The three pillars of Integrated Social Services              Case Management – Introduction – slide 1
Republic of Armenia: a possible model of Integrated Social Services                   Overall social                      ...
CASE MANAGEMENT TRAINING PACKAGE               Module 1.       About Case Management:a brief historical review and the bas...
Case ManagementCase Management is the ability to provide thenecessary assistance in situations of great socialneed, throug...
Case Management implies   the policy choice of community care (1)Case Management involves mainly a politicaldecision to or...
Case Management implies          the policy choice of community care (2)In other words, it implies: that the entire exist...
Goals and benefits of Case Management1. Ensure continuity of care;2. Ensure that the services provided meet the fullrange ...
The expected benefits of Case Management (1) 1. A better adaptation to individual needs through a "needs- led" approach ra...
The expected benefits of Case Management (2) 6. A greater possibility to address the needs of disadvantaged individuals (a...
What‟s different in Case Management?                              Case evaluation  From the traditional perspective       ...
Decision of the Case ManagerAnalysis of alternative                      Promotessolutions to identified                  ...
The main steps of Case Management1. Assessment of needs, combining the objective technicalaspects (diagnosis and professio...
Traditional meta-model of Case ManagementBUSINESS META-MODEL: this gives a precise welfare budget to the social worker(Cas...
The limitations of traditional Case Management 1. It tends to increase the control requirements on the work of the Case Ma...
Professional ethics of the Case Manager (1)  The Case Manager has the moral responsibility to make sure that  everything p...
Professional ethics of the Case Manager (2)  The Case Manager doesn’t have to decide alone on actions to be     taken, but...
CASE MANAGEMENT TRAINING PACKAGE                  Module 2.The institutional and organizational context   for the effectiv...
The best institutional context for               enforcing Case Management                                            Case...
Case Management and Local Social Plan       In order to produce many different    individualized social projects (that is ...
• strategic goals                 • how to arrange the                         • priorities                      social se...
Local plan management structure         “support to                                            “support to         parenth...
Steps towards building a local plan           • convening all the involved bodies1 step     • analysing the social needs o...
The best institutional context for                enforcing Case Management                                             Ca...
Case Management and organizational context"Every spade must have its handle” This proverb means that a complex body, like ...
FACTORS DETERMINING THE QUALITY OF A          SOCIAL SERVICE UNIT  MAKINGACCESS TO SERVICES                               ...
MAKING ACCESS TO SERVICES                                       EASIER                                                    ...
IMPROVING SERVICE                                                  PROVISION     Speed:Making the service provision faster...
CHECKING AND ADJUSTING SERVICE PROVISION                       Readiness of              Standardisation:       Listening:...
UPDATING THE SOCIAL SERVICES         Enrichment:                                                    InnovationEnlarge the ...
CASE MANAGEMENT TRAINING PACKAGE                Module 3. Which social cases are recommended forCase Management methodolog...
Case Management – module 3 – slide 2
Front office: what can be done?                     Data collection: HOW? • Triage: determining the priority of “patients‟...
Social needs of a specific family                               Front office                Consultancy                I...
Front office: where can it be done?• In offices with common premises, set up a RECEPTION area, with a   desk and chairs, f...
Front office: who can do it? (1)                               Proposal: •In offices where case managers are more than one...
Front office: who can do it? (2)            All those who cover the front office function:  •Need to separate their provis...
Front office: referralsThe general types of referral can be grouped as follows:   Information need                        ...
CASE MANAGEMENT TRAINING PACKAGE                 Module 4.     The Case Management process ...following a concrete case so...
The Case Management practical processOnce a Case Manager is involved in providing help to a family in a socialneed situati...
The Case Management practical process:        contents of this module     Firstly, the general flow chart of Case Manageme...
Case Management methodological process for improving and guiding                        the coping networkFirst (self) rep...
A practical application of Case Management:                the Judith caseJudith‟s parents go to the social protection ser...
The Case Manager arranges and guides the              first coping network (1)At the beginning, the CM could describe Judi...
The Case Manager arranges and guides the                first coping network (2)At this stage the coping network is not ab...
The case manager guides the coping network to    widen itself with new informal members (1)Lets imagine that Judiths paren...
The Case Manager guides the coping network to    widen itself with new informal members (2)During this network meeting, a ...
The Case Manager guides the coping network to widen itself with new informal members (3)More people (informal members) are...
The Case Manager guides the coping network to        widen itself with new formal membersThe CM has to ask himself: “are w...
The Case Manager tries to share the guiding     role, involving a member of the coping networkSome months have now elapsed...
The Case Manager guides the coping network to widen itself  with new formal members, and shares the guiding role  More pra...
The great importance that a Local Social Plancan have for coping with social cases like Judith‟sIt is possible to imagine ...
Different models of (co)operative action                     coordination             What I think about the others‟ actio...
Case Management in very severe social needs                situationsThe concrete case discussed analytically above is not...
Acute protection cases (violence and abuse): the flow chart                                                             Re...
Acute protection cases (violence and abuse):               some commentsThese types of cases are characterized by emergenc...
Children in residential      care (including                                                          In collaboration wit...
Children in residential care (including detention!):                  some comments Unlike the cases involving abuse and v...
Case Management & referral process –                      an example (1)       Steps in procedure                         ...
Case Management & referral process –                       an example (2)      Steps in procedure                         ...
Case Management & referral process –                       an example (3)        Steps in procedure                       ...
CASE MANAGEMENT TRAINING PACKAGE           Module 5. Network analysis for supporting    the Case Manager‟s work
Working in the Case Management perspective            CM uses a pro-active approach               (and not a reactive one)...
The community        The COMMUNITY can be defined as a “group of human beings with a common history”,where continuous rela...
The dimensions of a community culture (1)The Community Culture is characterized by six dimensions:1.   Technological2.   E...
The dimensions of a community culture (2)The Technological Dimension of Community:The technological dimension of community...
The dimensions of a community culture (3)The Political Dimension of Community:The political dimension of community is its ...
The dimensions of a community culture (4)The Aesthetic-Values Dimension of Community:The aesthetic-values dimension of com...
Another way to describe the community:the different layers of the relationships of help                              FORMA...
Two different policies in the development of           social protection services                                         ...
Reactive (clinical) approach:  This provides services to individual cases when the situation has already become an emergen...
What is a social network? Social and Cultural    Environment                                                         Thing...
What is a coping network?The coping network includes all the persons of a social network who are involved in fulfilling a ...
The coping networkThe coping network is composed of all the persons who    interact with the person/family in need, and ca...
Main characteristics of the networking methodology There is a problem (social, health, protection); the social network sur...
How does the network guide do this? The guide: - facilitates the communication within the network; - mediates different po...
A map for describing the social network of a person:                                     Todd‟s diagram                   ...
The social network of Judith when the taking in charge has begun                                                          ...
First network evaluation                                                                                                  ...
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
Case management training package eng.zip
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Case management training package eng.zip

  1. 1. The three pillars of Integrated Social Services Case Management – Introduction – slide 1
  2. 2. Republic of Armenia: a possible model of Integrated Social Services Overall social Decentralised services and protection and child Local governments protection services Ministry of Labour & Ministry of Social Issues Territorial Depts of Social Protection, Family Administration Children and Women, Unemployment, Elderly Marzpetarans/ 5 municipalities Health Services Depts Family, children and Health and social women units departments Education Coordination of Local Social Plans, Protocols of Services cooperation among services Depts Territorial Other Offices of services Social Services Case Managers NGOs In-depth assessment, definition of plans with families, referral One window reception – either in the same building or in a separate location First rapid assessment of the client‟s needs – referral Referral lines, supervision lines, cooperation lines Case Management – Introduction – slide 2
  3. 3. CASE MANAGEMENT TRAINING PACKAGE Module 1. About Case Management:a brief historical review and the basic concepts for a modern application of Case Management methodology
  4. 4. Case ManagementCase Management is the ability to provide thenecessary assistance in situations of great socialneed, through a planning process which joins differentwelfare benefits provided by external providers withrationality and efficiencyIt operates in a context where there is:• the existence within the welfare system of several - sometimes fragmented - treatment responses• the existence of competition between different providers of social services Case Management – module 1 – slide 2
  5. 5. Case Management implies the policy choice of community care (1)Case Management involves mainly a politicaldecision to organize the care of vulnerablepeople in their living place, with particularreference to assistance at home or, if this isnot possible, in small day or residentialfacilities, located in their place of origin andwell integrated in the social context Case Management – module 1 – slide 3
  6. 6. Case Management implies the policy choice of community care (2)In other words, it implies: that the entire existing system of social protection breaks down into many independent pieces(individual services) to be involved based on the needs of any individual case, in an individual plan in the case of users interned in large residential structures, that their project is placed undera single manager, to optimize resource utilization and quality of life, especially in view of projectstargeted at the discharge and the reintegration into the community of origin . greater participation of users, through empowerment policies (giving power and ability to peoplein order to reduce their dependence) and advocacy policies (safeguarding rights and providing anopportunity to be active and politically visible citizens)an active role of Civil Society and local NGOs home help (the right to stay at home or at least in ones territory) and deinstitutionalization.In a word, the "normalization" of life for people in needParticularly, in the field of child protection, the CM requires the recognition ofchildren‟s rights: the right to be educated in a socially rich and welcomingenvironment, but, even before that (both in terms of time and importance), theright to grow up in an “able” and untroubled family Case Management – module 1 – slide 4
  7. 7. Goals and benefits of Case Management1. Ensure continuity of care;2. Ensure that the services provided meet the fullrange of needs of the client and their variationover time;3. Help people (users and those who take care of them, like thefamily) to access the necessary services, overcoming obstaclesassociated with unfamiliar procedures or limited personalresources, including economic and cultural ones;4. Ensure that the services are provided by the varioussuppliers in an appropriate, timely and non-overlapping way. Case Management – module 1 – slide 5
  8. 8. The expected benefits of Case Management (1) 1. A better adaptation to individual needs through a "needs- led" approach rather than one "led by available resources"; 2. A clear division of responsibilities between those who must ensure the functions of assistance assessment and planning and those who shall deliver the specific services identified in the individual plan; 3. More appropriate responses to individual needs thanks to the assessment of needs, which guides operational decisions; 4. A wider choice between different projects or opportunities of action; 5. A philosophy of partnership and alliance that binds the user, the case manager, and the system of public and private services; Case Management – module 1 – slide 6
  9. 9. The expected benefits of Case Management (2) 6. A greater possibility to address the needs of disadvantaged individuals (appropriateness criteria); 7. Increased reliability and continuity of care and an increased duty for professionals to be accountable for their decisions (accountability), in order to benefit users and those involved in their care; 8. More chances to protect (advocacy) and empower users; 9. Better functional integration of the various services required, especially if these are provided by different organizations or institutions. Case Management – module 1 – slide 7
  10. 10. What‟s different in Case Management? Case evaluation From the traditional perspective From the Case Management perspectiveIt is based on the existing It is based on the individualservices needAdministrative proceduresmanagement (family benefits) Case Management Process evaluation Results’ evaluation (number of provisions) (need reduction) Case Management – module 1 – slide 8
  11. 11. Decision of the Case ManagerAnalysis of alternative Promotessolutions to identified involvement ofproblems social network The main goal of the Case Manager is to reduce the number of provisions, whilst at the same time promoting the welfare of people Case Management – module 1 – slide 9
  12. 12. The main steps of Case Management1. Assessment of needs, combining the objective technicalaspects (diagnosis and professional evaluations) with subjectiveevaluations of the people concerned (perceived needs);2. Definition of an Individual Social Project and of a correspondingservice package;3. Implementation of the Individual Project and "purchase" ofservices from external providers ;4. Monitoring and evaluation, taking into account the views of thepeople concerned and making appropriate changes to the Project. Case Management – module 1 – slide 10
  13. 13. Traditional meta-model of Case ManagementBUSINESS META-MODEL: this gives a precise welfare budget to the social worker(Case Manager), connects these funds to a specific case (user), and then givesthe social worker discretionary spending power, in order to provide thenecessary welfare benefits. This model is more consistent with the criteria ofappropriateness and efficiency, and has shown its usefulness particularly in thedeinstitutionalization process (e.g.: UK).MEDIATION META-MODEL: financial resources are allocated to the user, who willchoose and pay his/her Case Manager, who functions essentially as a broker who"buys" the required service on behalf of his/her clients. This model is clearlymore consistent with advocacy and empowerment policies, and has shown itsusefulness particularly for disabled and elderly people with cultural and materialresources (e.g. USA and Canada). Case Management – module 1 – slide 11
  14. 14. The limitations of traditional Case Management 1. It tends to increase the control requirements on the work of the Case Manager and, therefore, can result in increased bureaucracy; 2. Above all, it lacks a vision of "relational" social assistance: the network of formal and informal relationships that revolve around the users seems to disappear in the face of demands for market rationalization and control. For these reasons, a more modern meta-model has been developed which improves the “business meta-model” towards a more relational meta- model, known as “SOCIAL NETWORKING”. The following stages of this training package explore this meta-model in more detail Case Management – module 1 – slide 12
  15. 15. Professional ethics of the Case Manager (1) The Case Manager has the moral responsibility to make sure that everything possible is done to protect and provide care to the clientThe Case Manager is the first one responding to the case, ensures the collection of required data and organises the required actionsThe Case Manager can delegate some activities to others, but has the final and overall responsibility for implementationThe Case Manager stands up and advocates for the best interests, the rights and needs of the client, not of other personsThe Case Manager ensures the involvement and active participation of all the persons who can be part of the coping network of the client Case Management – module 1 – slide 13
  16. 16. Professional ethics of the Case Manager (2) The Case Manager doesn’t have to decide alone on actions to be taken, but has to ensure that decisions are taken and actions implemented The Case Manager has to develop good communication skills, to convince people to participate and act in the best interests of the clientThe Case Manager mediates among the positions of different persons, and facilitates information sharing and cooperation The Case Manager needs also to be able to provide basic support to people in crisis, like a wise friend! Case Management – module 1 – slide 14
  17. 17. CASE MANAGEMENT TRAINING PACKAGE Module 2.The institutional and organizational context for the effective implementation of Case Management methodology
  18. 18. The best institutional context for enforcing Case Management Case Management must not be “a house built nowhere”. Case Management enhances an institutional context where several agreements among involved institutions (beyond social protection service) already exist. Because case management is the professional skill to implement several individual social projects involving the informal and formal network of the user, it is clear that pre- existing agreements among the institutions involved – directly or indirectly – in social support and protection (health services, schools, law & order, economic subjects, municipalities, NGOs, and so on) can significantly facilitate the work of the Case Manager; in fact, the Case Manager can use these agreements as the basic buildingblocks for giving his own contribution when a specific coping network (the network which is trying to help a family in a social need situation) implements a shared coordinated project of intervention. These institutional agreements can take the shape of a comprehensive plan: the Local Social Plan. Case Management – module 2 – slide 2
  19. 19. Case Management and Local Social Plan In order to produce many different individualized social projects (that is theultimate role of a case manager) it is necessary to have an “engine” which almostautomatically produces the component parts of them. This engine is the Local Social Plan. Case Management – module 2 – slide 3
  20. 20. • strategic goals • how to arrange the • priorities social services • tools • which financial, Municipalities material and human • means resources are available • data collection and How to ensure the information system coordination (administrative, • modalities to ensure organizational and an integrated system professional) among the of social services different bodies involved Drafting of in the Local Plan the LOCAL PLAN • ensuring a flexible • ensuring the best way system of social of spending public services money • defining criteria for • foreseeing training splitting up the processes for theLocal Health Unit expenses among all the practitioners in order public and private to address identified bodies involved priorities Case Management – module 2 – slide 4
  21. 21. Local plan management structure “support to “support to parenthood” disabled board people” board “fight against “promotion of Local Plan social exclusion, the children and General Board mental disease young people‟s and poverty” rights” board board “support to “fight against elderly people” alcohol and board drugs abuse” boardThe “Local Plan General Board” can decide the promotion of projects sharedamong the different Boards (i.e.: a project for work inclusion; a projectfor home care, and so on) Case Management – module 2 – slide 5
  22. 22. Steps towards building a local plan • convening all the involved bodies1 step • analysing the social needs of the community • considering the available resources • defining goals and priorities2 step • drafting the Local Plan • Signing of the Local Plan by all the3 step involved bodies •Building administrative tools Case Management – module 2 – slide 6
  23. 23. The best institutional context for enforcing Case Management Case Management is a methodology that not only tries to get the people in need out of their bad situation, but also tries to avoid the waste of public economic resources. For Case Management methodology it is important that the human and economic resources are well administered: like in a well- functioning family.It is important that there is a check on:1) the workload of each Case Manager; 2) methodological coherence among all the CaseManagers; 3) an exchange of experiences among the Case Managers working in thesame social protection service; 4) the outcomes of the cases treated by CaseManagement methodology; and 5) the allocation of economic resources among thedifferent cases.Case Management, unlike traditional and bureaucratic social work, foresees a partiallydiscretionary use of the economic resources and service provision: for this reason, ageneral control is necessary on the criteria used by each Case Manager. Case Management – module 2 – slide 7
  24. 24. Case Management and organizational context"Every spade must have its handle” This proverb means that a complex body, like a Social Protection Service, hasto be guided by a “single organizational liability centre”, usually a generaldirector with its staff. This liability centre has to supervise:1. The budget management;2. The human resources management;3. The management of administrative procedures;4. The management of partnerships among external institutions;5. The organizational quality of the Service. Case Management – module 2 – slide 8
  25. 25. FACTORS DETERMINING THE QUALITY OF A SOCIAL SERVICE UNIT MAKINGACCESS TO SERVICES UPDATING EASIER SOCIAL SERVICES IMPROVING SERVICE PROVISION CHECKING AND ADJUSTING SERVICE PROVISION Case Management – module 2 – slide 9
  26. 26. MAKING ACCESS TO SERVICES EASIER Openness: Information: Welcoming: Ensuring theLet the services be known transparency of the Welcoming and orientation of the administrative and beneficiaries technical praxis Creating geographically Creating a users‟ guide Advertising the spread receptions to the available social rights of for providing services citizens and the information and available social gathering requests services for service provision Case Management – module 2 – slide 10
  27. 27. IMPROVING SERVICE PROVISION Speed:Making the service provision faster Comfort: Helping the users through the administrative Clarity: praxis Using an Managing waiting understandable lists: language Making the Personalization: waiting time Adjusting theIncrease the number shorter and services to the of welcoming points lighter needs of people in the community; extend the working hours Creating one and one only Using more user- administrative friendly office for all the application Ensuring alternative services: modules services if the Several front requested one is Delivering services offices, one back not available through more office creative methodologies and different providers Case Management – module 2 – slide 11
  28. 28. CHECKING AND ADJUSTING SERVICE PROVISION Readiness of Standardisation: Listening: Reliability: response:Prevent and reduce ensuring a long- Listening to Managing poor lasting quality of users and errors services and services letting them unforeseen evaluate the events services Delivering services through more creative methodologies and Management control, different providers quality control, managing human and professional Periodical Team work, resources customer supervision and satisfaction advisory services surveys Case Management – module 2 – slide 12
  29. 29. UPDATING THE SOCIAL SERVICES Enrichment: InnovationEnlarge the users community Make the role of and enrich the services public services Focus on „special‟ clients‟ evolve groups: Strengthen services For marginalised and At-risk groups Implementation of Pre-setting of coordinated activities operational protocols among several Promote new based on the analysis service provider coordination modalitiesof clients‟ satisfaction teams with health and education services and with private services Case Management – module 2 – slide 13
  30. 30. CASE MANAGEMENT TRAINING PACKAGE Module 3. Which social cases are recommended forCase Management methodology and what is the best way to welcome them
  31. 31. Case Management – module 3 – slide 2
  32. 32. Front office: what can be done? Data collection: HOW? • Triage: determining the priority of “patients‟” treatment based on the severity of their condition • Provision of INFORMATION, or REFERRAL to a specific unit In preparation: • Agreement with all the services‟ units• Collection of basic information (leaflets) for each service,with CLEAR and DETAILED instructions on how to apply for a service • If agreed with other services, arrange APPOINTMENTS with specialists (admin officers for benefits, case managers, etc) Case Management – module 3 – slide 3
  33. 33. Social needs of a specific family Front office Consultancy Information sharing Referral Is there a social need? yes no ExitAppointment is made with theCase Manager (social worker) Provision of information if required Case Management – module 3 – slide 4
  34. 34. Front office: where can it be done?• In offices with common premises, set up a RECEPTION area, with a desk and chairs, for a friendly and confidential conversation with clients• In offices without this facility, define shifts among professionals to cover the front office, and they can receive people staying at their desk as usual • In this case, clear information has to be provided to all clients,establishing a timetable and indicated locations for people to have a front office service • Example: the front office is open on MONDAY and WEDNESDAYmornings from 9 to 12. On Mondays citizens are received in ROOM n. 12, and on Wednesdays in ROOM n. 14. Unless you have a previously arranged appointment, please visit our office on the indicated days. Case Management – module 3 – slide 5
  35. 35. Front office: who can do it? (1) Proposal: •In offices where case managers are more than one, establish shifts among case managers to cover the front office• In this case, case managers need to maintain a clear separation of roles; when they are at the front office they don‟t act as case managers •Therefore, in order to see clients as case managers they need toarrange appointments with the client; when at the reception desk, they can only do the first assessment and referral, arranging appointments with themselves or with other specialists • In offices where the case manager is only one, discuss with the supervisor how to define shifts, or reduce the front desk time (1/2 mornings per week) Case Management – module 3 – slide 6
  36. 36. Front office: who can do it? (2) All those who cover the front office function: •Need to separate their provision of services from the front office function• When they cover the shift, they are not dealing with their clients as on all the other days •They need to collect detailed and clear information from all theoffices, and be able to respond to clients on the provision of different services • They need to decide if the is a social need, or only an information need, or the need to have access to administrative services Case Management – module 3 – slide 7
  37. 37. Front office: referralsThe general types of referral can be grouped as follows: Information need Front office and Exit Administrative Administrative procedures need managers - (benefits only) appointment Case manager - Social need appointment Case Management – module 3 – slide 8
  38. 38. CASE MANAGEMENT TRAINING PACKAGE Module 4. The Case Management process ...following a concrete case somewhere in the world, and some general situations
  39. 39. The Case Management practical processOnce a Case Manager is involved in providing help to a family in a socialneed situation, taking the case in charge follows a characteristic process,which is very similar, in structure, in almost all the cases.At the beginning, the Case Manager can only count on a small number ofpeople already involved in the case.They can be informal or formal members of the “coping” network.The first task of the Case Manager is to reach a shared and articulateddefinition of the problem, starting from which he will be able to widen thecoping network with other informal members.At this point only, the Case Manager guides the coping network to widenitself with other formal members. It is very important not to change the correct sequence: if a Case Manager tries to involve new formal members before the informal ones, the latter may not be available to be involved any further Case Management – module 4 – slide 2
  40. 40. The Case Management practical process: contents of this module Firstly, the general flow chart of Case Management methodology will be described, step by step. You can see that the passage from one step to another is guided by specific questions that the Case Manager asks to the coping network members. Secondly, a practical application of this process will be described, through the analysis of a real situation, the case of Judith and her family. It is a traditional case for a social protection service, not too difficult, chosen for didactical reasons, because it has shown itself useful for explaining the process to students at the beginning of their training in Case Management. Finally, two specialized processes, related to two very difficult situations, will be shown. Generally, Case Management methodology works with more efficacy than any others, both for the cases which are becoming chronic (whatever the level of difficulty), and for those cases requiring a high social protection level. Case Management – module 4 – slide 3
  41. 41. Case Management methodological process for improving and guiding the coping networkFirst (self) report of a social Is there already a little group of Noneed people aware of the problem? Yes Is it possible to involve some Do we want to involve these subjects? How, practically, do we gather them people belonging to the informal for improving the situation? network? What operative solution is better for us? Who could we involve? How can we Are we doing what is agreed among us? improve the whole situation? What operative solution is better for us? Are we doing what is agreed among us? Next Yes No Next Is it necessary/appropriate to Is it necessary/appropriate to involve other informal subjects? No involve other formal subjects? Yes No Exit (1) Who could we involve? How can we improve the whole situation? What operative solution is better for Yes What must we face together? us? How can we improve the situation? Are we doing what is agreed among us? What operative solution is better for us? Are we doing what is agreed among us? No Yes Next Yes Are we on the way to reaching (have we already reached) what Is it necessary/possible that Can we share the role of guide? we hoped for? someone else takes the role of How can we realize that? case manager? What organizational way is better for us?Exit (2) Are we doing what is agreed among us? Yes Case Management – module 4 – slide 4
  42. 42. A practical application of Case Management: the Judith caseJudith‟s parents go to the social protection service (SPS) to meet the social workerwho will be their case manager (CM).Their case has been reported to the CM by Dr. Marcus, working as Child Psychiatristin the local health service: in fact the girl, who is eleven, has been referred to thisservice for problematic behaviour, lack of attention, hyperactivity, lack of impulsecontrol, aggressive conduct.Her parents have been worried for a long time, but particularly at the moment, aboutschool attendance (the teachers are complaining more and more) and homework, whichthe girl refuses to do with her mother, the only person who has the time to spendlooking after Judith during the day.Judith has had a complex and hard life: she was adopted by her parents when she wassix; her biological family was a multi-problematic one, the mother having chronicmental health problems, and the father was unknown. She was separated from hermother when she was three for seriously inadequate parental care, put in a residentialcare institute, and then adopted after a long and complex legal process.For the problems during her early childhood, the girl was diagnosed with “earlyattachment reactive syndrome”. After adoption her condition slowly improved, butwhen she was nine a new child, her little sister, was unexpectedly born in a naturalway, and Judith‟s psychological condition got worse again.The parents, particularly the mother, are now very stressed and exhausted. Case Management – module 4 – slide 5
  43. 43. The Case Manager arranges and guides the first coping network (1)At the beginning, the CM could describe Judith‟s situation in this way: there are somepeople – her parents and Dr. Marcus – who cannot deal with the task (that has becomea problem precisely because they cannot address it) of ensuring that Judith hasadequate educational support. They are aware that it is a problem (even if indifferent degrees and ways) and for that reason they have called the SPS and haveheld a meeting with the CM. After receiving the report of the problem, the CM alsobecomes part of the network, because he/she must do something (according tohis/her role), and, like the other network members, he/she does not yet know whathe/she has to do, and how to improve the situation.In Judiths case it should not be very difficult to reach a (first) shared definition ofthe problem and make all the network members aware of it: despite the parentsasking firstly for help with Judiths homework, the wise CM will be able to recognizethat their real need is to ensure support for their parental role, and provide forthemselves and for their daughters a family climate less conditioned by the problemof Judiths homework and school behaviour. So, the CM could try to revise the tasksto be addressed, more or less in these terms: "we must (together) try to improve thefamily relational climate; I think I have understood that the most important thing forthis is to provide support for Judiths homework".Note: The CM places the first problem brought by the parents (Judith‟s homework) in a wider framework (the family relational climate). Case Management – module 4 – slide 6
  44. 44. The Case Manager arranges and guides the first coping network (2)At this stage the coping network is not able to manage the problem yet: it is poor and weak. Althoughthe Case Manager works from this base to improve the network and its capacity of action.Note: the Case Manager is both a member of the network (he is also not able to help Judith‟s family yet), and the guide of the network. This dual role will be maintained for the whole helping process. Case Manager Judith‟s Judith‟s mother father Taking care of Judith Coordinated Dr Marcus actions Guiding Case Manager Case Management – module 4 – slide 7
  45. 45. The case manager guides the coping network to widen itself with new informal members (1)Lets imagine that Judiths parents have named the parish priest, some ofJudiths past teachers, and the headmaster of the school, because they arekeen and willing. Involved in the network through the mediation of the CM, thesepeople begin to formulate some proposals. The priest advises asking Monica forhelp. She lives a bit far from the town, but she knows many boys and girls whoare very busy in social activities like volunteering. Further, she is studyingpsychology and this experience could be important, beyond the usual altruisticreasons. The headmaster proposes contacting a young but very good teacherwho works part-time, and could be interested in adding some activities to herspare time.The young teacher says that it will be difficult for him to guarantee a continuingeffort, because of his uncertain work situation; while Monica is more available.Judith‟s parents prefer the teacher to Monica, because he has a bit ofexperience; and Monica is doubtful because she has never dealt with childrenwith this kind of problems.Later, Judith‟s parents report to the CM the outcomes of their contacts andthe CM decides to meet them for a more in-depth discussion. Case Management – module 4 – slide 8
  46. 46. The Case Manager guides the coping network to widen itself with new informal members (2)During this network meeting, a first division of tasks is drafted: Monica will take careof Judith for three afternoons a week, maybe four when the girl has a school test,but she needs more information about the behaviour of the girl and how she can dealwith it: Dr Marcus is available to provide this information and to supervise. And onthe other days? The CM feels that Judith‟s mother is stressed and a bitdisappointed; in fact, she is worried, particularly about Saturdays, when she has tolook after the other daughter as well. The CM takes note that the proposed help isnot yet sufficient, but Monica cannot give more: it is too much work for only oneperson. Maybe Judith‟s aunt, so far forgotten, could get involved - following an ideaexpressed by Judith‟s parents? (everyone had previously thought she was notavailable).So, Judith‟s father proposes to contact her himself. Unexpectedly, she seems veryhappy to receive the call and she is available to help Judith with her homework onSaturdays. But that is not all: she says that Judith likes swimming very much, so theycan go to the swimming pool, or shopping on Saturday after doing the homework: it isimportant to involve Judith in something enjoyable after the trouble of herhomework! More, because Judith‟s aunt always goes to the parish recreation centreevery Wednesday, she can take her niece there as well, to play with other children ina friendly setting.Now, Judith‟s mother seems more relieved: for the other two days, she and herhusband can take care of Judith by themselves. Case Management – module 4 – slide 9
  47. 47. The Case Manager guides the coping network to widen itself with new informal members (3)More people (informal members) are involved in the copingnetwork, and the task of the network (taking care of Judith) isbetter specified in three sub-tasks Case Manager Helping Judith Helping Judith to Judith‟s Judith‟s to meet new mother father do her homework friends Judith‟s Monica aunt Taking care of Judith Coordinated Dr Marcus actions Taking Judith to the swimming pool Guiding Case Manager Case Management – module 4 – slide 10
  48. 48. The Case Manager guides the coping network to widen itself with new formal membersThe CM has to ask himself: “are we sure that we have explored all the problems ofthis family? Have we ignored some important questions that can suddenly spring up,and undermine all our work?”It is clear, for example, that the problems with Judith rose partly from her difficultchildhood, and partly from the unexpected birth of her sister. Both Judith and herparents will have to be aided, now and then, to face these psychological problems. Itseems necessary that a psychologist takes a more active role for this purpose. If thisspecialized intervention had been made before, at the beginning of the taking incharge, that would have compromised the whole process, because it would have madeboth Judith and her parents feel guilty: in the case management perspective, thefirst step is always action-oriented.Since the problem was firstly described as an educational one, and the solution hasbeen built for dealing with it, it seems necessary to provide specific supervision in theeducational area: a tutor. The coping network has not faced the school problem yet.Do you remember? The teachers are very upset about Judith‟s school behaviour.Maybe it could be useful to provide for Judith a special teacher for some hours aweek, at least for a year: the coping network is already sure that when Judithbenefits from personalized relationships, she becomes calmer and more open tolearning. Case Management – module 4 – slide 11
  49. 49. The Case Manager tries to share the guiding role, involving a member of the coping networkSome months have now elapsed, Judith is attending the school with some difficulty,but much better than before the project began; her parents, her aunt, Monica andthe tutor help her with her homework; the socialization activities are becoming moreand more important, the psychological interventions (both for Judith and for herparents) are producing some results, and the family relational climate hassignificantly improved.It seems very important that Judith‟s mother feels a lesser sense of guilt and canstay close to Judith without anxiety and fear of the behaviour of her adoptivedaughter.The CM has met the network at regular intervals, verifying that the coping network issteady, all its members are satisfied with their work for dealing with Judith‟sproblems, and even when some tension occurs among some of them (Judith is still aproblematic child), the network seems to have learnt to regulate itself and solve thetensions without the need for an external intervention. At this point, the CM couldsay to the network; “Things seem to work quite well and all of you are satisfied aboutwhat you are doing for Judith. It is important you meet together from time to time,and whenever it is necessary. I can‟t promise to be present all times, so it would be agood idea if someone else takes responsibility for organizing these meetings, orcalling the others to listen to the news and to judge if everything is working in apositive way. Of course, I‟ll always be available for involvement in your meetings, or togive some advice to my substitute. Is all that possible, in your opinion? How?”. Case Management – module 4 – slide 12
  50. 50. The Case Manager guides the coping network to widen itself with new formal members, and shares the guiding role More practitioners (formal members) are involved in the network. The role of network guide is shared by the Case Manager with another member of the network. Case Manager Judith‟s Judith’s mother father Monica Judith’s aunt Special teacher psychologist Taking care of Teacher Dr Marcus Judith Coordinated actions Double guiding Judith‟s aunt Case Manager Case Management – module 4 – slide 13
  51. 51. The great importance that a Local Social Plancan have for coping with social cases like Judith‟sIt is possible to imagine the role which the Local Social Plan, if it exists, can play in this simple situation. In fact, let‟s consider the work of the Case Manager described above in the following alternative scenarios:The Social Protection Service where the Case Manager is working has never formalised an agreement of mutual collaboration with the school; besides, it has a conflictive relationship with the Child Neuropsychiatric Service, and the priest and other NGOs in the territory are known by nobody belonging to the Social Protection Service.The Social Protection Service has an agreement with the school for enhancing mutual collaboration, the Case Manager knows almost all the teachers working there, and very often he meets the headmaster and the most relevant teachers for discussing pupils and students who are showing some school and social problem, or for proposing some actions for preventing social risks for young people; the Case Manager and child psychiatrist have worked together on several cases, on the basis of an understanding between the two services; and this understanding belongs firmly within the Local Social Plan. Many agreements between the Social Protection Service and the main NGOs operating in the territory in the social field or having a social relevance for the population have been in place for a long time....What is the best scenario in which the Case Manager can work? Case Management – module 4 – slide 14
  52. 52. Different models of (co)operative action coordination What I think about the others‟ action/workI abide by the I prefer to + We can negotiate an What I think about my action/workothers‟ authority agreement depend on the others We can try to compromise Only a competition among us - I IV + II III Let me work alone! I work against the others I‟d like to stay alone... I try to exploit the others with my depression - I only deal with my “garden” Case Management – module 4 – slide 15
  53. 53. Case Management in very severe social needs situationsThe concrete case discussed analytically above is not very hard, but itrepresents a classical one, because most of the cases treated by a SocialProtection Service are similar to it, and these cases taken as a whole, on theone hand require the allocation of much work and resources, and on theother have a high risk of becoming chronic and multi-generational. Not onlyare their human and economic costs very high, but also they block manysocial resources for generations.Now, two specialized processes will be explained, related to two verydifficult situations: a case of child abuse, requiring a high protectionproject to be provided very quickly; and a case of an institutionalized childwhich is a difficult situation to face, but not having the feature ofemergency like the previous one.These cases are not explained so analytically as the Judith case, andreference is not made to concrete cases, but only to a general situation. Case Management – module 4 – slide 16
  54. 54. Acute protection cases (violence and abuse): the flow chart Report of the case (victim, family, institute, public, hospital) to the Police or other public offices – First emergency care (hospital, separation from the family) if required. Investigation of the Police and reports Identification of a CASE from the hospital MANAGER (TOSS) No Can the case manager follow directly and immediately the case? Yes Outsourcing: the case manager Registration, collection of information, Can delegate to somebody else the involvement of professionals, relatives and case, under his/her responsibility others that can contribute to define a care What is the motivation of plan. Data are collected in the CASE FILE these persons to help? How can we ensure their commitment? Other persons are identified among Is the network of persons identified No professionals and resources of the sufficient to help the child and the family community to improve their situation? Yes A CASE CONFERENCE is organised, with the involvement «States Parties shall take all of the family. The case is presented by the Case manager. appropriate legislative, Decisions are taken by all the participants and documented administrative, social and educational in the Case File measures to protect the child from all forms of physical or mental violence, injury or abuse, neglect The child and the family are referred to the or negligent treatment, appropriate services available to provide them maltreatment or exploitation, with protection and support. The case manager is including sexual abuse, while in theCan the persons involved identify responsible for the monitoring of the case care of parent(s), legal guardian(s) orother services/resources that can help? any other person who has the care of No Are the objectives achieved? the child.» Is the child protected according to CRC, Article 19 her/his best interest? Other case conferences and bilateral meetings are organised, till when the Yes network can autonomously provide The case is closed care and protection to the child
  55. 55. Acute protection cases (violence and abuse): some commentsThese types of cases are characterized by emergency and great urgency.Unlike the Judith case, in these urgent situations the CM cannot begin thenetworking process at once, because it is firstly necessary to put the childinto a safe setting, or make safe its usual place of life.Because of this initial intervention, the CM could be tempted to be directiveeven when the emergency is over. Instead, in this case the case managementmethodology is strategic, in order to avoid further problems for the child,and to build a future for it.For the cases of abuse or violence against children, the rehabilitation andtherapeutic processes are very important and usually have to begin as soonas possible, usually before the building of a coping network, rich withinformal members. This is also a relevant difference compared to theJudith case, where the involvement of new formal members in the copingnetwork happens only after the involvement of new informal members.For these reasons, the case manager must pay great attention to ensuringthat the early involvement of professional people does not compromise theenlargement of the network to new informal members. Case Management – module 4 – slide 18
  56. 56. Children in residential care (including In collaboration with the children‟s home manager, a CASE FILE is prepared and the situation detention!): of the family is analyzed After identification of the special needs of the child (psychological support, resolution of the flow chart Clarification with the home manager of the responsibilities of the case in court, health check, education support) the additional professional support the CASE MANAGER (TOSS) required is identified Is the placement in residential Yes institution Actions are agreed with the home the best solution for the child? manager and the family on the additional support provided to the child No A CASE CONFERENCE is organised with the family and other professionals to verify which other solutions are possible for the care of the child Is the family in the condition Yes The child is reunified with the family. to take care Other resources are identified at of the child at home, community level that can support the ensuring the access to health, family education and social services? Are there available families in the No community « 1. In all actions concerning children, whether undertaken That can foster or adopt the child? by public or private social welfare institutions, In cases of abandonment, neglect, abuse, and when it is clear that the family will not be able to take care of the courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative child, alternative care solutions are identified (Foster bodies, families, Adoption) the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration. Yes 2. States Parties undertake to ensure the child such An order is requested to the Guardianship and protection and care as is necessary for his or her well- No Trusteeship Commission to declare the being, abandonment of the child, and authorize another taking into account the rights and duties of his or her care solution parents, legal guardians, or other individuals legallyInitiatives are developed in the responsible for him or her, and, to this end, shall take allcommunity to raise the awareness appropriate legislative and administrative measures.»about the right of the child to live in No Is the new solution responding to CRC, Article 3a family and identify possible foster the best interest of the child?families «A child temporarily or permanently deprived of his or her family environment, or in whose Yes own best interests cannot be allowed to remain in that environment, shall be entitled to The case continues to be special protection and assistance provided by the State.» monitored until it is closed CRC, Article 20
  57. 57. Children in residential care (including detention!): some comments Unlike the cases involving abuse and violence against children, the cases of de-institutionalization do not present any emergency feature. The institutional condition is not desirable at all, and grievously prejudices the natural rights of people; and, there being no immediate need to intervene, there is a risk of a certain inertia in the appropriate Social Protection Service, which must organize some internal process of assessment for taking into account these cases. Fortunately, these cases permit the CM to organize his work without the urgency of the case applying pressure, and can study very deeply the situation and involve an efficient coping network before the project begins. In any case, for these situations a very articulated Local Social Plan is required, because it is usually necessary to have at the CM‟s disposal some specific formal (day care centre, specialized pedagogue, and so on) and informal (foster family, volunteers) services and subjects. Case Management – module 4 – slide 20
  58. 58. Case Management & referral process – an example (1) Steps in procedure Responsibility Timeframe0. Report of the case – first aid From family, police, hospital, community, Day 0provided school, social services…1. Referral of the case to the Social Any service receiving information of the case. Day 1Services (front desk or officer in Availability on call of the case manager also out of working timecharge)2. Registration The officer of the SS on duty – the Day 1 information is registered in the registration book3. Emergency response - referral SS or Police in consultation with officer in Day 1-3to: charge in social services.Police (if required) Police or court will proceed with theSafe place (if required) – NGO? investigation and preparation of documentsFoster family? required by their servicesMagistrate for temporary placement In case of non compliance, the case can be(if required) referred to the supervisor4. Appointment of the case manager The name of the case manager is registered Day 1-3– opening of a CASE FILE in the Case File Time limit: 7th day
  59. 59. Case Management & referral process – an example (2) Steps in procedure Responsibility Timeframe5. Assessment of the child and Case Manager – this task can be partially Day 4-6family situation – involvement of the delegated to persons whose names arepersons who can be part of the included in the Case File, but the overallcoping network of the child (including responsibility is with the case manager. Inhealth, education services, and case of non compliance the CM can berelatives/neighbours) referred to his/her supervisor6. Organisation of the first CASE Case Manager – this task cannot be Day 7-14 –CONFERENCE - identification of the delegated. Time limit:actions to be implemented as part of The family/guardian of the child have to 15th daythe care plan participate(Case manager) The decisions taken by common consensus are reported in the Case File7. Recommendations to the Case Manager – this task cannot be Day 15Magistrate based on the decisions delegated. Recommendations are reported intaken at the case conference (if the social inquiry formrequired)8. Court order (if required) – Magistrate, based on the required reports Day 15 andCHANGE OF LEGAL CUSTODY from case manager, Police following
  60. 60. Case Management & referral process – an example (3) Steps in procedure Responsibility Timeframe9. FOLLOW UP – monitoring of the Case Manager - this task can be partially Day 15 -situation of the child, on the actions delegated to persons whose names are ongoingimplemented, and referral to other included in the Case File, but the overallservices if recommended at the case responsibility is with the case managerconference10. Organisation of the second CASE Case Manager – this task cannot be Day 15-45 –CONFERENCE – monitoring the delegated. The family/guardian of the depending oncapacity of the coping network to child have to participate the caseprotect and care for the child The decisions are reported in the Case File11. Progress report (social inquiry) Case Manager – this task cannot be Depending onpresented to the magistrate (if delegated. the caserequired)12. Statistics on caseload and Data input from the Case File to the To be definedrecurrent protection issues are shared database (at regional level) – logistics to –every 2with the regional departments of social be defined - figures are discussed at the months?services social services office meetings13. Following case conferences - if Case Manager – the case can be closed Depending onrequired - and closure of the case only when the coping network is strong the case enough to protect the child
  61. 61. CASE MANAGEMENT TRAINING PACKAGE Module 5. Network analysis for supporting the Case Manager‟s work
  62. 62. Working in the Case Management perspective CM uses a pro-active approach (and not a reactive one) An approach is action- That is: an action- oriented when it is oriented approach community-based But… what is COMMUNITY? Case Management – module 5 – slide 2
  63. 63. The community The COMMUNITY can be defined as a “group of human beings with a common history”,where continuous relationships and exchanges take place based on economical, material, social and cultural resources.This group of people bases its relationship on trust, and can cooperate to create groups and networks to reach common goals. Case Management – module 5 – slide 3
  64. 64. The dimensions of a community culture (1)The Community Culture is characterized by six dimensions:1. Technological2. Economic3. Political4. Institutional (social)5. Aesthetic-value, and6. Belief-conceptual.• Each of these dimensions of culture is transmitted by symbols (not genes) and consists of systems of learned ideas and behaviour.• All of these are elements within every social (or cultural) system. They are based on learned behaviour, which transcends the individuals who learned each part. If any dimension of culture is missing, by definition, all are missing. Case Management – module 5 – slide 4
  65. 65. The dimensions of a community culture (2)The Technological Dimension of Community:The technological dimension of community is its capital,its tools and skills, and ways of dealing with the physicalenvironment. It is the interface between humanity andnature.The Economic Dimension of Community:The economic dimension of community is its various waysand means of production and allocation of scarce anduseful goods and services (wealth), whether that isthrough gift giving, obligations, barter, market trade, orstate allocations. Case Management – module 5 – slide 5
  66. 66. The dimensions of a community culture (3)The Political Dimension of Community:The political dimension of community is its various ways andmeans of allocating power, influence and decision making. It isnot the same as ideology, which belongs to the values dimension.It includes, but is not limited to, types of governments andmanagement systems. It also includes how people in small bandsor informal groups make decisions when they do not have arecognized leader.The Institutional Dimension of Community:The social or institutional dimension of community is composedof the ways people act, interact between each other, react, andexpect each other to act and interact. It includes suchinstitutions as marriage or friendship, roles such as mother orpolice officer, status or class, and other patterns of humanbehaviour. Case Management – module 5 – slide 6
  67. 67. The dimensions of a community culture (4)The Aesthetic-Values Dimension of Community:The aesthetic-values dimension of community is thestructure of ideas, sometimes paradoxical, inconsistent,or contradictory, that people have about good and bad,about beautiful and ugly, and about right and wrong,which are the justifications that people cite to explaintheir actions.The Beliefs-Conceptual Dimension of Community:The beliefs-conceptual dimension of community isanother structure of ideas, also sometimescontradictory, that people have about the nature of theuniverse, the world around them, their role in it, causeand effect, and the nature of time, matter, andbehaviour. Case Management – module 5 – slide 7
  68. 68. Another way to describe the community:the different layers of the relationships of help FORMAL SERVICES Professional service providers INFORMAL SERVICES Citizens organised to a certain extent (volunteers) INDIVIDUAL SOCIAL NETWORKS Family members and friends linked through emotional and personal relationships Case Management – module 5 – slide 8
  69. 69. Two different policies in the development of social protection services The more complex and developed a community is, the more developed are the top levels of our “help-pyramid”. In a very ! re he e ar simple and primitive community, the level at s er ag an FORMAL m the base of the pyramid is usually enough to se SERVICES Ca Professional service providers ensure social safety. When a society begins INFORMAL SERVICES Citizens organised to a certain to specialize the production system and extent (volunteers) increase its social complexity, the other INDI VIDUAL SOCIAL NETWORKS levels become more and more important. Family members and friends linked through In this process there is a danger or an opportunity: it depends on what emotional and personal relationships kind social policies the society (institutions) adopts. There are two alternatives:1. When an upper level is developed, it tends to impoverish and then replace the lower ones (RE-ACTIVE APPROACH – traditional social work)2. When an upper level is developed, it empowers and makes more effective the lower ones (PRO-ACTIVE APPROACH – Case Management) Case Management – module 5 – slide 9
  70. 70. Reactive (clinical) approach: This provides services to individual cases when the situation has already become an emergency and the possibilities to get help from the community are inadequate or no longer exist. Proactive (community based) approach: This starts before a social problem becomes anemergency that cannot be handled by the community; qualified roles are given to the community members involved (teachers, community and religious leaders)and other persons informally providing a social service are involved. Case Management – module 5 – slide 10
  71. 71. What is a social network? Social and Cultural Environment Things to do to survive Cognitive abilities, behavioural skills Things to do Emotions, Tasks to feel goodidentity, self-esteem about ourselves Health Things to do to feel accepted by othersPhysical Environment Case Management – module 5 – slide 11
  72. 72. What is a coping network?The coping network includes all the persons of a social network who are involved in fulfilling a specific need (for example, assisting a child victim of abuse in the family). When the network is not strong enough to fulfil the need, there is a “social problem”. Case Management – module 5 – slide 12
  73. 73. The coping networkThe coping network is composed of all the persons who interact with the person/family in need, and can positively contribute to provide protection and careIt is composed of public officers (local administrators, police, magistrates) professionals (doctors, teachers, counselors, sports trainers, NGOs operators) andcommon people sharing their daily life with the individual (family members, relatives, neighbours, friends, members of religious groups)All these people have to be involved in decision making, until they are able to take care of the social case without the guidance of the Case Manager Case Management – module 5 – slide 13
  74. 74. Main characteristics of the networking methodology There is a problem (social, health, protection); the social network surrounding the person with the problem cannot cope with the need in an adequate way Thus this is not only a problem for the single beneficiary, but first and foremost a problem of his/her social networkWith the networking methodology the case manager(expert) intervenes to strengthen the network,helping and guiding it with the involvement of other„informal‟ resources, and not only of professionalservices The goal for the case manager, or GUIDE of the network, is to help the network to improve and become self-sufficient in dealing with a problem Case Management – module 5 – slide 14
  75. 75. How does the network guide do this? The guide: - facilitates the communication within the network; - mediates different points of view; - takes into consideration the possibilities and the expectations of everyone involvedThe guide acts as a „resource centre‟ forinformation sharing: he/she has to know thecommunity, and to share his/her knowledge tohelp the network to strengthen itself The guide mediates between the network and other resources, without (never!) giving „directions‟; his/her role is based on trust Case Management – module 5 – slide 15
  76. 76. A map for describing the social network of a person: Todd‟s diagram TODD‟s diagram is a method for describing the Practitioner of the whole social network of a NGOs‟ members public services volunteers person/family. The plots of the network are putFivedifferent into the diagram dividedsocial areas client into 5 categories and located at a distance from the subject proportional School or job mates to closeness with him/her. A social network has points of strength and Neighbours and friends weakness, both qualitative and quantitative. There can be a reciprocal relatives knowledge between two plots, or not. In the first case this relationship can be mutual (neither positive or negative), or not. Case Management – module 5 – slide 16
  77. 77. The social network of Judith when the taking in charge has begun NGO‟s members volunteers Practitioner of the public services 7 9 8 6 Judith School or job mates 10 1 2 Plots list: 1. mother 3 2. father 4 3. sister 4. aunt Neighbours 5. Other aunt and friends 6. Dr Marcus 7. Case manager 5 8. First teacher relatives 9. Second teacher 10. neighbour Case Management – module 5 – slide 17
  78. 78. First network evaluation NGO’s members volunteers Practitioner of the public services 7 Within the red circle have been 9 placed the network plots involved in 8 6 the problem of Judith‟s homework Judith (the coping network). Some of 1 School or job mates these plots have a very negative 10 2 Plots list: perception of the problem (i.e. the 1. mother 3 2. father 4 3. sister teachers), someone is too involved 4. aunt Neighbours 5. Other aunt and friends 6. Dr Marcus (the mother), and someone too little 5 relatives 7. Case manager 8. First teacher (the aunt). 9. Second teacher 10. neighbour Some plots of the network do not know each other and others probably have reciprocal negative relations (parents vs. teachers). Furthermore, the network is very weak, both because there are not many members for such a difficult task, and because there is no member belonging to three social areas out of the five who participate to the coping network. At the beginning, the task of Judith‟s homework is only a question between parents and some discouraged practitioners. Case Management – module 5 – slide 18
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