in ciples and perspectives concerning pro- other protection, rescue and relief fessional and operational guidance and in projects including competitions, the education and disaster risk reduction forces. publishing of books and the development organization, and the conduct of pro- Elaboration of programmes as well as tection, rescue and relief efforts in the of didactic games with subjects such as UNICEF has no Mission in Slovenia. organization and delivery of educa- “Earthquake”, “Flood” or “Safety in the event of a disaster. tion and training for protection, res- mountains” and various computer games. UNISDR collaboration with Slovenia cue and relief. The Administration has also contributed Administrative and specific expert tasks Creation and maintenance of national related to protection against disasters to various magazines for children, pro- material reserves to deal with disas- Slovenia has nominated an HFA Focal are carried out by the Administration of duced a puppet play and developed spe- Point, the Administration of the Republic ters caused by natural and other haz- cial promotional activities. the Republic of Slovenia for Civil Protec- ards. of Slovenia for Civil Protection and Dis- tion and Disaster Relief (a multi-sectoral aster Relief, for disaster risk reduction. and coordinating body). The Administra- Furthermore, Protection and Rescue Slovenia has also informed UNISDR of tion, which is a constituent body of the Days are held every two years in a dif- its intentions to establish an official Na- Ministry of Defence, has 13 regional ferent region of Slovenia. The events tional Platform in the near future.140 141 58 Official Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia, 56/2001.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 72. Brief Country Profiles: Tajikistan Brief Country Profiles: Tajikistan Hazards and disasters The country has experienced several overview major disasters over the last 10 years, including earthquakes, floods, landslides The complicated topography of this and droughts. Among the countries mountainous country, its high rainfall lev- of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, els and large number of glaciers mean Tajikistan ranks third in terms of large- that floods are the most common hazard scale disasters caused by natural haz- in Tajikistan. Floods are caused large- ards. EM-DAT shows (Table 18) that dur- ly by heavy rainfall and/or glacial melt, ing 1980 – 2010, floods accounted for which leads to a rise in river water lev- the major share of disaster events, fol- els. Tajikistan is also vulnerable to natu- lowed by landslides and earthquakes. ral hazards including earthquakes, mud flows, landslides (mudslides), epidemics, The most recent major disasters include droughts, avalanches, insect infestation a flash flood in East Khatlon, in May 2010, and wind storms. which killed at least 40 people and de- stroyed the houses and belongings of Table 18 Tajikistan: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 - 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss of events (US$) Drought 2 3.92 0 3,800,000 57,000,000 Earthquake 7 13.72 17 38,000 23,500,000 Tajikistan Epidemic 5 9.80 191 23,590 0 Flood 21 41.16 1,588 758,052 457,990,000 Insect 1 1.96 0 0 0 Infestation Mass Movement 12 23.52 367 97,384 214,700,000 (landslide) Wind Storm 2 3.92 0 2,330 434,000 Extreme 1 1.96 0 2,000,000 840,000,000 temperature Total 51 100 2,163 6,719,356 1,593,624,000142 143Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 73. Brief Country Profiles: Tajikistan Brief Country Profiles: Tajikistan 4,500 people. In the surrounding rural affected population. How education is used international partners, has been making areas 16,000 people were directly af- fected by the disaster; some had their The CoES is also tasked to protect the to promote safety efforts by including special disaster risk reduction subjects in the educational cur- houses destroyed, others lost their liveli- population and national territories from riculum and in relevant educational pro- hoods when their crops and agricultural the hazards associated with military ac- The Training and Methodological Centre grammes within the school, pre-school, land were buried under mud and rocks or tion such as terrorist threats. under the CoES has developed a sys- secondary, special and higher education their livestock were killed. Some 70,000 tem of training and tutorials on disaster systems. This would replace the system people were affected in their access to An important step in the improvement of risk management for local governments, which included a separate civil defence safe drinking water. Social and other in- the disaster management system was decision-makers, regional branches of training curricula for second-, fifth-, frastructure was severely damaged. the establishment of the State Commis- the committee involved in disaster man- sixth-, tenth- and eleventh-grade school sion for Emergencies in August 2002. agement, vulnerable communities, busi- students. Furthermore, some basic dis- Other recent disasters include floods in This commission has gained the status nesses and the general public. In addition, aster preparedness is taught to the sec- Khuroson district in 2008, an earthquake of the Republican coordinating agency local authorities are establishing infor- ond-, fifth- and sixth-grade students dur- in Rasht in 2007, avalanches in January during various emergencies and is estab- mation services with the purpose of in- ing extra-curriculum “educational” hours, 2006, and floods and heavy snowfall in lished at all levels of the state administra- forming the public about prospective de- although in practice these classes are al- 2005. Furthermore, at the beginning of tion. The Chairman of the State Commis- velopment planning in cities and districts, most always optional and are left to the 2008 Tajikistan experienced one of the sion for Emergencies is the President of construction planning of new industrial discretion of the individual school princi- coldest winters in decades as tempera- Tajikistan, while at other levels it is the and civil projects, land reclamation ac- pals or the local educational authorities. tures dipped to -25ºC. Coupled with the heads of local authorities (regions, dis- tivities and land use in relation to disaster At tenth and eleventh grades training is disruption of electricity and heating sup- tricts, cities and jamoats [municipalities]). risk reduction. much more formal; it is usually included plies, the extreme cold snap resulted in a in the pre-military training but covers es- major national emergency and prompted With an aim to contribute to regional co- Within the framework of collaboration sentially civil defence with little empha- United Nations agencies and partners to operation and collaboration, the CoES and cooperation with international or- sis on disaster preparedness and/or re- launch a US$25 million appeal to respond contributed to the establishment of the ganizations, support has been provided sponse in peace time. to the situation. Inter-State Council on natural and tech- by the UNDP Disaster Risk Management nological disasters. It was formed in Sep- Project (DRMP) and SDC to the Train- tember 1993 by a decision of the heads ing and Methodological Centre, and the Disaster management of governments of CIS states with an aim Working Group has been established for Selected national and structure and legislation to develop and implement a coordinated revision and improvement of disaster management training programmes for international partners The Committee of Emergency Situations policy regarding disaster prevention and mitigation using the unique experience of executive officials in central and local involved in disaster risk and Civil Defence (CoES) is the body CIS states. government, CoES structures, economic reduction entities, and the public. The new, already- tasked with protection of the population Legislation relevant to disaster risk re- approved, core curriculum is overwhelm- and territories. It has the following re- National organizations and duction includes the: ingly oriented towards disasters caused sponsibilities: by natural and technological hazards (of international partners Decree on the Establishment of the 34 possible themes at the national level, Implement a common state policy on Committee for Emergency Situations 24 deal exclusively with disasters caused The Geophysical Survey under the disaster prevention and mitigation. and Civil Defence. by natural and technological hazards and Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Implement disaster management Law on Civil Defence. only 10 with civil defence). Tajikistan is a recently established insti- programmes. Law on the Protection of the Popu- tution responsible for seismological re- Maintain preparedness of disaster lation and Territories from Natural and School disaster planning and risk reduc- search and monitoring of seismic activity management units, communication and Man-made Emergency Situations. tion has received little attention until on the territory of Tajikistan and neigh- warning systems, forces and tools Law on Emergency Rescue Services recently and there is no government fi- bouring countries through a network of acting in emergency situations, inclu- and the Status of Rescuers. nance for disaster risk reduction in edu- digital seismic stations installed with the ding the assessment of the socio- Law on the Fund for Mitigation of cation. There is a need to improve the support and assistance of the Swiss De- economic impact of emergency situa Emergency Situations. quality of knowledge on disaster risk re- velopment and Cooperation Agency. tions. duction in education among teachers and Implement international cooperation children through the integration of disas- Prevention, Mitigation, and Prepared- for disaster reduction efforts. ter risk reduction in the school curriculum. ness (PMP) International is one of the Stockpile and deliver relief aid to the The Government, in cooperation with lead national NGOs in the area of disas-144 145Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 74. Brief Country Profiles: Tajikistan Brief Country Profiles: Tajikistan ter risk reduction. Comprised of a team sues were mainstreamed into the devel- programme particularly aims to strength- and a number of thematic conferences. of experts, it provides assistance to the opment plans of 15 districts: Panjakent, en the national capacities and systems national government, civil society and in- Ayni, Mastchohi Kuhi, Isfara, Konibodom, for disaster safety, especially targeting Within the DIPECHO IV and DIPECHO V ternational organizations in conducting Baljuvon, Nurobod, Kulob, Khovaling, Jir- the selected schools in each country. action plans, the Global Facility for Disas- research, training and analytical activi- gatol, Vakhdat, Tursunzoda, Shurobod ter Risk Reduction (GFDRR) and USAID ties and applies its expertise in the field. and Rumi. It is planned to expand this ini- In particular, the programme is interven- Office of US Foreign Disaster Assistance It cooperates with lead regional, Euro- tiative throughout the country. ing in 16 schools located in the four most (USAID/OFDA) assistance programmes, pean and United States organizations in disaster-prone districts of Tajikistan. UNISDR provided assistance to the Gov- the sphere of seismic risk reduction. In In 2010, a seismic hazard map of These schools will serve as models and ernment of Tajikistan in a number of the- particular, as UNDP implementing partner Tajikistan was built in ArcGIS digital for- be used for advocacy purposes. matic areas, including strengthening the it finalized the assessment of residential mat. Issues of seismic risk reduction were systems of seismic monitoring, inclusion areas and education institutions of the included in the Construction Rules and Of special attention are the following is- of disaster risk reduction in school cur- capital city of Tajikistan, Dushanbe. Regulations of the Republic of Tajikistan sues: ricula, exchanges in the field of Glacial in 2007. This document regulates seis- Lake Outburst Floods, climate change, UNDP, through its Disaster Risk Man- mically-safe construction in Tajikistan Establishing a national coordination community-based disaster risk manage- agement Program, designed a project within the framework of the programme mechanism for disaster risk reduction in ment and safe construction in rural areas. aimed to increase public awareness to for the realization of the National Strat- education. understand risk, vulnerability and disaster egy for Natural Disaster Risk Reduction Conducting a review/revision of na- In 2009, UNISDR - with the support of the reduction, to enhance commitment from in 2010-2015. tional education policy for disaster risk World Bank, WMO and CAREC - com- public authorities to implement disaster reduction. pleted the Central Asia and Caucasus reduction policies and stimulate interdis- Tajikistan has officially appointed an Conducting a review/revision of the Disaster Risk Management Initiative Risk ciplinary and cross-sectoral partnerships, HFA Focal Point as a step in its imple- education curriculum for disaster risk re- Assessment for Central Asia and Cauca- locally, nationally and regionally. Moreo- mentation and pursuit of HFA objectives duction. sus Desk Study Review, which includes ver, under DIPECHO V, and in collabo- and strategic goals. Developing a disaster risk reduction the Republic of Tajikistan. ration with the local NGO “PMP Interna- training package for teachers (including tional” it carried out an assessment of UNICEF collaboration methodology and materials). In 2009, UNISDR developed and submit- all residential areas of the capital city of with Tajikistan in education Providing materials for children (includ- ted to the Committee for Emergency Dushanbe located in a highly earthquake- ing pre-school facilities and elementary Situations a project for the establishment and disaster risk prone zone. schools). of the Emergency Management Centre, Implementing the key elements of for submission to potential donors. The Since 2000, the CoES has led a dis- UNICEF leads the WASH (water and school-based disaster risk reduction. centre is expected to provide reliable aster management coordination group sanitation) cluster and co-leads the ed- Developing and running a disaster risk real-time communication for relevant known as the Rapid Emergency Assess- ucation cluster with Save the Children. reduction baseline survey in schools. structures with disaster-affected areas, ment and Coordination Team. REACT UNICEF works closely with UNDP DRMP Introduction to the draft tool for as- access to the disaster-related database comprises over 60 key national and inter- and UNISDR and supported the initiative sessing school safety. of the Committee, and improved assess- national governmental and non-govern- on school resilience to earthquakes. ment of losses and needs in the disaster mental organizations, including UNICEF UNISDR collaboration with Tajikistan area. In 2010, the proposal was support- and UNISDR. With an objective of rapid In the current country programme (2010 ed and received funding from the Gov- assessment and effective response to - 2015), UNICEF is further advancing its UNISDR began its activities in Tajikistan ernment of Japan, through the Tajikistan disasters and coordination, REACT has efforts in maximizing the impact of dis- in 2004, focusing on a number of areas, country office of the International Or- developed an inter-agency contingency aster risk reduction through its integra- including national coordination in disaster ganization for Migration. The Emergency plan for preparedness and response tion into the school curricula. risk reduction, inclusion of the disaster Management Centre was scheduled to risk reduction component in education have started operations by the end of On 30 March 2010, the Government Under the on-going DIPECHO VI pro- programmes and improvement of infor- the summer, 2011. of Tajikistan approved a National Disas- gramme, the UNICEF country office and mation exchange. The Government of ter Risk Management Strategy and its its government counterparts, mainly from Tajikistan collaborated with UNISDR in Tajikistan, having signed the Hyogo Action Plan for 2010-2015, which was the Ministry of Education and the Com- the organization of a number of regional Framework for Action in 2005, has developed throughout 2008-2009 un- mittee of Emergency Situations, are and international conferences, including worked to improve information gather- der the initiative of the CoES and finan- implementing a range of disaster risk the 4th Economic Cooperation Organi- ing, analysis, creation of risk maps and cial support of UNDP and ECHO. During reduction interventions aimed at policy, zation Conference on Emergency Man- improvement of information exchange 2009-2010, disaster risk reduction is- institutional and operational aspects. The agement, the International Water Forum, systems.146 147Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 75. Brief Country Profiles: Tajikistan Brief Country Profiles: Tajikistan Summer camp, schools teach UNICEF. The participants have already Tajikistan children to been trained in disaster risk reduction through the project. In addition to en- survive and save others in hancing their capacity, the summer camp disaster situations will also equip over 1,300 children in three neighbouring summer camps with knowl- Enhancing the skills of children and teach- edge and skills on survival in disaster situ- ers in disaster preparedness was the ma- ations. jor aim of a week-long summer camp in Karatog, Shahrinav district. About 160 Besides summer camps, 9,000 Tajik chil- children and more than 30 teachers from dren in the 16 target schools were also across the country attended the summer trained in disaster preparedness. Teach- camp. ers and students were also involved in an effort called non-structural mitigation. “While hoping there never will be ma- Blackboards and shelves were secured jor disasters, preparing for them is very so that they did not fall during quakes. important,” said Tojinisso Mahmadova, Large furniture was rearranged so that Deputy Minister of Education. “This sum- it did not block exists. Evacuation routes mer camp will help to prepare school chil- were clearly marked. dren and teachers for potential disasters, thus helping them survive and play an im- Basic disaster preparedness equipment portant role in saving the lives of other was prepared in-line with emergency leg- people.” islation. This included first aid kits, fire extinguishers, masks, emergency signs, Tajikistan is very prone to disasters shovels, jackets and flashlights. caused by natural hazards. The moun- tainous landscape and climatic conditions “I learnt in school about what I need to often cause floods, landslides, mudslides do in case of a disaster,” said Shabafruzi and avalanches, all of which strongly im- Tohir, 13, who came from Ayni district to pact the lives and welfare of communi- participate in the summer camp. “Now ties across the country. I can learn even more and share this knowledge with other children.” “The impact of natural and man-made disasters falls disproportionately on chil- Supporting Disaster Risk Reduction dren,” said Hongwei Gao, UNICEF Coun- among Vulnerable Communities in Central try Representative in Tajikistan. “Due to Asia is financially supported by UNICEF their age, children have limited knowl- and the European Commission through edge and skills, life experience and physi- DIPECHO. The aim of the project is to cal capacity to react adequately when support strategies that enable local com- disaster strikes. This summer camp is de- munities and institutions to better prepare signed to enhance skills and knowledge for, mitigate and respond adequately to of children during disasters.” disasters caused by natural hazards. The almost 200 participants of the sum- mer camp have been selected from 16 schools, where the project on disaster risk reduction in schools has been imple- mented since 2009 jointly by the Minis- try of Education, Committee of Emer- gency Situations and Civil Defence, and148 149Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 76. Brief Country Profiles: Macedonia Brief Country Profiles: Macedonia Hazards and disasters (magnitude 6.7, in 1931). A magnitude overview 5.2 earthquake in 1994 affected about 230,000 people. The former Yugoslav Republic of Mac- edonia lies in a seismically active region The former Yugoslav Republic of Mac- that has been the site of destructive edonia is also vulnerable to natural haz- earthquakes in the past, most recently ards including floods, epidemics, forest in 1963 when Skopje was heavily dam- and urban fires, extreme temperatures, aged by a major earthquake that killed droughts, wind storms and landslides. In over 1,000 people and caused extensive terms of number of events and amount damage to the city. Skopje is situated in of economic loss, the country was most the most mobile part of the seismically- vulnerable to floods in the period 1980- active Vardar zone. The whole country is 2010, with seven separate flood disas- located in the Mediterranean seismic belt. ters causing damage estimated at over US$350 million. Historically, earthquakes of magnitudes 6.0 - 7.8 in 10 seismic zones have been Historic data prior to that available in EM- experienced throughout the country, DAT shows that the country has had two with the strongest occurring in the seis- major floods in the last 50 years -in 1962 mic zones of Pehcevo-Kresna (magni- and 1979 - with an estimated aggregate tude 7.8, in 1904) and Valandovo-Dojran loss of over 7 per cent of GDP. This The former Table 19 The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 - 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. Yugoslav Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss of events (US$) Drought 1 7.69 0 10,000 0 Republic of Epidemic 1 7.69 0 200 0 Extreme 1 7.69 30 202 0 temperature Macedonia Flood 7 53.84 2 111,400 248,600,000 Wildlife 2 15.38 1 1,000,000 13,563,000 Wind Storm 1 7.69 1 3 0 Total 13 100 34 1,121,805 262,163,000150 151 59 Mulutinovic, Z. (1998). Seismic Hazard and Counter Measures in the city of Skopje, Institute of Earthquake Engineering & Engineering Seismology, Uni- versity “St. Cyrie and Methodius”, Skopje.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 77. Brief Country Profiles: Macedonia Brief Country Profiles: Macedonia same data shows that Skopje is exposed ter-departmental and international coop- and Science; Labour and Social Policy; Key activities are focused on imple- to flooding from three rivers: the Upper eration and consultations for the purpose and Justice. The National Platform also menting the former Yugoslav Republic Vardar, Treska and Lepenec. The flood- of crisis management. Furthermore, the includes the following independent gov- of Macedonian legal framework as it is ing is typically caused by intense rainfall Centre is in charge of preparing and up- ernmental agencies: the Radiation Secu- harmonized with EU legislation; the on- and melting snow. dating a unified assessment of the risks rity Directorate and the National Cadas- going process of destroying unexploded and threats to the security of the former tre Agency. ordnance and other deadly devices; im- There were also three major transport Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and plementation of protection measures accidents reported during 1993 – 2007, proposing measures and activities to re- The Crisis Management Centre and the against floods; and intensifying and pro- which claimed the lives of 208 people. solve them. National Platform in general provide full moting international cooperation. coverage of disaster risk reduction ac- The Crisis Management Centre has es- tivities at the local level. In this respect, The second piece of legislation covering Disaster management tablished 35 regional crisis management a municipal network has been started the civil emergency management func- structure and legislation centres in order to monitor situations, ex- aimed at developing and strengthening tion is the Law on Crisis Management, change information and data, make and cooperation at the local level towards which governs the response to emergen- Although the concept of disaster man- prepare assessments, and inform and effective prevention, early warning, crisis cies in terms of organization and func- agement in the former Yugoslav Repub- broadcast alerts to the population. The management, protection and rescue of tioning; decision-making and resource lic of Macedonia has been largely inter- Centre also has responsibility for issuing people and goods, and mitigation. For this use; communication, coordination and co- preted in terms of protection and rescue, timely information and early warning. purpose, cooperation agreements with all operation; planning and financing; and an the Government gave political impetus to 84 municipalities and the capital city of assessment of the security risks to the the development of a multi-stakeholder The National Platform is developed Skopje have been signed. country. approach to disaster risk reduction and through 21 specialized platforms cov- disaster management when it declared ering specific risks and threats, ranging In terms of protection and rescue, the The different actors involved in the cri- an official National Platform on 21 April from wildfires and epidemics, through Law on Protection and Rescue indicates sis management system include the state 2009. droughts and floods, to earthquakes and how responsibilities are divided between administrative bodies and authorities (the CBRN contamination. The particular plat- the participants in activities, including the Assembly, President and Government), The principal goal of the National Plat- forms will enable institutional synergy state, local authorities, private compa- the armed forces, the protection and form is emergency management through and integration of available resources, nies, and public enterprises, facilities and rescue forces, and bodies of municipali- the effective and efficient use of avail- knowledge and know-how of national services. The law regulatesthe division of ties and the city of Skopje. able resources and capacities; as an in- and local authorities, the NGO sector, responsibilities in accord with the provi- strument for the reduction of risk factors; the business and academic community, sions in the Local Self-Government Law In a crisis situation, a Steering Commit- by identifying, assessing and monitoring and civil society. which devolve obligations of protection tee, Assessment Group and Crisis Man- risks; by building a culture of safety; and and rescue to municipalities. agement Centre are established at na- by strengthening disaster preparedness The following stakeholders are part of tional level. The Steering Committee is at all levels. the National Platform: ministries and in- The law also determines the responsibili- composed of the ministers for Interior, dependent governmental agencies and ties of the Protection and Rescue Direc- Health, Transport and Communications, The aim is to ensure an integrated, effi- bodies; inspectorates within state insti- torate, as an independent state authority, Defence, Foreign Affairs, and the Head cient and effective approach to disaster tutions; independent regulatory bodies; in the conduct of protection and rescue of the Assessment Group. If necessary, risk reduction through prevention, early municipalities; academic community; na- activities. The Directorate, which was depending on the crisis situation, other warning and management and mitiga- tional laboratory network; education and established in May 2005, has the task of heads of relevant state administrative tion of disaster threats and post-disaster training sector; research sector (includ- coordinating the civil protection sectors. bodies can also be included in the work consequences. ing expertise); business community; and of the Steering Committee. religious communities. At central level, the Directorate estab- The Crisis Management Centre holds the lishes the main headquarters to manage The Assessment Group is a governmen- strategic position within the crisis man- Various ministries and governmental national protection and rescue activities; tal body that performs constant assess- agement system and provides the Na- agencies are engaged on a national and the Directorate director is commander ment of the risks and dangers to national tional Platform for stakeholders’ coordi- local level. These include the ministries of of these headquarters. Rapid response security and proposes measures and ac- nation, and technical and administrative Agriculture, Forestry and Water Manage- teams, established within the Directorate, tivities for their prevention, early warning support. It is the governmental agency ment; Environment and Physical Planning; are a mainstay of the protection and and management. The Group delivers its in charge of coordination of emergency Health; Transport and Communications; rescue forces and specialize in various analyses, recommendations and conclu- management activities. This includes in- Economy; IT Society; Culture; Education fields. sions to the Steering Committee.152 153Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 78. Brief Country Profiles: Macedonia Brief Country Profiles: Macedonia How education is used The Crisis Management Centre is setting energy and power plant security; and wa- advocate for child-friendly policies, qual- up a national crisis management educa- ity and standards of services in health to promote safety tional and training network. This will in- ter management. and education on a national level; and to clude universities, vocational schools and focus geographically on poor, rural and A number of public training projects have other educational institutions such as the Selected national and minority communities to address dispar- been developed targeting primary- and secondary-level pupils through the Min- Military Academy and police training fa- international partners ity and social exclusion. Along with the development of the new education cur- cilities (by planning to include crisis man- istry of Education and Science. As far agement modules in their existing curric- involved in disaster risk ricula and teacher-training programmes back as 1997/98 the project Let us be ula). The Centre is developing a concept reduction discussed above, expected results are child-friendly school standards; improved Acquainted with Natural Catastrophes for a virtual Crisis Management Acad- was developed for pupils aged between access to education to ensure that all emy, employing the existing educational children go to school, stay in school and 7 and 10. More recently, the project In- facilities nationwide. National organizations and gain knowledge that is useful to them; ternational Cooperation and Connec- international partners and the development of an Area-Based tion of Schools in South Eastern Europe At graduate and post-graduate level, the Social Development (ABSD) programme. through the Internet was realized in 9 high institutional framework already exists for In addition to organizations and bodies schools in the former Yugoslav Republic the development of methods, techniques already mentioned, national partners in- In response to the severe damage of Macedonia, which were connected to volved in disaster risk reduction includes caused by the unprecedented number of and standards, as well as for the train- the former Yugoslav Republic of Mac- 10 schools from each of the 10 countries ing of professionals to master and doc- forest fires during the summer of 2007, edonian Red Cross, which is establishing UNDP - in partnership with the United Na- of South Eastern Europe. The goal of the torate levels, in the reduction of seismic an emergency response unit in compli- project was to develop common themes and flooding risks. The institutions are the tions Environment Programme (UNEP), ance with IFRC strategy and standard UNICEF and FAO - provided technical in the sphere of prevention and protec- Institute of Earthquake Engineering and operating procedures. Furthermore, the tion against catastrophes caused by nat- assistance through its project Support- Engineering Seismology, IZIIS-Skopje, Red Cross has concluded a memoran- ing the Damage and Threat Assessment ural or technological hazards. and the Seismological Observatory, Fac- dum of understanding with the Ministry of of the Recent Heat Wave and Subse- ulty of Natural Sciences and Mathemat- Education in order to introduce disaster quent Forest Fires to the National Crisis Furthermore, the elementary school cur- ics - both under the University Ss. Cyril risk reduction issues into schools. As part Management Centre to conduct a forest ricula include some content and activi- and Methodius, Skopje; and the Republic of the initiative, selected teachers are fire impact assessment in order to sup- ties in the domain of risk prevention and Hydro-meteorological Institute. The In- being educated on how to deal with dis- port the country’s early recovery proc- protection (taught as “risk prevention asters before they occur, during their oc- ess. The assessment report revealed the stitute organizes masters-level courses currence, and their consequences. Once culture”). The project has been designed in the fields of earthquake engineering, environmental damage of various forest they are equipped with this knowledge, fires and their socio-economic impact, for and incorporated into the curricula engineering seismology, and planning for the teachers then share it with other for V to VIII grade students (aged 10 to integrated disaster risk reduction. and highlighted different opportunities teachers and pupils. for improvement of the disaster manage- 14). The message is delivered through the regular teaching process in subjects ment system. The report recommended a To provide a multi-disciplinary approach number of interventions for early recov- including technical education, geography, to the disaster risk reduction process, the UNICEF collaboration with the former ery and prevention. The following major physics, chemistry, biology, and physical CMC and Ss. Cyril and Methodius Univer- areas were identified to be strengthened: Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia in and health-care education. sity have signed an agreement for the overall disaster coordination and plan- education and disaster risk establishment of a Disaster Management ning; the multi-sectoral approach to pre- At high-school level, students aged 14 to Centre of Excellence, and its develop- vention, response and recovery; techni- UNICEF has developed life-skills-based 18 studying the revised curricula complete ment has already begun. The Centre of education curricula for primary schools cal hazard monitoring (early warning) and a 36-hour module on “peace, defence Excellence will be in charge of scien- and is now finalizing the development impact evaluation; local resilience; and and protection”. It is a non-curricula op- tific and research projects and activi- of teacher-training manuals. Following public awareness- and preparedness- tional activity through which the students ties in the following fields: epidemiology; endorsement by the Ministry of Educa- raising. The project aimed to implement acquire the knowledge, skills and capac- tion, the curricula are now applicable in all these recommendations in consultation animal medicine; agriculture and forestry; with various national and international ity necessary for the “safety and protec- bio-hazards; environmental hazards, for- schools. The UNICEF 2010 - 2015 coun- try programme aims to improve both stakeholders to ensure the country’s tion” of themselves and others. In the II est fires and protection of environment; successful recovery and prevention of grade of vocational schools there is an climate change and extreme weather access to and the quality/relevance of the formal education system. The pro- forest fires and other types of disasters obligatory subject entitled “defence and conditions; earthquakes, floods and geo- caused by natural hazards. protection”, which teaches students in gramme represents a direct contribution hazards; industrial and technical-tech- to the Millennium Development Goal of two-hour weekly lectures a similar mes- nological hazards; nuclear hazards; tel- achieving universal primary education sage regarding safety and protection. ecommunication and IT systems safety; and is based on two broad strategies: to154 155Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 79. Brief Country Profiles: Macedonia Brief Country Profiles: Turkey UNISDR collaboration with the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia The former Yugoslav Republic of Mac- edonia has appointed an HFA Focal Point as a step in its implementation and pursuit of HFA objectives and strategic goals. Furthermore, the former Yugoslav Re- public of Macedonia has informed UNIS- DR about the existence of an officially- designated National Platform: the Crisis Management Centre. During the summer of 2007, and within the framework of SEEDRMI, direct communication was es- tablished between the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonian national authori- ties and UNISDR. In addition, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia active- ly participated in the Euro-Mediterrane- an Workshop on Disaster Reduction at School, held in October 2007. Other international partners include the European Centre on Vulnerability of In- dustrial and Lifelines Systems (ECILS). Turkey156 157Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 80. Brief Country Profiles: Turkey Brief Country Profiles: Turkey Hazards and disasters north of the country from west to east As per the summary data provided by the of 1999, the Turkey Emergency Manage- overview caused a major earthquake in 1999. In ad- Government, the country is at risk from almost all kinds of natural hazards. Be- ment General Directorate (TEMAD) was established with the support of the World dition, studies show there is a high prob- Turkey is especially vulnerable to earth- ability that a major earthquake will strike tween 1980 and 2010 earthquakes ac- Bank to create an upper tier capable of quakes and the country has been struck by Istanbul in the near future60. Rapid and counted for the major share of disaster coordinating the actions of different ac- approximately 73 major seismic events in uncontrolled urbanization has increased events and caused the greatest amount tors at local, national and international the last century, collectively causing the the level of vulnerability to earthquakes. of economic loss, followed by floods. level during the emergency phase of dis- deaths of 20,636 people and destroy- The 73 earthquakes affected over asters. The General Directorate also acts ing approximately 500,000 homes. An 15.9 million people while the 172 floods as an inspectorate on the implementation earthquake fault line running across the caused 75 deaths and affected almost of civil protection laws and regulations, 70,000 people. The number and severity as well as for the design and implementa- of floods as well as wildfires is increas- tion of tactical and strategic plans. ing, especially in the Mediterranean area, where the presence of extended urban In terms of international cooperation, Table 20 Turkey: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 sprawl and the exploitation of territory TEMAD was the contact point for OCHA -2010) and number of human casualties. for new infrastructure developments, and other agencies related to disaster The data below has been provided by the Government of Turkey settlements and industry have exposed a risk reduction, including NATO EADRCC growing number of people to the poten- and the European Union Monitoring and tially adverse effects of such events. Information Centre (EU-MIC). TEMAD Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected was also responsible for the coordina- of events In addition, the Black sea region of the tion of humanitarian assistance and the country is highly prone to landslides; civilian side of humanitarian operations about 25 per cent of the territory is ex- led by the United Nations or in a bilateral Earthquake 73 1.53 20,636 15,913,252 posed to landslide hazards. context. Epidemic no data Disaster management The two consecutive major earthquakes in 1999 became the turning point in disas- structure and legislation ter management in Turkey when pre-dis- Landslide 811 16.97 233 91,081 aster measures came on to the Govern- Turkey has an effective, reliable and ment’s agenda. Previously, the disaster complex system of civil protection61. At management system was focused mainly Flood 172 3.59 75 69,788 its apex is the Prime Ministry Crisis Man- on the post-disaster period and there agement Centre, which was established were no incentives or legislation to en- in 1997 with the aim of coordinating all courage risk analysis or risk reduction ap- Forest Fire 1,613 33.75 19 over 20 hectares rescue activities during national emer- proaches. But following the earthquakes gencies. All ministers with responsibilities both the academic and the technical au- for prevention, mitigation or direct inter- thorities agreed that there was a strong Rockfall 247 5.16 18 26,747 vention during emergency situations are need to develop pre-disaster precautions represented on the Crisis Coordination involving a revised legislation and admin- Council, which is the main operational istrative restructuring. Fire 275 5.75 79 364 entity activated during a national emer- gency. Under Act No.5902, dated 29 May 2009, which established the Prime Ministry Avalanche 209 4.37 195 18,560 Disaster and Emergency Management Turkey had two old state organizations related to disasters caused by natural Presidency (AFAD), the following three Meteorogic 1,378 28.84 6 hazards: the General Directorate of Dis- core institutions were unified under a sin- Disaster aster Affairs and the General Directo- gle, independent authority: the General rate of Civil Defence. These organiza- Directorate of Turkey Emergency Man- Total 4,778 100.00 21,261 16,119,792 tions were established during the 1950s. agement, under the Prime Ministry; the Following the devastating earthquakes General Directorate of Civil Defence,158 159 60 There is a 20 per cent probability that an earthquake will strike Istanbul in the next 10 years.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 81. Brief Country Profiles: Turkey Brief Country Profiles: Turkey under the Ministry of Interior; and the ery Departments. ment and evaluation of the Strategy and General Directorate of Disaster Affairs, Action Plan for Urban Development. As AFAD will participate in the process of under the Ministry of Public Works and With the rise of global interest in the members of specific working groups es- expanding the Mitigation of Flood Risk in Settlement, all of which were closed. The concept of disaster risk reduction, Tur- tablished under the auspices of the Min- the Flooded Areas in South Eastern Ana- act was adopted by Parliament and en- key is well aware of the importance of istry of Public Works and Settlement, tolia Project, which is focused on hazard tered into force in June 2009. risk reduction strategies. To this end, the AFAD is dealing with the preparation of mapping, structural measures against country has adopted the HFA as a key legislative arrangements by: disasters and education activities. This is In order to take the necessary measures guidance text for national progress in being carried out in cooperation with the for effective emergency management disaster risk reduction. Formulating the regulations related to Prime Minister’s Office and the South and civil protection nationwide, AFAD disaster and emergency management. Eastern Anatolia Project Regional De- conducts “pre-incident” works such as Disaster risk reduction strategy Assessing principles for multi-hazard velopment Administration. The project preparedness, mitigation and risk man- in Turkey mapping and mitigation plans. proposal, which follows the framework agement; “mid-incident” works such as Preparing a handbook on the of the European Union Floods Directive, response; and “post-incident” works such An important initiative - the Assess- implementation of plans. also aims to establish a monitoring, fore- as recovery and reconstruction. AFAD ment of Principles of Risk Management Prioritizing buildings for earthquake casting and early-warning system using provides coordination for governmental, Project - was launched with the approval risk. flood-hazard maps in a pilot region in or- non-governmental and private organi- of the SPO at the beginning of 2011. This Providing safe transportation routes in der to prevent and mitigate flood risks in zations and both formulates and imple- project, which will be finalized by 2013, case of disasters. the long term. ments policies. covers methodology and procedures for risk assessment and risk analysis stud- Preparing for hydro-meteorological Another project to be conducted on hy- The 2011 plan launched by the State ies to be held in the provinces. Support disasters dro-meteorological disasters is the 2012 Planning Organization (SPO) defined for the project will be received from the - 2013 Capacity Building on Flash Flood four policy priorities and measures. academic community, including disaster Hydro-meteorological disaster experts in Forecasting and Early Warning System Those priorities are: management centres in Turkish universi- AFAD are conducting a Flood Forecast- Project. The proposal has been prepared ties. ing and Early Warning System Feasibil- by AFAD within the framework of the Eu- To prepare a National Disaster Man- ity Project, the protocol for which was ropean Union Floods Directive and with- agement Strategy and Action Plan. Turkey has also recently established a signed in September 2010 by AFAD, the in the scope of the EU Instruments for To prioritize with respect to the l National Platform for disaster risk reduc- State Meteorological Service (DMI) and Pre-Accession Assistance Programme, evel of risk those settlements vulner- tion, in accordance with the first priority the Directorate General of State Hy- in cooperation with DMI, DSI and the Di- able to disasters caused by natural of the HFA and in close cooperation with draulic Works (DSI), with a donation by rectorate General of Electrical Power hazards across the country. UNISDR. The first meeting of the Plat- the US Trade and Development Agency. Resources Survey and Development To revise disaster legislation. form was to be held in August 2011, with This project covers the analysis of area Administration (EIEI). It was submitted to To develop an insurance system for the participation of all stakeholders. and hydro-meteorological data for flood the Prime Minister’s Office, Secretariat- disasters caused by natural hazards. models, review of current data collection General for European Union Affairs, in AFAD is also working on the preparation methods and capabilities, comparative February 2011 in order to enhance the In addition, Turkey has published a Na- of the National Disaster Management analysis of the flood forecasting sys- country’s capacity in this specific area. tional Climate Change Strategy Docu- Strategy and Action Plan. The document tems of developed countries, compara- The project proposal is awaiting approval. ment for 2010 - 2020. This very com- contains the short-, medium- and long- tive analysis of commonly-used flood prehensive document defines the targets term disaster risk reduction objectives in forecasting and early-warning models, Disaster risk reduction and and strategies by considering various line with the HFA. All government institu- technical assessment of flood prevention geographic information systems sectors to achieve successful adapta- tions dealing with disaster and emergen- alternatives and network developments, tion to climate change. cy management, as well as the academic designation of projects and specifica- Integrated hazard mapping by using GIS community and non-governmental insti- tions, financial and economic analysis, is an important topic in disaster risk re- Within the new administrative structure tutions, are involved in the preparation of and analysis of the impacts on the envi- duction, both locally and internationally. In and legislation, AFAD works on disaster this document, which will be finalized by ronment and economic progress. At the this context, a pilot project has been im- risk reduction directly with the Planning the end of 2011. end of the project, the results obtained plemented by AFAD and its predecessor and Mitigation Department and the Earth- will be submitted as a final report to gov- institutions. quake Department. It also conducts indi- One of the main national projects in ernment authorities in order to proceed rect disaster risk mitigation work through which AFAD is taking part is the assess- to the next step. Following the 1999 Marmara Region its Civil Defence, Response and Recov-160 161Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 82. Brief Country Profiles: Turkey Brief Country Profiles: Turkey earthquakes, the Integrated Multi-Hazard collected from these networks are shared more efficiently with danger in emer- cation Centre, under the AFAD Educa- Assessment for North Western Anato- with the public through the Department’s gencies, AFAD pays special attention tion Coordination Branch, is a special- lia Region Project commenced under website and stored in the National Seis- to publishing and distributing informative ized centre established within EUR-OPA the General Directorate of Disaster Af- mic Data Centre. Studies conducted by texts and visual materials on disasters which delivers training on hazard reduc- fairs. The project consisted of integrated the Earthquake Department include: and emergencies in order to raise public tion activities. Its target group comprises multi-hazard mapping for the three prov- awareness. technicians, administrators and groups inces of Kastamonu, Karabuk and Bartin; Earthquake hazard mapping on a local, which have responsibility for various dis- the region has been subjected to various regional and national level. There is always a need to review and aster management tasks. kinds of natural hazards, including earth- Assessment of active faults that may update technical information of this kind. quakes, landslides, rockfalls, floods and produce earthquakes. For this reason, AFAD organizes theo- In addition to governmental bodies, there wildfires. The main goals of the project Paleoseismicity. retical and practical education and train- are specialized research centres in the were to assess the hazard levels of the Development of an earthquake early- ing programmes for specific topics in the field of disaster management within Is- pilot provinces and to prepare multi- damage assessment system. field of disaster and emergency manage- tanbul Technical University and the Mid- hazard maps in GIS environments. The Province-based modelling of seismic ment with a continuously-updated curric- dle East Technical University. Among project also guides the rapid-response behaviour of the ground for safe and se- ulum, to improve the skills of managerial them, Istanbul Technical University’s plans of the provinces, supplying infor- cure settlements. and technical staff working in this field. Centre of Excellence for Disaster Man- mation to city planners for land-use plan- Development of building codes for agement has been established as a re- ning and decision-making. Earthquakes, implementation in earthquake-prone re- The promotion of education programmes source to serve activities such as train- landslides, rockfalls and floods were gions. and the adoption of new school curricula ing, consultation and research. The broad studied and hazard maps prepared. Dis- and university courses have helped to aims of the centre are to develop strat- aster management was also included in A multi-stakeholder consultancy mecha- further enhance the public perception egies and projects, and to construct a the project. In cooperation with the Gen- nism, the Earthquake Advisory Board, has and awareness of disaster risk reduction bridge between neighbouring countries eral Mapping Command and the General been established under AFAD. With its in Turkey. Furthermore, specific technical and developed countries specifically in Directorate of Mineral Research and Ex- support, the Earthquake Department is structures and schools for the training of disaster management. ploration, integrated hazard maps of the preparing the National Earthquake Strat- personnel working in civil protection units three pilot provinces were accomplished egy and Action Plan, which was expected are in place and there is constructive co- One of the objectives of the Istanbul and there are plans to expand the project to be finalized and launched by August operation with universities. Seismic Risk Mitigation and Emergency to the rest of the country. 2011. The AFAD Earthquake Department Preparedness Project is to conduct pub- is a member of several international seis- Following the two major earthquakes of lic awareness campaigns and training in Various government institutions are us- mological organizations, including the 1999, the Ministry of Education radically emergency management. Training topics ing these multi-hazard maps for planning European Seismology Commission and changed the school curricula. Under the covered include survival under extraordi- purposes and in engineering design. The the Euro-Mediterranean Seismological new system, curricula for primary and nary situations, first aid, structural aware- Prime Minister has ordered further haz- Center. secondary levels (age 6 - 14) focus on ness, non-structural risk awareness and ard assessment and multi-hazard map- preparation and protection for disas- retrofitting of public buildings. ping studies. How education is used ters, while at high-school level (age 15 - 17) the students receive more detailed Other activities have been conducted Disaster risk reduction and earth- to promote safety knowledge on the causes of disasters, by the Japan International Cooperation quakes and civil protection, mitigation and re- Agency, which has organized a training AFAD is responsible for education, train- sponse activities. Schools invite external programme using different formats and a ing and awareness-raising activities in the specialists for training of both teachers variety of media. Trainings have included Turkey pays special attention to earth- field of disaster and emergency manage- and students and conduct annual evacua- educational activities, publications, visual quakes due to its location and AFAD has ment. The target groups of these activi- tion exercises. Furthermore, the Ministry tools (using CDs and DVDs), and video a dedicated Earthquake Department. It ties are decision-makers, national and lo- of Education is closely involved with the conference for trainings in the field of contributes to disaster risk reduction by cal officials, from directors-general to implementation of risk reduction subjects disaster management in coordination operating and developing observation experts working on disaster and emer- in primary- and secondary-school educa- with different governmental organiza- network systems such as the Weak Mo- gency management, NGOs and the public. tion programmes. To realize these aims, tions. Target groups of these trainings tion Seismic Observation Network and the first step was to educate teachers are governmental officers, emergency the Strong Motion Seismic Observation Starting from the assumption that well- and decision-makers. managers and technical staff. In all, 253 Network. They operate on a 24/7 basis informed populations can protect them- senior local administrators such as gov- through 473 observation stations. Data selves better against risks and can cope The European Natural Disasters Edu- ernors and deputy governors have ben-162 163Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 83. Brief Country Profiles: Turkey Brief Country Profiles: Turkey efited. 1.2 million school children and 66,000 tions, NATO - through the EADRCC - and Other goals in which Turkey and AFAD school teachers were reached in the ini- the Economic Cooperation Organization. are making good progress are the popu- As the result of this programme, an in- tial effort. AFAD is collaborating with several Unit- larization of a culture of risk mitigation teractive training set in DVD format was ed Nations organizations, including UNDP and reduction through education, infor- prepared and a book, Basic Principles The goal of the 2003 - 2005 Basic Dis- and the United Nations Platform for mation and awareness-raising activities, of Disaster Management, was published. aster Awareness in Turkish Schools Space-based Information for Disaster and the establishment of accreditation project, developed in partnership with Management and Emergency Response standards for voluntary institutions, or- Both were distributed to all governmen- the Ministry of Education (MoE), was to (UN-SPIDER). AFAD is also an author- ganizations and people involved in the tal units and universities, and were made create the basis for institutionalizing this ized user of the International Charter for disaster and emergency management available to the public. The Agency also education programme by training 15,000 Space and Major Disasters, which sup- system. organized video conference training pro- school-based basic disaster awareness ports post-disaster activities by providing grammes through which Japanese expe- instructors, who would in turn reach 5 mil- satellite images. riences on disaster risk reduction were lion school children in the 30 most popu- UNICEF collaboration with Turkey in transmitted to their Turkish counterparts lous provinces at risk. Key opportunities AFAD is also collaborating bilaterally with education and disaster risk through an on-line dialogue. to embed this progress into a culture of Albania, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herze- safety remain with the MoE in establish- govina, the former Yugoslav Republic of The ongoing UNICEF Country Pro- ing an ongoing National Disaster Aware- Macedonia, and Romania and trilaterally gramme Action Plan (CPAP) has been AFAD has an Education Centre with sig- developed for the period 2006 - 2010 nificant capacity. Its one aim is to edu- ness Workgroup tasked with programme with Afghanistan and Pakistan on disas- integration into the national curriculum ter risk reduction, as well as other dis- and aims to support education, health, cate trainers to train the following: staff and expansion from pre-school through aster and emergency management sub- early childhood development, child pro- working in disaster and emergency man- high-school level in public and private jects, in the framework of bilateral and tection and child participation in Turkey agement at local levels; staff and deci- schools nationwide. trilateral agreements and/or memoranda by working towards the increased avail- sion-makers working in disaster-related of understanding. ability of data and information about child state organizations (in areas including the Some universities, such as the Middle rights issues, and by advocating for poli- environment, forestry, water and munici- East Technical University (METU) and Disaster and emergency management cy change. palities etc.); and local people throughout Istanbul Technical University (ITU), have systems in Turkey have evolved from a Turkey who live in disaster-prone areas. disaster management excellence cen- post-disaster approach to pre-disaster Disaster risk reduction is mainstreamed tres. There are also scientific centres for planning from the political, institutional, chiefly into the programmes Quality Edu- earthquake research at most universities. academic and practical points of view. cation; Advocacy, Information, and So- Selected national and ITU has a Master of Science programme The country has adopted the HFA as a cial Policy; and Early Childhood Care and Learning. Other UNICEF activities relat- on disaster management, while METU is key guidance document during this tran- international partners working in collaboration with the World sition period and has been paying par- ed to risk reduction have included par- involved in disaster risk Bank Online Natural Disaster Manage- ment Certificate Programme. In addi- ticular attention to disaster risk reduction progress in accordance with HFA priori- ticipation in a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey conducted on avian in- reduction tion, Çanakkale University runs a Disaster ties. fluenza. This involved participation in the Management MSc programme. Other uni- communication campaign and the print- versities with disaster research centres The objectives of Turkey, and institution- ing of over 180,000 copies of a training National organizations and include Gazi University in Ankara, Dicle ally of AFAD, are as follows: pack. Accordingly, training on the protec- international partners University and Hacettepe University. tion of children and families from avian To work in harmony with national and influenza was provided to 143,800 front- Following the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake, International relations international stakeholders. line workers all over the country. They Bogazici University, Kandili Observatory To finalise the National Disaster Man included vets, agricultural engineers, pro- and the Earthquake Research Institute AFAD, with the assistance of the For- agement Strategy and Action Plan. vincial administrators, teachers and com- launched the Istanbul Community Impact eign Relations Coordination Office, is To prepare multi-hazard and multi-risk munity leaders such as imams and village/ Project with support from USAID. The cooperating with South East European maps for the entire country. neighbourhood muhtars. This training was project successfully developed curricula countries through the DPPI SEE and To establish information, monitoring, conducted by 378 provincial trainers who and outreach materials in basic disaster South East European Cooperation Proc- early-warning and communication sys had themselves been trained by a central awareness and disseminated these, in ess (SEECP); with Mediterranean coun- tems and preparation of operation team of 16. The training model, materi- partnership with NGOs and the directo- tries through PPRD South; with European standards for these systems. als and guide previously developed with rates of education in the Marmara region, countries through EUR-OPA and the Eu- To complete urban risk analyses and UNICEF technical support were used, with school and community - based in- ropean Union; and with countries of the mitigation plans. including instructions on how to moni- structors. Curricula were also developed Black Sea region through the Organiza- To create databases for collecting, tor. Moreover, 3,000 books for provin- in non-structural mitigation and structural tion of Black Sea Economic Cooperation. analysing and synthesizing data related cial trainers and 180,000 guidebooks for awareness for seismic safety. More than It also cooperates with the United Na- to disasters and emergencies. front-line workers were developed, print-164 165Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 84. Brief Country Profiles: Turkey Brief Country Profiles: Turkmenistan ed and distributed. Positive feedback was received from the trainees on train- ing materials and training sessions. In addition, in 2009 UNICEF entered a project cooperation agreement with the NGO Blue Crescent on developing a manual for schools on disaster manage- ment. UNISDR collaboration with Turkey AFAD is collaborating with UNISDR and is nominated as the HFA Focal Point for Turkey. Turkmenistan166 167Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 85. Brief Country Profiles: Turkmenistan Brief Country Profiles: Turkmenistan Hazards and disasters Turkmenistan is also vulnerable to land- Disaster management With regard to disaster risk reduction in overview slides, although the risks they pose are structure and legislation education, most efforts in this area are made by the National Red Crescent So- limited because they occur mostly in The availability of disaster data for Turk- sparsely-populated mountain areas. Turkmenistan is the only country of Cen- ciety of Turkmenistan as well as with the menistan is limited in comparison to other EM-DAT shows (Table 21) that during tral Asia which has not committed itself to support of other donors. countries in the region. However, analysis 1980-2010, there was one earthquake the HFA due to its neutrality status. How- of reported disaster data shows that the and one flood reported. ever, positive developments over the last Cooperation with Turkmenistan is espe- country is severely affected by earth- years include the establishment of the cially viable in the area of seismic risk quakes. State Agency for Disaster Management reduction and education (including the in- in May 2007, which was later replaced by troduction of disaster risk reduction into The flood hazard is also significant and the Disaster Management Unit under the school and university curricula). flooding is common in the watersheds Ministry of Defence of Turkmenistan. of the Atrek and Siraks rivers, notably Selected national and where the Siraks borders Iran. The only In 2008, disaster preparedness was for recorded flood disaster was in January the first time included in UNDAF for Turk- international partners 1993, when 420 people were affected menistan during the mid-term review. The involved in disaster risk and reported economic loss amounted to US$100 million. regional conference on seismic risk re- duction, held in the capital city Ashgabat reduction in October 2008 and partially funded by The country is constantly exposed to DIPECHO V with the active participation National organizations and drought hazards, which may further in- of UNISDR, is compelling evidence of international partners tensify as a result of climate change. the on-going changes and the readiness It faced a particularly harsh winter in of Turkmenistan to cooperate at the re- The Red Crescent Society of Turk- 2007/2008 resulting in large numbers of gional level. menistan (RCST) works in close coop- cattle lost and soaring consumer prices eration with the Government and is well for meat. In particular, the country will On the whole, based on the general trends known among the population. Since 1999, benefit from a drought response strat- in national policy and informal meetings the RCST has operated a well-trained egy based on a forward-looking hazard with government officials of Turkmeni- and equipped search-and-rescue team profile and development of longer-term stan, there can be no doubt that there are with experience in rescue operations (including the Spitak earthquake). Under capacity for drought mitigation and man- positive developments. the public safety campaign, the RCST agement. has founded local community-led disas- How education is used ter preparedness committees to raise to promote safety awareness on preparedness measures and essential knowledge on behaviour in Turkmenistan inherited a relatively com- emergency situations. The RCST is well Table 21 Turkmenistan: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards experienced in response to small-scale (1980 - 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. prehensive education system from the disasters caused by natural hazards due Soviet era, featuring free and near-uni- to flooding and earthquakes. The RCST’s versal access for both genders. National chairperson is a member of the State Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss literacy rates were correspondingly high. Emergency Management Commission of events (US$) Recent Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey under the Cabinet of Ministers. data still show high and stable school enrolment, retention and completion in The responsibilities for disaster mitiga- Earthquake 1 50.00 11 0 0 Turkmenistan. Within the framework of tion and response are with the special Di- both the Education for All and Millennium rectorate within the Ministry of Defence. Development Goals the sector performs In 2009, the Government issued a de- Flood 1 50.00 0 420 99,870,000 reasonably well; a notable exception is in cree resolving to strengthen and expand the functions, responsibilities and overall the area of quality of education, which scope of the work of the Directorate, and Total 2 100.00 11 420 99,870,000 the Government is beginning to address allotted over US$200 million to construct as among its highest priorities. a building, procure equipment, and hire168 169Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 86. Brief Country Profiles: Turkmenistan Brief Country Profiles: Turkmenistan and train additional professional staff. to the Government’s aim to effectively In 2009, a regional seismic conference respond to disasters caused by natural was organized in Ashgabat within the In March 2011, a government delegation and technological hazards. DIPECHO-V action plan, bringing togeth- from Turkmenistan requested participa- er the stakeholders and actors in disas- tion in the Knowledge Management work- The 2005 - 2009 country programme ter management of the country and the shop held under the DIPECHO project, aimed to support the Government and region. The conference agenda included which covered seven countries in Cen- other partners in the development of an overview of progress in disaster risk tral Asia and South Caucasus. Formally a comprehensive, rights-based policy reduction and management in Turkmeni- not part of the project, Turkmenistan has framework for ensuring quality, access stan, as well as a discussion on the ways steadily increased its efforts in disaster and use of basic social services. It built on to further strengthen the country’s ca- risk reduction in general and integration activities undertaken in the previous pe- pacity in this field. of disaster risk reduction in education in riod, which included the introduction of an particular. This was followed by a Na- innovative methodology for interactive The experts, scientists and specialized tional Conference on Education in early teaching and learning, and for life-skills- NGOs of Turkmenistan actively par- May 2011, where disaster risk reduction based health education and HIV/AIDS ticipate in regional events and thematic in education was given special attention, prevention for adolescents. conferences organized by UNISDR, and including the integration of disaster risk maintain professional and institutional reduction into both school curricula and In 2007, the United Nations Regional Cen- links and contacts in the region. school safety. tre for Preventive Diplomacy for Central Asia (UNRCCA) was established in Ahs- The UNDAF for 2010-2014 includes UNICEF collaboration with gabat. The Centre was the result of more more effective preparedness and re- than five years of consultations with gov- sponse to disasters caused by natural Turkmenistan in education and ernments in five Central Asian countries and man-made hazards (Millenium Devel- disaster risk and is well positioned to assist Turkmeni- opment Goals [MDGs] 1, 3, 6, 7, 8). stan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan The overall goal of the UNICEF 2010 – and Uzbekistan in addressing an array of The revised UNDAF for 2010-2015 in- 2015 country programme is to support new threats such as extremism, terror- cludes: the progressive and sustainable realiza- ism, the spread of HIV and AIDS, avian tion of the rights of children and women flu, human and drug trafficking, and envi- Agency Outcome 3.3: National devel- consistent with the goals formulated in ronmental pressures. In the development opment planners integrate adaptation the “National Programme of Turkmeni- sphere, the management of natural re- and preparedness of economic develop- stan for Transformation of Social Con- sources, labour migration and economic ment sectors to climate change into de- ditions of the Population of the Villages, integration present further challenges. velopment plans and management. Settlements, Towns, and Districts up to 2020”. The programme aims to improve UNRCCA, led by a Special Representa- Agency Outcome 4.3: National and awareness levels in the population as tive of the Secretary-General, repre- local authorities and local communities part of communication and development sents an innovative approach to United practice more effective planning, re- activities. This will particularly emphasize Nations preventive diplomacy based on sponse to and mitigation of the conse- activities to promote an increased level cross-cutting regional challenges, strong quences of disasters caused by natural of awareness among children and legis- cooperation with partner organizations or man-made hazards, with regional co- lators on children’s and women’s rights; and assistance to governments to ensure operation established between relevant life-skills concepts and HIV/AIDS among peaceful growth and development. national agencies and their counterparts. adolescents; gender issues; and disaster preparedness through a broad-based UNISDR collaboration with Output 4.3.1: National and local author- communication strategy providing na- ities have formulated a national frame- tional coverage. This will be done using Turkmenistan work and a regional coordination mech- best practices applying different forms anism to address the consequences of of media to reach nationwide coverage. UNISDR does not have a Focal Point in disasters caused by natural or man-made Pre- and post-intervention surveys will Turkmenistan as the country is not a par- hazards and set up necessary institutions be carried out to ensure a more rigorous ty to the HFA. Nevertheless, contacts and for their implementation. basis for measuring change. exchanges have been taking place since the first official meetings of UNISDR with UNICEF’s continued work in disaster and the Government of Turkmenistan. emergency preparedness will contribute170 171Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 87. Brief Country Profiles: Ukraine Brief Country Profiles: Ukraine Hazards and disasters overview In terms of the total number of people affected, floods represent the greatest natural hazard in Ukraine. In the period 1980 to 2010, some 13 separate floods affected a total of nearly 2.6 million peo- ple, causing 82 deaths and an economic loss of over US$1.2 billion. The country is also vulnerable to natural hazards includ- ing extreme temperatures, wind storms and epidemics. Storms have been espe- cially damaging, with seven major storms killing 21 people, affecting over 56,000 others and causing an economic loss of over US$255 million. The most resent disasters caused by natural hazards were floods in the Trans- Carpathian region in 1998 and 2001, a hurricane in the summer of 2000 and an ice storm that struck the Odessa region in November 2000. Table 22 Ukraine: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 - 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact. Ukraine Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss of events (US$) Epidemic 3 11.11 275 6,771 0 Extreme 4 14.81 833 59,600 85,000,000 temperature Flood 13 48.14 82 2,638,294 1,298,014,000 Wind Storm 7 25.92 21 56,662 255,600,000 Total 27 100 1,211 2,761,327 1,638,614,000172 173Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 88. Brief Country Profiles: Ukraine Brief Country Profiles: Ukraine Disaster management safety (including the health of staff with- UNICEF collaboration with Ukraine in structure and legislation in this territory who are protecting the scientific and economical interests of education and disaster risk The Ukraine Ministry of Emergency is Ukraine). UNDP, in cooperation with UNICEF and the central administrative body that car- the Ukraine Ministry of Emergency de- ries out state policy in the field of civil Coordinating the formation and reali- veloped the Trans-Carpathian Disaster defence, including emergency protec- zation of the unified scientific-technical Response and Prevention Project. The tion, prevention and response, and avoid- policy involving the development and United Nations played a central role in implementation of modern information coordinating national and international ance of the consequences of disasters flood relief efforts. (including Chernobyl). The Ministry is also technologies - including a civil defence in charge of disaster management and database - to support protection ac- tivities and protection from the conse- The United Nations office in Ukraine has is responsible for its development. This also supported longer-term development extensive role involves the development quences of Chernobyl. measures in response to the Tisa flood, and implementation of a range of civil including the preservation of forests, protection activities, including those in- Training and retraining of civil defence reforestation, improvement of monitor- volving Chernobyl. They are: staff on the problems of protection, in- ing techniques and early-warning tech- cluding those involving Chernobyl, and nologies, and a public awareness cam- Supervision of the activities of man- the training of the population in emergen- paign. A Disaster Management Training agement bodies, headquarters, civil de- cies. Programme sub-regional workshop for Moldova, Romania and the Ukraine was fence forces and subordinated special- held in June 2003, focusing on environ- ized bodies. Selected national and mental and technological disasters. Coordination of the activities of minis- international partners UNISDR collaboration with Ukraine tries and other central bodies of the ex- involved in disaster risk ecutive power, the Council of Ministers of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, reduction Ukraine has officially appointed an HFA Focal Point, the Ministry of Emergen- local state administrations, enterprises, cies and Affairs of Population Protection institutions and organizations of all forms National organizations and from the Consequences of Chernobyl to address problems of protection of Catastrophe of Ukraine, as a step in its the population and territory in cases of international partners implementation and pursuit of HFA ob- emergency and emergency response. jectives and strategic goals. Ukraine also UNDP has engaged in two major relief actively participated in the Euro-Mediter- efforts in Ukraine over the last 10 years. ranean Workshop on Disaster Reduction Defining the main directions of protec- In response to the devastating ice storm at School, held in October 2007. tion activities in emergencies, including that killed six people, injured a further the rehabilitation of territory contami- 740, destroyed or damaged many build- nated as a result of the Chernobyl catas- ings and vehicles, and left hundreds of trophe. communities without electricity in the Odessa region in November 2000, UNDP National supervision and monitoring of developed the Disaster Response Project civil defence and technological safety, for Odessa Oblast to provide emergency assistance to the affected population. A and the conducting of emergency pre- second relief effort followed in March paredness and prevention measures. 2001 when melting snow and heavy rain- fall caused the Tisa River to flood areas Arranging and coordinating activities in of Trans-Carpathian Oblast in western the exclusive zone and zone of manda- Ukraine. tory resettlement, including solving the problems of their financing, public pro- tection and 120174 175Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 89. Brief Country Profiles: Uzbekistan Brief Country Profiles: Uzbekistan Hazards and disasters Uzbekistan is also vulnerable to floods overview and mud flows. A few are caused by snowmelt run-off or severe storms; very Significant seismic activity dominates large floods and mudslides are gener- much of the country. Large parts of Uz- ally caused by the outbreak of mountain bekistan’s capital city, Tashkent, were lakes. There are also trans-boundary destroyed in a major earthquake in 1966, hazards from the hundreds of lakes in and other earthquakes have caused sig- Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan that are up- nificant damage before and since. The stream of Uzbekistan in the Aral Sea ba- mountain areas are especially prone to sin. In 1998, flooding from the Shakhima- earthquakes. A magnitude 7.0 earth- rdan River originating in Kyrgyzstan killed quake of Gazli in May 1976 caused an 100 Uzbeks. economic loss of US$85 million, while in March 1984 an earthquake of similar Landslides are a significant hazard in the magnitude in the Gazli–Bokhara region country’s mountain and foothill areas, affected 201,100 people and caused while there have been over 2,600 ex- an economic loss of US$5 million. More treme mud flows in the past 80 years62. recently, in May 1992, a magnitude 6.2 A landslide in the Angren region in May earthquake killed nine people and affect- 1991 killed 50 people, while a landslide in ed 50,000 others in the Andizhan region. January 1992 killed one person and af- fected 400 others. Uzbekistan has also Drought hazards are also significant, been vulnerable to epidemic hazards. In with an event in 2000 affecting 600,000 February 1998, 40 people died and 148 people and causing an economic loss of others were affected by bacterial infec- US$50 million. tion. Table 23 Uzbekistan: Summary data on disasters caused by natural hazards (1980 - 2010), including number of human casualties and economic impact.economic impact. Disaster Number Percentage Total deaths Total affected Economic loss Uzbekistan of events (US$) Drought 1 16.66 0 600,000 50,000,000 Earthquake 1 16.66 9 50,000 0 Epidemic 1 16.66 40 148 0 Flood 1 16.66 0 1,500 0 Mass 2 33.33 25 400 0 Movement Total 6 100 74 652,048 50,000,000176 177 62 Pusch C. (2004). Preventable Losses, Saving Lives and Property through Hazard Risk Assessment, A Comprehensive Risk Management Framework for Central Europe and Central Asia, Disaster Risk Management Working paper series 9, The World Bank.Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 90. Brief Country Profiles: Uzbekistan Brief Country Profiles: Uzbekistan Disaster management Establishes international coopera- of Emergency Situations Associated proved by the Prime Minister, who is head structure and legislation tion on issues falling under the Ministry’s competence. with Floods, Mud flows, Snow Slides and Landslides, and Liquidation of their Con- of civil protection. Over the past ten years, Uzbekistan has sequences”. Population awareness training is car- placed a greater emphasis on emer- Furthermore, in due order and within its ried out at institutions, enterprises and gency preparedness and prevention as mandate, MoES decisions are binding Uzbekistan should also be commended organizations in accordance with a spe- opposed to post-emergency recovery and their execution by the following is on its school safety assessment and cially-developed programme, as well as strategies, which typified the response to obligatory: ministries, agencies, associa- retrofitting programme. This nation- through mass media including the printed disasters before 1995. However, despite tions, the Council of Ministers of the Re- al programme was announced by the press, radio and TV. government efforts to increase financial public of Karakalpakstan, oblasts, urban Government of Uzbekistan in 2004 and resources, and the actions of sector min- and district administrations, enterprises, successfully ended in December 2009. A joint MoES /UNICEF project “Risk re- istries and local governments, disaster institutions and organizations. Almost 10,000 schools have been physi- duction among vulnerable population losses and their consequences are not cally assessed, followed by retrofitting, groups, particularly children and women, decreasing. Disaster risk management priorities are reconstruction or, in some cases, demoli- in the six oblasts of Uzbekistan most ex- to: tion of dangerous school buildings. More posed to natural disasters” was imple- The Ministry of Emergency Situations importantly, Uzbekistan’s experience can mented from April 2007 to June 2008. (MoES) is the central body which manag- Exchange technical achievements to be replicated in other republics of Central The primary goals of the project were: es and coordinates activities in the realm enhance prevention, and to conduct mu- Asia as the types of buildings and build- of civil protection, prevention and avoid- tual research. ing codes are common to all republics of To train the population on action-plan- ance of emergency situations, including the former Soviet Union. Moreover, sci- ning skills before disasters caused by those that are the consequence of dis- Conduct exchanges to develop gov- entists and experts from Uzbekistan are natural hazards, as well as to respond asters. The MoES: ernment structures, and improve eco- willing to share their good practices and during and after disasters in order to miti- nomic resilience and the capacities of a series of meetings and round tables to gate their consequences. Coordinates the work of ministries, civil protection personnel. this effect have been planned under the agencies, the Council of Ministers of the proposed project. To strengthen the capacity of the Pop- Karakalpakstan Republic, khokimiyats Gain familiarity with the disaster-re- ulation and Administrative Bodies Training lated experiences of other countries to Centres, under the regional Departments (local authorities), oblasts, cities and re- enhance the development of a national How education is used of Emergency Situations, to coordinate gions on protection of the population and cultural heritage, prevention and avoid- system of prevention, including the de- to promote safety and carry out measures for natural dis- ance of emergencies caused by acci- velopment of mutual projects. aster preparedness of mahallas (com- dents or disasters. Specially-designed trainings targeting munities), schools, nursery schools and Share operational information, espe- specific sections of society and aimed medical facilities. Coordinates activities aimed at pre- cially with bordering states, regarding the at ensuring personal safety have been venting large-scale emergencies, includ- forecasting of necessary assistance. approved by the Ministry of Public Edu- To ensure safety of life through train- ing the creation of forces and facilities cation and the Ministry of Higher Educa- ing programmes for all categories of the necessary for this purpose, and maintain- Develop the capacities of training spe- tion63. The programmes run across a population. The specially-designed edu- ing their preparedness. cialists and conduct joint training. broad spectrum of educational institu- cational programmes, approved by the tions, from pre schools, through second- Ministry of People’s Education and Min- Develops and implements relevant Share experiences among citizens to ary schools, to colleges, universities and istry of High Education, embrace the pre- scientific and technical programmes to enhance prevention. institutes for teacher advancement. school institutions, secondary schools, prevent emergencies which threaten the colleges and universities, and the teach- population and the national territory, or Participate in disaster risk reduction The training of senior personnel of local er-training institutes. the stability of national economic assets. activities in other countries using mem- executive authorities, enterprises and or- bers of the “International register fast ganizations is provided on the basis of the Manages public awareness through reaction” forces. Institute of Civil Protection of the MES. In emergency training for the population, the regions, training is provided by “cen- officials and units of the Emergency Sit- Legislation relevant to disaster risk re- tres for preparedness of the population uation State Council (ESSC). duction includes the Resolution of the and executive staff of local structures”. President of the Republic of Uzbekistan The annual training programme is ap- “On the Measures Aimed at Prevention178 179Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 91. Brief Country Profiles: Uzbekistan Brief Country Profiles: Uzbekistan Selected national and ulation on the basics of life safety. The reduction element that will enhance the ness education. These have included a MoES regularly conducts special exer- Government’s disaster preparedness targeted programme on Educating the international partners cises and trainings on population prepar- strategy, particularly in the education Population for Potential Emergency Situ- involved in disaster risk edness and disaster risk reduction. Within sector. As part of a component included ations, which covered the period 2007 – reduction the programme on emergency situations prevention, the Red Crescent Society under the programme Strengthening Na- tional Capacity for Social Policy Devel- 2011. With DIPECHO funding support, by the end of the project the Government’s fulfils the projects at community level. opment and Implementation, the disaster strategy and action plan had been im- National organizations and This can involve such activities as the preparedness capacities of local gov- proved in terms of preparedness and risk international partners planting of seedlings on slopes prone to ernments, communities and schools in reduction, and vulnerable communities landslides, the cleaning of drainage sys- such areas will be further strengthened in had been supported through the intro- The Ministry of Emergency Situations tems in order to decrease the level of risk assessment, planning, mitigation and duction of the participatory disaster pre- is the key national body for multi-sectoral ground water, and the cleaning of river- awareness. paredness and risk reduction information coordination and cooperation in the area beds, channels and gullies for the by- system adopted by the Civil Protection of disaster risk reduction in the Repub- passing of flood waters and mud flows As a result, selected local communities Department and Centre of Management lic. The MoES was established by a De- etc. will show greater resilience and have in Crisis Situations of the Ministry for cree of the President of the Republic of stronger networks. The Ministries of Emergency Situations. The latter coor- Uzbekistan, dated 4 March 1996. There Similarly, the Institute of Geology and Emergency Situations and Public Educa- dinates the state, private, and civil soci- are regional (territorial) departments of Geophysics of the Academy of Scienc- tion, UNDP, International Committee of ety organizations on disaster prevention emergency situations operating in each es of Uzbekistan has undertaken certain the Red Cross and EC will be major part- and recovery/rehabilitation in emergency of the country’s 14 regions, with district mitigation activities related to seismic ners. situations. emergency units established in individual hazards, such as the reinforcement of districts. There is a State System for Pre- school buildings, the provision of pre- In the framework of the new CPAP, the UNICEF has been working in Uzbekistan vention of and Response to emergency paredness trainings to school children, partnership with the following organiza- since 1994. Its first programme, which situations (SSPR), which established in and the development and publishing of tions will be continued: Ministry of Emer- ran from 1995 to 1999, provided supplies, Uzbekistan the structure and operating awareness brochures under the motto gency Situations; Ministry of Public Edu- training and techniques for healthcare, procedures defined in the resolution of “preparedness begins at schools”. cation; Ministry of Health; Institute of backed by social mobilization. By 1999, the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic Civil Protection of the Ministry of Emer- basic services for children were well un- of Uzbekistan #558, dated 23 Decem- A joint project between the MES and gency Situations; Institute of Seismology der way, allowing the organization to shift ber 1997. The financing of prevention UNICEF - and with the participation of of the Academy of Sciences; provincial to a rights-based approach aiming to en- and recovery activities in the sphere of the ministries of Public Education and Khakimiyats of nine regions; provincial sure that the Convention on the Rights of protection of the population and territo- Health, and the Mahalla Fund - was im- Departments of Emergency Situations the Child became the standard for health ries is provided by organizations, state plemented aimed at reducing the damage of the Ministry of Emergency Situations; and education and for measures to pro- executive authorities and other sources. from disasters caused by natural hazards provincial/rayon Departments of Public tect children. The drought emergency In cases where such funding is insuffi- among vulnerable groups of the popula- Education of the Ministry of Public Edu- programme was completed in 2004. cient to cover the cost of recovery and tion, particularly women and children. cation; provincial/rayon Departments reconstruction, additional resources from The project was designed to strengthen of Health of the Ministry of Health; Civil Since 2008, Uzbekistan has been part of the reserve fund of the Cabinet of Minis- the capacity of the Population and Ad- Protection Training Centres of the Min- the DIPECHO programme implemented ters can be used. Legislation defines the ministrative Bodies Training Centres and istry of Emergency Situations; In-Service by UNICEF with the financial support of procedures governing the formation of enhance the disaster preparedness of Teacher Advanced Training Institutes the DG ECHO. The programme involves capital assets for protection of the popu- mahallas, schools, nursery schools and of the Ministry of Public Education and implementing disaster mitigation and pre- lation and territories. The State provides medical facilities. In-Service Qualification Improvement paredness activities within the education annual funding for the replenishment of Institutes for Medical Staff Advanced sector. funds and the emergency stock of food, UNICEF collaboration with Uzbekistan Training; Makhalla Charity Foundation; lo- medicines and other resources neces- cal NGOs; Red Crescent Society of Uz- Under the DIPECHO programme, the in education and disaster risk sary to support the population is cases bekistan; Handicap International; Nether- UNICEF country office and its govern- of relocation to safe areas in emergency The new UNICEF Country Programme lands Red Cross; Europe House; UNCT; ment counterparts, mainly from the na- situations. Action Plan signed with the Government and UNISDR. tional education and emergency de- of Uzbekistan for 2010 - 2015 includes partments, are implementing a range of The MoES exercises coordination and a disaster preparedness and disaster risk The project has made solid develop- disaster risk reduction interventions aimed control over the preparation of the pop- ments in the area of disaster prepared- at policy, institutional and operational as-180 181Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 92. Brief Country Profiles: Uzbekistan Conclusions and Recommendations pects. In particular, the programme aims Uzbekistan has initiated internal proce- to strengthen the national capacities and dures to appoint as its HFA Focal Point systems for disaster safety, especially the Ministry of Emergency Situations as targeting the selected schools in each a step in its implementation and pursuit of country. The project has been imple- HFA objectives and strategic goals. mented in 26 communities in 26 districts. UNICEF identified schools and communi- ties so as to avoid overlap and ensure a coordinated action among organisations working in the area of preparedness and risk reduction. Schools have been identi- fied using a cluster method of selection, with communities selected based on the MES’s record of disaster frequency in those localities. The direct beneficiaries of the project for Uzbekistan are children in schools and kindergartens, teachers and other school staff, parents of school children and adolescents, community leaders as well as emergency, education and health sector officers. UNISDR collaboration with Uzbekistan Under the auspices of UNISDR, the State Technical University in Tashkent and the local NGO Hayot developed two training courses for university students on “first aid” and “amateur search and rescue service”. By a decree of the Minister of Conclusions and Secondary Special and Higher Educa- tion, the two courses were integrated in 2009 into the formal curricula of 67 uni- versities in Uzbekistan. This experience was further presented in Tajikistan and Recommendations Kazakhstan (Almaty) and deserves fur- ther replication. A number of meetings between UNISDR and the MoES in 2008 and 2009, along with the national workshops on Hospital Safety, National Coordination and other fields, revealed a high degree of com- mitment by the central Government and line ministries to disaster risk reduction. The MES operates on the basis of well- developed and thorough legislation that enables supervision and control over the quality of construction in residential, pub- lic and industrial sectors.182 183Children and disasters: Building resilience through education Children and disasters: Building resilience through education
  • 93. Conclusions and Recommendations Conclusions and Recommendations For the majority of countries of South actions in disaster risk reduction as well gency Situations and on-going exchang- is a discernible escalation of such disas- Eastern Europe and the Commonwealth as directly with the governments in the es with the other line ministries, which ter events, many of them attributable to of Independent States disaster manage- region, regional organisations and United suggests a stage has been reached in the hydro-meteorological factors, which is ment structures and legislation are in Nations Country Team members. It has development of multi-sectoral platforms threatening sustainable development and place. However, for the most part they also built effectively on regional organi- for disaster risk reduction. Furthermore, poverty-reduction initiatives in disaster- are focused towards rescue and relief zations, partners and networks to facili- in several countries there is recognition affected countries. It is therefore im- rather than the more complex cross- tate the effective implementation of dis- that although current work on disaster perative that disaster risk reduction must cutting notion of disaster risk reduction. aster risk reduction initiatives, strategies risk reduction is limited efforts are nev- become an important aspect of pover- Efforts are still under way to fully estab- and programmes. There are now a total ertheless under way to integrate it more ty-reduction and general-development lish the disaster risk reduction agenda of seven National Platforms operating in fully into disaster management struc- initiatives to both mitigate the negative across the region, and this includes in the the CEECIS region, while several other tures, legislation and education. effects of human activity on the environ- education sector. For this to succeed countries have informed UNISDR that ment while at the same time developing and the mechanics of disaster risk re- they are in the process of developing There are various examples across the capacities to deal with them. duction to be set in place the approach them. A further 11 countries already have region of how UNICEF has successfully must be both strategic and systematic. It HFA Focal Points. integrated disaster risk reduction into its It is in this respect, and in recognition of will require the focusing of initiatives in all country programmes. From mine-risk ed- the opportunities for cooperation and countries and will involve the dissemina- Various activities have been held within ucation in Bosnia and Herzegovina to ac- synergies that exist among agencies and tion of disaster risk reduction information the framework of the UNISDR global tive disaster risk reduction among vulner- governments in the CEECIS region, that to all sectors, levels, key institutions and campaign Disaster Risk Reduction Begins able communities in Kazakhstan as part the following recommendations are made other stakeholders. at School, which was held from 2006 to of DIPECHO V, and now also DIPECHO to enhance the effectiveness and effi- 2007 to promote the integration of dis- VI, and the mainstreaming of disaster risk ciency with which the challenges posed The HFA national reports show that only aster risk reduction within education reduction into education programmes by education in disaster risk reduction a very few countries have developed na- sectors while at the same time facilitat- in Turkey, UNICEF has demonstrated a are addressed. tionwide public awareness strategies to ing the development of disaster-resilient growing emphasis on the provision of ed- promote a culture of resilience. This high- lights the need for National Platforms to schools through safety programmes and the retrofitting of school buildings. One